Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

10 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Cement 1 #
- ASTM C 90.pdf
- ASTM C869-91.pdf
- ACI_History_Book.pdf
- Latex-Modified Concrete and Mortar for Repair_tcm45-346369
- Architectural Research
- Building Construction and Materials Notes - civilenggforall.pdf
- Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC)
- RPL Corrosion Resistance of Self Compacting Concrete Dehwah 2012
- Setting of Cement
- prism cement.doc
- CEMENT- The Hydraulic Binder
- Conplast RP264
- astm.c90.1970
- drimalast47462
- Concrete Mix
- Relation Between Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of C-S-H Generated From Cemetinous Materials
- CE 251 Lecture 5A
- Fine Limestone Additions to Regulate
- Comparative LCA of Recycled and Conventional Concrete for Structural Applications

Anda di halaman 1dari 67

KIGALI INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INSTITUT DES SCIENCES ET DE TECHNOLOGIE DE KIGALI

Avenue de l'Arme, B.P. 3900 Kigali, Rwanda

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Submitted by RYOBA VUZIMPUNDU Eugne (REG.NO: GS20031702) Under the Guidance of Mr. NGARAMBE Andr

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN CIVIL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY FEBRUARY 2008

DECLARATION

I, RYOBA VUZIMPUNDU EUGENE declare that this project work is my own work and has not been represented any were else, either Universities or any other Institutions of high learning, for academic or any other purposes.

DEDICATION

To my GOD, my family; my beloved parents, brothers and sisters, I dedicate this book; it is the fruit of your love and encouragement. I dedicate also this book to all survivors of genocide of 1994 and NDAHAYO JULES who passed away in last year; we always remember you. You all, I love you.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

It was a deep sense of gratitude that I address my acknowledgements to my parent, brother and sisters I am grateful to them, for having continuously supported me during my studies till at present and tough me the value of life. I am wholeheartedly indebted to my classmates, my friends, whose love, advices, motivation and encouragement made me who I am now, and without whom this project would ever have seen light of the day, this is the impatiently awaited fruit of their endeavors. I would like to express my heat-felt gratitude to KIST authorities, whose financial supports and extraordinary effort made this project possible. I thank my project guidance, Mr. Andre NGARAMBE, whose inspiring guidance and innovative question have made this project a pleasurable learning and working experience. Many thanks whomever his assistance and advice, helped me to successfully complete my project.

iii

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this bridge was to make the conception, the analysis and design of

flyover suspended pedestrian bridge in Kigali City. The following study was

completed with three phases. The first phase involved a deep investigation for the bridge in which enough and relevant information were gathered from different area in Kigali City. Investigation did not only cover the site conditions, but also the availability of the local materials as well as produced by the industries of our country of was used in second phase of the project; this phase involved mainly the conception or the architectural design of the bridge. At the end of the second phase, a steel structure was generated and then in the last phase, subjected to the detailed structural analysis so as to obtain the forces within the different component of the bridge. These former were used, in turn to design the different component of the structure. In design, most of standards specification and practice codes used were prepared. Finally, detailed plans and drawing were prepared. The achievements of this study reveal the possibility of improving condition of the mixed traffic by separating pedestrians and vehicles.

iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ............................................................................................................... i DEDICATION ................................................................................................................. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................ iii ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................. v LIST OF FIGURES AND PHOTOS .............................................................................. vii 1. FIGURES ............................................................................................................... vii 2. PHOTOS................................................................................................................ viii LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................... ix LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS AND NOMENCLATURE .......................... x CHAPTER 0.INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 1 0.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION .............................................................................. 1 0.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT .................................................................. 2 0.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVES AND AIMS OF THE PROJECT ............................... 3 0.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES .............................................................................. 3 0.3.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT................................................................................. 4 0.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY ...................................................................................... 4 0.5 SITE INVESTIGATION ........................................................................................ 6 0.6 PROBLEM FACED ............................................................................................... 6 0.7 TRAFFIC VOLUME STUDY ............................................................................... 8 0.8 DATA COLLECTION FROM TRAFFIC POLICE .............................................. 9 0.8.1 CAUSE OF ACCIDENTS INYEAR 2005-2006 .......................................... 10 0.8.2 HOUR ACCIDENT SURVEY IN YEAR 2005 AND 2006 ......................... 11 CHAP I. LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................. 12 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SUSPENSION BRIDGES .............................................. 12 1.2 DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................... 12 1.3 THEORY ON SUSPENSION BRIDGE .............................................................. 14 1.4 TYPES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES ................................................................ 15 CHAP II. MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTING OF THE ......................................... 16 PROPOSED PROJECT .................................................................................................. 16 2.1 INTRODUCTION ON COMMONLY USED MATERIALS ............................. 16 2.2 TYPES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGE CABLES .................................................. 17 2.2.1 CABLE STRUCTURES ............................................................................... 17 2.2.2 TYPES OF WIRE CABLES ......................................................................... 18 2.3 REINFORCED CONCRETE MATERIAL ......................................................... 20 2.3.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... 20 2.3.2 CEMENT ....................................................................................................... 20 2.3.3 AGGREGATE ............................................................................................... 22 2.4 STRUCTURE OF WOOD ................................................................................... 23 2.4.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ..................................................................... 23 2.4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TREES ................................................................... 23 2.5 COLUMNS........................................................................................................... 23 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION ON COLUMNS.............................................................. 23 v

2.4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COLUMNS ............................................................ 24 2.6 FOUNDATION .................................................................................................... 24 2.6.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION ...................................................................... 24 2.6.2 FOUNDATIONS AND THE EARTH .......................................................... 25 2.6.3 TYPES OF FOUNDATION .......................................................................... 25 2.7 BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL ........................................................................ 26 2.8 LOADING ............................................................................................................ 26 2.8.1 DEAD LOADS .............................................................................................. 27 2.8.2 IMPOSED LOADS........................................................................................ 27 2.8.3 DESIGN STRESS.......................................................................................... 27 CHAP III METHODOLOGY ......................................................................................... 28 CHAP IV DESIGN OF FLYOVER SUSPENDED PEDESTRIAN BRDGE ............... 29 4.1 DESIGN INFORMATION ................................................................................... 30 4.2 DESIGN THEORY ............................................................................................... 30 4.3 DESIGN OF MAIN CABLE DIAMETER .......................................................... 32 4.4 DESIGN OF TRUE LENGTH OF MAIN CABLES ........................................... 34 4.5 DESIGN OF TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL BEAMS .................... 35 4.5.1 DESIGN OF TRANSVERSAL ..................................................................... 35 4.5.2 DESIGN LONGITUDINAL BEAMS ........................................................... 37 4.6 DESIGN OF SUSPENDERS CABLE DIAMETER ............................................ 39 4.7 DESIGN OF TOWERS ........................................................................................ 40 4.8 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION............................................................................... 41 4.9 DESIGN OF COLUMN BASE ............................................................................ 43 4.10 DESIGN OF STAIRS LONGITIDUNALY BEAMS ........................................ 45 4.11 DESIGN OF LATERAL BEAMS OF STAIRS ................................................. 47 4.12 DESIGN OF SUPPORT COLUMN OF STAIRS .............................................. 48 4.13 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION FOR COLUMNS OF STAIRS .......................... 49 4.14 DESIGN OF ANCHORAGE BLOCKS ............................................................. 50 4.15 DESIGN CONNECTIONS WITH BOLTS........................................................ 51 V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ......................................................... 52 5.1 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................... 52 5.2 RECOMMENDATION ........................................................................................ 52 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 53 APPENDICES ................................................................................................................ 54

vi

1. FIGURES Figure 1: Parts of suspended bridgep13 Figure2: 1. Galvanized Bridge Wire...p17 Figure3: Parallel Wire Cable...p18 Figure 4: Detail of Main Cable and Cable Band.p18 Figure 5: Close-up view of Main Cable..p19 Figure 6: Cable with Clipp19 Figure 7: bridge span, loading and flesh.p31 Figure 8.1: load diagram.p33 Figure 8.2: loading diagram in lateral direction.p33 Figure 8.3: result of diagram cable.p35 Figure 9: transversal beam..p35 Figure 10: load, shear, moment...p36 Figure 11: load, shear and moment.....p38 Figure 12: suspender cable diameter...p39 Figure 13: load column....p40 Figure 14: column and beam dimension.p41 Figure 15: foundation..p42 Figure 16: Reinforcement in foundation.p43 Figure 17: bars in foundation..p43 Figure 18: base column ..p44 Figure 19: fixation and connection of base column.....p45 Figure 20: stair span.............................................................................p46 Figure 21: load, shear and moment..p48 Figure 22: columnp49 Figure 23: anchor and fixation of cable...p50

vii

2. PHOTOS Photo1: Mixture crossing of road of pedestrians and vehiclesp 11 Photo 2: big number of pedestriansp11 Photo 3: scope of the study..p14 Photo 4: big number of vehicles at the site of the study..p14 Photo 5: inattention of policemen, pedestrians, and driversp16 Photo 6: time west for crossing loadp16 Photo 7: Big volume of pedestrians crossing the Round about...p18

viii

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: traffic volume survey; Round about Kigali city, Nyarugengep17 Table 2: percentage of death, injured and accident in Kigali city...p18 Table 3: causes of accidents in Kigali city..p 19 Table 4: Daily hour accidentp19

ix

A B bf cm C FCV FCH D DW DT d F E y fk fck fyk g I k L l LE M Max Min m2 mm N Pc

2

cross sectional area beam width, foundation base width of pad of foundation centimeter span, width vertical component of force horizontal component of force diameter, depth horizontal distance vertical inclined distance effective depth axial Force modulus of elasticity deflection characteristic of compressive strength of masonry concrete characteristic strength reinforcement characteristic strength gram moment of inertia of area kilo length, length of span true length effective length bending moment maximum minimum meter square millimeter square Newton compressive strength of beam

q R r S t T V v W w WA

Ground pressure under foundation reaction at the end radius of gyration plastic modulus beam web thickness tension shear force design shear stress magnitude of uniformly distributed load uniformly distributed load weight of anchor block angle Stress yield stress pi Elongation

xi

CHAPTER 0.INTRODUCTION

DESIGN OF ECONOMIC FLYOVER SUSPENDED PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE IN KIGALI CITY 0.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION The Kigali City, the now days facing traffic problems mainly due to the increase in the number of vehicles, The increase is directly related to the parallel increase in population number and based also on the vision plan of the Kigali City. The traffic problems include traffic jams, which normally result in delays and increase in load cost, accident which result in damage to vehicles as well as loss of human lives. It may be observed that most of accidents involving pedestrians occurs while they crossing road of heavy vehicles, inattention or/and high speed traffic. Mean while, quite number of solution has been worked out and implemented at different location of interest within the City of Kigali; among this we can mention here, the use of traffic policemen, traffic lights, speed ramps, zebra crossing and road signs. Some of these, such as traffic lights (signals) and policemen or manual control and other measures control and other previous performed ineffectively if not failed. Therefore, based on the previous stated solution, my challenge in the prevent project was to find out a new and better solution why not be best, using the modern trend and technologies. The solution would be the permitting the smooth, safe, secure, and smart passage of vehicles and pedestrians. While studying this problem of crossing the roads, I thought the possible and effective solution would aim at separating the two traffic component mean pedestrians and vehicles. This implies directly prevision for a pedestrian path under above the road way. However, further observation of how roads are constructed in Kigali City dictate the solution of an economic flyover pedestrian bridge as the adequate solution.

0.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT As here above mentioned, there is a problem of crossing roads certain particular places in KIGALI CITY, where the traffic is heavy. There is proved or supported by findings from accidents study made by traffic police office. The survey conducted by this office shows the increase of big number of accident along with an increase in number of vehicles. The cause of different accidents varies from an accident to another. Some are due to the high speed of vehicles, bad driving, other to the violation of road codes, either intentionally or not, on other hand, some of road users such as children, present difficulties in crossing roads of heavy traffic. However, the services in change took measures so in order to overcome this problem. Different methods as mentioned in the introduction of this project are now used but they are suffering from certain handicap, and sometimes create auxiliary

problems. I propose a design of Economic flyover suspended pedestrian bridge in Kigali City.

0.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVES AND AIMS OF THE PROJECT 0.3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES This project research is intended to provide a new alternative for the pedestrians as far as crossing road by using economic flyover suspended pedestrian bridge in KIGALI CITY. 0. Design of a local economic flyover pedestrian bridge, using cheap local materials, like timbers, steel cables profile. 1. This bridge should reduce the number pedestrians crossing Kigali roads where zebra crossings are not efficient enough to guarantee security of pedestrians due to their big number. 2. It should reduce the time people use waiting for priority to cross roads, it reduce the number of accidents and tasks for traffic pedestrians. 3

0.3.2 AIM OF THE PROJECT The main aim of the project can be follows: Making conception, analysis, as well as design of an economic flyover suspended pedestrian bridge in KIGALI CITY constructed by local material such as metallic profiles, steel and wood etc. 0.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The suitable site was selected based on the traffic volume mean for pedestrian and vehicles where there is a big number of pedestrians crossing the roads, also the second criteria was to find out the most difficult place to within Kigalis districts as well as Nyarugenge, Kicuciro and Gasabo district. Gitega (EPA) Kanogo at TOTAL (ex-SOPETRAD) Payage (on boulevard de lOUA Kiyovu) Kimihurura (primarly school) Sainte famille church (round about) Round about (town center RUBANGURA) Remera Giporoso The third criteria concerned the category of pedestrians facing problem such as children going and coming from school, adult people going or coming from church and also based on the accidents records from the traffic police office. Gitega (EPA) Sainte famille (near round about town center) Kimihurura (primarily school) Round about (town center RUBANGURA in front of Ex-Nyira-Rock ) Finely, ROUND ABOUT town center (RUBANGURA) in front of near Nyira-Rock was selected as the site thats the characteristics mentioned above.

0.5 SITE INVESTIGATION Before a pedestrian bridge can be built at a particular site, it is essential to consider many factors, such as the need for a pedestrian bridge, the present and future traffic, stream characteristics, subsoil condition, aesthetics and cost. For the design of this pedestrian bridge, the highest vehicles are considered so the height of 3.5m of the pedestrian bridge has been chosen. 0.6 PROBLEM FACED The big number of pedestrians crossing Kigali roads where zebra crossings are not efficient enough to guarantee security of pedestrians. The time people use waiting for priority to cross roads. The time drivers use waiting for priority to go. Tasks for pedestrians and for drivers in the roads during the crossing roads of pedestrians. Traffic jams in Kigali roads Inefficiency of the zebra crossing while peak period. Inattentions of pedestrians and drivers.

0.7 TRAFFIC VOLUME STUDY The traffic volume study was conducted with the aim of determining the number of vehicles as well as pedestrians crossing the section of the road where the bridge is proposed to be built, per unit time within peak traffic periods The traffic volume counts were done manually and here below are tabulated result. All bellow survey are counted in the period of 3 days of week mean that a number is a mean value of 3 days of week, Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. Table 1: traffic volume survey; Round about Kigali city, Nyarugene Peak period Morning Noon Evening Peak hour 7h008h00 12h30- 48 13h30 16h30- 63 17h30 MEAN VALUE TOTAL 57 34 3400 2020 42 3780 2520 23 2880 1380 Number of Number of Total number Total number of vehic/hour 2160

pedestrians/minute 59

Photo 7: Big volume of pedestrians crossing the Round about Kigali city

0.8 DATA COLLECTION FROM TRAFFIC POLICE This is the percentage of death, injured, and accidents in the period of 2 years. Table 2: percentage of death, injured and accident in Kigali city

Source: Traffic police

Those are the accident happened in KIGALI CITY. Year 2005: From the total number of accident which was happen in all country the 70, 1%; 33% dead; and 66, 7% injured in Kigali City only. Year 2007: the total number of accident is 67, 1%; 27, 5% death, and 57, 1 injured.

Table 3: causes of accidents in Kigali city Causes Signalisation 03 Other High speed Inattention State of road Bad driving Alcholism Rain Mecanical errors Total 205 573 2552 43 871 110 11 187 4556 08 137 407 1864 50 747 124 12 174 3523

Source: Traffic police

2005

2006

%of 2006

% of 2005

10

0.8.2 HOUR ACCIDENT SURVEY IN YEAR 2005 AND 2006 Table 4: Daily hour accident Hourly Year 2005 06h00-08h00 08h00-09h00 09h00-10h00 10h00-11h00 14h00-15h00 15h00-16h00 16h00-17h00 17h00-18h00 18h00-19h00 19h00-20h00 230 319 331 331 370 338 6,5% 7% 7,2% 7,2% 8,1% 7,4% 230 230 226 244 243 230

Source: police

Year 2006

National

As it seems from table the percentage of accident in one hour is the counted from the total number of accident happened in one day in hourly

11

1.1 INTRODUCTION TO SUSPENSION BRIDGES This booklet was put together to familiarize the general reader with the terminology of suspension bridge components and to help the designer, builder or user of a small suspension bridge. Its use should enable him to make up preliminary calculations for determining the cable size as well as the various quantities of material required. Then, a comparative estimate can be made between the suspension bridge and any other type that may also be under consideration for a particular location. It is rather interesting to note that, in spite of the relative simplicity of design and erection of a suspension bridge, there are a number of cases where other types have been used, even though the suspension type might have been more economical. We think that this is because many engineers have been of the opinion that the cable analysis might be difficult and complicated as to its solution. However, the simple formulae used in the catalog should dispel this thought. True to their name, suspension bridges suspend the roadway from huge main cables, which extend from one end of the bridge to the other. These cables rest on top of high towers and are secured at each end by anchorages. The towers enable the main cables to be draped over long distances. 1.2 DESCRIPTION Suspension bridges have two basic systems-main cables supported by towers at each end over the obstacle and a roadway suspended from the main cables. Suspender cables support the floor beams, which support the stringers that support the roadway. Stiffening trusses further spread the live load to the suspenders. Suspension-bridge design requires analysis of the following items: Load to be carried. Panel length. Floor beams and stringers.

12

Stiffening trusses. Dead load. Suspenders. Main cables or suspension cables. Towers. Tower bracing and backstays. Anchorages or deadman. Figure 1: Parts of suspended bridge

13

1.3 THEORY ON SUSPENSION BRIDGE A suspension bridge is composed of a deck that is attached to or suspended from cables. Just like the name states, the suspended bridge literally suspends the roadbed from huge cables, which extend form one end of the bridge to the other. The cables are attached to two tall towers and are secured at each end by anchorages. The tower allows the cables to be draped over very long distances. The cable carries the weight on a suspended bridge to the anchorages that are imbedded in solid rock or massive concrete blocks. The cables are spread over a large area in order to evenly distribute the load inside the anchorages to prevent the cables from breaking free. In the suspension bridge each cable supporting a segment of the roadbed is vertically suspended from the primary draped cable spanning between main pylon towers. The forces from permanent and moving loads push down onto the roadbed placing it in compression. The cables through tension then transfer the forces to the towers, which carries the forces, through compression, directly into the earth where they are firmly imbedded. The tension cables running between the two anchorages support the forces. The cables stretch from the weight of the bridge and the traffic that travels from anchor to anchor. In addition to the cables, the anchorages are also under the forces of tension. Because they are firmly imbedded into the earth like the towers, the amount of tension exerted on them is resisted by the counter forces of the dead load. Most suspension bridges also have a supporting truss system underneath the bridge deck to help stiffen the roadbed and to provide a lateral stabilization of the roadbed. This extra support system resists wind and lateral forces and reduces the tendency of the roadbed to ripple and sway. Suspension bridges come in two different types of designs; the elongated "M" shape and the "A" shaped design called a cable-stayed bridge. The two designs support the load of the roadbed in very different ways. The differences lie in the way the cables are connected to the towers. The cable-stayed bridge attaches all cables that support the roadbed to the tower and they alone carry the weight of the roadbed and the traffic. The series of cables are attached to the roadbed in two basic ways, using a running parallel

14

pattern or a radial pattern. In the parallel pattern, the cables are parallel to one another and attached at different heights along the tower. Each cable carries a segment of the roadbed. In the radial pattern, each cable carries its section of the roadbed and they are attached to the tower at a single point. In the cable stay bridge, all segments of the roadbed must carry a horizontal compressive force to counter balance the equal force from the other side. 1.4 TYPES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGES Unstiffened bridges Unstiffened bridges consist of floors, without stiffening trusses or girders, suspended from cables. These bridges are suitable only where live load or wind load can never cause serious deformation of the cable. An example of this type of bridge would be a footbridge, where the live load is very light. Other examples are structures with a large dead load but insignificant live load. Stiffened bridges Stiffened bridges have flexible cables that are stiffened by suspended girders or trusses. These bridges minimize local changes in roadway slope due to live loads. They are constructed by framing the floor beams of the floor system into stiffening trusses and supporting these trusses with hangers running to the cables. Self-anchored bridges Self-anchored bridges are supported on vertical foundations, and no anchor cable is required. The horizontal force on the main cable is exerted by endwise thrusts in the stiffening girder. Multiple-span bridges Multiple-span bridges are a combination of two or more adjoining suspension bridges sharing a common anchorage. The towers of these bridges are connected by a tie cable to restrain movement of the tower tops from unbalanced live loads.

15

2.1 INTRODUCTION ON COMMONLY USED MATERIALS Steel, Concrete, Aluminum alloy, Timber, Masonry and Fiber composite Materials fall in three categories: Natural material such as stone and timber have been used for centuries as building material, and their properties are well understood by craftsmen for use in small-scale building. However, because they are natural materials, they are of variable quality and often contain significant defects. This means that, for use in large scale engineered structures, they need to be carefully selected and subjected to large material safety factors to ensure safety. Manufactured materials such us steel and aluminum alloy are produced under carefully controlled factory conditions, with frequent testing and monitoring throughout the manufacturing process. This obliviously produces a more predictable and consistent material which is reflected in lower material safety factors being required. Concrete lies somewhere between these two being manufactured from naturals with little intermediate processing. New materials such as fiber reinforced composites. They are highly manufactured materials, but unlike steel, have not been in existence long enough to be fully understood. Factors affecting the selection of structural materials

This chapter briefly describes the commonly used material. We then go on to examine the various factors that must be considered when selecting a material for the building of safe and durable structures. Those factors are: strength and stiffness, durability, fatigue, brittle fracture, creep, fire resistance, weight, economics environmental factors. This is firstly done by considering the properties of steel, which is one of the most commonly, used materials.

16

2.2 TYPES OF SUSPENSION BRIDGE CABLES 2.2.1 CABLE STRUCTURES Cable structures can be exciting, lightweight and highly efficient. It is usual to use cables made from a very high grade steel. This produces large concentrations of load, and hence particular care must be taken with the design and manufacture of end connections if catastrophic failure is to be avoided. A key feature of all design involving cables is that they are assumed to support only tensile loads.

Figure2: 1. Galvanized Bridge Wire for Parallel Wire

Bridge Cables.

2. Galvanized Bridge Strand--consists of several bridge wires, of various diameters twisted together. 3. Galvanized Bridge Rope--consists of six strands twisted around a strand core.

17

2.2.2 TYPES OF WIRE CABLES 1. Parallel Wire Cables--This type of cable is made up of a large number of individual wires which are parallel to one another. Neither the cables nor the wires are twisted in any manner. The wire i6 shipped to the site of the bridge on reels and the individual wires are installed or' "spun" on the bridge and later compacted together to form a round cross section. Cables of this type are used on monumental structures, such as the Golden Gate Bridge and the George Washington Bridge.

Figure3: Parallel Wire Cable

2. Parallel Strand Cables, Closed Construction--These consist of several prefabricated Galvanized Bridge Strands, all laid parallel and in contact with one another. Wood or aluminum fillers are used to bring the cable to a circular crosssection, after which the whole cable is wrapped with wire for protection. The cable may contain 7, 19 37, 61, 91 or 127 strands.

Figure 4: Detail of Main Cable and Cable Band The wrapping wire is omitted at the right for clarity. Note the closed construction and aluminum fillers.

3. Parallel Strand Cables, Open Construction--This type of cable consists of several prefabricated Galvanized bridge Strands which are all laid parallel to one another and 18

not in contact. The strands are usually arranged in the form of a rectangle and the cable may contain 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 or 30 strands. 4. Parallel Rope Cables, Open Construction--These are the same as Parallel Strand Cables except that Galvanized Bridge Rope is used in place of Bridge Strand.

Figure 5: Close-up view of Main Cable, Cable Bend and Suspender Note the open construction.

5. Single Rope or Single Strand Cables--These are used for small structures.

For many years the main cables of most suspension bridges, large and small, consisted of parallel wires installed individually at the site of the bridge. On small bridges this proved to be an expensive procedure and consequently placed the suspension type bridge at an economic disadvantage for the shorter span crossings.

19

2.3 REINFORCED CONCRETE MATERIAL 2.3.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION Concrete is the most commonly used building material. It has being formed into any desired shape most conveniently. It is an artificial stone obtained by mixing aggregates, cement and water, and allowing the product to cure for hardening. Its essential ingredients are cement and water, which react with each other chemically, to form another material having useful strength. The strength of concrete depends upon the quality of its ingredient, their relative quantity and the manner in which they are mixed, compacted and cured. It is possible to produce concrete of different specifications for various purposes by suitably adjusting the proposition of cement aggregate and water. Reinforced concrete is a composite material made of concrete and steel. Plain concrete possesses high compressive strength but little tensile strength. Reinforcing steel possesses high compressive strength both in tension and compression. In reinforced concrete, steel provides the strength and the concrete provides the compressive strength. So, by combining these features and the concrete and steel, it attains high utility and versatility. 2.3.2 CEMENT Cement is produced burning together, in a definite proportion; a mixture of siliceous (containing silica) argillaceous (containing alumina) and calcareous (containing lime) materials in particular fusion, at a temperature of 1400 to 1450oC.by doing so, a material called clinker is obtained. It is cooled and then ground to the required fineness to get cement. Different types of cement are obtained by varying the proposition of the raw materials and also by adding small percentage of other chemicals. Chemical composition of cement

20

The main raw materials for manufacturing cement are lime, silica, alumina and iron oxide. Depending upon the wide variety of raw materials used in the manufacture of cement, its oxide components vary widely.

Types of cement A wide variety of cement is available which are suitable for use under certain condition due to its special properties. They are, 1. Ordinary Portland cement 2. Rapid hardening Portland cement 3. Extra rapid hardening cement 4. Low heat Portland cement 5. Sulphate-resisting Portland cement 6. Supersulphate cement 7. Portland blast furnace cement 8. Pozzolanic cement etc Physical properties of cement Following are important physical properties of cement. 1. Chemical composition loss of ignition insoluble residues lime and alumina content magnesia content and sulphur content

21

2.3.3 AGGREGATE A mixture only of water and cement is costly and possesses low strength and shrinks unacceptably on drying. In order to reduce the cost and modify such properties as the strength and drying shrinkage of the hardened mass, it is usual to introduce insoluble non-cementitious particles described as aggregates. Such aggregates usually constitute between 50 and 80% of the volume of conventional concrete and may thus greatly influence its properties. Aggregates should not contain any constituent which affect the hardening of the cement and durability of the hardened concrete adversely. It should be free from organic matter which reduces the hydraulic activity of cement and affects its normal setting and hardening. It should also be free from constituents whom decompose or change significantly in volume on exposure to atmosphere or react adversely cement paste. Physical properties of aggregates Following are the physical properties of aggregates 1. Size of aggregates 2. Shape of particles 3. Surface texture 4. Strength of coarse aggregates 5. Specific gravity 6. Bulk density 7. Water absorption and surface moisture 8. Bulking of sand 9. Deleterious substance

22

2.4 STRUCTURE OF WOOD 2.4.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION To utilize any structural materials to optimum effect it is necessary to understand its composition and structures since these can have a major influence on a materials properties. For timber this necessitates knowledge of the nature and growth patterns of trees, since the composition and the structures of wood derive from the requirements of the growing tree rather than the appreciation of the variations which occur between and within species, it should then be possible to specify timber correctly for any performance requirements. 2.4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF TREES All commercial timber can be classified into two board groups: Softwoods and Hardwoods When first used in the Middle Ages these terms would have been indicate of the relative hardness, density or ease of working of the types of timber in common use, possibly comparing native oak with imported spruce for example (Ridout, 1992). Nowadays, however, the terms hardwood and softwood are quite misleading: balsa is a hardwood but is softer and less dense than any soft wood, while pitch, pine is softwood which is harder and denser than many hardwoods. 2.5 COLUMNS 2.5.1 INTRODUCTION ON COLUMNS Columns are structural elements used primarily to support compressive loads. They are usually square, rectangular, circular, L-shaped or octagonal in cross section. Column subjected to pure axial load are concentrically loaded column. Such columns rarely occur in practice. Generally they are subjected to moment along with axial load. If the moment acts about one axis only, they are classified as uneasily eccentrically

23

loaded columns. If the moments act about both axes, they are classified as biaxial loaded columns.

2.4.2 CLASSIFICATION OF COLUMNS Classifications of column due to its construction material are: They are Metallic column, reinforced concrete column and brick column. Columns are also classified as pedestal, short, and slender column depending upon its effective length and lateral dimension. The effective length of column is the length between the points of inflection of the column. Very short column with effective length lesser than three times least lateral dimension are called pedestal columns. Column of intermediate length with effective length lesser than or equal to12 times least lateral dimension are called short columns. Columns of large length with effective length greater than 12 times the least lateral dimension are called long or slender columns. 2.6 FOUNDATION 2.6.1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION All structures on earth consist of superstructure and substructure. The foundation can be defined as the substructure which interfaces the superstructure and the supporting ground. Its purposes are to transfer all loads from the superstructure to the ground safely and provide stable base to the superstructure. It distributes the loads over a larger area so that pressure on the soil does not exceed its allowable capacity, the total settlement is limited to permissible value and differential settlement is minimum possible. These are different types of foundation for transfer of loads from superstructure to the ground. They depend primarily on the type and magnitude of the loads and the bearing capacity of the soil. Their behavior and design are described in this chapter.

24

2.6.2 FOUNDATIONS AND THE EARTH Foundations are the structures that connect the main structure with the ground. Forces do not end at the ends of a bridge. They do not even end at the boundaries of the foundations. In theory, they spread throughout the earth, getting weaker as the distance increases, though at some point they are so weak that they cannot be detected. Foundations must be made wide enough to reduce the stresses to values that the ground beyond can sustain indefinitely. The size and strength of foundations will depend on the quality of the ground. Over bridge and the famous Pisa campanile are examples where the combination of foundations and ground were less than ideal. The foundations may be deep underground, and in some cases under water as well, requiring the use of pneumatic caissons with sharp cutting edges, and pressurized air keep the water out. Eads' Mississippi Bridge and the Roeblings' Brooklyn Bridge are early examples of the use of caissons. If the weight of earth removed for foundations is greater than the weight of the structure supported, the foundations on average cannot settle, because the structure is floating. Nevertheless, a building might still tilt in these conditions, while not sinking overall. This principle of apostasy applies approximately to huge mountain ranges, whose roots go deep below the mean surface level of the earth. If glacier ice melts in large quantities, the rock below will start to rise, and in fact parts of the earth's surface are still moving slowly, and have been moving, since the end of the last ice age. It is in dam construction that knowledge of the ground is most important, because of the potential for great loss of life. The dam must be integrated into the rock to avoid leakage and uplift; extensive grouting is often required. Just as important is the huge weight of the water in the reservoir, and its effect on the rocks below and around. A terrible catastrophe resulted when water behind the Vajont dam penetrated the ground and enabled a large piece of a mountain slope to slide into the reservoir. 2.6.3 TYPES OF FOUNDATION Foundations are classified as shallow and deep foundations. These are described as follows:

25

1. Shallow foundation it has a smaller depth limited to the width of footing. It spreads The load from superstructure on a larger area of the soil so that stress intensity is reduced to a value which can be carried safely by soil they are classified as isolated and combined footing.

2. Deep foundation when the top layer of soil is too weak to support the structure on a Shallow foundation, the depth of foundation is increased till more suitable soil is found to support the structure. Such a foundation is termed as deep foundation because of its large depth. Different types of deep foundation are pile foundation and well foundation 2.7 BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL Bearing capacity of soil is the maximum intensity of load or pressure developed under the foundation without causing failure of soil and damaging settlement of superstructure supported on foundation. Therefore allowable bearing capacity is evaluated with an adequate factor of safety against ultimate bearing capacity of soil and adequate margin against excessive settlement. The ultimate capacity of soil corresponds to load beyond which settlement increases rapidly. Soil pressure at footing bases Actual soil pressure at the base of the infinitely stiff footing resting on ideal cohesion less and cohesive subsoil under a concentric load generally footings are not infinitely stiff and very few soils exhibit such behavior. 2.8 LOADING Analysis of begins with the evaluation of the structures own weight and the loads to be supported, such loads are variable both in magnitude and some in position. In general, there are two types of loads which are dead and imposed loads. Another type of load frequently encountered in building is wind load which is the impact of the local wind on the structure. The wind speed is converted to force and the

26

effect on the structure is analyzed. This is common with tall structures such as tall buildings and bridges. Wind loads can also be combined with both dead and imposed loads. 2.8.1 DEAD LOADS The dead loads are the weight of the structure its self, and the structural element such as ceiling, I beam, floor board, cladding, cables and permanent partitions, where panels and other equipments are permanently located they can be assumed as dead loads.

2.8.2 IMPOSED LOADS These are loads to be carried by the structures and because of their nature are more different to be determined precisely. For many of them, it is only possible to make conservative estimates based on standard codes of practice or past experience. e.g.: imposed load for bridges: pedestrians, panels, vehicles, etc. For houses: its occupants, furniture, and presence of wind 2.8.3 DESIGN STRESS This study is mostly concerned with two materials namely concrete and reinforcements. The steel used is round bars of high yield steel or high tensile bars. Concrete characteristics strength fck = 30KN/mm3. This value of fck is also minimum cube strength at 28 days. All Characteristics strength are given in DIN codes and British Standards; for mild steel rand bars, fyk=250N/mm2 while for high yield steel, fyk=420N/mm2.

27

These data collection methods have been used to collect needed data: Observation: This method has been used to enable traffic study and collect some preliminary data at the selected site which would help in making conception, analysis as well as design of an economic flyover suspended pedestrian bridge and Providing detailed plans and drawings of final structure. Literature Survey : Internets and books have been used in order to get secondary data need for designing and getting the required calculations and formulas.

28

29

4.1 DESIGN INFORMATION Properties of various materials to be used in design Concrete strength at 28 days 25 kN /m3 and fck, cyl =20 N/mm2, fck, cube = 30N/mm Timber 8 6 kN/m3 Steel rolled or cast 74 kN/m3 Timber boards 0.15 kN/m2 Steel sheeting Live load Stair live Imposed load 0.15 kN/m2 5 kN/m2 5 kN/m2 3 kN/m2

Allowable compression stress of column 210 kN/mm2 Allowable stress for cables 240 N/mm2 allowable shear stress for I beam 210 N/mm2 The assumed soil bearing capacity in Nyarugenge is 200 kN/m2 = 0.02 kN/cm2.

4.2 DESIGN THEORY The cable has a uniform weight and may also be subjected to a uniformly distributed load. The tension is assumed to be sufficiently great to that the sag f is not large. Since the curve is reasonably flat, the weight of the cable may be replaced, with the practical error by a uniform loading w, then

- y = wc2/8T

Since the curve is flat, the true length of cable is

- L =c+

Where from the following formulas:

- = 8y2/3c

30

Where, l is the true length of the cable - y is deflection w is load (kN/m) C is span T is tension force

is elongation

In order to find the maximum force in cable that is better to have the horizontal component and vertical component. Horizontal component

Cable will exert the maximum stress. The maximum stress is obtained by the force per unit area which is equal to the allowable stress. The max force

And we know that the maximum stress = Max force/Area Or, Area = max force/max stress Where area A is the cross section of one suspended cable A = D2/4 D is diameter of cable = 3.14

31

4.3 DESIGN OF MAIN CABLE DIAMETER Surface area of the moving space area 1.5m of width and length l of 15.2m Design parameters Floor surface area = 1.5*15.2= 21,28m2 Deflection y = 1.4m Number of main cable Live load = 5 kN/ m2 = 2 cables Working cable stress = 240 N/mm2 Timber boards = 0.15 kN/m2 Imposed load = 3 kN/m2

Design load Dead load = ((live load + timber board)*l) Where l is the of opposite distance of center to center of the span l = 1.4 /2 = 0.7 m C is the span Dead load = ((5 + 0.15)*0.75) = 3.862 kN/m Balustrade =1.0 kN/m Imposed load = 3 kN*0.7 = 2.1 kN/m Total load = 3.862+1.0 = 4.862 kN/m Then design load = (4.862*1.4) + (2.1*1.6) = 10.17 kN/m W= 10.17 kN/m per cable span

32

Design of main cable diameter Reaction of horizontal component RCH =wC /8f RCH = 10.17*15.22/8*1.4 = 209.726 kN Reaction of vertical component RCV = wL/2 RCV = 10.17*15.2/2 = 77.292 kN Thus the maximum force = (RCV +RCH )

2 2 1/2 2

Fmax = (209.7262+77.2922)1/2 = 223.515 kN Area = max force/max stress A = 223.515*103/240 = 931.31 mm2 Then the diameter of main cable is equal to (931.31*4/3.14)1/2 = 34.44 mm Take the cable diameter of 3.5 cm for each main cable.

Figure 8.2: result of diagram cable

33

- y = wL2/8T

Since the curve is flat, the true length of cable is

- l = L+

Where from the following formulas

- = 8y2/3L

Where, l the true length of the cable y is deflection W is load ( kN/m) L is span

elongation

l is true length

Then, = 8*1.42/3*15.2 = 0.344 m Thus l= 15.2 + 0.344 = 15.544 m The true length l of cable between the towers is 15.544m

34

4.5 DESIGN OF TRANSVERSAL AND LONGITUDINAL BEAMS 4.5.1 DESIGN OF TRANSVERSAL Beam B1

Beam support to carry lateral load which are resisted by bending and shear. However, deflections and local stresses are also important. Beam may be cantilever, simply supported, fixed ended or continuous. In this work we are going to use simply supported beam and is uniformly distributed load.

Figure 9: transversal beam

Design load Live load = 5 kN/m2 Timber structure = 0.15 kN/m2 Imposed load = 3 kN/m2 Dead load: 5+0.15 = 5.15 kN/m2 Then, total load is 5.15*0.77 = 3.965 kN/m Where 0.77m is equal to the half of lateral distance of walkway Imposed load = 3 kN/m2*0.77 = 2.31 kN/m Design load = (3.965*1.4) + (2.31*1.6) = 9.247 kN/m Max moment = wL2/8 Deflection = 5wL3/384EI w: is the design load L: is the considered length

35

I: is the moment of inertia and E: is the elasticity modulus Evaluation of beam reaction, shear force and bending moment Two end Reaction RA and RB = wL/2 = 9.247*1.7/2 = 7.86 kN The resulting diagrams are shown in figure below. Beam B1 is standard case i.e. a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load.

M max = wL2/8

=9.247*1.72/8 = 3.34 kNm

Figure 10: load, shear, moment diagram

Let use a typical yield stress of y is 210 N/mm2 (St 25) DIN 18800 German standard From equation required S = M max/y = 3.34*106/210*103 = 15.905 cm3 Where S is plastic modulus UDL, Reaction and moment diagram for beam B1 Use I 80 DIN 1025 which have cross section area of 7.57 cm2 Average shear stress = 7.86*103/7.57*102= 10.515 N/mm2 < 139N/mm2

36

Beam B2

Design of beam in 1,4m of transversal distance from the towers Load on the Uniformly Distributed Load on beam 5.15*0.89 = 4.584 kN/m Where 0.885m is equal to the half of perpendicular distance of the span and 1.7m is the length taken in design. Imposed load = 3 kN/m2*0.885 = 2.655 kN/m Design load = (4.584*1.4) + (2.655*1.6) = 10.07 kN Two end Reaction RA and RB = wL/2 = 10.07*1.7/2 = 9.086 kN The resulting diagrams are shown in figure 10. Beam B1 is standard case i.e. a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load.

M max = WL2/8

= 10.07*1.72/8 = 3.64 kN m From equation required S = M max/y = 3.64*106/210*103 = 17.333 cm3 Try I 80 DIN 1025 4.5.2 DESIGN LONGITUDINAL BEAMS Beam B3 of 1.4 m length

Design load Design of beam of 1,4m of longitudinal distance from the towers Load on the Uniformly Distributed Load on beam Live load = 5 kN/m2 Timber structure = 0.15 kN/m2 Imposed load = 3 kN/m2 Dead load: 5+0.15 = 5.15 kN/m2 Then, total load is 5.15*0.75 = 3.8625 kN/m Where 0.75m is equal to the half of lateral distance of walkway Imposed load = 3 kN/m2*0.75 = 2.25 kN/m Design load = (3.8625*1.4) + (2.25*1.6) = 9.007 kN/m Evaluation of beam reaction, shear force and bending moment 37

Two end Reaction RA and RB = wL/2 = 9.007*0.894/2 = 4.026 kN The resulting diagrams are shown in figure below. Beam B3 is standard case i.e. a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load.

M max = wL2/8

=9.007*1.4 /8 = 2.207 kNm

Figure 11: load, shear, moment diagram

2

From equation required S = M max/y = 2.207*106/210*103 = 10.509 cm3 Try I 80 DIN 1025 having area of 7.57 cm2 Beam B3 Design of beam of 0.77m length of longitudinal distance in 2.94m from the towers Load on the Uniformly Distributed Load on beam 5.15*0.75 = 3.8625 kN/m Where 0.885m is equal to the half of perpendicular distance of the span and 1.7m is the length taken in design. Imposed load = 3 kN/m2*0.75 = 2.25 kN/m Design load = (3.8625 *1.4) + (2.25*1.6) = 9.007 kN 38

Two end Reaction RA and RB = wL/2 = 9.007*0.77/2 = 3.467 kN The resulting diagrams are shown in figure 11. Beam B3 is standard case i.e. a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load.

M max = wL2/8

= 9.007*0.772/8 = 0.667 kN m From equation required S = M max/y = 0.667*106/210*103 = 3.176 cm3 Try I 80 DIN 1025 having area of 7.57 cm2 4.6 DESIGN OF SUSPENDERS CABLE DIAMETER Design reaction in the suspenders is equal to the reaction in the beam floor Reaction or tension R = 10.22 kN Area = tension/max stress A = 10.22*103/240 A = 45.583 mm2 Then, cable diameter D = (45.583*4/3.14)1/2 = 7.62 mm = 0.762 cm Take the cable diameter of 0.8cm for each suspender

Figure 12: suspender cable diameter

39

4.7 DESIGN OF TOWERS Determination of the dimension of suitable standard universal columns Load in one tower is 77.292 kN Design load for 1 column 77.292 kN Length of the columns 6 m = 6000 mm The estimated Compressive strength at the member is 210 N/mm2 Appropriate area = design load/estimated stress and the Actual stress = design load /actual area

Figure 13: load column

Design of one tower Approximate area = 77.292*103/210*10 2= 3.68 cm2 Checking of Deflection: Shear force = 5wL3/384EI Allowable shear force = L/325 Actual shear force = 6000/325 = 18.46mm I = 384*52.9*18.46*102/ (5*77.292*63) = 449.33 cm4 Use I 140 DIN 1025

40

4.8 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION Data Load w = 77.292 kN Concrete class c20/25 gives: Use Soil bearing pressure of soil = 0.02 kN/cm2 Compression resistance of concrete fck,cyl = 20 N/mm2, fck, cube = 25N/mm2 Tension resistance of concrete fcy = 460 kN/cm2 Calculation of Dimension A = 77.292/0.02 = 3864.6 cm2 Use square foundation, width of pad bf = (3864.6)1/2 =62.166 cm Take width bf of 63 cm. Depth of pad is equal to B*1/6 D = 63/6 = 10.5 cm The depth of 10.5 is very small, so we can take D = 20 cm Use a foundation of B = 63 cm square and 20 cm deep

Figure 15: foundation

41

Reinforcement

For concrete cover of 5 cm and assuming 1.0cm diameter bars, the effective depth d of the top layer of reinforcement is: d1 = 10.5-5-1.0-0.5 = 4 d2 = 20-5-1.0-0.5 = 13.5 cm As = M max/0.9* d1 *Rs Ground pressure, q = w/B = 77.292/632 = 0.01947 kN/cm2 = 194.7 kN/m2

2

And maximum moment = p*lc*bf* (lc/2) 0.02*24*63*24/2 = 362.88 kNcm As = 362.88*103/0.9*40*37.5 = 268.8 mm2 Cross sectional area of one bars = 102*3.14/4 = 78.5 Number of bars = 268.8*4/78.5 = 3.424 bars Take 4 bars

42

Shear Shear across the pad: Actual Shear force 0.54*d2*bf*Rbt Actual shear force = q*bf* (lc- d2) = 0.02*63* (24-13.5) = 13.23 kN Actual Shear force 0.54*0.09*13.5*63 13.23 < 41.33 Proposed dimensions and reinforcement are satisfactory.

Figure 17: distribution of bars

4.9 DESIGN OF COLUMN BASE The column is axially loaded slab base; the column has 152*152*37 Kg which carries a total load of 77.292 adopting a square slab. The concrete strength is 30kN/mm2.

43

Design load = 77.292kN Area = 77.292*103/0.4*30 = 5520.857 mm2 Make the base of 600mm square. Pressure P = 77.292*103/6002 P = 0.215 N/ mm2 The arrangement of the column on the base plate is shown in figure below. From this Project base a =224 for all side

Figure 18: base column

Assume the thickness of plate is less 40mm. design strength = 265N/mm2 (Table 6) The thickness of the base plate is given by: t = ((2.5*0215)/265*(2242-0.3*2242)) Thickness t = 8.38 mm Design of thickness of welding Thickness of weld = 0.7* leg length Let assume the leg length = 1 cm Then, t = 1*0.7 = 0.7 cm

44

4.10 DESIGN OF STAIRS LONGITIDUNALY BEAMS Data Rise = 300 cm Going = 300 cm Waist = 250 cm Number of rise 12 rises Span = 460 cm Loading Live load = 5 kN/m2 Timber structure load = 0.15 kN/m2 Imposed load = 3 kN/m2 Dead load: 5+0.15 = 5.15 kN/m2 Then, total load is 5.15*0.7 = 3.605 kN/m Where 0.70m is equal to the half of lateral distance of walkway of stairs Imposed load = 3 kN/m2*0.70 = 2.1 kN/m Design load = (3.605*1.4) + (2.1*1.6) = 7.14 kN/m

45

Calculation of negative moment Formulas used w = 7.14 kN/m MB * lAB + 2MB (lAB + lBC ) + MC * lBC = -wlAB3/4-wlBC3/4 MB*lBC+2 MC (lBC-0)+0 =-wlBC3/4 2MB*5.475+ MC*2.58 = -7.14*(2.8953/3)-7.14*(2.583/4) 2.58 MB + 2 MC *2.58 = -7.14*2.583/4 10.95 MB +2.58 MC = -73.96 (*-2) 2.58 MB +5.16 MC = -30.65 (*1)

21.9 MB +5.16 MC = 147.92 2.58 MB +5.16 MC = -30.65 -19.32 MB = 117.27 MB = - 6.069 kNm 46

MC = -2.91 kNm Calculation Positive moment Mx = Mo + Mn-1+ (Mn-Mn-1)/ln Mo = 7.14*2.8952/8 = 7.48 kNm MAB = 7.48+ (6.09*1.45/2.895) = 4.44 kNm Moo = 7.14*2.582/8 = 5.94 kNm MBC = 5.94-6.09 + ((-2.9+6.07)/2) = 1.43 kNm Then, to find out the dimension of beam we use the maximum moment Thus, M Max is Mo = 7.48 kNm Plastic modulus,

S = M max/y

= 7.48*106/210*103= 35.619 cm3 Take I 140 DIN 1025 for each beam of beam 4.11 DESIGN OF LATERAL BEAMS OF STAIRS Design load = 7.14 kN Evaluation of beam reaction, shear force and bending moment Two end Reaction RA and RB = wL/2 = 7.14*1.4/2 = 4.998 kN The resulting diagrams are shown in figure below. Beam B3 is standard case i.e. a simply supported beam with uniformly distributed load.

M max = wL2/8

=7.14*1.42/8 = 1.75 kNm

47

From equation required S = M max/y = 1.75*106/2103 = 8.33 cm3 Try I 80 DIN 1025 having area of 7.57 cm2 4.12 DESIGN OF SUPPORT COLUMN OF STAIRS Determination of the dimension of suitable standard universal columns Load in one column is =7.747 kN/m * Length of the columns 3.3 m = 3300 mm The estimated Compressive strength at the member is 100 N/mm2 Appropriate area = design load/estimated stress and the Actual stress = design load /actual area

Figure 20: stair column

48

Design of column Reaction at the support = wl2/2 = 7.717*1.4/2 = 5.43 kN Approximate area = 5.43*103/210*102 = 0.26 cm2 Checking of Deflection: Shear force = 5wL3/384EI Allowable shear force = L/325 Actual shear force = 3300/325 = 10.15mm I = 384*52.9*10.15/ (5*5.43*100*3.33) = 21,132 cm4 Use IPE 120 4.13 DESIGN OF FOUNDATION FOR COLUMNS OF STAIRS Design data Load w = 5.43 kN Concrete class c20/25 gives: Use Soil bearing pressure of soil = 0.02 kN/cm2

49

Compression resistance of concrete fck,cyl = 20 N/mm2, fck, cube = 25N/mm2 Tension resistance of concrete fcy = 460 kN/cm2 Required area of foundation A = w/ soil A = 5.43/0.02 = 271.5 cm2 Use square foundation, width of pad bf = (271.1)1/2 =14.53 cm Take width bf of 20cm. Depth of pad is equal to B*1/6 D = 20/6 = 3.3 cm The depth of 3.3 is very small, so we can take D = 20 cm Use a foundation of B = 20 cm square and 20 cm deep for each foundation of tower. 4.14 DESIGN OF ANCHORAGE BLOCKS

Figure 21: anchor and fixation of cable

Weight of one anchor block: WA = Tension in cable*cosine between cable and earth surface And Weight*DW > Tension *DT DW: horizontal distance DT: vertical inclined distance

50

Let assume DW = 1 m Max force or Tension in cable = 223.515 kN Angle = 590 Then, WA = 223.515*cosine 590 = 115.18 kN Thus, the weight 115.18 kN Weight*DW > Tension *DT 115.18*1 > 223.515* DT DT = 1.94 m Use the anchor of vertical inclined distance of 1.94m and horizontal distance of 1.0m The volume of anchor =115.18/25 = 4.6 m3 Surface area of bloc = 4.6/1.94sin600 = 2.738 m2 Where 1.94sin600 is the true height Take a square base surface = (2.737)1/2 = 1.65 m H = 1.68m, B = 1.65m, L =1.65, DT = 1.94m and DW = 1m 4.15 DESIGN CONNECTIONS WITH BOLTS For ordinary bolt of grade 4.6 the value of shear stress given in table 30 of bs 5950: Part I: 2000 as 160N/mm2 For bolts the gross diameter is, of course, equal to the nominal diameter. Therefore the safe load in single shear, or single shear value (ssv) Shear stress = w/area of 1 bolt, i.e. 160 = w/ area of 1 bolt Where area of 1 bolt = 3.14*d2/4 Data, for beams, maximum load = 7.48 kN Shear force = 160 N/mm2 Then A = (7.48*103 /160)1/2= 46.75mm2 Diameter D = 7.717mm Use D = 8mm for each bolt. For column, maximum load is 77.292 kN Shear force = 160 N/mm2 Then A = (77.292*103/160) = 483 mm2 Because we have 4 bolts in the base of column One bolt has diameter D =12.4 mm Use D = 13 mm for each bolt

51

5.1 CONCLUSION The provision of economic suspended pedestrian bridge across Kigali city highways in places where traffic accidents are frequent would be a potential solution in reducing traffic and human accidents. As we are moving towards 2020 vision, the aesthetic appearance of Kigali city(the city of the country) is of great importance and consideration, as far as planning is concerned. The economic suspended pedestrian bridge will give a pleasing townscape where provided. In saving thousand of lives of peoples and reducing the cost spent in treating traffic accidents casualties and adoption and implementation of this modern technology will contribute to the economic growth of the country. 5.2 RECOMMENDATION In line with the present study, I would humbly recommend to the planning authorities of Kigali city the following: To make a detailed analysis for Kigali city roads networks and find out alternative solution to the pedestrian traffic problems, To analyze the proposed solution and work out its implementation and include it in their strategic plan as a priority, To develop further researchers on this technology in collaboration with KIST or other research Institutions. I strongly recommend to all authorities concerned the construction of this suspended bridge which will reduce the high incidence occurring in the road. They will also need to carry out the costing of this suspended pedestrian bridge.

52

REFERENCES

BOOKS USED: 1. Foundation design and construction, M. J Tomlinson, sixth Edition, 1995, Addison Wesley Longman 2. Steel work design guide to BS 9550: Part I: 1990, volume I, section properties and member, capacitors, fifth Edition, 1997, the Steel Construction Institute 3. Structure steel work, design to limit state ,second edition 4. Understanding structures analysis, material, design, second Edition, (1998), DEREK SEWARD (1998)

INTERNETS: (http://www.google.com/analysis of suspension bridges) (May 2007) (http://www.google.com/unstiffened bridges) (May 2007) (http://www.google.com/Multiple-span bridges) (August 2007) (http://www.google.com/suspension bridges) (August 2007) (August 2007)

53

APPENDICES

54

- Cement 1 #Diunggah olehsmmendoza11
- ASTM C 90.pdfDiunggah olehsumeshmhr
- ASTM C869-91.pdfDiunggah olehAlfonso Patuktok
- ACI_History_Book.pdfDiunggah olehJuan Castillo
- Latex-Modified Concrete and Mortar for Repair_tcm45-346369Diunggah olehDevesh Punera
- Architectural ResearchDiunggah olehLhubs Lape Loon
- Building Construction and Materials Notes - civilenggforall.pdfDiunggah olehDebrahanath
- Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC)Diunggah olehLuisPajuelo
- RPL Corrosion Resistance of Self Compacting Concrete Dehwah 2012Diunggah olehIván HT
- Setting of CementDiunggah olehDeepak Tomar
- prism cement.docDiunggah olehSHASHANK
- CEMENT- The Hydraulic BinderDiunggah olehtuhintahmid1093
- Conplast RP264Diunggah olehdrfkamalodeen
- astm.c90.1970Diunggah olehAndres Gmo
- drimalast47462Diunggah olehRuben Cahuana
- Concrete MixDiunggah olehBabar Akbar
- Relation Between Chemical Composition and Physical Properties of C-S-H Generated From Cemetinous MaterialsDiunggah olehRoberto Rizzo
- CE 251 Lecture 5ADiunggah olehVijay Kumar
- Fine Limestone Additions to RegulateDiunggah olehGuille Mar
- Comparative LCA of Recycled and Conventional Concrete for Structural ApplicationsDiunggah olehJohanna Cabrera Flores
- Cem II - A-V 42,5r(en)Diunggah olehdanbela
- FEASIBILITY_STUDY_OF_JAROSITE_WASTE_AS_V.docxDiunggah olehAnkit Patidar
- lime ashDiunggah olehpcprabs11
- C4AH13Diunggah olehgooberlicous
- concrete mix ex.pdfDiunggah olehmgsvetty
- Substituting Sand With Nonrecyclable Plastics as Aggregate in ConcreteDiunggah olehRozilaRafaie
- The Story of How India Became a World Class Cement Industry.Diunggah olehVidhi Mehta
- Sulphate 2Diunggah olehShakeel Ahmad Waseem
- 1296817844943-page_2Diunggah olehEnd End
- Kuliah 11 (Chapter 13-Modifification by Admixtures)Diunggah olehJonathan Sinambela

- Watertank GSDiunggah olehAnonymous nwByj9L
- m 2010 Ceet 50 Garera Eric Gs 20020485Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- M 2008 CEET 28 ZIRIMWABAGABO Leodomir GS20020131.pdfDiunggah olehAlbert Niyonzima
- M 2010 CEET 50 GARERA ERIC GS 20020485.pdfDiunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m2011 Ceet 20 Bayisenge Alex Gs20020478Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m 2008 Ceit 05 Uwibambe Clarisse Gs 20031686_2Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m 2008 Ceet 07 Verjus Hadelin Gs20031084Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m 2008 Ceet 01 Ryoba Vuzimpundu Eugene Gs20031702Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m 2010 Ceet 46 Musonera Manasseh Pt20063007Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m 2010 Ceet 26 Manirafasha Amos Gs20050571Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- m 2009 Ceit 09 Uwamahoro Marie Claire Gs20050714Diunggah olehKatie Sanders
- Final Year Project ReportDiunggah olehKatie Sanders

- wire ropeDiunggah olehkhairulanuarjun
- A+Constitutive+Law+for+Bond+Failure+of+Fully Grouted+Cable+Bolts+Using+a+Modified+Hoek+Cell (1)Diunggah olehCarlos Augusto Sánchez Rondón
- Level IndicatorDiunggah olehStefanus Laga Suban
- Brochure_KiswireDiunggah olehchris_skyan
- 253643407-heavy-lift-doc.docDiunggah olehAhmad Hajeer
- TM Cable RequirementDiunggah olehfaridnor88
- Cablofil_Legrand_laddertray_catalog2012.pdfDiunggah olehLANKAPALLISURI
- FT-W_IM_96M11722_GB_1022-2Diunggah olehazzszo
- Endurance Tilt-Up Tower Installation Manual (58-221208) (3)Diunggah olehHeri Rusma
- COFE 2009 PertlikDiunggah olehLeonardo Candito
- Cub Cadet Lawnmower Operators Manual Models 977A E977CDiunggah olehelvisandmick
- Fmr Foc Jtg 12c f05 v0904v Blok 98 Mewah cDiunggah olehaasriismail
- LT-103199r1.3 20160812 iMAG instrDiunggah olehxtianleon
- nullDiunggah olehMichael Okwuwa
- wire rope manual.pdfDiunggah olehMuhammad Vaudzan N Sumadiputra
- ADIGUEDiunggah olehMark Jerez
- kupdf.net_bs-en-12385-5-2002pdf.pdfDiunggah olehArun Sharma
- Equipment-Basics-Checklist.pdfDiunggah olehjesusgameboy
- Suspension 1Diunggah olehIbrahim Abotaleb
- Canada TSSA 2009 ZiplinesDiunggah olehpribonic
- UntitledDiunggah olehreyi
- MOSHADiunggah olehRubén Cabrera Rojas
- Beam clamps SI 17.3Diunggah olehkhtib
- Manual Almeja Despiece Grua de CoqueDiunggah olehDaniel Rafael Torres Regardiz
- Etag 027 April 2013Diunggah olehsgaluf5
- General Requirement_RAN Site Infrastructure v.01_FINALDiunggah olehSoepar Nova Syam
- Jspl BroucherDiunggah olehyaduvanshi1
- TM_9-1768C_45-ton,_12-wheel_Trailer_M9,_Etc_1945Diunggah olehRobertLockie
- 62084Diunggah olehArnold Steven
- List of Lifting StandardsDiunggah olehJawad Ramadan Lebzo