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CURTAIN WALLING

TECHNICAL MANUAL

Issue C July 2009 Part No. 994634

MANUAL STRUCTURE

CURTAIN WALLING TECHNICAL MANUAL

Contains specific information common to the CURTAIN WALLING system i.e. Surveying, Design, Product Guide etc.

ELITE 70 TECHNICAL MANUAL

ELITE 63 TECHNICAL MANUAL

REVERSIBLE 70 TECHNICAL MANUAL

Individual product manuals contain information specific to that product ie. Detail sheets, Cutting calculations & Hardware fitting etc.

Issue C Amendments Page no. Amendment. 1.1 Reference to standards for determining deign wind pressure added 1.3 Reference to CP3 Chapter IV for determining deign wind pressure removed 2.2 Reference to CP3 Chapter IV for determining deign wind pressure removed 2.4 Reference to CP3 Chapter IV for determining deign wind pressure removed 3.3 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570 4.2 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570 4.3 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570 4.4 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570 4.5 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570 11.1 BPF W362/2 replaced with BS 8213 11.10 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570 11.13 900571 & 900572 butyl tapes replaced with 900570

The following terminology is used throughout this manual:

TERMINOLOGY
INSERT DEPTH

PROFILE DEPTH PROFILE HEIGHT

SWR670/C TRANSOM OR MULLION NOSE

SWR670/C

SYSTEM

The system consists of a number of extruded aluminium components, which, when connected together and fastened to the main structure of the building, provide an engineered grid or framework which receives PVCu windows inserts.

PVCu WINDOW INSERT

PVCu window inserts are fitted between the mullions and transoms and are retained by the pressure plates. PVCu window inserts can be various depths and designs to suit the particular requirements of the contract.

MULLION

POCKET FILLER

Mullion box sections vary in depth and are used to span floors vertically, the size being dependent on the distances between floors. Charts are used to arrive at the appropriate mullion according to span and given load conditions. Mullions are fixed at the head and cill and intermediate floor levels. They can incorporate expansion sleeves to accomodate movement.

Pocket filler is an extruded aluminium section used to fill the void around the perimeter of the grid where mullions and transoms butt to the building structure. It also provides a seating for the pressure plate seal around the perimeter of the curtain wall.

FACE CAPS

TRANSOM

Face Caps are a PVC-U extrusion over the external pressure plate to complete the PVC-U exterior.

Transom box sections are used to span horizontally between mullions. They are attached by means of a transom block fastened to the mullions. Transoms occur at the head and cills and any pre-determined point where necessary. Transoms vary in depth according to external forces and the direct load they support. Charts are used to arrive at the correct transom. Different depth transoms to mullions can be used for aesthetic reasons, but design considerations are paramount.

TRANSOM BLOCK

An Aluminium U shaped block, pre-drilled, to connect transoms to mullions.

GLAZING TAPE

A compressible butyl sealing tape. Inserted into the aluminium grid, and used to seal the grid internally.

THERMAL BREAK

PRESSURE PLATE

The pressure plate is a mill finish aluminium extrusion which is fixed by means of screws to the mullion/transom. Its purpose is to retain and seal the PVCu window inserts into the curtain wall grid. The extrusion is pre-drilled for fixing and contains grooves to receive specially designed gaskets which compress under pressure.

A semi rigid extrusion which reduces thermal transmission. Placed between the pressure plate and mullion nose.

PRESSURE PLATE GASKETS

A flexible extrusion fed into grooves in the pressure plate, in order to achieve an external seal

INTRODUCTION This manual contains information of a technical nature and consequently is only intended for use in the course of a business by persons who are skilled in the subject matter covered. Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this manual, Spectus does not accept any liability for damage resulting (whether directly or indirectly) from the use of the information contained in this manual. Accordingly this manual is supplied on the basis that the user accepts all risks associated with the use of the information contained within it.

CURTAIN WALLING MANUAL

Page No.s Section 1 Section 2 Section 3 Section 4 Section 5 Section 6 Section 7 Section 8 Section 9 Section 10 Section 11 Section 12 Section 13 Survey Design Product Guide Estimation Detail Sheets Cutting Calculations Handling & Storage Mullion & Transom Preparation Mechanical Joints Quality Control Installation Finishing Appendices 1.1 - 1.5 2.1 - 2.8 3.1 - 3.3 4.1 - 4.7 5.1 - 5.9 6.1 - 6.5 7.1 8.1 - 8.2 9.1 - 9.4 10.1 11.1 - 11.14 12.1 13.1 - 13.5

Note :- Curtain walling should only be estimated, manufactured or installed by specialist commercial fabricators who are fully conversant with the curtain walling system. Please contact the commercial department for more information on curtain walling.

SURVEY
This section covers basic survey information and principles. Site surveys should only be carried out by experienced surveyors.

PVC-U WINDOW INSERTS


PVC-U window inserts can be fixed windows , opening casements, tilt & turns or fully reversible windows. The curtain walling grid will accept PVC-U window inserts of either 63mm or 70mm frame depth. The table below gives the maximum sizes* for the various PVC-U window styles.
Window Style Fixed Top Hung Casement Side Hung Casement Tilt & Turn Fully Reversible Maximum Height 2000mm 1356mm 1356mm 1584mm 1600mm Maximum Width 2000mm 1256mm 756mm 1584mm 1586mm

GENERAL INFORMATION
The Spectus curtain walling system consists of a number of extruded aluminium components, which, when connected together and fastened to the main structure of the building, provide an engineered grid or framework which receives PVC-U window inserts. Infill panels are used to provide external colour, insulation value, and to mask floor slabs and internal walls. It should be emphasised that the grid is a severe rated system structurally designed for proper performance in its own right. Whilst able to support PVC-U inserts the grid does not rely on them for strength. Internal box members are white epoxy coated (RAL9016 semi-gloss) to match the PVC-U.

* -The table is only intended as a guideline, and more exact dimensions can be found in each product technical manual

SURVEY INFORMATION
The following information, which must be supplied, will allow the curtain walling designer to access which mullion or transom in the curtain wall system is suitable for a particular application (see pages 2.1 - 2.8). (a) design wind pressure (see pages 1.3 - 1.5). (b) vertical span. (= distance between vertical fixing points) (c) transom span. (= distance between mullion centres) (d) glass specification (e.g. 28mm d.g. units comprising 2 panes 6mm glass with a 16mm air space) It is important when a mullion or transom is under consideration, that both the windload and transom dead load charts are read in conjunction with each other (see pages 2.1 - 2.8). At this point consideration must be given to the minimum and maximum limitations of the window inserts that are to be used. A case might occur where the curtain wall mullion and transom spans are greater than the limitations of the window insert. If a case does arise, the architect/client must be consulted, and a new design submitted for approval.

When specifying PVC-U window inserts, care must be taken to ensure that any window hardware, for example on tilt & turn windows, will still function within the curtain walling grid (see page 6.1, Fig. 6.2). In this type of situation, frame packers can be fitted to the windows, but the frame packers must be deducted from the PVCu window insert sizes.

(a) DESIGN WIND PRESSURE

The design wind pressure will usually be specified by the engineer/architect and will be expressed as pa (i.e. 1200 pa). If the design wind pressure is not specified this can be determined from BS 6375-1 or BS 6399-2. If calculating the design wind pressure, the calculations and results must be agreed with the engineer/architect.

(b) VERTICAL SPAN

The vertical span is defined as the distance between vertical fixing points. On single level applications (i.e. structures without intermediate floors), the vertical span will be between the base and eaves of the structure. On multiple level applications, the vertical span can be reduced by fixing a tie back to intermediate floor levels (see Fig 1.1).

(c) TRANSOM SPAN

The transom span is defined as the distance between mullion centres. For information on mullion centres see pages 2.1 - 2.8.

1.1

SURVEY
(d) GLASS SPECIFICATION
The glass specification (type and thickness) is essential information as its weight can determine both the curtain walling construction and the PVCu window insert design suitability.

CILLS

DOORS

If doors are installed in curtain walling, they are often high usage entrance doors. PVCu doors are not suitable for high usage and aluminium doors are more suitable. When installing aluminium doors into curtain walling, the perimeter cill transom is not required and the aluminium pocket filler should be used as the door surround (See Fig. 1.1) Typical Aluminium Door

Aluminium pressings should be used at the cill detail with an approx 10mm allowance (depending upon site conditions) made for the aluminium pressing and bedding compound (See Fig 1.3). A further seal should be applied between the aluminium cill pressing and the bottom transom. Bedding Compound

Fixing

Aluminium pressing

Floor Slab

Fig 1.3
Pocket Filler If PVCu doors are installed, the cill transom is not required and a 20mm packer should be fitted to the door jambs.

EDGE CLEARANCE

Fig 1.1

A clearance of approx 10mm (depending upon site conditions) should be allowed at both the head (See Fig 1.4) and jamb (See Fig 1.5) details. Packers should be used at fixing points and an external silicone mastic pointing used. Silicone mastic pointing Fixing Head

INTERMEDIATE FLOORS

Special attention should be paid to the position of any intermediate floors or structural steelwork within the structure. These must be used to tie back the curtain wall (See Fig. 1.2) and therefore reduce the load span on wind-load calculations. They must also be used to allow long vertical mullions to be jointed where required. Intermediate floor Fixing

Fixing bracket

Fig 1.4
10mm

Fixing

Silicone mastic pointing

Fig 1.2 1.2

Fig 1.5

10mm

SURVEY
CORNER DETAILS
Corner details, where required, should be designed to suit each individual contract. There are no specific corner posts or details for the curtain walling system. However, typical external (See Fig 1.6) and internal (See Fig 1.7) corner details using aluminium pressings, plywood and insulating material are commonly specified.

COMMENCEMENT ON SITE PRE-START SURVEY


Prior to commencement of installation a site survey should be carried out to check whether the site conditions agree with the details and sizes on the approved drawings (this is usually carried out approximately 10 days before site commencement). The surveyor should arrive at site with a full set of up-to-date, approved drawings along with any measuring devices required.

SITE STORAGE

The surveyor should check that if required a storage area can be provided. This is usually agreed earlier with sizes and details and is often mentioned in the preambles section of the bill of quantities on larger contracts, in the estimating and design stage. The surveyor should check that the storage area would protect the material from the elements and other construction trades. Aluminium pressing with plywood and insulation bonded to the rear

OPENINGS

Fig 1.6

Using the drawings, the surveyor should check that the buildings opening sizes agree with those on the drawings. Check that the openings are plumb, level and square. If there are any major discrepancies, outside normal tolerances, notify the builder in writing.

FLOOR SLABS / STEELWORK

The surveyor should check that the positions of floor slabs and structural steelwork, agree with the drawings.

SCAFFOLDING

Aluminium pressing with plywood and insulation bonded to the rear

On site scaffolding is usually provided by the builder, for use by other trades. The surveyor should check that this is the case, at the same time checking its suitability for the contract along with any relevant health and safety requirements.

POWER

The surveyor should check the availability of 110 volt power and sufficient lighting.

Fig 1.7

LIFTING GEAR

The surveyor should check that lifting gear, if required, can be located within easy reach of the curtain wall fixing area.

1.3

DESIGN
TYPICAL CURTAIN WALL ELEVATION
Perimeter Head Transom Intermediate Mullion Perimeter Head Transom Intermediate Mullion Perimeter Head Transom

Perimeter Mullion

Perimeter Mullion

Intermediate Transom

Intermediate Transom

Perimeter Cill Transom

Perimeter Cill Transom will not deflect beyond the maximum allowed 15mm. For example if the mullion length is 4000mm, the deflection ratio is L/267 (4000mm/ 267 = 14.98mm). These deflection ratios are shown in the tables on pages 2.2 & 2.3.

MULLION DEFLECTION

BS EN 13830:2003 states that a maximum deflection ratio of length divided by 200 (L/200) or a maximum of 15mm must be used. For example, at a length of 2000mm the maximum allowed deflection would be 10mm (2000mm/ 200 = 10mm). The L/200 ratio can only be used up to a maximum length of 3000mm (3000mm/ 200 = 15mm). If the length of the mullion increases beyond 3000mm, then a different ratio must be used to ensure that the mullion

TRANSOM DEFLECTION

BS EN 13830:2003 states that a maximum deflection ratio of L/500 or a maximum deflection of 3mm must be used for transom dead loads.

2.1

DESIGN
WIND LOADING
When selecting a suitable mullion/transom for the application, a design wind load is required. If a design wind load is not specified, it must be calculated using either BS 6375-1 or BS 63992. 2a a b 2b

TRANSOM/MULLION SELECTION

Once the design wind load is known, the tables on pages 2.2 and 2.3 can be used to establish the required strength in N.mm. The required strength for every unsupported member of the curtain walling must be worked out, see Fig 2.2
LOAD Length SPAN Ratio L L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/207 L/213 L/220 L/227 L/233 L/240 L/247 L/253 L/260 L/267 L/273 L/280 L/287 L/293 L/300 L/307 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600

Intermediate Fixing

2a a b

FIG 2.2
550 600 12.91 15.17 17.66 20.39 23.39 26.65 30.20 34.04 38.19 42.65 47.43 54.31 61.90 70.25 79.41 89.43 100.4 112.3 125.2 139.2 154.3 170.6 188.2 650 13.62 16.03 18.71 21.65 24.88 28.39 32.22 36.36 40.82 45.63 50.80 58.20 66.38 75.39 85.26 96.07 107.8 120.7 134.6 149.7 166.1 183.7 700 14.23 16.81 19.67 22.81 26.26 30.02 34.11 38.55 43.33 48.49 54.03 61.95 70.71 80.36 90.94 102.5 115.2 128.9 143.9 160.1 177.6 196.5 750 14.76 17.50 20.53 23.87 27.53 31.53 35.89 40.61 45.71 51.20 57.11 65.55 74.87 85.15 96.43 108.8 122.3 136.9 152.9 170.2 188.9 209.1 800 15.20 18.08 21.28 24.81 28.68 32.92 37.53 42.53 47.94 53.77 60.03 68.97 78.86 89.75 101.7 114.8 129.1 144.7 161.6 180.0 199.9 850 15.55 18.57 21.93 25.64 29.72 34.18 39.04 44.32 50.02 56.18 62.80 72.23 82.65 94.15 106.8 120.6 135.7 152.2 170.1 189.6 210.6 900 15.80 18.95 22.46 26.35 30.62 35.30 40.41 45.95 51.95 58.43 65.39 75.29 86.25 98.34 111.6 126.2 142.1 159.5 178.3 198.8

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Load width a or b - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 300 7.23 8.40 9.68 11.09 12.63 14.31 16.12 18.09 20.20 22.47 24.90 28.42 32.30 36.57 41.24 46.34 51.90 57.95 64.51 71.61 79.28 87.55 96.45 106.0 116.3 127.2 139.0 350 8.32 9.68 11.17 12.81 14.61 16.55 18.67 20.95 23.41 26.05 28.89 32.98 37.50 42.46 47.89 53.83 60.31 67.35 74.99 83.26 92.19 101.8 112.2 123.3 135.3 148.0 400 9.37 10.91 12.61 14.48 16.52 18.73 21.14 23.74 26.55 29.56 32.79 37.46 42.60 48.25 54.45 61.22 68.60 76.63 85.34 94.77 104.9 115.9 127.8 140.5 154.1 168.7 450 10.35 12.08 13.98 16.07 18.36 20.84 23.54 26.46 29.60 32.98 36.61 41.84 47.60 53.94 60.89 68.49 76.77 85.78 95.56 106.1 117.6 129.9 143.2 157.5 172.7 500 11.28 13.18 15.29 17.60 20.12 22.87 25.86 29.09 32.57 36.31 40.33 46.11 52.50 59.51 67.21 75.62 84.80 94.78 105.6 117.3 130.0 143.7 158.4 174.2 12.13 14.21 16.51 19.04 21.80 24.81 28.08 31.62 35.43 39.54 43.94 50.27 57.26 64.95 73.38 82.61 92.66 103.6 115.5 128.4 142.2 157.3 173.4 190.8

Can be achieved using SWR650/C with equal mullion centres (Max EIyy value = 80.2) Can be achieved using SWR670/C with equal mullion centres (Max EIyy value = 128.0) Can be achieved using SWR688/C with equal mullion centres (Max EIyy value = 188.6) Can be achieved using SWR611/C with equal mullion centres (Max EIyy value = 297.6) The maximum possible using SWR611/C with unequal mullion centres (Max EIyy value = 297.6)

2.2

DESIGN
L/200 can only be used up to a maximum length of 3000mm - Required ratios are listed in the tables To determine the total EIyy required, add the respective EI values for the widths a & b Example: For a span of L= 2600; a = 700mm and b = 900mm Required EIyy = EIyy (a) + EIyy (b) EIyy = 34.11 + 40.41 = 74.52
(BS EN 13830: 2003 STATES THAT A MAXIMUM DEFLECTION OF L/200 OR 15mm MUST BE USED)

REQUIRED RIGIDITY EIyy AT A DESIGN WIND LOAD OF 1200 Pa

The tables shown are for 1200 Pa. If a different pressure is required e.g. 1600 Pa then EIyy = 1200 x 1600
LOAD Length SPAN Ratio L L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/200 L/207 L/213 L/220 L/227 L/233 L/240 L/247 L/253 L/260 L/267 L/273 L/280 L/287 L/293 L/300 L/307 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 4100 4200 4300 4400 4500 4600

Therefore SWR650/C (Max EIyy = 80.2) can achieve this value. However, as any transoms attached to the mullion must be the same depth (or smaller) than the mullion, and must achieve the required wind load and dead load for the transom, the transom values must be calculated before finally selecting the required mullion and transom. EIyy

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Load width a or b - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 950 15.95 19.22 22.88 26.93 31.39 36.28 41.62 47.43 53.71 60.50 67.81 78.17 89.64 102.3 116.2 131.5 148.2 166.4 186.2 207.7 1000 16.00 19.39 23.18 27.39 32.03 37.12 42.69 48.75 55.31 62.40 70.04 80.85 92.82 106.0 120.6 136.6 154.0 173.0 193.8 216.3 19.44 23.36 27.72 32.53 37.82 43.60 49.90 56.73 64.12 72.08 83.32 95.78 109.5 124.7 141.3 159.5 179.4 201.0 224.5 23.42 27.91 32.89 38.36 44.35 50.88 57.97 65.64 73.92 85.57 98.50 112.8 128.5 145.8 164.8 185.4 207.9 27.98 33.10 38.75 44.94 51.69 59.03 66.98 75.55 87.61 101.0 115.8 132.1 150.0 169.7 191.1 214.5 33.17 38.98 45.36 52.32 59.90 68.11 76.98 89.42 103.2 118.5 135.4 153.9 174.3 196.5 220.7 39.06 45.61 52.78 60.58 69.05 78.20 91.00 105.2 121.0 138.4 157.5 178.5 201.5 226.5 45.69 53.05 61.07 69.78 79.20 92.34 107.0 123.2 141.1 160.8 182.5 206.1 231.9 53.14 61.36 70.30 79.99 93.45 108.4 125.1 143.5 163.8 186.0 210.4 61.46 70.62 80.55 94.31 109.7 126.7 145.6 166.4 189.3 214.3 70.72 80.88 94.93 110.6 128.0 147.3 168.7 192.1 217.8 81.00 95.30 111.3 129.1 148.8 170.6 194.6 220.9 95.43 111.7 129.8 150.0 172.2 196.7 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550

The tables on page 2.2 and 2.3 have different shaded areas. This can be used as a quick reference to show which mullions and transoms are suitable if specifying equal mullion centres. E.g. If the curtain wall specifies 1200mm centres this means load width a & b are 600mm. If the distance between fixings is 3000mm, then EIyy = 47.43 for a & b and SWR670/C is suitable.

The key below the table on page 2.2 shows which mullions and transoms are suitable for different wind loads at various equal mullion centres. The charts on page 2.4 show which mullions and transoms are suitable at different wind loadings with equal mullion centres.

2.3

DESIGN
SPAN BETWEEN MULLION FIXING CENTRES (m)

WIND LOAD CHARTS

The charts show the maximum allowable centres for mullions and transoms based on equal mullion centres. The maximum limitation curve for each of the windloads specified is based upon an allowable deflection at the centre of the mullion span being not greater than L/200 with a maximum deflection of 15mm. When a design windload is not specified it must be calculated using either BS 6375-1 or BS 6399-2. The windload charts apply to the mullions and transoms in the system shown below. The curves on the charts represent the limitation of each mullion at various windloads. 50 CURVE A SWR650/C

5 4 3 2 1

WIND LOAD = 1200 Pa.

CURVE D CURVE C CURVE B CURVE A

SPAN BETWEEN MULLION CENTRES (m) WIND LOAD = 1800 Pa.

SPAN BETWEEN MULLION FIXING CENTRES (m)

5 4 3 2 1

CURVE D CURVE C CURVE B CURVE A

70 CURVE B SWR670/C

88
SPAN BETWEEN MULLION FIXING CENTRES (m)

SPAN BETWEEN MULLION CENTRES (m) WIND LOAD = 2400 Pa.

CURVE C SWR688/C

5 4 3 2 1

110 CURVE D SWR611/C

CURVE D CURVE C CURVE B CURVE A

Note: When considering a mullion for a particular application, it is important that the windload charts are read in conjunction with the transom dead load information on pages 2.5 - 2.8.

SPAN BETWEEN MULLION CENTRES (m)

2.4

DESIGN
When selecting the correct transoms and mullions for the curtain walling, the transom dead loads must be taken into consideration. If a dead load is not specified, it can be calculated using the same method as described in the BPF Code of practice (REF. 323/1), Appendix 5, or any updates subsequent to this manual.
h = height of sealed unit 2300 15.2 16.0 16.7 17.5 18.2 19.0 19.8 20.5 21.3 22.0 22.8 23.6 24.3 25.1 25.8 26.6 27.4 28.1 28.9 29.6 30.4

DEAD LOADS

glass weight a support block a

glass weight a

TRANSOM SELECTION

The easiest way to establish the dead load is to calculate the PVCu window insert area, as though it were all glass. This method assumes that calculating the PVCu window insert area as though it were all glass will mean there is no requirement to include the weight of the PVCu profile, reinforcings and hardware. Using this method the required strength for every unsupported transom member can be worked out (see Fig 2.3).

support block a

FIG 2.3

l = length of sealed unit

gw x h x l x a EIxx = ------------------- x (3 x l - 4 x a) 48 x f f = maximum deflection (3mm) gw = glass weight (N/m) h = height of sealed unit (mm) l = length of sealed unit (mm) a = centre of support blocks (150mm)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PVCu window insert width in mm - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 800 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PVCu window insert height in mm - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 900 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1000 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 1100 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1200 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 1300 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 1400 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.8 1500 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.2 8.4 1600 5.0 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.9 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.9 10.2 1700 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.5 9.8 10.1 10.4 10.7 11.0 11.3 11.6 11.9 12.2 1800 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.4 9.8 10.2 10.5 10.9 11.3 11.6 12.0 12.3 12.7 13.1 13.4 13.8 14.2 14.5 1900 8.5 9.0 9.4 9.8 10.3 10.7 11.1 11.5 12.0 12.4 12.8 13.2 13.7 14.1 14.5 15.0 15.4 15.8 16.2 16.7 17.1 2000 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.4 14.0 14.5 15.0 15.5 16.0 16.5 17.0 17.5 18.0 18.5 19.0 19.5 19.9 2100 11.6 12.1 12.7 13.3 13.9 14.4 15.0 15.6 16.2 16.8 17.3 17.9 18.5 19.1 19.6 20.2 20.8 21.4 22.0 22.5 23.1 2200 13.3 14.0 14.6 15.3 16.0 16.6 17.3 17.9 18.6 19.3 19.9 20.6 21.3 22.0 22.6 23.3 23.9 24.6 25.3 25.9 26.6 2400 17.3 18.1 19.0 19.9 20.7 21.6 22.5 23.2 24.2 25.0 25.9 26.8 27.6 28.5 29.4 30.2 31.1 32.0 32.8 33.7 34.6

Double glazing 4/20/4

Weight = 201 N/m

Can be achieved using SWR650/C (Max EIxx value = 19.4) Can be achieved using SWR670/C (Max EIxx value = 25.6) Can be achieved using SWR688/C (Max EIxx value = 32.1) Can be achieved using SWR611/C (Max EIxx value = 40.0)

2.5

DESIGN
(BS EN 13830: 2003 STATES THAT A MAXIMUM DEFLECTION OF L/500 OR 3mm MUST BE USED)

REQUIRED RIGIDITY EIxx AT VARIOUS DEAD LOADS

To determine the EIxx value required, use the calculation shown on page 2.5. Example: Calculation: Sealed Unit (6/16/6) gw = 301 N/m h = 3200mm l = 1900mm 301 N/m x 3200 x 1900 x 150 x (3 x 1900 - 4 x 150) 48 x 3 2745.12 x (1.083 - 0.009) 144 EIyy = 19.06 x 1.074 = 20.47 Therefore SWR670/C (Max EIxx = 25.6) can achieve this value. However, as any transoms attached to a mullion must be the same depth (or smaller) than the mullion, and must achieve the required wind load and dead load, the transom values must be calculated before finally selecting the required mullion and transom.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PVCu window insert width in mm - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 800 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - PVCu window insert height in mm - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 3500 3600 3700 3800 3900 4000 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 900 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 1000 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 1100 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.9 1200 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.4 1300 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 1400 5.1 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.9 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.9 9.1 9.4 9.7 9.9 10.1 1500 6.2 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.5 8.8 9.1 9.4 9.7 10.0 10.3 10.6 11.0 11.3 11.6 11.9 12.2 12.5 1600 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.9 10.3 10.7 11.0 11.4 11.8 12.2 12.6 12.9 13.3 13.7 14.1 14.5 14.8 15.2 1700 9.1 9.6 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.4 11.9 12.3 12.8 13.3 13.7 14.2 14.6 15.1 15.6 16.0 16.5 16.9 17.4 17.8 18.3 1800 10.9 11.4 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.6 14.1 14.7 15.2 15.8 16.3 16.8 17.4 17.9 18.5 19.0 19.6 20.1 20.7 21.2 21.7 1900 12.8 13.4 14.1 14.7 15.4 16.0 16.6 17.3 17.9 18.6 19.2 19.8 20.5 21.1 21.8 22.4 23.1 23.7 24.3 25.0 25.6 2000 14.9 15.7 16.4 17.2 17.9 18.7 19.4 20.1 20.9 21.7 22.4 23.2 23.9 24.6 25.4 26.1 26.9 27.6 28.4 29.1 29.9 2100 17.3 18.2 19.0 19.9 20.8 21.6 22.5 23.4 24.2 25.1 26.0 26.8 27.7 28.6 29.4 30.3 31.1 32.0 32.8 33.7 34.6 2200 19.9 20.9 21.9 22.9 23.9 24.9 25.9 26.9 27.9 28.9 29.9 30.9 31.9 32.8 33.8 34.8 35.8 36.8 37.8 38.8 39.8 2300 22.8 23.9 25.0 26.2 27.3 28.4 29.6 30.7 31.9 33.0 34.1 35.3 36.4 37.5 38.7 39.8 2400 25.9 27.2 28.5 29.8 31.0 32.3 33.6 34.9 36.2 37.5 38.8

Double glazing 6/16/6

Weight = 301 N/m

The tables on pages 2.5 and 2.6 have different shaded areas. This can be used as a quick reference to show which transoms are suitable for different dead loads. E.G. If the PVCu window insert is 2000mm wide and 3000mm high using 6/16/6 double glazed units, then EIxx = 22.4. By using the table, SWR670/C is suitable. However, the wind load value must also be taken into consideration.

The key below the table on page 2.5 shows which transoms are suitable for different dead loads at various PVCu window insert sizes. The charts on page 2.7 show which transoms are suitable for different glass specifications. Page 2.8 shows the dead load and wind load properties for each curtain walling section.

2.6

DESIGN
DEAD LOAD CHARTS
SPAN BETWEEN TRANSOM FIXING CENTRES (m)

The charts show the maximum allowable lengths for transoms based on various mullion centres. The maximum limitation curve for each of the dead loads specified is based upon an allowable deflection of the transom span being not greater than L/500 with a maximum deflection of 3mm. When a dead load is not specified the relevant factors contained in the calculations in the BPF Code of practice (REF. 323/1), Appendix 5, will apply in assessing the dead load. The dead load charts apply to the mullions and transoms in the system shown below. The curves on the charts represent the limitation of each transom at various dead loads. 50 CURVE A SWR650/C

5 4 3

GLASS SPEC = 4/20/4

CURVE D

2 1

CURVE C CURVE B CURVE A

SPAN BETWEEN MULLION CENTRES (m)

SPAN BETWEEN TRANSOM FIXING CENTRES (m)

5 4 3 2 1

GLASS SPEC = 6/16/6

70 CURVE B SWR670/C

88 CURVE C SWR688/C

CURVE D CURVE C CURVE B CURVE A

110 CURVE D SWR611/C

SPAN BETWEEN MULLION CENTRES (m)

Note: When considering a transom for a particular application, it is important that the dead load charts are read in conjunction with the transom wind load information on pages 2.2 - 2.4.

2.7

DESIGN
DEAD LOADS & WIND LOADING
The Eixx and EIyy values for the curtain walling members are shown in the table below. To select the correct mullion or transom for each member see pages 2.1 - 2.7 DEAD LOAD PROPERTIES EIxx (x10 9 N.mm) WIND LOAD PROPERTIES EIyy (x10 9 N.mm)

ILLUSTRATION

SWR650/C

X Y

19.4

80.2

SWR670/C

X Y

25.6

128.0

SWR688/C

X Y

32.1

188.6

SWR611/C X
Y

40.0

297.6

2.8

PRODUCT GUIDE
TRANSOM/MULLION AND POCKET FILLER
62 62

69

119

139

SWR650/C TRANSOM/ MULLION

50

SWR670/C 62

62 69 69 157 179 SWR688/C 88 SWR611/C 28.5 28.5

POCKET FILLER

SWR603

65

SWR673

3.1

73

110

70

69

PRODUCT GUIDE
FACE CAPS, PRESSURE PLATES & EXPANSION SLEEVES
61 PVCu FACE CAPS MCC 18 61 24 SW600 56 650001
.5 61 55 .8

56 PRESSURE PLATES

650002

.5 55

42

.4

ALUMINIUM VERTICAL EXPANSION SLEEVES


(200mm)

650051
55 .5 79 .2 55 .5

650071
99 .8

650089

650111

3.2

PRODUCT GUIDE
TRANSOM BLOCKS, FACE CAP SLEEVE AND ANCILLARIES
10 79 0.5

42

.5

62

.5

TRANSOM BLOCKS

650050

650070

650088

650110

FACE CAP EXPANSION SLEEVE

SW601
Screws are referred to throughout this manual as the following types:-

(note : screws are not stocked by Spectus)

SCREWS

(TYPE 1) 10 x 12 posi pan self tap

(TYPE 2) 10 x 114 posi c/sk self tap

(TYPE 3) 8 x 12 posi c/sk self tap

(TYPE 4) 12 x 20 hex head B self tap

THERMAL BREAK AND GASKETS

654001

105240/T

900570

FRAME SETTING BLOCK 655000

DRILLING JIGS 653001 653000

3.3

ESTIMATION
RECEIPT OF ENQUIRY/DRAWINGS
On receipt of an enquiry, the first task should be to determine if the contract is both feasible and practical. On larger contracts the drawings may be accompanied by a bill of quantities. Check through the drawings and bill of quantities and determine the following:(a) overall style and design (b) design wind pressure (c) perimeter details (d) position of floor slabs/steel to determine if intermediate tie backs are required. (e) PVC-U window insert design (f) hardware for window inserts (g) glazing requirements (h) special conditions (i) that drawings and bill of quantities contain the same specifications. Sometimes sectional details are not satisfactory in that they do not always show clearly the position of the tie backs. In these instances the estimator may have to assume positions of floors and steelwork etc, in order to cost for brackets and to establish which mullions and transoms to use. Details regarding the selection of the correct mullions and transoms are contained in section 2, design. The estimator should clearly state in the quotation exactly what is included and the reasons. Note: Design windload, if not already in the specification, should be obtained from either the architect or structural engineer for the contract.

TIE BACKS

The estimator should include steel fixing brackets to tie back to the structure. Regardless of whether the brackets are tied back to structural steel or pre-cast concrete floor slabs, the size of bracket will vary to suit site conditions. The brackets should be mild steel with a heavy coat of zinc chromate sheradized, galvanized. and painted with a bituminous paint to avoid electrolytic contact with the aluminium mullions. The brackets are attached to the mullion with two stainless steel bolts. The brackets are then fixed to the structural steel using stainless steel bolts, or bolted into the concrete floor slabs using special masonry bolts (see Fig 4.1) If tie backs are required the estimator should include the following, to act as a fixing back up sleeve, per tie back position:1 No. expansion sleeve (650051/071/089/111) 4 No. expansion sleeve screws (TYPE 3) Brackets and bolts are not available from Spectus and are to be sourced by the fabricator from alternative suppliers. The architect or structural engineer involved in the contract should be able to give details on brackets and bolts. Alternatively, if no details are available from the architect or engineer, advice can be offered to the fabricator in the selection of the bolts and the design of the tie back brackets by the Spectus Technical Department.

TRANSOMS & MULLIONS

Once the correct transoms and mullions have been identified, the estimator must include several other components. These can vary depending upon whether the transom or mullion is an intermediate transom/mullion or a perimeter transom/mullion and the frame depth of the PVCu window inserts. Pages 4.2 - 4.5 give details on what should be included in the quotation.

Fig. 4.1

4.1

ESTIMATION
70mm Profiles Head & Cill Perimeter Transom
Thermal Break 654001 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4 70mm Pocket Filler SWR673 110mm 88mm 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C SWR670/C SWR688/C SWR688/C SWR611/C SWR611/C

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

PVCu Face Cap MCC

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650002

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

Butyl Tape 900570


For each perimeter transom include the following Description Part No. 900570 105240 SWR673 654001 650002 MCC TYPE 4 Requirements mullion centres - 62 transom length transom length x 2 transom length transom length transom length transom length 6 per metre + 1

transom to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket 70mm pocket filler thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw

70mm Profiles Intermediate Transom


Thermal Break 654001 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4

110mm 88mm Pressure Gasket 105240/T Butyl Tape 900570 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C Pressure Gasket 105240/T Butyl Tape 900570
Description transom to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw 900570 105240 654001 650002 MCC TYPE 4 Part No.

PVCu Face Cap MCC

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650002

For each intermediate transom include the following Requirements mullion centres - 62 transom length x 2 transom length x 2 transom length transom length transom length 6 per metre + 1

4.2

SWR670/C

ESTIMATION
70mm Profiles Perimeter Mullion
SWR611/C SWR688/C 110mm 88mm 88mm SWR670/C 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C 110mm

70mm Profiles Intermediate Mullion


SWR611/C SWR688/C SWR670/C 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C

70mm Pocket Filler SWR673

Butyl Tape 900570

Butyl Tape 900570

Butyl Tape 900570

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

Pressure Gasket 105240/T Thermal Break 654001

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

Pressure Gasket 105240/T Thermal Break 654001

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650002 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650002 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4

PVCu Face Cap SW600


For each perimeter mullion include the following Description mullion to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket 70mm pocket filler thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw 900570 105240 SWR673 654001 650002 SW600 TYPE 4 Part No. Requirements opening - tolerances mullion length mullion length x 2 mullion length mullion length mullion length mullion length 6 per metre + 1 Description mullion to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw

PVCu Face Cap SW600


For each intermediate mullion include the following Part No. 900570 105240 654001 650002 SW600 TYPE 4 Requirements opening - tolerances mullion length x 2 mullion length x 2 mullion length mullion length mullion length 6 per metre + 1

4.3

ESTIMATION
63mm Profiles Head & Cill Perimeter Transom
Thermal Break 654001 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4 62/63mm Pocket Filler SWR603 110mm 88mm 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C SWR670/C SWR688/C SWR688/C SWR611/C SWR611/C

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

PVCu Face Cap MCC

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650001

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

Butyl Tape 900570


For each perimeter transom include the following Description Part No. 900570 105240 SWR603 654001 650001 MCC TYPE 4 Requirements mullion centres - 62 transom length transom length x 2 transom length transom length transom length transom length 6 per metre + 1

transom to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket 62/63mm pocket filler thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw

63mm Profiles Intermediate Transom


Thermal Break 654001 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4

110mm 88mm Pressure Gasket 105240/T Butyl Tape 900570 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C Pressure Gasket 105240/T Butyl Tape 900570
For each intermediate transom include the following Description transom to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw 900570 105240 654001 650001 MCC TYPE 4 Part No. Requirements mullion centres - 62 transom length x 2 transom length x 2 transom length transom length transom length 6 per metre + 1

PVCu Face Cap MCC

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650001

4.4

SWR670/C

ESTIMATION
63mm Profiles Perimeter Mullion
SWR611/C SWR688/C 110mm 88mm 88mm SWR670/C 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C 110mm

63mm Profiles Intermediate Mullion


SWR611/C SWR688/C SWR670/C 70mm 50mm Transom SWR650/C

62/63mm Pocket Filler SWR603

Butyl Tape 900570

Butyl Tape 900570

Butyl Tape 900570

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

Pressure Gasket 105240/T Thermal Break 654001

Pressure Gasket 105240/T

Pressure Gasket 105240/T Thermal Break 654001

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650001 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4

Aluminium Pressure Plate 650001 Pressure Plate Screw TYPE 4

PVCu Face Cap SW600


For each perimeter mullion include the following Description mullion to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket 62/63mm pocket filler thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw 900570 105240 SWR603 654001 650001 SW600 TYPE 4 Part No. Requirements opening - tolerances mullion length mullion length x 2 mullion length mullion length mullion length mullion length 6 per metre + 1 Description mullion to suit requirements butyl glazing tape pressure gasket thermal break aluminium pressure plate PVCu face cap pressure plate screw

PVCu Face Cap SW600


For each intermediate mullion include the following Part No. 900570 105240 654001 650001 SW600 TYPE 4 Requirements opening - tolerances mullion length x 2 mullion length x 2 mullion length mullion length mullion length 6 per metre + 1

4.5

ESTIMATION
VERTICAL EXPANSION JOINTS
In cases where the curtain wall frame spans 6m or more than one floor vertically, a vertical expansion sleeve is used. This slides into the top of the lower mullion and is fixed in position. The upper mullion then slides over the sleeve and a 6mm gap is left for expansion. The joint is then sealed with silicone (see Fig 4.2).

ALUMINIUM CILL PRESSING

Allowance shall be made for an aluminium cill pressing, to run the full width of the curtain walling grid (see Fig 4.4). The size of the pressing may vary to suit the different site conditions. Note: In order to accomodate the drainage requirements of the curtain walling system, the cill transom must be the same depth as the mullion. Bedding Compound

6mm

Vertical expansion sleeve

Fixing

Aluminium pressing Silicone seal joint

Floor Slab

Fig 4.4 INTERNAL/EXTERNAL CORNERS

Fig 4.2
Care must be taken to ensure the joints of the mullion, thermal break, pressure plate and face cap are staggered. A 6mm gap must be left between the pressure plate ends, which must be sealed with silicone (see Fig 4.3). Where a face cap joint occurs, a back up sleeve (SW601) is utilised (see Fig 4.3) The estimator should include the following per vertical expansion joint:1 No. expansion sleeve (650051/071/089/111) 4 No. expansion sleeve screws (TYPE 3) 1 No. face cap back up sleeve (SW601) Silicone sealant Staggered Pressure plate joint Mullion joint

The estimator should include for Aluminium pressings, plywood, insulation and treated hardwood timber battens along with any other internal trims or covers that may be required at all internal and external corners (see Fig 4.5) Aluminium pressing with plywood and insulation bonded to the rear

EXTERNAL CORNER

INTERNAL CORNER

Staggered Face cap joint

Aluminium pressing with plywood and insulation bonded to the rear

Fig 4.3

Fig 4.5

4.6

ESTIMATION
PVCu WINDOW INSERTS
The size and design of the PVCu window inserts should be checked using the technical manual for the window system specified. The dimensions of any projecting hardware used on the windows should be checked to ensure that the windows can be installed into the curtain walling grid, or whether frame packers will be required (See Fig. 6.2, page 6.1) The drawings below indicate the various designs of windows that can be manufactured from each of the window systems available.

HORIZONTAL EXPANSION JOINTS

In cases where the curtain wall spans more than 6m, the architect may specify a horizontal expansion joint. Horizontal expansion joints do not require any extra components for estimation purposes.

SUNDRIES
Finally, the estimator should take the following into account when compiling the quotation.

PERIMETER FIXINGS

These should be a minimum of No. 12 stainless steel screws used at 600mm centres (depending on site requirements).

SEALANTS

All silicones for aluminium to aluminium joints must be of low modulus type. For perimeter seals consult the architect for the specification.

WINDOW FRAME SETTING BLOCKS


Fixed Light Top Hung Casement

Allow 2 No. frame setting blocks (655000) per transom.

LOW TACK PROTECTION TAPE

A low tack protection tape is required to protect all visible paint surfaces. Spectus do not stock low tack protection tapes, they can be bought direct from UK Industrial Tapes Ltd, Unit A Station Approach, Earls Way, Team Valley Trading Estate, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear. NE11 0ZF - Tel: 0191 487 3255 Side Hung Casement Tilt & Turn Window

SITE CONSIDERATIONS

Although scaffolding, site storage, lifting gear, etc may not incur cost, the estimator should take them into consideration and check supply.

SCREWS

Spectus do not stock curtain walling screws. They can be bought direct from RapierStar Ltd, Buxton Road, Bosley, Macclesfield, Cheshire, SK11 0PS - Tel: 0870 3003313 SCREW IDENTIFICATION TABLE
TYPE LOCATION Transom Block Fixing Transom Fixing Pocket Filler Fixing Pressure Plate Fixing DESCRIPTION 10 x 12 Posi pan self tap 10 x 114 Posi c/sk self tap 8 x 12 Posi c/sk self tap 12 x 20 Hex Head B self tap RAPIERSTAR FST 10 x 1/2 S GST 10 x 114 S GST 8 x 1/2 S Hex head B point self tap 6.3 x 20 S

*Fully Reversible *Note : The fully reversible window can only be manufactured using the Sightline 70+ window system.

TYPE 1 TYPE 2 TYPE 3 TYPE 4

4.7

DETAIL SHEETS
DESIGN CRITERIA
The details on the following pages are based around the overlaps and clearances shown below.

3.0

3.0

12.0

18.5

5.1

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 70mm PROFILES
Typical curtain walling profiles are shown for illustration purposes only. Refer to section 2, design, to determine curtain walling application. Typical window profiles and reinforcements are shown for illustration purposes only. Refer to the product technical manual to determine application.

B03

B50

51.5

SWR650/C MCC

654001 61 650002 62 SWR673

5.2

51

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 70mm PROFILES

B03

B50

51.5

SWR650/C MCC

654001 61 650002 62 B03 B50

51.5

5.3

51

51

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 70mm PROFILES

51

62

SWR670/C

B50

SWR673

B03

650002 SW600 51.5 61

5.4

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 70mm PROFILES

51

62

51

SWR670/C

B50

B50

B03

B03

650002 SW600 51.5 61 51.5

5.5

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 63mm PROFILES

A03

A50

51.5

SWR650/C MCC

654001 650001 61 62 SWR603

5.6

51

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 63mm PROFILES

A03

A50

51.5

SWR650/C MCC

654001 650001 61 62 A03 A50

51.5

5.7

51

51

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 63mm PROFILES

51

62

SWR670/C

A50

SWR603

A03

650001 SW600 51.5 61

5.8

DETAIL SHEETS
FULL SIZE 63mm PROFILES

51

62

51

SWR670/C

A50

A50

A03

A03

650001 SW600 51.5 61 51.5

5.9

CUTTING CALCULATIONS
PROFILES
The tables and calculated examples on pages 6.3 - 6.5 cover curtain walling with the following characteristics : SWR650/C - 119mm Deep Transom/Mullion. SWR670/C - 139mm Deep Transom/Mullion. SWR688/C - 157mm Deep Transom/Mullion. SWR611/C - 179mm Deep Transom/Mullion. SWR603 - 63mm Pocket Filler. SWR673 - 70mm Pocket Filler. MCC - Horizontal PVCu Face Cap. SW600 - Vertical PVCu Face Cap. 650001 - 63mm Pressure Plate. 650002 - 70mm Pressure Plate Frame clearance 6mm. (see fig. 6.1)

WINDOW INSERTS

Sizes given for window inserts are for finished outer frame sizes, including frame packers if required. Refer to the selected window system technical manual for cutting calculations for the particular window style required.

WINDOW REINFORCEMENT

Reinforcement requirements for the window style required are contained in the technical manual for the window system. However, window inserts in curtain walling may be subjected to greater wind-loads than usual. It is essential to check with the architect or engineer if any specific wind-load is required.

CRITERIA

Basic dimensions for manufacturing calculations are : - Overall curtain wall size. - Top left corner of outer jamb to the centre line of the first transom. - Centre to centre distances of transoms where more than one is required. - Top left corner of outer jamb to the centre line of the first mullion. - Centre to centre distances of mullions where more than one is required.

FRAME PACKERS

EXPANSION JOINTS

Where required, cutting sizes for vertical mullions and horizontal transoms can include an expansion joint allowance of 6mm between mullions (see page 11.5).

20mm FRAME PACKER

Frame packers can be fitted to the windows within the curtain walling and are sometimes required to ensure correct operation of the hardware and openers. Allow for these when deriving basic dimensions for window manufacturing (see fig. 6.2)

6mm FRAME CLEARANCE

Fig. 6.1

HINGE FIXING

DEDUCTIONS

The tables on pages 6.3 - 6.5 show the amounts to be subtracted from the basic dimensions. This will give the correct bar lengths for fabrication and the correct window insert sizes allowing clearance for frame setting blocks.

Fig. 6.2

6.1

CUTTING CALCULATIONS
DATUM
Fig 6.3 details how the tables and examples on pages 6.3 - 6.5 relate to the profiles.

TRANSOMS & MULLIONS

EXAMPLES

The examples on page 6.4 - 6.5 show the cutting sizes for a typical curtain wall contract.

In Fig 6.3, the details for transoms are the same as for mullions. For example, the details for end mullion to mullion are the same as for head transom or cill transom to transom.

DATUM REFERENCE POINTS


END MULLION TO END MULLION

WINDOW INSERT DIMENSION DIMENSION FOR ALLOWANCE

CL
END MULLION TO MULLION

WINDOW INSERT DIMENSION DIMENSION FOR ALLOWANCE

CL
MULLION TO MULLION

CL

WINDOW INSERT DIMENSION

Fig 6.3

DIMENSION FOR ALLOWANCE

6.2

CUTTING CALCULATIONS
HORIZONTAL MEMBERS
The tables below show cutting calculations for horizontal members within curtain walling. The tables do not make any allowances for horizontal expansion joints (see page 11.11).

VERTICAL MEMBERS ALUMINIUM MULLIONS


All vertical mullions should be cut to the site opening size minus tolerances and expansion joints if required (see page 11.5). All other components should be cut to the mullion length. If vertical expansion joints are required, the pressure plates and PVCu face caps should be cut to length to suit the position of the joint in the aluminium mullion (see page 11.10).

CUTTING SIZES FOR ALUMINIUM TRANSOMS


BETWEEN SECTIONS
END MULLION TO END MULLION END MULLION TO MULLION MULLION TO MULLION

DEDUCTION
- 124 - 93 - 62

PVCu WINDOW INSERTS

CUTTING SIZES FOR ALUMINIUM PERIMETER POCKET FILLERS


BETWEEN SECTIONS
END MULLION TO END MULLION END MULLION TO MULLION MULLION TO MULLION

The vertical deductions for PVCu window inserts are the same as the horizontal deductions for PVCu window inserts.

DEDUCTION
- 124 - 93 - 62

CUTTING SIZES FOR ALUMINIUM PRESSURE PLATES


BETWEEN SECTIONS
END MULLION TO END MULLION END MULLION TO MULLION MULLION TO MULLION

DEDUCTION
- 127 - 96 - 65

CUTTING SIZES FOR PVCu FACE CAPS


BETWEEN SECTIONS
END MULLION TO END MULLION END MULLION TO MULLION MULLION TO MULLION

DEDUCTION
- 126 - 95 - 64

CUTTING SIZES FOR PVCu WINDOW INSERTS


BETWEEN SECTIONS
END MULLION TO END MULLION END MULLION TO MULLION MULLION TO MULLION

DEDUCTION
- 86 - 55 - 24

6.3

CUTTING CALCULATIONS
TYPICAL SINGLE LEVEL CURTAIN WALLING EXAMPLE W
PERIMETER SWR670/C 70mm SYSTEM SWR670/C SWR650/C WINDOW INSERT MULLION

1 H

TRANSOM

Note: The perimeter main profiles and the mullions must be the same section. Transom profiles can also be the same section or a smaller section for aesthetic purposes, providing they are suitable for the required wind loads and dead loads (see pages 2.1 - 2.8). MAIN PROFILE CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity 4 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. 2 No. 1 No. Bar SWR670/C SWR670/C SWR650/C SWR670/C SWR650/C SWR670/C SWR650/C Calculation H U - 93 U - 93 V - 62 V - 62 X - 93 X - 93 PVCu FACE CAPS CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity 4 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. Bar SW600 MCC MCC MCC Calculation H U - 95 V - 64 X - 95

PVCu WINDOW INSERT CUTTING CALCULATIONS Panel 1 Width=U-55 Height=Y-55 Panel 4 Width=U-55 Height=Z-55 Panel 2 Width=V-24 Height=Y-55 Panel 5 Width=V-24 Height=Z-55 Panel 3 Width=X-55 Height=Y-55 Panel 6 Width=X-55 Height=Z-55

ALUMINIUM PERIMETER POCKET FILLER CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity 2 No. 2 No. 2 No. 2 No. Bar SWR673 SWR673 SWR673 SWR673 Calculation H U - 93 V - 62 X - 93

ALUMINIUM PRESSURE PLATE CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity 4 No. 3 No. 3 No. 3 No. Bar 650002 650002 650002 650002 Calculation H U - 96 V - 65 X - 96

Note: PVCu window insert calculations are for finished outer frame sizes. Refer to the selected window system technical manual for cutting calculations for the particular window style required.

6.4

CUTTING CALCULATIONS
TYPICAL MULTIPLE LEVEL CURTAIN WALLING EXAMPLE W
* - In cases where the curtain wall frame spans 6m or more than one floor vertically, a vertical expansion sleeve is used and a 6mm gap left for expansion (see pages 4.6, 11.5 & 11.10) PERIMETER SWR611/C 63mm SYSTEM SWR611/C SWR688/C

WINDOW INSERT MULLION TRANSOM

ALUMINIUM PRESSURE PLATE CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity Bar


650001 650001 650001 650001 650001

10

11

12

Calculation
H* Q - 96 R - 65 S - 65 T - 96

5 No. 6 No. 6 No.

13

14

15

16

6 No. 6 No.

PVCu FACE CAPS CUTTING CALCULATIONS

17

18

19

20

Quantity
5 No. 6 No. 6 No.

Bar
SW600 MCC MCC MCC MCC

Calculation
H* Q - 95 R - 64 S - 64 T - 95

6 No. 6 No.

MAIN PROFILE CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity


5 No. 2 No. 4 No. 2 No. 4 No. 2 No. 4 No. 2 No. 4 No.

Bar
SWR611/C SWR611/C SWR688/C SWR611/C SWR688/C SWR611/C SWR688/C SWR611/C SWR688/C

Calculation
H* Q - 93 Q - 93 R - 62 R - 62 S - 62 S - 62 T - 93 T - 93

PVCu WINDOW INSERT CUTTING CALCULATIONS Panel 1


Width=Q-55 Height=Z-55

Panel 2
Width=R-24 Height=Z-55

Panel 3
Width=S-24 Height=Z-55

Panel 4
Width=T-55 Height=Z-55

Panel 5
Width=Q-55 Height=Y-24

Panel 6
Width=R-24 Height=Y-24

Panel 7
Width=S-24 Height=Y-24

Panel 8
Width=T-55 Height=Y-24

Panel 9
Width=Q-55 Height=X-24

Panel 10
Width=R-24 Height=X-24

Panel 11
Width=S-24 Height=X-24

Panel 12
Width=T-55 Height=X-24

ALUMINIUM PERIMETER POCKET FILLER CUTTING CALCULATIONS Quantity


2 No. 2 No. 2 No. 2 No. 2 No.

Panel 13
Width=Q-55 Height=V-24

Panel 14
Width=R-24 Height=V-24

Panel 15
Width=S-24 Height=V-24

Panel 16
Width=T-55 Height=V-24

Bar
SWR603 SWR603 SWR603 SWR603 SWR603

Calculation
H* Q - 93 R - 62 S - 62 T - 93

Panel 17
Width=Q-55 Height=U-55

Panel 18
Width=R-24 Height=U-55

Panel 19
Width=S-24 Height=U-55

Panel 20
Width=T-55 Height=U-55

6.5

HANDLING & STORAGE


ALUMINIUM SECTIONS
Aluminium sections should be stored on racks on a firm base with supports at a maximum of 1 metre centres. When removing sections from boxes, open the box fully to avoid scratching. Do not pull out sections from part opened boxes. Prior to cutting and preparation, it is recommended that all paint finished surfaces of aluminium sections are covered with a low tack protective tape. This will minimise damage that may be caused during manufacture, transportation and installation.

GASKETS AND ANCILLARIES


Gaskets and ancillaries should be stored in their plastic bags or boxes until ready for use.

PVCu FACE CAPS


PVCu profiles should be stored on racks on a firm base with supports at a maximum of 1 metre centres. After cutting it is recommended all exposed surfaces of PVCu face caps are covered with a low tack protective tape. This will minimise damage that may be caused during transportation and installation.

PVCu WINDOW INSERTS


Refer to the the selected window system technical manual for guidance on handling and storage for PVCu window inserts.

LOW TACK PROTECTIVE TAPE


Spectus do not stock low tack protective tapes, however they can be bought direct from UK Industrial Tapes Ltd, Unit A Station Approach, Earls Way, Team Valley Trading Estate, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear. NE11 0ZF Tel No: 0191 487 3255

7.1

MULLION & TRANSOM PREPARATION


PERIMETER MULLION/TRANSOM AND ALUMINIUM DOOR SURROUND SWR603/SWR673 POCKET FILLER
The pocket filler can only be fitted to perimeter transoms and aluminium door heads after the transoms have been assembled. Apply a silicone seal along the serrated face on the external side of the perimeter mullion or transom (see Fig. 8.1). Mark and drill 3.75mm dia holes through the mullion/transom into the pocket filler at 30mm from each end of the mullion/transom and at maximum 600mm centres. Countersink the holes in the mullion/transom (see Fig. 8.3).

Silicone Seal

Fig. 8.1
Locate the required pocket filler (SWR603 for 63mm frames or SWR673 for 70mm frames) in position on the external side of the perimeter mullion or transom (see Fig. 8.2).

Silicone seal the countersinks in the mullion/ transom and fix the pocket filler to the mullion/ transom with TYPE 3 fixing screws (see Fig. 8.4).

Fig. 8.3

Silicone Seal Countersinks

SWR603/ SWR673 Pocket Filler

Fig. 8.2

After the pocket filler has been fixed, and any transoms fixed and dismantled, the perimeter mullions/transoms should have a low tack tape applied to all visible faces for protection during transportation and installation.

Fig. 8.4

8.1

30 600 max 600 max 600 max 30

MULLION & TRANSOM PREPARATION


MULLION PREPARATION TIE BACK - FIXING BACK-UP SLEEVE
Mark the centre line of the tie back position on the mullion. Drill and countersink a 3.75mm dia hole 102mm below the centre line of the tie back position. Insert a TYPE 3 fixing screw ensuring the screw head is flush with the mullion face (see Fig. 8.5).

MULLION PREPARATION VERTICAL EXPANSION JOINT


Insert the vertical expansion sleeve (650051/ 071/089/111) 100mm down the top of the mullion so 100mm of sleeve protrudes from the top of the mullion. Drill and countersink a 3.75mm dia hole, 25mm and 75mm below the top of the mullion, through the mullion and expansion sleeve. Silicone seal the countersinks and fix the expansion sleeve with TYPE 3 fixing screws ensuring the screw head is flush with the mullion face (see Fig. 8.7). Vertical Expansion Sleeve

e ntr Ce ne li

Silicone Seal Countersinks

102

Fig. 8.5
Insert the fixing back-up sleeve (650051/071/ 089/111) down the mullion until it rests on the screw. Drill and countersink a 3.75mm dia hole, 75mm above and below the centre line of the tie back position, through the mullion and back-up sleeve. Silicone seal the countersinks and fix the back-up sleeve with TYPE 3 fixing screws ensuring the screw head is flush with the mullion face (see Fig. 8.6). Silicone Seal Countersinks Fixing Back-up Sleeve
e ntr Ce ne li

25

Fig. 8.7
After any fixing back-up sleeves or vertical expansion joints have been fixed, and any transoms fixed and dismantled, the mullions/ transoms should have a low tack tape applied to all visible faces for protection during transportation and installation.

Fig. 8.6 8.2

75

75

75

100

100

MECHANICAL JOINTS
MECHANICAL JOINT PREP DETAIL - 650050 & 650070 TRANSOM BLOCKS
Preparation shown for intermediate mullions. Holes only required in one side for perimeter mullions. SWR650/C MULLION 16.5 20 SWR670/C MULLION HEAD 31 31 16.5 20 20

Transom Centres

Mullion Length

Transom Centres

Mullion Length CILL


SWR650/C

31

31

Transom Centres

Transom Centres

SWR670/C

Using the 653000 drilling jig, drill the required number of 4.2mm dia holes as shown above.

Using the 653000 drilling jig, drill the required number of 4.2mm dia holes as shown above.

Note: Double check the number of holes required for intermediate transoms, as these may not be the same as the perimeter

9.1

MECHANICAL JOINTS
MECHANICAL JOINT PREP DETAIL - 650088 & 650110 TRANSOM BLOCKS
Preparation shown for intermediate mullions. Holes only required in one side for perimeter mullions. SWR688/C MULLION 16.5 20 20 20 HEAD 31 31 SWR611/C MULLION 16.5 20 20 20 20

Transom Centres

Mullion Length

Transom Centres

Mullion Length CILL


SWR688/C

31

31

Transom Centres

Transom Centres

SWR611/C

Using the 653000 drilling jig, drill the required number of 4.2mm dia holes as shown above.

Using the 653000 drilling jig, drill the required number of 4.2mm dia holes as shown above.

Note: Double check the number of holes required for intermediate transoms, as these may not be the same as the perimeter

9.2

MECHANICAL JOINTS
MECHANICAL JOINT PREP DETAIL - TRANSOMS
Preparation shown for SWR650/C transom. The same detail is required for all other transoms.

Transom Length 20 14 20 14

SWR650/C

14

Using the 653001 drilling jig, drill and countersink 2 No. 5mm dia holes at each end of the transom as shown. Check the countersinks with screws (TYPE 2) so that the screw head will be flush in the transom when fixed into place. Note :- Horizontal Expansion When using horizontal expansion transoms, the above preparation is only required at one end of the transom.

9.3

14

MECHANICAL JOINTS
MECHANICAL JOINT ASSEMBLY
The curtain walling grid should be assembled in the factory and then dismantled for transportation. Mechanical joints are carried out in the following manner: Using the drilling jig, holes are drilled into the mullion / transom as shown on pages 9.1 - 9.3. The required transom block (650050/070/088/ 110) is then secured to the mullion using TYPE 1 fixing screws (see Fig. 9.1). The joint is then secured using 2 No. TYPE 2 screws (see Fig. 9.3).

Fig. 9.3 DISMANTLING THE JOINT


Remove the screws securing each transom to the transom block. As each transom is dismantled, the mullion and transom should be referenced, in accordance with the approved drawings if possible, on a non-visible surface to aid re-assembly on site (see Fig. 9.4). 650050 650070 650088 650110 2 3 4 5 Check that the screws securing the transom block to the mullion are tightened adequately (see Fig. 9.4). Apply a low tack tape to all visible faces for protection during transportation and installation. Check screws are tightened adequately

Fig. 9.1
Transom Transom Block No. screws/block SWR650 SWR670 SWR688 SWR611

Locate the required transom onto the screw fixed transom block (see Fig. 9.2). Locate transom onto transom block

MUL-01

TR

A-0

Fig. 9.2

Fig. 9.4

9.4

QUALITY CONTROL
Quality control checks should be carried out at intermediate stages of manufacture, to discover non-conformance at the earliest point in the process and so minimise costs due to defective work. Inspection should cover the following: Dimensions Preparations to mullions and transoms, pocket fillers, etc. Transom block positions - check screws are tightened adequately. Sealing points Finish Taping for despatch References (if required) Quality control checks of PVCu window inserts should be completed with reference to the product technical manual.

PREPARATION FOR DESPATCH

Check that all transoms and mullions have been taped adequately to avoid possible damage during transportation, site storage and site fixing. Ensure that mullions and transoms are referenced in accordance with approved drawings if required, and check the materials for quantity. Quantities of the following materials for despatch should also be checked to avoid delays on site: PVCu window inserts (including glass/panels) Aluminium pressings Mullion/transom pressure plates Mullion/transom face caps Perimeter fixings Tie back brackets and fixings Transom fixing screws Setting blocks and glazing tape Packing shims Mastics and joint sealants

10.1

INSTALLATION
The following section is designed to give guidance on the installation and maintenance of Spectus aluminium curtain walling and PVCu window inserts. As curtain wall installation conditions on site can vary, this section gives the installers instructions for installing the curtain wall in typical applications, informing them of the necessary operations to ensure good installation practice. The procedures in the Centre for window and cladding technology (CWCT) Guide to good practice for facades: Installation, and BS 82134 : 2007 - Code of practice for The Survey and Installation of Windows and External Doorsets, or any subsequent updates following this manual, should be followed.

USE OF SITE EQUIPMENT

The installers should check who is providing site equipment including scaffolding, power, lifting gear, etc and should check its suitability for the contract.

HEALTH AND SAFETY

The installers should be fully conversant with the following:British Standards Institute (BSI) BS 5974: 1990 - Code of practice for temporarily installed suspended scaffolds and access equipment. Health and safety executive (HSE) Safe use of lifting equipment - Lifting operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations (LOLER) 1998, Approved code of practice and guidance L113. Safe use of work equipment - Provision and use of work equipment regulations 1998, Approved code of practice and guidance L22. The installers should also check with the builder or site foreman as to any other specific health and safety requirements of the site, and that they fully comply with these requirements. i.e. Hard hats, high-visibility vests, steel toe-capped footwear, gloves, eye protection, ear protection, warning signs, etc

PRE-START CHECK ARRIVAL AT SITE


On arrival ensure that the following steps are carried out before proceeding with the installation of the curtain wall. 1) System Recognition The installers should have familiarised themselves completely with the curtain wall system prior to arrival on site. 2) Working Drawings The installers should have completely familiarised themselves with the working drawings and be fully aware of the fixing sequence required, i.e. which elevation to fix first. 3) Quantities and Damage Check that the correct materials, quantities and types have been delivered. Careful checks should also be made for materials damaged in transit. 4) Openings Finally, before commencing, the installers should check that the openings are in accordance with the drawings, even though this may have been checked earlier by the surveyor. If on checking, work done by other trades is unacceptable, or the openings are not prepared satisfactorily, the installer should notify the builder or site foreman in writing before they proceed with installation. If not, it constitutes acceptance of other trades work.

METHOD STATEMENT

On larger curtain walling contracts there may be an agreed method statement along with the working drawings and contract documentation. This may contain information on preferred methods of installation, control procedures and details of co-ordination with other trades.

SEQUENCE

The installers should liase with the builder or site foreman as to any preferred sequence of installation for the curtain walling. This can prevent any delays when installation commences and minimise damage to materials.

NON-CONFORMANCE

The curtain walling should be installed to the dimensions in the working drawings with agreed permissible deviations. The permissible deviations should be agreed prior to installation and be appropriate for the materials used. All non-conforming work should be recorded. Remedial proposals should be reviewed and agreed upon as soon as possible.

11.1

INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION METHODS
There are two main installation methods for curtain walling, which are dependant on the site conditions, the size of the curtain walling screen and the transport available. The two installation methods (ladder installation and stick installation) can use different methods of site fixing (bracket fixing or perimeter).

LADDER INSTALLATION METHOD

The following example gives guidance on a ladder installation method using bracket fixing.

STEP 1

Apply and fix the cill pressing as shown on page 11.4. Outline of opening

LADDER INSTALLATION METHOD

The ladder installation method can be used for smaller contracts or where suitable transport is available. The curtain walling is pre-assembled into sections in the factory before being transported to site. This method often reduces the site installation time.

Cill Pressing

STEP 2

STICK INSTALLATION METHOD

The stick installation method is normally used on larger contracts where the ladder method is not suitable. The curtain walling is sent to site as individual members (see page 11.3)

Lift the first ladder into position and align vertically ensuring at the same time it is square with the cill pressing. Fix the perimeter mullion as shown on page 11.4, and fix the 2nd mullion using steel brackets as shown on page 11.6. Fixing Bracket Perimeter Mullion Fixing Bracket

FIXING METHODS BRACKET FIXING METHOD


The bracket fixing method uses pre-fabricated steel brackets to support the mullions if perimeter fixing is not suitable for the contract. For more information on installation brackets see Appendix 2. Typical Fixing Brackets

STEP 3

Silicone seal and fit the transoms to the end of the 2nd mullion as shown on page 11.5. Fit head transom

Top Bracket

Fit transom

Fit cill transom

STEP 4

Bottom Bracket

Lift the second ladder into position and fix to the transoms ensuring the joints are silicone sealed. Fix the second ladder to the structure using steel brackets as shown on page 11.6. Fixing Bracket 2nd Ladder Fixing Bracket

PERIMETER FIXING METHOD

The perimeter fixing method should, if possible, be used for perimeter mullions (see page 11.4). If a suitable fixing is available directly above the curtain walling, perimeter fixing can be used for the head transoms to support the mullions (see page 11.9).

Fixing Bracket

Continue this method along the length of the curtain walling ensuring all joints are silicone sealed. Apply perimeter seal as shown on page 11.14.

11.2

INSTALLATION
STICK INSTALLATION METHOD
The following example gives guidance on a stick installation method using perimeter fixing.

STEP 4

STEP 1

Apply and fix the cill pressing as shown on page 11.4. Outline of opening Floor Slab

Apply and fix the transoms to the second bay. Assemble and locate the second intermediate mullion and fix it to the transoms. Apply cill fixings to the first bay. Align the first intermediate mullion vertically and position and fix the intermediate tie back fixings as shown on pages 11.8 - 11.9. Fix the first bay at the head. Floor Slab

Cill Pressing

STEP 2

Assemble the upper and lower sections of the first perimeter mullion. Stand into position. Align vertically ensuring at the same time it is square with the cill pressing. Fix into position using the fixing details on page 11.4, ensuring the vertical expansion gap is maintained (see page 11.7). Floor Slab

STEP 5

Work across the opening locating one bay and fixing the previous bay as detailed in step 4. Do not fix the last intermediate mullion until the last perimeter mullion has been sprung into place. Floor Slab

Perimeter Mullion

STEP 3

STEP 6

Fit the transoms to the perimeter mullion as shown on page 11.5. Assemble and locate the first intermediate mullion and fix it to the transoms. Ensure mullions and transoms are sealed to the cill as shown on page 11.4. Floor Slab

When all bays are fixed, work back across the opening checking all transom to mullion and mullion/transom to cill seals. Apply perimeter silicone seal as shown on page 11.14. Floor Slab

Note: Depending upon the installation, other installation methods can be used.

11.3

INSTALLATION
CILL FIXING
Aluminium cill pressings should be designed for each individual contract as cill conditions can vary from site to site (see Appendix 1). Bed down the aluminium cill full width of the opening (except where door openings occur) on butyl bedding compound. Fix at 600mm centres ensuring the screws are sealed with silicone (see Fig. 11.1). Butyl Bedding Compound Fixing 6mm 6mm Packers

PERIMETER MULLION FIXING


Assemble the upper and lower sections of the perimeter mullion, as shown on page 8.2, if required. Mark and drill holes to suit the perimeter fixings, through the perimeter mullion and pocket filler, at 150mm from each end of the mullion and at maximum 600mm centres. Stand into position and align vertically ensuring at the same time it is square with the cill pressing. Insert packers between the opening and pocket filler at the fixing centres and fix the mullion using suitable perimeter fixings, ensuring any vertical expansion joints are maintained. Silicone seal all joints between the mullion and aluminium cill pressing (see Fig. 11.4).

Fig. 11.1
Cill packers must be placed below all mullion positions (see Fig. 11.2). Butyl Bedding Compound Mullion 6mm Packers

6mm

150 600 max 600 max 600 max 600 max 600 max 150

Transom Block

Fig. 11.2
All joints in the aluminium cill pressing must be sealed as shown using a pre-pressed aluminium joint strap and sealed with silicone. Joints in the aluminium cill should not occur at mullion positions (see Fig. 11.3). Silicone Seal

Vertical Expansion Joint Transom Block

3m

Silicone Silicone Seal Seal

Fig. 11.3

Fig. 11.4

11.4

INSTALLATION
TRANSOM FIXING
The following method is used for intermediate and perimeter transoms. both Silicone seal the countersunk holes in the transom and fix the transoms into place using 2 No. TYPE 2 screws (see Fig. 11.7). Silicone Seal Countersinks

The transoms should be fixed to the mullions at both ends, except where a horizontal expansion joint is required (see below right & page 11.13). Check that the screws securing the transom blocks to the mullions are tightened adequately The transom blocks should be sealed around their perimeter with silicone (see Fig. 11.5). Silicone should only be applied when the transom is being fixed on site. Silicone Seal Perimeter

Fig. 11.7
Clean off any excess silicone around the transom and mullion joint.

HORIZONTAL EXPANSION JOINTS


Horizontal expansion transoms are fixed to the mullions at one end as described previously.

Fig. 11.5
Perimeter seal the transom end with silicone and slide the transom into position over the transom block (see Fig. 11.6). Perimeter Seal Transom ends with Silicone

At the expansion joint end of the transom, a 6mm spacing shim should be placed between the end of the transom and the mullion face. This will maintain a 6mm expansion joint once the transom is slid into position over the transom block (see Fig. 11.8).

6m

Spacing shim

Fig. 11.6

With the transom in position over the transom block check the countersunk holes in the transom line-up with the screwports in the transom block.

Fig. 11.8

Silicone seal the 6mm gap between the transom and mullion face.

11.5

INSTALLATION
BRACKET FIXING
Fix the mullion to the transom and silicone seal the joint as shown on page 11.5, ensuring the mullion is aligned vertically and square to the transom (see Fig. 11.9). Insert nylon shims between the bracket and the mullion and fix the bracket to the mullion using minimum M10x100mm stainless steel bolts. (see Fig. 11.11).

Fig. 11.11 Fig. 11.9


With the mullion in the correct position, locate the bracket around the mullion ensuring a minimum 6mm gap between the mullion and bracket with the bracket projecting as required past the end of the mullion (see Fig. 11.10). 6mm 6mm Pack the bracket as necessary and bolt to the structure (see Fig. 11.12)

Fig. 11.12
When exactly aligned, drill through the final fix hole in the bracket into the mullion. Insert nylon shims and fix the mullion using minimum M10x100mm stainless steel bolts through the brackets (see Fig. 11.13). 6mm

Fixing Bracket

Bracket projects as required

Fig. 11.10

Drill hole through bracket & mullion

Temporarily pack between the bracket and the mullion and drill through the slotted hole in the bracket through the mullion (see Fig. 11.10).

Fig. 11.13 11.6

10mm

INSTALLATION
VERTICAL EXPANSION JOINTS
Where the mullions span more than one floor vertically or the elevation is more than 6m high, a 6mm expansion gap is required on the mullions, pressure plates and face caps. The lower mullion should be supplied to site with the expansion sleeve fitted. Place the lower mullion into its correct position and fix to the structure as required. Seal around the perimeter of the expansion sleeve and mullion surface with silicone (see Fig. 11.14). Expansion Sleeve Maintaining a 6mm expansion gap between the upper and lower mullion (a 6mm spacing shim can be used to maintain the gap), tie back the upper mullion to the structure at the head. If a temporary spacing shim has been used, remove it and seal the 6mm expansion joint with silicone (see Fig. 11.16).

Silicone Seal 6mm

Fig. 11.14
Slide the upper mullion over the expansion sleeve (see Fig. 11.15).

Silicone Seal

Fig. 11.16
Upper Mullion The expansion joints in the pressure plates and PVCu face caps should be staggered (see Fig. 11.17 and page 11.12). Staggered Pressure plate joint Mullion Joint

Fig. 11.15

Staggered Face cap joint

Fig. 11.17

11.7

INSTALLATION
TYPICAL TIE BACK FIXING
The following details show a typical tie back fixing. The mullion is placed in its correct position, fixed at the cill, and aligned vertically to ascertain the position of the tie back brackets (see Fig. 11.18). Pack the brackets as necessary and bolt them to the floor slab or structural steel (whichever is applicable (see Fig. 11.20)

Fig. 11.20

Fig. 11.18
With the mullion is in its correct position, angle brackets should be located either side of the mullion, allowing approx 6mm gap between mullion face and bracket (see Fig. 11.19).

All brackets must be shimmed with nylon shims between the mullion tie back brackets. With the mullion in exact alignment, drill through the slotted hole in the bracket into the mullion and back up sleeve. Fix the mullion using minimum M10x100mm stainless steel bolts through the brackets (see Fig. 11.21). Nylon Shims

Bracket

Bracket

6mm

6mm

Fig. 11.19

Fig. 11.21

11.8

INSTALLATION
TYPICAL TIE BACK FIXING (cont)
When exact alignment has been attained, drill through the final fix hole in the bracket into the mullion and back up sleeve. Insert the required nylon shims and fix the mullion using minimum M10x100mm stainless steel bolts through the brackets (see Fig. 11.22). Nylon Shims

PERIMETER FIXINGS
The perimeter mullion fixing details are shown on page 11.4. The perimeter head transoms and perimeter cill transoms are fixed in the same manner as the perimeter mullions at 50mm from the end of the transom and at 600mm maximum centres (see Fig. 11.24) 600 max 50 600 max 50 50

Fig. 11.22
Note: The tie back fixing guidelines are to suit typical installation details only. If an alternative method of installation is required, the method must be agreed with the builder or site foreman. Fig. 11.23 shows a plan of a typical finished tie back installation.

150 50 600 max

600 max

600 max

600 max

600 max

600 max

150

50 600 max 50

Fig. 11.24
Note: The above shows recommended typical fixing centres for perimeter mullions and transoms. The fixings, fixing centres and required method should be agreed with the builder or site foreman.

Fig. 11.23

11.9

INSTALLATION
PVCu WINDOW INSERT FIXING PREPARATION
Before proceeding to install the PVCu window inserts check that all joints and fixing screw points have been sealed satisfactorily. Clean down all surfaces of the aluminium grid, that are to receive the butyl tape, with a mild detergent and warm water. NEVER use any solvent based cleaners on the painted surfaces of the aluminium grid.

FITTING THE THERMAL BREAK

Fit the thermal breaks (654001) into the nosing of all mullions and transoms (see Fig. 11.26), and locate the frame setting blocks (655000) in their correct positions (see Fig. 11.26 & 11.27).

ax M 0 15

APPLICATION OF BUTYL TAPE

Apply the butyl tape (900570) to the serrated faces on the mullions and transoms (see Fig. 11.25). Position the tape 1mm in from the sight line of the mullion or transom. At this point do not remove the paper backing from the butyl tape. Pinch the tapes together at the tape joints and seal with silicone. Thermal Break (654001)

Fig. 11.26 SETTING BLOCK LOCATION


Butyl Tape (900570)

Thermal Break (654001)

Frame Setting Block (655000)

The location of the setting blocks is critical to ensure that the dead load is passed via the transoms onto the mullions of the curtain wall. Place the setting blocks maximum 150mm from the end of the transom (see Fig.11.26 & 11.27). Glass Packers Setting Blocks PVCu Insert Aluminium Transom

M ax 15 0

Pinch tapes together and seal

Max 150

Max 150

Fig. 11.25

Fig. 11.27

11.10

INSTALLATION
PVCu WINDOW INSERT FIXING INSTALLING THE WINDOW
Remove the paper backing from the butyl tape one opening at a time. Centralise the window insert within the opening, at the same time locating it onto the frame setting blocks. Apply pressure around the perimeter of the window, ensuring a good seal onto the tape. Secure in place, temporarily, using 200mm pieces of pressure plate (see Fig. 11.28) fixed onto the When all the PVCu window inserts are in place, fit the pressure plate gasket (105240/T) into all the pressure plates, and working across the opening, fix the vertical pressure plates through the pre-drilled holes. Remove the temporary 200mm pressure plates and then fix the horizontal pressure plates through the predrilled holes (see Fig. 11.29).

PVCu Window Insert

Vertical Pressure Plate

200

PVCu Window Insert

Horizontal Pressure Plates

200

PVCu Window Insert held temporarily in position by pieces of pressure plate

Fig. 11.29

Fig. 11.28

11.11

INSTALLATION
PVCu WINDOW INSERT FIXING INSTALLING THE WINDOW
Clip the PVCu face caps onto the pressure plates. The square face cap (SW600) should always be fitted to the vertical pressure plates. The angled face cap (MCC) can be fitted to the horizontal pressure plates (see Fig. 11.30). Glaze the PVCu window inserts in accordance with the relevant product technical manual.

VERTICAL EXPANSION JOINTS

When installing curtain walling with vertical expansion joints, the following procedure must be followed for the pressure plates and PVCu face caps.

PRESSURE PLATES

Fix the pressure plates as described on page 11.11, making sure that the expansion gap (6mm) in the pressure plates is offset by a minimum of 25mm from the expansion gap in the mullion (see Fig. 11.31). Seal the 6mm expansion gap with silicone.

Pressure Plates

SW600

Fig. 11.31 PVCu FACE CAPS


MCC

Snap the face cap expansion sleeve (SW601) into place over the gap in the pressure plates. Fit the face caps (SW600) making sure that the expansion gap (6mm) in the face caps is offset by a minimum of 25mm from the expansion gap in the pressure plates (see Fig. 11.32). Seal the 6mm expansion gap with silicone.

MCC

Fig. 11.30

Expansion Sleeve Face Cap

Fig. 11.32 11.12

31

25 6

6 25

INSTALLATION
HORIZONTAL EXPANSION JOINTS
When installing curtain walling with horizontal expansion joints, the following procedure must be followed for the butyl tape,pressure plates and PVCu face caps. Seal between the pressure plates with silicone (see Fig. 11.35).

APPLICATION OF BUTYL TAPE

Apply the butyl tape to the serrated faces on the mullions and transoms as shown on page 11.10. Run the butyl tape over the 6mm silicone sealed expansion joint (see page 11.5) to meet with the vertical tape (see Fig. 11.33).

Silicone Sealed Expansion Joint

Seal Between Pressure Plates

Fig. 11.35 PVCu FACE CAPS


Run Tape Over Joint To Meet Vertical Tape Snap the vertical PVCu face cap (SW600) on to the mullion (see Fig. 11.36).

Fig. 11.33 PRESSURE PLATES

Fit the pressure plate gasket (105240/T) into the pressure plate ensuring the gasket extends 7mm past the end of the pressure plate. Fix the pressure plate, as shown on page 11.11, maintaining a 9mm gap at the expansion joint end (see Fig. 11.34). Join gaskets and seal with silicone

SW600 Face Cap

Fig. 11.36
Snap the horizontal PVCu face cap (MCC) on to the transom pressure plate, ensuring that the 6mm expansion gap in the PVCu face cap is at the opposite end to the expansion gap in the pressure plate. Seal the 6mm gap at the end of the PVCu face cap with silicone.

d 7 nde et e k xt s E Ga

Fig. 11.34 11.13

INSTALLATION
SEALING THE PERIMETER
Care should be taken when sealing the perimeter to ensure the silicone is kept behind the PVCu face caps, to facilitate future removal. The installers should consult the silicone supplier as to which type of silicone is suitable for any particular site application. Note: Ensure that the cill has been sealed during the installation of the curtain wall grid (see page 11.4)

Ensure silicone seal is kept behind PVCu face caps

HEAD DETAIL

Fixing

JAMB DETAIL Ensure silicone seal is kept behind PVCu face caps

Fixing

11.14

FINISHING
INSPECTION DURING INSTALLATION
As the curtain walling is being installed, and if other trades are also present on site, it is possible for the curtain walling to become accidentally marked by substances used by other trades. If this occurs, it is essential that the builder or site foreman is immediately informed of this, to ensure that the curtain walling installer is not held responsible for the cleaning of these substances. Before the final cleaning down of the curtain walling, the installer should check with the builder or site foreman if any other trades are to immediately follow on after the cleaning process. If other trades are to follow, it should be agreed with the builder or site foreman that the curtain walling be inspected prior to commencement of works by other trades.

PVCu WINDOW MAINTENANCE


PVCu window inserts should be maintained strictly in accordance with the details contained in the relevant product technical manual.

PAINT FINISH PVCu FRAMES


If the contract has an external paint finish to the PVCu frames and cappings, the company who applied the paint to the PVCu surfaces should be contacted for guidance as to what cleaning agents are suitable.

CLEANING OF GLASS AREAS


Generally, glass should be cleaned using water with added mild cleaning agent or detergent, or with a proprietary glass cleaner. The glass manufacturers instructions should be strictly followed in the case of specialist or coated glass. If other trades are to follow, it is advised that, once the glass is cleaned a suitable protective film is applied to the glass.

FINAL CLEANING DOWN


Following fixing of the curtain walling, the following steps should be taken by the installer to ensure acceptance of the finished installation. a) Clean down all surfaces of the PVCu and aluminium paint surfaces with recommended cleaners. For all PVCu surfaces, clean down with PVCu cleaner. For painted aluminium surfaces, only use a mild detergent to clean down. NEVER USE A SOLVENT BASED CLEANER. b) The installers should satisfy themselves that all works have been carried out in accordance with the detailed working drawings. c) If other trades are to follow on after completion of the curtain wall, the installer must ensure that all surfaces of the PVCu and aluminium paint surfaces are adequately protected. d) Finally, once the installers have cleaned down and are satisfied with the workmanship, they should leave a copies of any maintenance information relating to the windows and doors, with the main contractor to eventually pass on to the client.

GENERAL MAINTENANCE OF PAINT AND PVCu FINISHES


In order to maintain the best possible appearance of the Spectus Curtain Wall and PVCu window and door products, it is recommended that the surfaces are cleaned at regular intervals with a solution of mild detergent and warm water, using a soft cloth or sponge, but nothing harsher than a natural bristle brush.

12.1

APPENDIX 1 ALUMINIUM PRESSINGS


ALUMINIUM PRESSINGS
To colour match the aluminium curtain walling sections and the PVCu framing, Aluminium pressings should be powder coated to RAL 9016, semi gloss. OTHER ANGLES The size of pressing required for other angles can be determined as shown in Fig.13.2.
Dim A Mullion Frame depth+3 box depth

CORNER POST PRESSINGS


Corner post pressings should run the full height of the end mullion. The dimensions for corner post pressings can be measured on site once the curtain walling screens have been installed. However, if the corner detail is known, the following calculations can be used to determine the dimensions of the pressing. 90 CORNERS The size of pressing required for 90 corners can be determined as shown in Fig. 13.1.
Pressing overlap Aluminium pressing Dim C

Overall angle

Pressing overlap

Fig. 13.2
Aluminium pressing = Dim C + Pressing overlap

Aluminium pressing

Frame Mullion depth+3 box depth

Dim A = (Frame depth + 3) + Mullion box depth Angle B = Overall angle/2 Dim C = Dim A Tan Angle B Example: If using 70mm PVCu windows, SWR670/C mullion and the overall angle is 45, as shown above, then:Dim A = 73mm + 70mm = 143mm Angle B = 45/2 = 22.5. Dim C = 143 Tan 22.5 Pressing Overlap Aluminium pressing = 59.2mm = 18mm = (77.2)77mm x 77mm

Fig. 13.1
Aluminium pressing = Frame depth + 3 + Mullion box depth + Pressing overlap

Example: If using 70mm PVCu windows and the SWR670/ C mullion, as shown above, then:Frame depth + 3 Mullion box depth Pressing overlap Aluminium pressing = 73mm = 70mm = 18mm = 161mm x 161mm

If there is a gap between the mullions at the corner detail, this must be added to the size of the corner pressing.

Aluminium Pressings

If there is a gap between the mullions at the corner detail, this must be added to the size of the corner pressing.

Details shown are for guidance only. It is the responsibility of the surveyor / fabricator / installer to ensure that all items are suitable for each specific instance.

13.1

APPENDIX 1 ALUMINIUM PRESSINGS


CILL PRESSINGS
Aluminium cill pressings should be determined for each individual contract, based on the site conditions. CILL SIZE The size of the pressing required for the cill detail can be determined as shown in Fig. 13.3. Required overhang Aluminium cill pressing SetFrame Mullion back depth + 3 box depth INTERNAL CILL UPSTAND The internal cill upstand should be formed at 90 to the cill pressing. The size of the internal cill upstand can be determined by several different factors (screeding, internal flooring thickness, etc) but should be a minimum of 20mm as shown in Fig. 13.5. Minimum 20mm

90

Fig. 13.5. Fig. 13.3.


Aluminium pressing = Required overhang + Set-back + Frame depth + 3 + Mullion box depth CILL END RETURNS Wherever a perimeter mullion is being fitted or in certain situations, eg. an aluminium door opening, the aluminium cill should form an end return at 90 as shown in Fig. 13.6. The joint between the internal cill upstand and the end return should either be welded or silicone sealed. Weld or silicone seal joint

Example: If the required overhang is 30mm, the set-back is 40mm and if using 70mm PVCu windows and the SWR670/C cill transom, as shown above, then:Required overhang Set-back Frame depth + 3 Mullion box depth Aluminium cill depth = 30mm = 40mm = 73mm = 70mm = 213mm

90

Note: The cill pressing should be flat for the combined frame depth + 3 and mullion box depth (in this example 143mm) before being angled at a minimum of 5 for the depth of the required overhang and set-back as shown in Fig. 13.4. Overhang Frame depth + 3 & & set-back mullion box depth Minimum 5 Flat area

Fig. 13.6.

Aluminium Pressings

Fig. 13.4.

Details shown are for guidance only. It is the responsibility of the surveyor / fabricator / installer to ensure that all items are suitable for each specific instance.

13.2

APPENDIX 2 FIXING BRACKETS


FIXING BRACKETS MULLION BRACKETS
Depending upon site conditions, it may be necessary to fix the curtain walling mullions using pre-fabricated steel brackets at the top and bottom of the mullions. Brackets should be determined for each individual contract. FIXING PLATE SIZE The size of the fixing plate can be determined as shown in Fig. 13.7. Bracket clearance BRACKET SIZE The size of the bracket can be determined as shown in Fig. 13.8. Mullion box depth Cover

Bracket height

Fixing plate height

Transom height

Bracket clearance

Bracket height

Side Clearance

Internal bracket depth Cover

Back Clearance

Edge clearance

Fixing plate depth

Fixing plate height =

Edge clearance + Transom height + Bracket clearance + Bracket height

If the edge clearance is 10mm, bracket clearance is 15mm and the bracket height is 60mm, as shown above, then:Edge clearance Transom height Bracket clearance Bracket height Fixing plate height = 10mm = 62mm = 15mm = 60mm = 147mm

Fig. 13.8.

Bracket height =

Side Clearance

Example:

Mullion Width

Fig. 13.7.

Internal Bracket Width

Final fixing hole dia + Fixing slot dia + spacings

Internal bracket depth = Cover + Back clearance Internal bracket width = Side clearance + Mullion width + Side clearance The bracket manufacturer should be consulted regarding the fixing plate and bracket design.

Note: The fixing plate depth should be big enough to allow the installer to drill through all fixing holes on site. The fixing detail at the top of the mullion is sometimes different to the fixing detail at the bottom of the mullion, and the sizes must be determined separately. However, the same fixing plate height can be used for the top fixing bracket if the detail is suitable.

Fixing Brackets

Details shown are for guidance only. It is the responsibility of the surveyor / fabricator / installer to ensure that all items are suitable for each specific instance.

13.3

APPENDIX 2 FIXING BRACKETS


FIXING BRACKETS TIE-BACK BRACKETS
The size and design of brackets for fixing back to the structure at intermediate levels can vary depending upon site conditions. The fixings can vary whether the structure is tied-back to a concrete slab or steelwork. Tie-back brackets and appropriate fixings should be determined for each individual contract, based on the site conditions. SLAB FIXING BRACKET SIZE The size and design of brackets required for fixing back to a concrete slab can be determined as shown in Fig. 13.9. Mullion box depth Back Cover clearance STEELWORK FIXING BRACKET SIZE The size and design of brackets required for fixing back to steelwork can be determined in a similar manner to the brackets required for fixing back to a concrete slab. Depending upon the building design, the brackets can be fixed directly back to the steelwork using appropriate packing shims as shown in Fig. 13.10. Steelwork

Bracket fixed directly back to steelwork

Fig. 13.10.
Bracket height Alternatively, the brackets can be fixed to an intermediate steel angle, which is in turn fixed back to the steelwork as shown in Fig. 13.11. Intermediate steel angle

Bracket depth Cover Bracket width

Back clearance

Steelwork

Fig. 13.9.
Bracket height = Final fixing hole dia + Fixing slot dia + spacings Cover + Back clearance

Fig. 13.11.
Packing shims should always be used between the brackets and the intermediate steel angle, and between the steel angle and the steelwork.

Bracket depth =

Fixing Brackets

Note: The bracket width should be big enough to allow the installer to drill through all fixing holes on site.

Details shown are for guidance only. It is the responsibility of the surveyor / fabricator / installer to ensure that all items are suitable for each specific instance.

13.4

APPENDIX 3 ANGLED FRAMES


TRANSOM BLOCKS
Typical angled top frames can be manufactured using the standard transom blocks fixed in staggered positions to the top of the mullions. However, for certain angles, a small section of the transom blocks must be removed as shown in Fig. 13.12. and in the table shown below. 4mm

TRANSOM END PREPARATION

The preparation at the end of each angled transom varies depending upon the angle of the framing as shown in Fig. 13.4.

Frame angle

Dim

Dim B

2mm

Dim

Dim C

Fig. 13.12.
The fixing position of the transom blocks varies depending upon the angle of the framing as shown in Fig. 13.13. Remove corner Frame angle Lower block fixing centre Higher block fixing centre

Dim

Dim

Dim B

Dim

Fig. 13.14.
Drill and countersink 5mm holes (as described on page 9.3) at each end of the transom as shown in Fig. 13.14. at the centres shown in the table below. Angle 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 Dim A 23mm 23.5mm 24mm 25mm 25.5mm 26.5mm 27mm 28mm 29mm 30mm 31mm 32mm 33mm 34.5mm 36mm 38.5mm 41mm 43.5mm 46mm Dim B 11.5mm 12mm 12mm 12mm 12mm 12mm 12mm 12mm 12mm 12mm Dim C 17mm 17mm 17mm 17.5mm 18mm 18mm 18.5mm 19mm 20mm Dim D 17.5mm 17mm 16.5mm 16mm 15mm 14.5mm 14mm 13.5mm 12mm 10mm 9mm 8mm 7mm 6mm 5.5mm 4.5mm 3.5mm 3mm 22.5mm 11.5mm

Fig. 13.13.

Remove corner

Drill 4.2mm holes (as described on pages 9.1 & 9.2) at the centres shown in the table below. Frame Lower Block Higher Block Remove Angle Fixing Centre Fixing Centre Corner 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 32.5mm 33mm 34mm 35mm 36mm 37mm 38mm 39mm 40mm 41mm 42.5mm 43mm 44.5mm 45.5mm 47.5mm 49.5mm 52.5mm 55mm 58mm 61mm 65mm 30.5mm 30mm 30mm 29.5mm 29mm 29mm 29mm 29mm 29mm 29.5mm 29mm 30mm 30.5mm 31mm 31mm 31.5mm 31.5mm 31.5mm 31.5mm 31.5mm 31.5mm n/a n/a Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove Remove n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a

19.5mm 12.5mm 20.5mm 11.5mm

11.5mm 21.5mm 11.5mm 22.5mm 11.5mm 12mm 12mm 13mm 13.5mm 14mm 23mm 23.5mm 24mm 24mm 24mm 24.5mm

14.5mm 24.5mm

50 49.5mm 15.5mm 25mm 1.5mm Note - The same dimensions are used at each end of the angled transom. Transom blocks and transoms should be screw fixed as described on page 9.4.

13.5