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A World Leader in Boiler Technology

Power

Power Solutions for Enhanced Profitability and a Cleaner Environment


Advanced Boiler Designs

Schwarze Pumpe, Germany 2800 MW Brown Coal Fired Steam Generators.

Meeting Our Customers Demands Todays energy markets call for advanced boiler designs that use economical and environmentally friendly technologies to achieve: The lowest possible operating costs High availability and ease of operation The ability to burn a wide range of fuels.

ALSTOM has the know-how and technical expertise to supply the power generation technologies you need. Were an industry leader with more than a century of worldwide experience and we can develop solutions to meet your specific needs. Progress Through Technology With our extensive research and the combined experience of our diverse

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global companies, no other power industry supplier can match the breadth of proven product offerings and services supplied by ALSTOMs utility boiler business. ALSTOMs boiler technology is installed in over 400,000 MW of boilers around the world. Customer Focus Our goal is to bring value and satisfaction to our clients through our

extensive technical capabilities, our global experience and our innovative product development programs strongly backed up by our Quality Focus Program. In over 80 countries, ALSTOM has built a reputation for on-time completion of state-of-the-art boiler projects that perform as promised.

Our commitment is to work with you, our customer, to continue to define and develop new boiler solutions to meet your increasingly challenging energy demands.

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An

Innovative

History of Providing Solutions

O v e r 1 0 0 Ye a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e

Boiler for City Auditorium Chattanooga, Tennessee

Tangential Flame

Stuttgart-Obertrkheim, Germany

Provence, France First Operating 250 MW CFB

1908 Our French boiler company (former Stein Industrie) is created. 1912 Our US boiler company (former Combustion Engineering) is established. 1921 Our German company (former KSG/ EVT) is established. 1927 ALSTOM introduces tangential firing, an innovation that provides significant benefits in combustion efficiency. 1942 Our first Controlled Circulation steam generator is installed. This positive circulation design has been

accepted as an industry standard around the world. 1960 The highest temperature and pressure supercritical boiler ever designed is supplied by ALSTOM at Philadelphia Electrics Eddystone Station, USA. 1992 1993 ALSTOM commissions supercritical units in Denmark (Vestkraft 1400 MW) and the first two of twenty in South Korea (Poryong 2500 MW). 1995 Commissioning of the first 250 MW Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) in the world the Provence station in Gardanne, France designed by ALSTOM.

1997 Schwarze Pumpe (Germany 2800 MW) begins operation. Designed by ALSTOM, these represent one of the largest scale-up of brown coal fired supercritical boilers to date. 1998 2000 ALSTOM remains a market leader of subcritical boilers in the 600 700 MW class with: Commissioning of boilers for Paiton (Indonesia 2670 MW and 2717 MW) and Sual (Philippines 2660 MW) Orders for Manjung (Malaysia 3760 MW) and Ho-Ping (China 2660 MW).

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Niederaussem, Germany 1000 MW Brown Coal Fired Supercritical

Manjung, Malaysia 3760 MW PC

Guayama, Puerto Rico 2250 MW CFB

2001 2005 ALSTOM has the most advanced once-through boiler design with supercritical steam parameters. State-of-the-art technology focuses on high plant efficiency and availability as well as reduced emissions. ALSTOMs leading role is underlined by the commissioning of outstanding orders, including: Niederaussem (Germany 1000 MW) Mai Liao (Taiwan 2600 MW) Yonghung (South Korea 2800 MW) Waigaoqiao (China 2900 MW) Patnow (Poland 1460 MW)

Circulating fluidized bed technology continues as an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional pulverized-coal burning systems. In this period, ALSTOM commissions a record number of 250+ MW class CFB units, including the Seward (USA), Sulcis (Sardinia), Guayama (Puerto Rico), Red Hills (USA) and E. Kentucky Power Cooperative (USA) projects.

A Look into the Future With our long history of providing advancements in boiler technology, ALSTOM has demonstrated commitment to the power industry. Customer demands for even higher plant efficiency, availability and operating flexibility as well as reduced emissions are our motivation to further improve boiler designs. We look forward to continuing to take the lead in providing innovative, cost-effective and environmentally-friendly solutions to your power generation requirements and to contributing to a cleaner environment for all of us.

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First

in

Fuel

Science

Unmatched Fuel Expertise

Progressive Stages of Transformation of Vegetal Matter into Coal

Understanding the Fuel At ALSTOM, we believe our knowledge of how to burn a variety of fuels the art and science of balancing a fuels chemical and physical properties to ensure it burns cleanly and efficiently is a core competence. Choosing a fuel burning technology suitable to a customers application is a complex process. Economic considerations incorporating capital, operation and maintenance, and fuel costs must be taken into account. In addition, efficiency, emissions regulations and fuel characteristics must be carefully analyzed to

properly incorporate the fuel firing equipment into the boiler system. Fuel Flexibility ALSTOM can design, manufacture and construct a power boiler for essentially any fuel, from multiple grades of coal, to oil and natural gas, to heavy residues, to biomass and industrial wastes. We have extensive design and operating experience with boilers burning the worlds range of coals, including anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite fuels, as well as peat. We are an acknowledged leader in the supply of brown coal fired boilers with over 25 GW of installed capacity.

Our expertise extends to other lowquality fuels, including waste products such as petroleum coke and paper mill by-products. Fuel Preparation Pulverizers Most solid fuels must be prepared for combustion by being either pulverized for suspension firing, or crushed for fluidized bed firing. We have experience in the design of fuel preparation systems for virtually any kind of solid fuel. ALSTOM introduced the bowl mill design to the industry and has continued to advance these designs with our latest series of HP pulverizers. Our ball tube (double ended or single inlet/outlet)

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Advanced Physical Flow Modeling and Computer Modeling

designs are well suited for hard-togrind and erosive fuels, while our beater wheel mills are ideally suited for lignites and brown coal. We offer milling capacities that range from 15 to 200 tons per hour per pulverizer to complement boilers up to 1000 MW or more. Firing Systems ALSTOM provides a full range of suspension firing and fluidized bed technologies. The selection of the optimum firing system is related to the physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel, local environmental

regulations, and customer operating preference. With our range of firing system technologies, ALSTOM can provide you with an optimized solution for your fuel and site requirements whether you choose suspension or fluidized bed firing. Development for the Future Our world class fuel scientists, in cooperation with our boiler designers, continue to advance our knowledge of combustion science and system design. With the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for furnace

modeling and other advanced analytical methods, complex combustion chemistry can be understood for all fuels, leading to designs with lower emissions as well as efficient combustion.

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Firing Systems Choices for Reliable, Efficient Combustion


Full Range of Suspension Firing Systems

Tilting Tangential Firing

Suspension Firing Systems ALSTOMs suspension firing systems include tangential and W-flame firing patterns in both direct- and indirect-fired fashion. In suspension firing, the residence time of the fuel in the furnace is relatively short and fuel particles are not recirculated. Tangential Firing ALSTOM introduced tangential firing systems to the industry. In tangential firing, the unique rotating flame envelope ensures thorough mixing within the furnace,

providing complete combustion and uniform heat distribution. A feature specific to tangentially fired boilers is the option to regulate furnace heat absorption (for steam temperature control) by tilting the fuel and air nozzle assemblies up or down automatically. Superheat and reheat temperatures are thus controlled with minimal heat rate impact. Low NOx Firing Systems Tangential firings even-burning characteristics, lower peak flame temperature and natural staging of

the fuel and air help minimize NOx formation. With many regions imposing increasingly more strict NOx emission limitations, ALSTOM has developed a family of low NOx tangential and wall-fired burner systems to meet specific project emissions requirements. These advanced low NOx burners utilize various fuel nozzle designs and arrangements, including single or multiple over-fire air levels for maximum flexibility. Our low NOx firing systems utilizing tangential firing maintain stable low NOx combustion during

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RSFC Flame

Low NOx Tangential Firing

W-Shaped Vertical Pulverized-Coal Flame

high turndown (low load) operation, minimizing the use of costly support fuel. Where additional NOx reduction is required, ALSTOM can incorporate post-combustion techniques utilizing either non-catalytic or catalytic reduction technologies. Our ability to optimize control of NOx emissions by both combustion modification (firing system design) and postcombustion techniques provides cost-effective emission control.

Other Firing Systems ALSTOM also has considerable experience in the supply of other fuel-specific firing systems, including W-flame technology, which efficiently burns anthracite and other low volatile fuels. Combining our double arch furnace design with down-shot firing burners results in a W-shaped flame that provides sufficient residence time for these low volatile fuels. For high moisture coals and lignites, ALSTOM uses an integrated milling and tangential firing system. The tangential

firing system. The tangential arrangement provides excellent ignition and flame stability. For drying the fuel, hot flue gases are recirculated from the upper furnace to the beater wheel mill. NOx control is achieved by air staging. For lower ranks of lignite and for very tight NOx requirements, a reburning approach can be provided. ALSTOM is committed to continuing the development of firing systems that further reduce emission levels while retaining high levels of availability and combustion efficiency.

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Firing Systems Choices for Reliable, Efficient Combustion

F l u i d i z e d B e d Te c h n o l o g y

Tamuin, Mexico 2130 MW CFB

Fluidized Bed Technology ALSTOMs fluidized bed designs present an environmentally attractive alternative to conventional suspension fired boilers. In fluidized bed combustion, fuel is burned in a bed of hot, non-combustible solids suspended in an upward flow of air. Fuel residence time is longer in a fluidized bed than in suspension firing, as unburned fuel is captured and recirculated for further combustion. Environmentally Friendly Designs Sulfur Dioxide Control One major advantage of fluidized bed technology is the ability to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) and

nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions without the use of additional pollution control equipment. In a fluidized bed, fuel and sorbent are fed into the furnace. The sorbent typically a fine-grained limestone reacts with the sulfur dioxide released from burning the fuel to form a solid calcium sulfate. Spent sorbent and ash are removed through drains at the bottom of the unit. Depending on the characteristics of the fuel and sorbent, SO2 capture levels in a fluidized bed can range as high as 95% 98%. For extremely high sulfur fuels or where local SO2 emission limits require a higher removal level, a polishing dry flue gas desulfurization system can be added to achieve sulfur capture as

high as 98% or higher. These polishing systems have the added advantage of reducing limestone consumption for high levels of sulfur capture. NOx Control Fluidized bed boilers operate at significantly lower temperatures (1550 1650 F/850 900 C). These lower combustion temperatures, combined with staging of combustion air, result in NOx emission levels from a fluidized bed which often meet environmental standards without further controls. If necessary, post-combustion NOx control such as Selective NonCatalytic Reduction (SNCR) can be incorporated to further reduce NOx emissions.

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High Efficiency Cyclone

Berrenrath, Germany 280 MW CFBs

Fuel Flexibility No other fossil-fuel combustion technology can match the degree of fuel flexibility offered by ALSTOM fluidized bed combustion boilers. Because fluidized beds operate below ash softening temperatures, they are less sensitive to fuel ash characteristics. In addition to traditional utility fuels such as coal and lignite, fluidized bed technology is effective in burning so-called opportunity fuels including coal wastes, petroleum coke, industry by-products and biomass. Range of Designs Fuel and output requirements differ with each application. Therefore,

we offer a portfolio of efficient and proven fluidized bed designs to meet your precise applications. For small utility and process power plants ranging in size from 10 to about 40 MW, ALSTOM offers its FI CIRC fluidized bed boiler design. It provides high efficiency sulfur capture with relatively low limestone usage. For utility-scale applications 50 MW and above, we offer a family of designs tailored to fuel and other customer specifications. The typical ALSTOM offering is a circulating fluidized bed open-furnace design for units up to

approximately 300 MW, with the option of a pant-leg design for units 300 MW or larger. In addition to efficiently burning a range of fuels while achieving low emission rates, ALSTOM fluidized bed systems are designed to meet your cycling and dispatch requirements.

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Steam

Generator

Designs Every

for

Application

Built-in Flexibility for Enhanced Efficiency


NATURAL CIRCULATION CONTROLLED CIRCULATION ONCE THROUGH

Superheater (SH)

Superheater (SH)

Superheater (SH)

Steam Drum Furnace Water Walls Evaporator Down Comer Furnace Water Walls Evaporator

Steam Drum Down Comer BWCP (Boiler Water Circulation Pump) Water Wall Tubes Evaporator

Steam Separator

Economizer Economizer Feedwater Pump Feedwater Pump

Start Up Circulation Pump Isolating Valve

Controlled Circulation Steam Generator Two-Pass Configuration

Feedwater Pump

SH Surface

Saturated Fluid

Sub-Cooled Fluid

Circulation Design Types

Full Range of Circulation Designs With an established track record of dependable cost-effective performance, ALSTOM steam generator designs allow todays power plants to operate in base load or cycling modes, while fulfilling the most difficult environmental and efficiency standards. Circulation Systems ALSTOM supplies both recirculated and once-through furnace wall circulation systems. Recirculated systems utilize a steam drum to separate steam from the heated furnace wall fluid and allow water to be returned to the furnace walls for additional heating. In a once-through design, there is no recirculation of water within the unit. All water is converted to steam prior to exiting the

furnace walls; hence, no steam drum. The selection depends on pressure, unit size, planned operating mode and customer preference. For all steam circulation systems, ALSTOM offers designs that can be operated in constant pressure, partial sliding pressure, or full sliding pressure modes. Recirculated Systems Natural Circulation Natural, or thermal circulation, boilers rely on the steam water density difference to produce circulation within the furnace walls. Natural circulation is best suited for CFBs of all sizes and for smaller conventional boilers, typically less than 300 MW. For larger

conventional boilers with steam drums, Controlled Circulation is the superior technology. Controlled Circulation ALSTOMs Controlled Circulation units incorporate pumps into the furnace waterwall circuit. These designs are particularly effective for higher subcritical pressures where less thermal circulation driving force is available. Controlled Circulation designs ensure effective cooling within the furnace walls under all operating conditions, permitting the use of smaller and thinner tubes. Design benefits include rapid load response, rapid maintenance access and the ability to meet any available turbine startup rate.

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Basic Principle of Spiral Wall Furnace

Straight Tube Wall vs. Spiral Tube Wall

Supercritical Steam Generator Tower Configuration

Both natural and Controlled Circulation units operate at subcritical steam pressures. Once-through Circulation ALSTOM provides both subcritical and supercritical once-through boiler designs. Supercritical steam cycles offer significant advantages to todays power plant owners. These higher efficiency cycles translate into fuel cost savings and lower emissions per kWhr generated. With the demand for more rapid response to load changes, our current supercritical units are being designed to operate in sliding pressure mode, which maximizes efficiencies at all loads. Other advantages to sliding pressure

include lower average stresses on pressure parts and the steam turbine, thus increasing their lifetime; faster startup; load swing capabilities; and improved range of steam temperature control. ALSTOM has supplied large suspension fired, supercritical boilers up to 1000+ MW. Our extensive experience includes the most advanced steam cycle characteristics. In addition, we are supporting new material R&D to extend our designs to higher pressures and temperatures. For the ultimate in design flexibility, ALSTOM offers both spiral wound and vertical furnace arrangements for sliding pressure supercritical applications.

Boiler Configuration ALSTOM provides both tower and two-pass configuration boiler designs. In a tower design, all upper furnace heating surfaces are contained in a single vertical configuration within the furnace bounding walls. Two-pass is a shorter design, incorporating heating surface in the radiant section of the furnace and in a parallel backpass. The selection of boiler configuration is project-specific, with consideration given to fuel ash characteristics, site restrictions and customer preference.

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Global

Organization

Providing Solutions

Integrated
A Full Service Provider

Ljungstrom Air Preheater

Electrostatic Precipitator

A Global Organization Providing Integrated Solutions As demand for energy continues to grow, ALSTOM offers a global organization that combines international experience, proven engineering leadership, and advanced boiler technologies. Our energy solutions are generating billions of kilowatt hours each year throughout the world. Our ongoing research and development efforts continue to focus on new state-of-the-art materials and systems to help you reduce cost, increase boiler availability, boost your plants economic performance and reduce environmental emissions. We want to improve your competitiveness!

Full-scope Capabilities ALSTOM has full scope capabilities to design, manufacture, install and commission your boiler selection through our international network of manufacturing facilities, licensees and joint ventures. These are strategically located to provide our customers with products manufactured to our exacting quality standards at the lowest cost and in the shortest possible timeframe. ALSTOM designs and supplies complete boiler auxiliaries, including pulverizers, air heaters, ash systems and control systems, as well as a full complement of environmental control systems. We stand behind the products we supply with a service organization skilled in boiler upgrades and modifications. We offer component

retrofit, spare parts, full-scale boiler rehabilitation, and technical support for all our boiler systems, around the clock, wherever you are. From a single component to a turnkey power plant, ALSTOM solutions are custom-designed around you. Flexibility and Responsibility Our flexibility in steam generation knows no limits. Our global company structure and processes enable us to act flexibly to market changes. ALSTOM is also a responsible company: towards society, the environment and our employees, who are our greatest resource. We deliver our global expertise to our customers. Be assured: we can provide an appropriate solution for every specific need ... because ALSTOM is your Full Service Provider in power generation.

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ALSTOMs Commitment to Quality Our common goal is to integrate quality into all aspects of our business. Responsibility for system and product quality, employee occupational health and safety plus environmental protection is not delegated. Each Power Sector employee is accountable for continually improving upon the work that they do. Managers are responsible for creating the environment where this can occur. We define quality as always meeting our customers service, performance and technical expectations. We measure quality in terms of customer satisfaction. We commit to: Continually improving our performance through rigorous analysis of customer feedback, rigorous analysis of internal data and by implementing appropriate improvement and preventative actions. Fulfilling our obligations to society and fostering an open dialogue with customers, our people, our suppliers and the public.

Ref: PWER/BGENE/WLCT/uke/BUB/12.01/USA/2851 ALSTOM 2001. ALSTOM, the ALSTOM logo and any alternative version thereof are trademarks and service marks of ALSTOM. The other names

For further information, please contact our Marketing Department at: e-mail: Boiler.Marketing@power.alstom.com Phone: (01) (860) 285 9949 Fax: (01) (860) 285 5676 Or one of our lead center Sales Offices listed below: ALSTOM Power Boilers 19/21, avenue Morane-Saulnier BP 74 78141 Vlizy, Cedex France Tel: 33 (0)1 34 65 46 39 Fax: 33 (0)1 34 65 42 12 ALSTOM Power Boilers 2000 Day Hill Road Windsor, CT 06095 USA Tel: (01) (860) 285 9765 Fax: (01) (860) 285 9016 www.power.alstom.com ALSTOM Power Boilers Augsburger Strasse 712 D-70329 Stuttgart, Germany Tel: 49 (0) 711 917 1269 Fax: 49 (0) 711 917 1222

mentioned, registered or not, are the property of their respective companies. Photograph on page 10 is the property of Reliant Energy, Inc.