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PART C

PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University

The Nervous System

ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY


EIGHTH EDITION

ELAINE N. MARIEB
Copyright 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Cerebellum
Two hemispheres with convoluted surfaces
Provides involuntary coordination of body movements

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Cerebellum

Figure 7.15a
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Protection of the Central Nervous System


Scalp and skin
Skull and vertebral column

Meninges

Figure 7.16a
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Protection of the Central Nervous System


Cerebrospinal fluid
Blood brain barrier

Figure 7.16a
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Meninges
Dura mater
Double-layered external covering
Periosteum attached to surface of the skull
Meningeal layer outer covering of the brain

Folds inward in several areas

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Meninges
Arachnoid layer
Middle layer

Web-like
Pia mater

Internal layer
Clings to the surface of the brain

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Cerebrospinal Fluid
Similar to blood plasma composition
Formed by the choroid plexus

Forms a watery cushion to protect the brain


Circulated in arachnoid space, ventricles, and central canal of the spinal cord

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Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid

Figure 7.17ab
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Ventricles and Location of the Cerebrospinal Fluid

Figure 7.17c
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Blood Brain Barrier


Includes the least permeable capillaries of the body
Excludes many potentially harmful substances Useless against some substances Fats and fat soluble molecules Respiratory gases Alcohol Nicotine

Anesthesia

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Traumatic Brain Injuries


Concussion
Slight brain injury No permanent brain damage Contusion Nervous tissue destruction occurs

Nervous tissue does not regenerate


Cerebral edema Swelling from the inflammatory response May compress and kill brain tissue
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Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA)


Commonly called a stroke
The result of a ruptured blood vessel supplying a region of the brain Brain tissue supplied with oxygen from that blood source dies Loss of some functions or death may result

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Alzheimers Disease
Progressive degenerative brain disease
Mostly seen in the elderly, but may begin in middle age Structural changes in the brain include abnormal protein deposits and twisted fibers within neurons Victims experience memory loss, irritability, confusion and ultimately, hallucinations and death
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Spinal Cord
Extends from the medulla oblongata to the region of T12 Below T12 is the cauda equina (a collection of spinal nerves)
Enlargements occur in the cervical and lumbar regions
Figure 7.18
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Spinal Cord Anatomy


Exterior white mater conduction tracts

Figure 7.19
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Spinal Cord Anatomy


Internal gray matter - mostly cell bodies
Dorsal (posterior) horns

Anterior (ventral) horns

Figure 7.19
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Spinal Cord Anatomy


Central canal filled with cerebrospinal fluid

Figure 7.19
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Spinal Cord Anatomy


Meninges cover the spinal cord
Nerves leave at the level of each vertebrae

Dorsal root
Associated with the dorsal root ganglia collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system

Ventral root

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Peripheral Nervous System


Nerves and ganglia outside the central nervous system
Nerve = bundle of neuron fibers Neuron fibers are bundled by connective tissue

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Structure of a Nerve
Endoneurium surrounds each fiber
Groups of fibers are bound into fascicles by perineurium

Fascicles are bound together by epineurium

Figure 7.20
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Classification of Nerves
Mixed nerves both sensory and motor fibers
Afferent (sensory) nerves carry impulses toward the CNS Efferent (motor) nerves carry impulses away from the CNS

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Cranial Nerves
12 pairs of nerves that mostly serve the head and neck
Numbered in order, front to back Most are mixed nerves, but three are sensory only

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Distribution of Cranial Nerves

Figure 7.21
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Cranial Nerves
I Olfactory nerve sensory for smell
II Optic nerve sensory for vision

III Oculomotor nerve motor fibers to eye muscles


IV Trochlear motor fiber to eye muscles

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Cranial Nerves
V Trigeminal nerve sensory for the face; motor fibers to chewing muscles
VI Abducens nerve motor fibers to eye muscles VII Facial nerve sensory for taste; motor fibers to the face VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve sensory for balance and hearing

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Cranial Nerves
IX Glossopharyngeal nerve sensory for taste; motor fibers to the pharynx
X Vagus nerves sensory and motor fibers for pharynx, larynx, and viscera XI Accessory nerve motor fibers to neck and upper back XII Hypoglossal nerve motor fibers to tongue

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