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Which rope for my crane?

Which rope for my crane?

Ropes with fibre core, full steel ropes ................................................................ 2


...or ropes made out of steel and plastic? .......................................................... 3
Regular lay or langs lay ropes? ......................................................................... 4
Left hand lay or right hand lay ropes?............................................................... 5
Rotation- resistant ropes, yes or no? ................................................................. 6
Compacting, tensile strength and galvanizing ................................................... 7
The right rope for telescopic cranes................................................................... 8
The right rope for lattice boom cranes ............................................................... 9
The right rope for tower cranes ....................................................................... 10
The right rope for revolving grab cranes .......................................................... 11
The right rope for gantry grab cranes .............................................................. 12
The right rope for mobile quay cranes ............................................................. 13
The right rope for general cargo cranes ........................................................... 14
The right rope for coal- and iron unloaders ..................................................... 15
The right rope for container gantry cranes ...................................................... 16
The right rope for ladle cranes ........................................................................ 17
The right rope for floating grab cranes ............................................................ 18
The right rope for electric hoists ..................................................................... 19

Text: Ing.-Bro fr Frdertechnik, Aachen


Realisation: PR GmbH, Werbeagentur & Verlag, Aachen
1993, 1995 Casar Drahtseilwerk Saar GmbH, Casarstrae 1, D-66459 Kirkel
Special thanks to Marc Sparrow

R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

Ropes with fibre core, full steel ropes ...

Rope with fibre core

Rope with independent


wire rope core

The most simple wire ropes are manufactured by closing steel strands around
a central fibre core. In a new rope the
fibre core acts as an elastic bed for the
outer strands and as a reservoir for the
rope's lubricant. When subjected to high
dynamic loads the fibre core is compressed and the rope is lengthened considerably, thereby reducing high peak
loading.

ibility and the compact structure of the


rope guarantee excellent geometric stability. The higher metallic area of full steel
ropes causes a lower specific tension
when subjected to the same loads. This
provides much better service life.

However, with increased service time


these advantages can rapidly turn into
disadvantages. The lubricant is squeezed
from the fibre and replaced by water from
the atmosphere. The rope's basic geometry is also changed as the stability of the
fibre core reduces with time. The fibre
core reduces in diameter, leading to
strand- to strand contact and to early
rope deterioration. Especially under high
radial forces which occur, for example,
in multiple layer spooling, the geometry
of ropes with fibre core is not sufficiently
stable.
In such a situation full steel ropes have
great advantages. Their low compress-

Full steel wire ropes with independent


wire rope cores do suffer the problem of
extreme crossover. Contact points where
strands of the core cross over in the opposite direction to the outer strands
cause internal damage to the rope.
Double parallel ropes are a special design of full steel rope where the inner and
outer strands lie parallel to one another.
This avoids the extreme crossovers found
in conventional full steel ropes that can
literally saw through strand wires and
bring about premature rope failure.
Because of the unique construction of
Casar double parallel ropes, they can be
manufactured in much denser compositions than conventional types and therefore achieve far higher breaking loads.

R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

... or ropes made out of steel and plastic?


Ropes with a plastic layer between the
steel core and the outer strands combine
the advantages of a fibre core (the soft
bed for the outer strands) with the benefits offered by full steel ropes (high geometric stability, greater metallic area and
high breaking loads). Ropes with plastic
layer are manufactured by taking an independent wire rope core that has been
thoroughly lubricated and coating it with
a plastic layer over which the outer
strands are laid.
The plastic layer forms a custom moulded
cushion layer or a bed for the outer
strands. It fixes the elements of the rope
in relation to each other, acting rather
like a corset which maintains the rope's
stability, even under the highest external forces. The most effective remedy
against birdcaging is to use a Casar rope
with an internal plastic layer.
By sealing the core, the plastic traps lubricant and ensures a maintenance free
core with lifetime lubrication. At the same
time as the plastic seals in lubricant, it
also excludes water and abrasive elements that could penetrate conventional
ropes. Plastic layering also prevents
strand to strand contact and destruction.
The stability of this type of rope also
means that installation is far less problematic, even with langs lay constructions.

Double parallel rope

Rope with internal plastic layer

Under dynamic loads, the plastic layer


acts as a buffer or shock absorber and
reduces peak loading of the rope. Where
large fleet angles occur, increasing the
risk of birdcaging, or where the rope is
stressed by great external forces (e.g.
multiple-layer spooling), or where high
dynamic loadings are likely, a Casar rope
with a plastic coated core is the best possible choice.
R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

Regular lay or langs lay ropes ?

Left hand regular lay rope (zS)

Left hand langs lay rope (sS)


How to recognize a regular lay rope: At the surface of a regular lay rope (zS or sZ), the
outer wires are almost in line with the ropes axis.
For most applications regular lay are more suitable than langs lay ropes. The outer
wires of regular lay ropes break earlier than those of langs lay ropes and as such are
a useful indicator of a rope's condition since the discard criteria can be measured
with more confidence.

Right hand regular lay rope (sZ)

Right hand langs lay rope (zZ)


How to recognize a langs lay rope: At the surface of a langs lay rope (zS or sZ), the
outer wires are inclined in the direction of the lay of the rope and have a distinct
angle to the axis of the rope.
Langs lay ropes are usually used in applications with high dead payloads. A typical
case would be ropes constantly held under high tension by counterweights. Also in
conditions of multi-layer spooling, langs lay ropes outperform regular lay ropes. The
outer wires of neighbouring wraps of regular lay ropes lie parallel to each other and
can therefore form indentations and damage each other. This cannot happen with
langs lay ropes where the outer wires of neighbouring wraps are inclined in different
directions.

R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

Left hand lay or right hand lay ropes?


The choice of the correct direction of a
rope's lay is absolutely vital for the proper
running of a reeving system. Using a left
lay when a right lay should be used (and
vice-versa) will lead to a build-up of
torque that in turn will cause spooling
problems and structural damage to the
rope.

Single layer drum


For drums with only one layer of rope,
the direction of lay of the rope should be
opposite to the direction of the helix on
the drum:

Right hand layer:


Left hand lay rope.
Left hand layer:
Right hand lay rope.
Multiple part reeving
In a multiple part reeving system, the
influence of the fleet angle between the
sheaves is often more important than
that of the drum. In these cases the direction of the lay of the rope should suit
the direction of the reeving:
Right hand reeving:
Left hand lay rope
Left hand reeving:
Right hand lay rope.

Right hand drum:


Left hand lay rope.
Left hand drum:
Right hand lay rope.

Multiple layer drum


When using multiple layer spooling the
direction of the helix changes from layer
to layer. In such cases the direction other
lay of the rope should be selected depending on which layer is used most often:

To determine the direction of the drum


or the reeving, place yourself at the rope's
fixing point on the drum or reeving and
follow with your finger the helix formed
by the rope. If your finger turns clockwise, the drum (or reeving) is right hand
and therefore requires a left lay rope. If
your finger turns anticlockwise, the drum
(or reeving) is left hand and requires a
right hand lay rope.

These four drums are right hand


and require a left hand lay rope.

R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

These four drums are left hand


and require a right hand lay rope.

Rotation- resistant ropes, yes or no?


Single fall operation:
The use of non-rotating ropes is mandatory for the lifting of unguided loads with
a single fall of rope.
Multiple fall operation
Non rotation- resistant ropes achieve a
higher service life than rotation- resistant ropes when operating under identical conditions in multiple falls. Because
of their larger strand diameter, non rotation- resistant ropes are more robust
and have a lower tendency to birdcage
under the twisting forces caused by large
fleet angles.
Providing there are no other special conditions that require the use of rotationresistant ropes, non rotation- resistant
ropes should be used in multiple fall conditions.
Under certain geometric conditions there
is a danger that the falls could cable
whilst under load. This is most likely with
great lifting heights, narrow hook blocks,
or under the influence of additional moments created by wind or the slewing of
the crane. In such a situation, rotationresistant ropes or pairs of left and right
hand lay non rotation- resistant ropes
should be used.
If a crane has been supplied with a rotation- resistant rope by its manufacturer,
then subsequent replacements should always be of rotation- resistant construction. Rotation- resistant ropes should be
used with a swivel, if possible. Non rotation- resistant ropes may not be used with
a swivel.

Rotation- resistant rope

For further information on this topic


please refer to the Casar handbook The
rotation characteristics of steel wire
ropes, available free of charge.
R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

Compacting, tensile strength and galvanizing


Conventional or compacted strands?

Higher or lower tensile strength wire?

Compacted strands are initially stranded


in the same way as regular strands but
are subsequently drawn through a die
tool in order to reduce the strand' s diameter, smoothen its surface and flatten the line of contact between individual
wires.

The choice of the tensile strength of the


wire rope primarily depends on the breaking load required. Ropes made from wires
with a tensile strength of 1770 N/mm
2
and21960 N/mm provide about the same
level of service life when operated under
similar conditions.

Conventional strand

Compacted strand

Ropes made from compacted strands


have much higher breaking loads and are
more flexible compared to those made
from conventional strands. Compacted
strands also make far better contact between the rope surface and the sheaves
they are running over. Furthermore, because of the higher metallic area of their
outer wires, the compacted strands are
far more resistant to abrasion and corrosion. When using wire ropes on multilayer drums, the smoother profile of the
compacted strands ensures that 'nicking' or damage caused by neighbouring
wraps rubbing against each other are
practically impossible. This feature
makes compacted strand ropes the obvious choice for use on multi-layer spooling applications.

Indentation

No indentation

R. Verreet, Which rope for my crane?, 1995

Ropes made from wires of a tensile


2
strength higher than 1960 N/mm should
only be used if the breaking load needed
cannot be achieved by any other means,
such as selecting a rope with a higher
metallic area. Higher metallic areas can
be achieved by using full steel or double
parallel ropes or ropes made out of compacted strands.
Bright or galvanized ropes?
Usually, running ropes are supplied
bright and lubricated. Standing ropes on
the other hand are supplied with a galvanized finish. However, running ropes
can be supplied and used with a galvanized finish and this is particularly useful when a rope is operating in a harsh
or corrosive environment.
It is a popular misconception that galvanized running ropes do not have to be
lubricated. The zinc coating actually only
fulfils one of the two tasks that a lubricant performs: protection against corrosion.
A lubricant's second task: reducing friction between the large number of the
rope's elements running over sheaves,
can only be achieved by the zinc coating
in a very insubstantial way. Although
standing galvanized ropes can be used
without lubricant, a running rope will
have a greatly reduced service life unless it is fully lubricated.

The right rope


Flexible rotation-resistant rope
with a high breaking load and
an excellent service life.

Auxiliary
hoist rope

rotationresistant
Flexible rotation-resistant rope
with a high breaking load and
a long service life.

Flexible rotation-resistant rope


with a high breaking load and
an excellent service life.

Main
hoist rope

rotationresistant
Flexible rotation-resistant rope
with a high breaking load and
a long service life.

Langs lay

Boom
hoist
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Langs lay

Ten strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Holding
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand, double parallel lay


rope formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking
load and low stretch.

* Langs lay execution, especially suitable for multiple layer spooling.

for lattice boom cranes

The right rope


Flexible rotation-resistant rope
with a high breaking load and
an excellent service life.

Auxiliary
hoist rope

rotationresistant
Flexible rotation-resistant rope
with a high breaking load and
a long service life.

Flexible rotation-resistant rope


with a high breaking load and
an excellent service life.

Main
hoist rope

rotationresistant
Flexible rotation-resistant rope
with a high breaking load and
a long service life.

Langs lay

Boom
hoist
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Langs lay

Ten strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Holding
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand, double parallel lay


rope formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking
load and low stretch.

* Langs lay execution, especially suitable for multiple layer spooling.

for lattice boom cranes

The right rope


Hoist
rope

rotationresistant

Flexible rotation-resistant
rope with a high breaking
load and an excellent
service life.

*
Flexible rotation-resistant
rope with a high breaking
load and a long
service life.

Holding
rope

Trolley
rope

non
rotationresistant

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand, double parallel lay


rope formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking
load and low stretch.

Eight strand double parallel lay


rope formed with conventional
strands. Very high breaking load,
great flexibility and low stretch.

Eight strand double parallel lay


rope formed with conventional
strands. Very high breaking load,
great flexibility and low stretch.

Installation
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand double parallel lay


rope formed with conventional
strands. Very high breaking load,
excellent flexibility and low stretch.

Eight strand, double parallel


lay rope formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking
load and low stretch.
* Langs lay execution, especially suitable for multiple layer spooling.

for tower cranes

The right rope


Hoist rope
(Holding rope,
Closing rope)

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Grab
rope

non
rotationresistant

*
Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

*
Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Langs lay

Boom
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Langs lay

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

* Same construction, same diameter and same direction of lay as closing ropes.

for revolving grab cranes

The right rope


Hoist rope
(Holding rope,
Closing rope)

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with conventional strands.
High breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.
*

Grab
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with conventional strands.
High breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.
*

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.
Cblage lang

Boom
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with conventional strands.
High breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.
Cblage lang

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.

Trolley
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with conventional strands.
High breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic


layer formed with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.
* Same construction, same diameter and same direction of lay as closing ropes.

for gantry grab cranes

The right rope


rotationresistant

Cble flexible, avec trs


grande tendance antigiratoire,
charge de rupture suprieure
et longvit excellente.

Cble flexible, avec tendance


antigiratoire optimale, charge
de rupture leve et grande
longvit.

Hoist
rope

non
rotationresistant

Cble robuste 10 torons avec


infiltration plastique et torons
densifis. Trs grande charge
de rupture, grande longvit.

Cble robuste 8 torons avec


infiltration plastique et torons
densifis. Trs grande charge
de rupture, grande longvit.
Langs lay

Boom
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Cble robuste 8 torons avec


infiltration plastique et torons
conventionnels. Charge de
rupture leve, grande longvit.
Langs lay

Cble 8 torons avec infiltration


plastique et torons densifis. Trs
grande charge de rupture, grande
longvit.
Langs lay

Counterweight rope

non
rotationresistant

Cble robuste 8 torons avec


infiltration plastique et torons
conventionnels. Charge de
rupture leve, grande longvit.
Cblage lang

Cble 8 torons avec infiltration


plastique et torons densifis. Trs
grande charge de rupture, grande
longvit.

for mobile quay cranes

The right rope


Flexible rotationresistant rope with
a high breaking load
and an excellent
service life.

Hoist
rope

rotationresistant
Rotation- resistant rope with
internal plastic layer formed
with compacted strands.
Very high breaking load and
excellent structural stability.

Boom
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Langs lay
Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with
conventional strands. High
breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.

Langs lay
Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with
compacted strands. Very high
breaking load and structural
stability. Long service life.

for general cargo cranes

The right rope


Hoist rope
(Holding rope,
Closing rope)

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with conventional strands. High breaking
load and structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with compacted strands. Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Closing
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with conventional strands. High breaking
load and structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with compacted strands. Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.
*

Grab
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with conventional strands. High breaking
load and structural stability. Long service life.
*
Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer
formed with compacted strands. Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Trolley
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with conventional strands. High breaking
load and structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with compacted strands. Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

Boom
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

* Same construction, same diameter and


same direction of lay as closing ropes.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with conventional strands. High breaking
load and structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer


formed with compacted strands. Very high breaking load and structural stability. Long service life.

for coal- and iron unloaders

The right rope

Hoist
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Trolley
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Boom
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

for container gantry cranes

The right rope


*

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Main
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope formed with conventional strands. High breaking


load, long service life and special
high temperature lubrication.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Auxiliary
hoist rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope formed with conventional strands. High breaking


load, long service life and special
high temperature lubrication.

* If the ropes are exposed to very high temperatures, please contact Casar.

for ladle cranes

The right rope

Holding
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Closing
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Grab
rope

non
rotationresistant

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with conventional
strands. High breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

Eight strand rope with internal plastic layer formed with compacted
strands. Very high breaking load and
structural stability. Long service life.

for floating grab cranes

The right rope


One-part Operation
When lifting a load with one part, only
rotation-resistant ropes must be used.
The direction of lay must be chosen
contrary to the pitch of the drum.

1/1

CASAR Starlift
CASAR Eurolift
CASAR Powerlift
CASAR Powerplast

Two-part Operation
Non-rotation-resistant ropes may be used when operating a two-part system with smaller lifting
heights. With greater lifting heights, however, rotation-resistant ropes are compulsory. The direction
of lay must be chosen contrary to the pitch of the drum. When operating with one left hand grooved
drum and one right hand grooved drum, either left hand or right hand lay ropes can be used. As one
rope end will always be twisted by one of the drums, a rope with plastic layer between the steel core
and the outer strands (Casar Stratoplast or Turboplast) must be used when the lifting heights are
small. Casar Quadrolift is recommended for greater lifting heights.

2/1
Greater
lifting heights:
CASAR Starlift
CASAR Eurolift
CASAR Powerlift
CASAR Powerplast
CASAR Quadrolift
Small
lifting heights:
CASAR Stratoplast
CASAR Turboplast
CASAR Alphalift
CASAR Betalift
CASAR Superplast

46

1 drum, 2/2

2 drums, 2/2

Both rope ends winding on two left hand or


two right hand grooved
drums: cf. 2/1. One
rope end winding on a
left hand, the other
winding on a right hand
grooved drum:

Both rope ends winding on two left hand or


two right hand grooved
drums: cf. 2/1. One
rope end winding on a
left hand, the other
winding on a right hand
grooved drum:

Greater lifting heights:


CASAR Quadrolift

Greater lifting heights:


CASAR Quadrolift

Small lifting heights:


CASAR Stratoplast
CASAR Turboplast

Small lifting heights:


CASAR Stratoplast
CASAR Turboplast

2/2 - 2
Greater
lifting heights:
CASAR Starlift
CASAR Eurolift
CASAR Powerlift
CASAR Powerplast
CASAR Quadrolift
Small
lifting heights:
CASAR Stratoplast
CASAR Turboplast
CASAR Alphalift
CASAR Betalift
CASAR Superplast

for electric hoists

R. Verreet, the rotation characteristics of steel wire ropes, 4/97

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CASAR DRAHTSEILWERK SAAR GMBH


Casarstrae 1 D-66 459 Kirkel
Postfach 18 7 D-66 454 Kirkel
Phone ++ 49-68 41/ 80 91-0
Fax
++ 49-68 41/ 86 94

Sales Dept.
Phone ++ 49-68 41/ 80 91-39/44
Fax
++ 49-68 41/ 80 91-29

http://www.casar.de