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1. Define electrolyte 2. List 3 examples of electrolyte and 3 examples of nonelectrolyte.

1. Describe electrolysis experiment of a given molten compound.

1. Describe electrolysis experiment of a given aqueous compound.

Analysing electrolysis of Electrolysis of molten compound Understanding properties of electrolyte and nonelectrolytes Analysing Electrolysis of aqueous solutions


Synthesising electrochemical series

Evaluating Voltaic Cell

Evaluating electrolysis in industry

1. Define electrochemical series 2. Describe an experiment to form the electrochemical series.

1. Give 3 examples of Voltaic cell. 2. What type of energy change occurs in a voltaic cell? 3. Describe an experiment of a simple voltaic cell. 4. Describe the structure of Daniel cell.

1. List three industries using electrolysis process. 2. Give an example of metal extracted using electrolysis process. Then explain how the electrochemical process occurs.

T. 6.1 Example
Molten: NaCl Na+ + ClPb2+ + 2Br2Al3+ + 3O2-

Is an aqueous solution or molten that can conduct electricity

PbBr2 Al2O3


Formation of ions in the solution Definition Aqueous solution: H2O HCl H+ + ClOr HCl + H2O H3O+ + ClH2O H2SO4 H2O 2H+ + SO42H+ + OH-


Is an aqueous solution or molten that can not conduct electricity.



Explain why electrolyte may conduct electricity while non-electrolyte is not?

Experiment to determine the electrolyte and non-electrolyte liquid

T. 6.2

Explanation of electrolysis of molten lead(II) bromide 1. PbBr2 Pb2+ + 2Br2+ and Br2. Ions in the molten are Pb 2+ 3. Pb move to cathode, Br move to anode. 2+ 4. Pb discharged at cathode accepted 2e to form an atom of copper. Br- eliminated 1 electron to form a bromine atom. 2 bromine atoms combine to form bromine molecule. 5. Pb2+ + 2e Pb 2BrBr2 + 2e 6. Chemical equation Pb2+ + 2BrPb + Br2 7. Grey sediment formed at cathode, brown gas formed at anode. Definition of electrolysis Experiment: electrolysis of molten lead bromide.

Electrolysis is a decomposition process of electrolyte to the basic constituents at electrodes by electricity


Examples of electrolysis of other molten compound



T. 6.3


carbon Copper (II) sulphate

Experiment electrolysis solution of copper (II) sulphate.

ELECTROLYSIS OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS * 6.3.1 The factors to determine which ion to be discharge

Explanation to the electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate aqueous. 1. CuSO4 Cu2+ + SO42H2O H+ + OH2. The ions present: Cu2+ , SO42- , H+ ,OH3. Cu2+ and H+ move to cathode, SO42- and OH- move to anode. 4. Cu2+ discharged at cathode by accepted 2 electrons to form copper atom while OHdischarged at anode by eliminating electrons to form water and oxygen. 5. Cu2+ + 2e Cu 4OH 2H2O + O2 + 4e 6. Overall equation 2Cu2+ + 4OH2H2O + O2 6. Brown sediment formed at cathode and bubbles formed at anode.

Other example: Electrolysis of sodium nitrate solution


S.E.K Kation


K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ H+ Cu2+ Ag+ increasing discharge capacities

FNO3SO42ClBrIOHIncreasing discharge capacities

Electrolysis of dilute copper (II) sulphate 1. There are Cu2+, SO42- , H+ and OHions in the electrolyte. 2+ 2. At cathode, Cu is chosen to be discharge because it is located below H+ in Electrochemical Series. 3. At anode, OH ion is chosen due because it is below SO42- in Electrochemical Series. A Example

Carbon CuSO4 solution

Location of ion in electrochemical series Anode and cation are from the same metal.

Type of electrode

Factors determining selective discharge of ions at electrodes

Concentration of ion in electrolyte

Experiment Experiment A
Carbon Carbon Copper Concentrated CuCl2 Using carbon as anode, chloride ions are discharged at anode to form chlorine gas. But if using copper as anode, anode copper Cu eliminate electron to form Cu2+ Conc. CuCl2 Carbon

At anode, using concentrated CuCl2, Cl- is discharged because its concentration is higher than OH- . But using dilute CuCl2, OH- ion is discharged.


Extraction of aluminium metal: Carbon

Molten Al2O3

Metal extraction Environment pollution Metal purification ELECTROLYSIS IN INDUSTRY

Metal plating

Purification of non-pure metal

Silver plating of iron

Pure copper

Non-pure metal Dilute CuSO4

Silver Iron ring AgNO3

T. 6.5
Explanation to the formation of electrical energy in a simple voltaic cell and Daniells Cell. 1. Zink more electropositive than copper. 2 Zink atom eliminate 2e to form Zn2+ Zn Zn2+ + 2e 3. Electrode of zinc becomes thinner 4. Electrode of zinc become terminal negative (electron donor) 5. The electrons move to the electrode copper through the circuit. 6. At copper electrode, Cu2+ from the electrolyte receives electrons to form coppers atom. Cu2+ + 2e Cu 7. Overall equation Zn + Cu2+ Zn2+ + Cu 8. The mass of electrode copper increase. Cu

Zn Cu


Porous pot

Dilute CuSO4
Simple cell

Dilute ZnSO4

Dilute CuSO4 Experiment:

Other examples

Voltaic cell as a source of electrical energy

Daniel Cell


Other examples

Comparison between electrolytic cell and voltaic cell

Other cells

Dry cell Alkali cell Mercury Cell Accumulator Etc.

T. 6.6 Tick in the table to show where displacement process occurred. Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu Pb Sn Fe M g Zn To build Electrochemical series using metal displacement reaction.

To predict the polarization, voltage and displacement ability of metals


ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES The important of electrochemical series To build electrochemical series using Simple Cells (voltage comparison) V Metal P Metal Q

If metal X is able to displace metal Y from salt solution of X, It is shows that metal X is located above metal Y in the electrochemical series.

Metal located higher in electrochemical series (more electropositive) shall eliminate electrons to be the negative terminal. Those electrons are moving to the other terminal called the positive terminal. The potential difference occurs between the two terminals called Voltage. The more the distance between two metals, the higher the voltage produced.

Metal P Metal Q Al Zn Fe Cu Ag Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Cu Zn

More reactive metal. Al Zn

Voltage (V) -2.00 -1.10 -0.47 0.00 +0.46

Electron direction Al to Cu

Terminal (-) Al

Terminal (+) Cu