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Torque and Power Limitations of Variable Speed Wind Turbines Using Pitch Control and Generator Power Control

N, Horiuchi
Takamatsu National College of Technology 355 Chokushi-cho,Takamatsu City, 761-8058 Japan Variable speed operation of wind turbines has the Abstract: potential to increase energy capture and reduce fatigue damage, with fixed speed operation. Cage induction comparing generators with their brush-less and rigid structure are at present widely used for tixed speed wind systems. To make the cage induction generators widely used also at variable speed systems, proper control strategies should be developed as well as the development of low cost and reliable power electronic devices. At high wind speeds, as is conventional fixed speed system, it is very important to limit the variable speed system to its ratings without mechanical and electrical stresses induced by wind gusts and/or control process. This paper introduces a configuration of variable speed system which includes a pitch controllable horizontal axis wind turbine, a cage induction generator, a PWM (pulse width modulation) converter and a PWM inverter, the last one being connected to utility grid. Also, the paper proposes and investigates a class of control strategies for limiting the system to its ratings, from the view point of avoiding axial torque andlor generator power fluctuations induced by wind gusts and control errors. The class adopts parallel operation of pitch angle control and electrical power control. The pitch control aims at limiting turbine rotational speed, while generator power control aims at eliminating torque and/or power fluctuations. Simulation results in time domain are presented to verify the effectiveness of the class of controls. Index Terms: Cage induction generator, pitch control, power control, PWM converter, PWM inverter, variable speed, V/f control, wind turbine.

T. Kawahito

and limiting power [2], [6], [7]. For both of maximizing power at medium wind speeds and limiting power at high wind speeds, it is very important to consider that the control strategy should avoid torque surges at drive train in the presence of wind turbulence and control error. To avoid axial torque surges in limiting power, it is a necessary consideration to absorb aerodynamic torque surge of turbine by its intrinsic large moment of inertia. However, little preceding works seem to have adopted the consideration in exploring control strategies. This paper offers a class of control strategies in accordance with the consideration, especially in aerodynamic power limiting region. The system configuration studied in this paper includes cage induction generator, Cage induction generators, owing to their rigid and brush-less structure, accordingly to their maintenance freeness, are widely used in fixed speed systems. Using this type of generators in variable speed systems requires additional high capacity power electronic devices for power transmission from its variable frequency output to constant frequency utility grid. Nevertheless, recent developments in power electronics and semiconductor devices will make cage induction generators widely used with admissible total cost. II. DISCUSSION OF CONTROL STRATEGIES In this chapter, we present a class of control strategies and discuss their features. In Fig. 1, pwl - pW4 represents wind turbines aerodynamic speed, and thick line output . * power produced by each given wind PG denotes reference for generator

I. INTRODUCTION Worldwide wind turbine generators(WTGs) are operating mostly on constant speed operation scheme. The main reason is the simplicity of their scheme that it does not need frequency conversion of power from generators to utility grid. Recently, variable speed operation of wind turbines is becoming to be noticed of its advantage as: 1) More energy capture by optimum speed operation of wind turbine. 2) Less mechanical fatigue at drive train and less power fluctuation to utility grid, due to the fact that: aerodynamic energy surge to wind turbine induced by wind turbulence is possibly stored as kinetic energy in the turbines moment of inertia, not being directly conducted to drive train. Recent works on control strategies for variable speed WTGS have been addressed to maximizing power [1]-[5],

rotor

speed

Om

m R

Fig.1. Aerodynamic power and output reference versus rotor speed

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The reference

pG* is produced by observing rotor speed

(deg), with co~ and PG by per unit (p.u.) expression. Between rated and shut down wind speeds (note that the shut down wind speed is practically about the double of the rated one), constant electrical output will be gained with d = O (deg), or constant torque will be gained with 19=45 (deg), even when rotor speed control error extends to some range. III. CONTROL SCHEME AND SYSTEM EQUATIONS Fig.2 shows a configuration of the variable speed WTG which we will investigate. A V/f PWM converter connected to PWM inverter via a dc link provides variable frequency and variable voltage excitation of a cage induction generator which is driven by a wind turbine, extracting electrical power from the generator and supplying the power to the dc link. The PWM inverter can transfer the power from the dc link to power grid with power factor of 1.0 [9].
Cage Wmd Induction Vlf PWM PWM
lrwerwr

m QmR and PGR denote rated rotor speed and generator output respectively. k ~ the region where Um < f2mR, the control Strategy such that:
Set PG* to tKtCe

maximum power points of wind

turbine such as PI,, pz,

P3 with the blade pitch angle fixed

at its optimum value. The curve which traces the maximum power points can be expressed as a function of o)~ and it is proportional to the cube of Om [5], [8]. Accordingly, we set pG* as

PG* = cpg
where

m:

(1)

Cpg is a power control coefficient. between pG* and

If the generator power is instantly controlled to be equal to


PG*

with

given

Corn, the difference

aerodynamic power PW causes acceleration or deceleration of the wind turbine, and the rotor speed moves to equilibrium points such as PI -- P3 . When wind speed imxeases to exceed its rating, the aerodynamic power curve is as pW4 in Fig.1. The equilibrium point is P4 and hence reducing power aerodynamic is the

Powe Grid

=,

Converter

Wind -

-o
1 [0 ~ 1 PG e

power is necessary. The region where power limiting region. Aerodynamic reduced by controlling gradient angle ofp~

co~ > ~~R

d/
Power Reference *

PW should be

PC
-+EE!zEE1

the pitch angle, Here, we set the to a constant value 0 , as shown in


Fig.2 System configuration of variable speed WTG

Fig. L If the cage induction generator is excited at the point by constant frequency of voltage, the angle 0 is nearly equal to 90 (deg). In this case, the turbine operates at almost fixed speed ;f near rated speed ~mR, because of small slip of the generator. This situation should be avoided since: 1) Aerodynamic wind power is directly applied to drive axis, causing severe torque and output surge with wind turbulence, because acceleration or deceleration of the wind turbine cannot be expected as much. 2) Very high speed of blade pitch angle control is necessary andlor mechanical compliance and damping at drive train is necessary to avoid the surges. Therefore we recommend the angle 6 at some value below 90 (deg), where electrical power control of the generator is possible by varying the exciting frequency. Then aerodynamic power can be controlled by controlling the blade pitch angle with the control objective: regulate rotor speed at some value somewhat above the rated value ~~R. Electrical power ccmtrol of the cage induction generator using power converter is substantially fast and exact to get desired generator power, hence it becomes possible to store the transient aerodynamic energy into the turbines kinetic energy. Here we especially propose the angle d: OS 8 S 4.5

A. Control Scheme for Electrical Power control


Here we will introduce a control scheme for electrical power control. Electrical power will be tracked to the reference

pG* by controlling exciting frequency


generator. The command

coe for the

cage induction

CO.* to the V/f

PWM converter for me is given as * m~ i- #m e where m~ is the command for slip frequency

(2) cv~, and

cv~ is given by PI control scheme as *


(.v~ =

c(@(pG*- p~)

(3) (4)

C(D)=KP where

D denotes differential operator, and KP and TL

()
1+*

denote control parameters.

B. Control Scheme for Mechanical Speed Control

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in power limiting region where Speed regulation con >~@wi]] be implemented by controlling blade pitch angle ~. The command P* tothepitch regulator for P is

PG

-v?Re[%

1
a, b . Complex
admittance

(13)
G, and

where through

Re [ G ] denotes real part of complex number


the terminals l+Ymzr r
21. Zr 1s m

YG denotes admittance looking into the equivalent given as y<; = with 2, =Rr/S+

circuit YG is

given by PID control scheme as P = -CP(D)(%LI - @m)

(5)

(14)

where

Clmu is the reference for the regulation which we set

at a value somewhat greater than the rated rotor speed, and K PP T@ Tdp and y denote control parameters. C. System Equations

j@eLr, 21. =R, + jcoeL. ,


S =(mecon)lme (15)

Ym =l/Rn+l/(jcveLm),

By further analysis of YG in (14), one can see that: if slip S is negative (that is On > coe), Re [Yc ] is negative, and hence PG in (13) is positive. Generator input torque tG is given by (16) where
PM denotes mechanical input power to the generator,

The aerodynamic torque TW produced by wind turbine is


generally expressed as [10]

TW= 0.5p7rRW3C~ (A,j?)VW2


where speed, CT denotes torque coefficient of wind turbine,

(7)
2 is and the rotor current Ir is given by

p is air density, RW is radius of rotor, VW is wind

tip speed ratio, and ~ denotes pitch angle. Note that the tip speed ratio 2 is defined as 2 = RW!QW /VW where f2W denotes rotor speed of the turbine. Torque equation is expressed as

I,=(8)

V, z, +2, +z,z[,Ym

(17)

The transfer functions of the V/f PWM converter and the pitch regulator with rate limiter are assumed to be of first order as given in the appendix.

(9)
where and JW and generator JG denote the moment lG of inertia of turbine torque,

respectively, speed , and

is generator

input

ClG is generator

GW is gear ratio given by (lo)

GW=QG/QW

~o

Here, we transform equation (9) to torque equation per one electrical phase of 3-phase induction generator and that is

Rm, R,, R, :magnetizing, stator and rotor resistance, Lm, L8, Lr :magnetizing, stator, and rotor inductance, V~:stator voltage, 1, , 1, :stator and rotor current, S :slip Fig.3 Equivalent circuit of induction generator referred to stator

d t we = ,JW, mm dt
where twe and

+tG

(11) torque

tc denote the turbine aerodynamic

and generator input torque respectively, and JWe is moment constants are expressed as com= Npfd(; , twe=Tw/(3Gw)
Jwe = ~3NP

On is rotor speed, IV. SIMULATION AND ITS RESULTS We performed simulation to test the control strategies. Descriptions and results will be shown in p.u, (per unit) expression. The scale of the tested system, the base quantities, system and control parameters are shown in the appendix. We tested three strategies of (3=0, 45 and 90 (deg). The control method in power maximizing region (con < ~mR ) is common for all of the three strategies. In the region, only electrical power control is performed as described in 111.A. The difference exists in power limiting region. The strategies in the region are summarized as follows. 1) System with 8 =90 (deg)

of inertia. Note these variables and


, tG =TG 13,

where

NP is number of pole pairs of the generator.

[1
+JG GW2

Jw

(12)

Since the dynamics of the system is not very fast, we use input tOrqUC. tG steady state approach to obtain gtXK3MtOr arrd electrical output p ~ . Steady state equivalent circuit per phase of the generator is shown in F1g.3. Electrical output p~ is given by

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In this system, upper limit of exciting frequency fixed


tO ~mR .

Oe is power

is evident. When

8 =90 (deg),

Om is limited to about 1.0

When

Ue = Cl~R,

electrical

(p.u.), but the peak of PG reaches up to about 1.73 (p.u.). When @=45 (deg), Pfj extends to about 1.03 (p.u.) and

control is suspended and instead, pitch control begins and keeps its operation for purpose of generator power regulation. Equation (5) for speed control is replaced by ~ = Cp (~)(pGu for objective - %) control, where CP (D) (18) was

Um extends to about 1.18 (p.u.)

of power

previously given in (6), and for regulation.

PGU denotes the reference in CP (D) was


0.5 F -i

The control parameters

empirically determined by simulation and, as a result, we found that there were no significant differences in the control parameters of (5) and (18). 2) System with O =:0 or 45 (deg) The control methods were previously described in 111.A and B. Note that the exciting frequency cog is enabled to vary crossing over ~@. Simulated time responses are shown in Fig.4 and Fig.5. The input wind speed is shown in Fig.4 (a), which was generated by computer simulation [11] with 10-minute mean velocity of 1 (p.u.) (13m/s) and the root mean square of fluctuating component of 0.3 (p.u.). The wind profile may seem to be very severe compared with those at practical turbine sites, consequently the simulation results may show distinctive natures among the strategies. Time responses of the systems with O and 90 (deg) are shown in Fig.4 (b)-(d). Generator output PC and input torque tG in the case of 9 =90 (deg) are observed With 6=0 (deg):
with large fluctuations. ~

10

15 time (s)

20

25

30

(a) simulated wind speed


1 1 I

1.5

. .......

p lzl <

.
0.5 -

~=goo e= (J. ,$.

:1 , ;~ ,

kLwAJ
o
5

10

15

20

25

30

time (s)
(b) generator output
I

1.5 q s 61 Q - 0.5 0 0

I ,,,

I \,

,!

PG has long periods of

:: ::,

. ,,

constant value of 0.87 (p.u.) which is substantially equal to its rating (0.86 p.u.); maximum input torque tG was 0.907 (p.u.) and substantially limited to its rating of 0.905 (p.u.); both PG and tG change very slowly. Fig.4 (d) shows the rotor speed. With 19=90 (deg), the maximum of rotor speed was 1.02 @u.) which is substantially equal to its rated value of 1.0 (p.u.). With O =0 (deg), the rotor speed reached up to 1.20 (p.u.), exceeding its rating of 1.0 (p.u.). Flg,5 shows the results of the simulation with 0 =45 (deg ) and again with 6=0 (deg) for the sake of comparison. The time response of rotor speed arm with d =45 (deg) was very similar to that with 19=0 (deg). So one can refer for it to the result with 6=0 (deg) which is shown in Fig.4 (d). As shown in Fig.5 (a), with O =45 (deg), the power PG fluctuates up to 1.03 (p.u.); whereas, the torque tG in Fig.5(b) has long periods of constant value which is 0.923 (P.u.), exceeding its rating by 2 (%). Fig.6 shows locus of PG with mm during the 30 seconds of the simulation for 0 =90 and 45 (deg). In the region where am < 1.() (p.u.), we can see that the electrical power control has no substantial errors in the two graphs. In the region where ton >1.0 (p.u.), difference between the two

10

15

20

25

30

time (s) (c) generator input torque


1

&
E

.,

30L!2!!_J
o 10
20 30

time (s) (d) Rotor speed


Fig.4 Time response by simulation with $=0 and 90 (deg)

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!o;~,~-~y
o 5 20 25 30

n ~

-----..Lr
time (s)
(a) generator output

a ~ 0.5

(3.45 &oo

relation is not preferable, since it will cause severe torque and power fluctuations, although turbine speed limitation is precisely achieved. On the contrary, by permitting rotor speed to vary crossing over its rated speed, constant generator power or constant axial torque can be attained at over rating wind speeds. For the preference of constant torque or constant power, the authors propose now to adopt the constant torque strategy, since power fluctuations from each of adjacent wind plants can be integrated in the power grid, accordingly total fluctuations will be averaged and reduced, or by providing temporary storage devices such as large capacitors, inductors or fly wheels, the power fluctuations will be absorbed. But the torque fluctuations can by no means be absorbed at any places except the turbine site itself. Constant torque will reduce mechanical loads at drive train, and it may contribute to make the system life longer. VI. APPENDIX

10

15

20

25

30

time (s)

A. System Parameters
The values of most system parameters of our model were chosen referring to a fixed speed WTG at Tappi Wind Park (in Aomori prefecture, Japan) with rated output of 275 (kW), rated wind speed of 13 (m/s), and 3-blade turbine rotor radius of 14 (m). 1) Base quantities Base wind velocity: 13(m/s). Base system power: 320(kW) Base generator rotor speed: 50z (rad/s). Base generator input torque: 2.04 (kNm) Base turbine rotor speed: 507r /34.3 (rad/s) with gear ratio of 34.3. Base turbine output torque: 2.04 .34.3 (kNm) Base impedance of the generator: 0.50(Q). Base electrical frequency: 27r. 50 (rad/s). Base phase power : 320/3 (kW). Base phase torque: 2.04/3 (kNm) 2) Wind turbine Maximum output power with wind speed of 1 (p.u.):1.O (p.u.), obtained at rotor speed of 1 (p.u.) and with optimum pitch angle. Moment of inertia .TWe : 4.0(s), note that the quantity should be expressed in second with p.u. expression. 3) Generator constants The generator is 3-phase cage induction generator with 4 poles, 320 (kVA) and its rated output is 275(kW). Rated rotor speed: 1.0 (p.u.). Rated output: 0.86 (p.u.). Rated torque: 0.905 (p.u.). Equivalent circuit constants (p.u.): R, =0.00794, R, =0.00886, L, =0.0754, L, =0.107,
Lm =2.64,

(b) generator input torque Fig.5 Time response by simulation with @= O and 45 (deg).

2
~ & u q 0.5 0 D o 1.5

0.5 1 Com(p<u.)
(b) ~ =45 (dcg)

(a) 6 =90

(deg)

Fig.6 Locus of output with rotor speed By observing Fig.4 to Fig.6, we can summarize as follows: with 6 =90 (deg), speed limitation is perfect but the system suffers severe torque and power fluctuations; with 0 =0 (deg), power limitation is perfect, torque is substantially limited but it always fluctuates, and speed limitation is not perfect; with O =45 (deg), torque limitation is perfect but both speed and power limitations are not perfect. V. CONCLUSIONS This paper presented candidates of strategies for limiting aerodynamic wind power in a variable speed wind system which included a cage induction generator and a pitch controllable wind turbine. The purpose of the research was to find a desirable control scheme which might not cause severe mechanical loads to drive train and electrical loads to power grid in executing th e limitation of aerodynamic power. The system behaviors of the strategies were studied by simulation and the conclusion is: A steep inclination of generator output versus rotor speed

Rm =35.3

4) Pitch regulator First order system with gain of 1 and time constant of 0.12 (s) \ ./ and with rate limiter of + 10 (deds).
/

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5) V/f PWM converter First order system with gain of 1 and time constant of 0.10
(s) . The ratio V/f was set as V, /0, =1.0 (p.u.) in normal operation and the ratio was reduced in starting operation.

B. Control Parameters
PI or PID control parameters were empirically tested by simulation and acljusted to values which seemed to be optimal. Constants for reference signals (p.u.): f.lm~ = 1.0, !2m~ =1.05, P~~ = 0.86, P~~ = 0.86x ]..05 , Cpg = 0.86 Power control PI parameters (p.u.): Kp =1.0, ~ =0.1 (s) Pitch control PID parameters (p.u.): KPP =50 (deg/p.u.), ~P =().5 (s), TdP =0.8 (s), y =5 VII. REFERENCES
[1] M.G. Simoes, B.K. Bose, and R.J. Spiegel, Design and Performance Evaluation of a Fuzzy Logic Based Variable Speed Wind Generation
System, Conference Record of the IEEE Industrial Applications Conference, VO1.1996, No. VOL1, 1996, pp.349-356 [2] A. Miller, E. Muljadi, and D.S. Zinger, A Variable Speed Wind Turbine Power Controf, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, VO1.12, No.2, June 1997, pp.181-186 [3] A.S. Neris, N.A. Vovos, and G.B.Giannakrpoulos, A Variable Speed Wind Energy Conversion Scheme for Connection to Weak AC Systems, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion, VO1.14,No.l,March 1999, pp.122-127 [4] R. Chedid, F. Mind, and M. Basma, Intelligent Control of a Class of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion,

VOM4, No.4, Dec. 1999, pp.1597-1604 [5] Y.D. Song and B. Dhinakamn, Nonlinear Variable Speed Control of Wind Turbines, Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Control. Appl., VO1.1999, No. VO1.1 1999, pp.814-819 [6] R. Cardenas, G.M. Asher, W.F. Ray, and R. Penar, Power Limitation in Variable Speed Wind Turbines with Fixed Pitch Angle, IEE Conf. PubI., No.419, 1996 pp.44-48 [7] E. Muljadi and C.P. Butterfield, Pitch Controlled Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generation, Conference Record of the IEEE Industrial Applications Conference, VOI.1999, No. VOI.1 1999, pp.323-330 [8] H.R. Bolton and V.C. Nicodemou, Operation of Self-Exited Generators for Windmill application, Proc. IEE, VOL126, No.9, 1979, pp.815-820 [9] R. Jones and G. Smith, High flrality Mains Power from Variable Speed Wind Turbines, Wind Engineering, VO1.18,No.1, 1994, pp.45-50 [10] S. Heier, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, John Wiley & Sons, 1998 [11] T. Knudsen, A Stochastic Wind Model Covering Periods Ranging from a Fortnight to a Second, Wind Engineering, VO1.14,No.6, 1990, pp.387-404

VIII. BIOGRAPHIES
Norimichi Horisrchi was born in Okayama, Japan, on May 22, 1946. He received the M.E. degree in 1972 from Fukuoka University. He joined TOSHIBA Cooperation, Tokyo, Japan in 1972, where he worked for design of industrial applications of motors. Since 1993, he has been with Takamatsu National College of Technology, where he is a Research Associate. He has been engaged in research on variable speed wind power systems. Mr. Horiuchi is a member of the Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan (IEEJ) and the Society of Instrument and Control Engineers (SICE). Takashi Kawahito was born in Tokushima, Japan, on May 17, 1939. He received the B,E. degree in 1962 and the D.E. degree in 1994 from The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan. He joined Fujitsu, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan in 1962, where he worked for designing telephone exchange systems. Since 1974, he has been with Takamatsu National College of Technology, where he is presently a Professor. He has been entydged in research on wind power systems. Dr. Kawahito is a member of IEEJ and Japan Wind Energy Association (JWEA)

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