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1INTRODUCTION

Are you tired of slow modem connections? Cellonics Incorporated has developed new technology that may end this and other communications problems forever. The new modulation and demodulation technology is called Cellonics. In general, this technology will allow for modem speeds that are 1,000 times faster than our present modems. The development is based on the way biological cells communicate with each other and nonlinear dynamical systems !"#$. %a&or telcos, which are telecommunications companies, will benefit from the incredible speed, simplicity, and robustness of this new technology, as well as individual users. In current technology, the A#CII uses a combination of ones and 'eros to display a single letter of the alphabet Cellonics, (001$. Then the data is sent over radio fre)uency cycle to its destination where it is then decoded. The original technology also utili'es carrier signals as a reference which uses hundreds of wave cycles before a decoder can decide on the bit value *egard, (001$, whether the bit is a one or a 'ero, in order to translate that into a single character. The Cellonics technology came about after studying biological cell behaviour. The study showed that human cells respond to stimuli and generate waveforms that consist of a continuous line of pulses separated by periods of silence. The Cellonics technology found a way to mimic these pulse signals and apply them to the communications industry *egard, (001$. The Cellonics element accepts slow analog waveforms as input and in return produces predictable, fast pulse output, thus encoding digital information and sending it over communication channels. !onlinear "ynamical #ystems !"#$ are the mathematical formulations re)uired to simulate the cell responses and were used in building Cellonics. +ecause the techni)ue is nonlinear, performance can e,ceed the norm, but at the same time, implementation is straightforward *egard, (001$.

This technology will be most beneficial to businesses that do most of their wor- by remote and with the use of portable devices. The Cellonics technology will provide these devices with faster, better data for longer periods of time Advantages, (001$. Cellonics also utili'es a few discrete components, most of which are bypassed or consume very little power. This reduces the number of off the shelf components in portable devices while dramatically

decreasing the power used, leading to a lower cost for the entire device. The non.portable devices of companies will benefit from the lac- of components the machines have and the company will not have to worry so much about parts brea-ing.

PRINCIPLE OF CELLONICS TECHNOLOGY

Fig 2.a: Measured !e"" Res#$%se The Cellonics/ technology is a revolutionary and unconventional approach based on the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems !"#$ and modelled after biological cellbehaviour1. In essence, the term Cellonics is an euphemism for 0electronic cells1. 2hen used in the field of communications, the technology has the ability to encode, transmit and decode digital information powerfully over a variety of physical channels, be they cables or wirelessly through the air. There have been much research over the past decades to study inter.cell communications. *aboratory studies have recorded electrical waveforms that show burst of spi-es separated by periods of silence

3or e,amples, 3ig (a and 3ig 1b show the behaviour of the 4.cell and the *eech !ociceptor respectively. 3rom these figures, we may observe that the slow waveforms( trigger the fast pulse trains5 allowing the cells to convey information as postulated by some researchers$.!ote that while the fast pulse trains are always the same, the slow time.varying stimulus analog waveforms can ta-e many arbitrary shapes. The number of the pulse trains varies according to the parameters of the slow analog waveforms. Thus, if a circuit can be found that accept an analog input waveform and output a set of pulse trains with predictable number of pulses in each burst, we have a very powerful means of encoding digital information and communicating it over a variety of physical channels. Cellonics Inc. has invented and patented a number of circuits that mimic the above biological cell behaviour. The Cellonics/ circuits are incredibly simple with advantages of low.cost, low power consumption and smallness of si'e. They can and have been used in various applications such as communications and electronic circuits gated oscillator, sigma delta modulator, delta modulator, cloc- multipliers, etc$. 2hen applied in communications, the Cellonics/ technology is a fundamental modulation and demodulation techni)ue. The Cellonics/ receivers are used as devices that generate pulses from the received analog signal and perform demodulation based on pulse counting and related algorithms. 1 The study of biological cell behaviour is 6!*7 an inspiration to the invention of Cellonics/ circuits. The Cellonics/ technology is !6T related to any neural networcommunications or neurophomic electronics. ( #low waveforms8 Analogue waveforms that vary slowly with time. These waveforms can be in any arbitrary shape. 5 3ast waveforms9fast pulse trains8 2aveform in the shape of pulses that varies rapidly with time

CELLONICS CIRCUITS
Cellonics Inc. has developed and patented families of Cellonics/ circuits that are useful for various applications. 6ne of these Cellonics/ circuits is an e,tremely simple circuit that e,hibits the :#curve; transfer characteristic. 3ig 5a shows one of the possible circuit reali'ations. The circuit contains a negative impedance converter. Its iv transfer characteristic is shown in 3ig 5b.Thetransfer characteristic consists of three different regions. The two lines at the top and bottom have positive slope, 19<3 and they represent the regions in which the 6p.Amp is operating in the saturated nonlinear$ mode. In 3ig 5b, the middle segment has a negative slope negative resistance$

Fig &.' Ce""$%i! Cir!ui(

Fig &): P*ase S#a!e + I , C*ara!(eris(i!s Cur-e

and represents the region in which the 6p.Amp is operating linearly. It is this negative resistance region that allows the 6p.Amp to oscillate and produce pulses bounded by the positive and negative saturation voltages.

3or ease of e,planation=, we assume that the input signal is a triangular waveform. >ere we have d?s9dt @ ?0 depending on the slope of the triangular input waveform. 2henever the slope is positive, the 6p.Amp is stable and outputs a constant saturation voltage. Thus a silent period is observed i.e. no spi-e is being produced. 6n the other hand, with properly selected circuit parameters whenever the slope of the triangular waveform is negative, the 6p.Amp is unstable. In this region, the output is oscillating. The duration of each pulse is similar and the number of pulses generated depends on the length of time the slope remains negative. Thus by Controlling the duration of the negative slope, he number of pulses to be produced at the output of the 6p.Amp can be controlled. The Cellonics/ circuit is robust against noise perturbations A as long as the effective negative slope -eeps the 6p.Amp unstable, the noise will not have an effect on the pulse generation. The level of tolerance against the noise perturbations is carried out by proper selection of circuit parameters in the design. There are also many other families of Cellonics/ circuits. +y using the Brinciple of "uality, the :!.curve; families of Cellonics/ circuits can be derived. In this case, the reali'ation of the circuits can be based on the 6B.A%B or devices such as he tunnel diode, etc. The transfer function of a tunnel diode e,hibits the :!. curve; transfer characteristic inherently, which is a :dual; of the #.curve; family. +y connecting an inductor and

Fig &d: PN Cur-e Ce""$%i!s. E"e/e%( a tunnel diode in series, we can produce pulses that are separated by periods of silence. This family of circuits responds to the voltage level of the input signal. As an application e,ample, a s)uare wave signal is used in 3ig 5d. In this case, the duration when the input signal is above a certain :threshold; voltage determines the duration that the circuit operates in the unstable region and conse)uently the number of pulses generated.

'PPLIC'TIONS TO TELECOMMUNIC'TIONS

Fig 0a: Digi(a" C$//u%i!a(i$% Pa(*1a2 Fu%!(i$%a" Diagra/ The Cellonics/ technology can be used as a modulation9demodulation techni)ue with the Cellonics/ Clement embedded in the demodulator 3ig =a$. 6ne of the most important features of the Cellonics/ demodulation techni)ue is its powerful inherent Carrier.rate "ecoding/, which enables one information symbol to be carried in one <3 carrier cycle. Convention systems re)uire thousands of cycles to capture one symbol. Cellonics/ uni)ue Carrier.rate "ecoding/ offers throughput at ma,imum rate.

Fig 0): O%e s2/)$" Per C2!"e To further illustrate the Cellonics/ inherent Carrier.rate "ecoding/, an 3#D. li-e signal is ta-en as an e,ampleE. As shown in 3ig =b, the information symbols are encoded in this 3#D. li-e signal that is transmitted through the channel. At the receiver, the Cellonics/ circuit produces different sets of pulses with respect to the different fre)uencies of the signal.

The information symbol can be recovered by simply counting the pulses i.e. f1 produces ( spi-es, f( produces 5spi-es, f5 produces = spi-es etc.

Fig 0!: C$/#aris$% 1i(* ,ari$us M$du"a(i$% S!*e/es 3ig =c shows the different conventional modulation9demodulation schemes and the Cellonics/ approach. In the conventional communication systems, thousands of <3 carrier cycles are re)uired to reliably e,tract the information contained in a carrier signal. This is because the receiver re)uires time to synchroni'e with the carrier signal. 2ith the Cellonics/ technology, information can be decoded in every transmitted cycle. Thus, this brea-through promises very high.speed data transmission. +esides its application in decoding circuits, the Cellonics/ technology also offers simplicity in receiver architecture with its attributes of low cost, smallness in si'e and low power consumption. Its robustness in noisy environment

Fig 0d: 0(* Ge%era(i$% GSM Re!ei-er 'r!*i(e!(ure -s. Ce""$%i!s.

also offers a system that has better performance and receiver sensitivity. 3ig =d shows a conventional #uper heterodyne receiver which is comple, in design and has many practical drawbac-s. #ome issues that need considerable attention include8 device noise inter modulation, local oscillators9mi,er isolation, Bhase *oc- *oop B**$ switching time and noise immunity. %oreover, these subsystems consume considerable amount of power. A newer techni)ue uses the #uper homodyne approach with no I3 stage i.e. 'ero.I3$. +ut these solutions are difficult to manufacture, have some tric-y problems e.g. "C offset$ and still re)uire power hungry subsystems as mentioned earlier. 2ith the Cellonics/ technology, a very simple receiver architecture can be reali'ed without oscillators, phase loc- loops etc. This is a paradigm shift in design.

Fig 0e: 0(* Ge%era(i$% GSM Re!ei-er -s. Ce""$%i!s 3ig =e shows a more detailed diagram of the =thgeneration #uper homodyne F#% receiver and the Cellonics/ receiver. It clearly shows the simplicity of the Cellonics/ receiver as no oscillators and crystals are re)uired. To improve the spectral efficiency, multi.level

Fig 03: O(*er Per3$r/a%!e 'd-a%(ages modulation scheme is usually employed. 3ig =fcompares a conventional %.ary 3#D receiver and a Cellonics/ receiver. Cach increase in the modulation level re)uires a significant number of circuits to be added in the conventional receiver. 3or the Cellonics/ receiver, no additional circuit elements are re)uired due to its inherent multi.level modulation property. This is achieved using different number of spi-es per cycle to represent different sets of information symbols 3ig =g below$.

Fig 0g: M ar2 Re!ei-er FS4 -s Ce""$%i!s

5. PERFORM'NCE OF CELLONICS . RECEI,ER

Fig 5a: Ce""$%i!s. Re!ei-er Per3$r/a%!e 5 a. 6ER Per3$r/a%!e i% a Narr$1)a%d C$//u%i!a(i$% S2s(e/ An important performance measure of any modulation scheme is its bit.error rate +C<$ performance in a noisy channel. 3ig Ea shows the numerical simulation results of the Cellonics/ receiver in the A2F! channel. Also shown in the figure is the theoretical curve of the optimal +inary Bhase #hift Deying +B#D$ modulation scheme. 3rom the figure, it is clear that the +C performance of the Cellonics/ modulation is able to match the theoretical optimal +B#D modulation scheme. This is achieved by using only =Cellonics/ elements which are very simple please refer to 3ig 5a and 3ig 5d$. 3igure Eb shows another set of results in the multi.path environment which show that the Cellonics/

Fig 5): Per3$r/a%!e i% 2 #a(* a%d '7GN C*a%%e"

receiver has similar performance as the +B#D receiver but with much simpler receiver architecture. 3urthermore, in practical terms, the Cellonics/ receiver will have less implementation losses when compared to a conventional receiver. ). 6ER Per3$r/a%!e i% a% U"(ra 7ide)a%d

Fig 5!: Per3$r/a%!e i% Ce""$%i!s. U76

Fig 5d: Per3$r/a%!e i% Ce""$%i!s. U76

G2+ is a new radio system that occupies an ultra wide bandwidth. In G2+ signaling, the transmission uses very short impulses of radio energy less than a few nanoseconds in duration$. This results in a spectrum that covers a wide range of radio fre)uencies. Conse)uently, the small amount of transmitted energy is spread over a wide fre)uency range resulting in very small energy per >ert'. It will cause little interference to the e,isting spectrum users. Typical correlator.based G2+ receiver re)uires thousands of cycles and frames to ac)uire the signals and average out the noise. The Cellonics/ technology can be used as a receiver to detect the G2+ signals. The +C< performance of the Cellonics/ G2+ system has been evaluated in both simulation and e,periment. 3ig =c shows the simulated and e,perimental results. Gsing the 6n.6ff Deying method, the e,perimental Cellonics/ performance curve is less than 1 d+ from the theoretical best performance using the correlate approach. >owever, the Cellonics/ G2+ system has superior throughput and is potentially hundreds to thousands times faster as it uses only one to few frames e.g. Hframes$ to decode one information symbol depending on the power efficiency re)uirements. 3ig =d shows its performance in a dense in.door multipath environment. The fading margin is only5 d+ and indicates that it is suitable for indoor applications such as wireless local area networ-s.

PROOF OF CONCEPT DEMONSTR'TION ON SYSTEMS

In the following discussions, the parameters used in the demonstration systems such as the distance of transmission and the data rates are merely for ease of prototyping purposes and are !6T the limitation of the Cellonics/ technology. a: Narr$1)a%d C$//u%i!a(i$% S2s(e/

F ig 8 a: 7ire"i%e Ce""$%i!s. C$//u%i!a(i$% S2s(e/ 95.: M)#s;

3ig Ia shows the bloc- diagram of a proof.of concept demonstration system that transmits compact disc music at a data rate of E.H %bps over a wired line. In this system, a C".<6% player is used as a convenient signal source to provide the re)uired bit stream. The digital data is modulated using a pulse width modulation scheme. These modulated data are then passed through aH00.ft telephone wire line. At the receiver, the data is demodulated using the :!.shaped; Cellonics/ circuit, which in this case uses only two elements . an inductor in series with a tunnel diode. To recover the digital information, the decision device simply counts the pulses to determine if it is a logic 011 or 001. The recovered data is then output to an audio player for real time playbac-. Note: This demo highlights good long distance performance. ). Narr$1)a%d C$//u%i!a(i$% S2s(e/97ire"ess;

F ig 8) 7ire"ess Ce""$%i!s. C$//u%i!a(i$% S2s(e/ 3ig Ib shows the bloc- diagram of another demonstration system which is a (I.H %bps file transfer system. The system consists of a transmitter and receiverJ both sub.systems further comprise three modules8 the BC9"#B module, baseband transceiver module and the <3 transmit9receive module. The "#B module resides in a personal computer and provides a high.speed data transmission interface with the transmit9receive BC. The "#B transmits a data file residing on the BC serially to the baseband transmitter at a data rate of (I.H %bps. The baseband transmitter converts these data from the "#B into 3#D.li-e waveforms. The <3 receiver module down converts the received signal using an A% envelope detector. The received waveform is fed into the :#.shaped; Cellonics/ chip to recover the data. The recovered data are sent to the "#B storage on the receiver BC. The transmission has no error correction scheme and the off.line +C< chec- has 'ero error most of the time. The demonstration system shows a high throughput of data transfer and is 5 times faster as compared to a commercial <adio *A! product. !ote8 This demo highlights better than current wireless *A! 11 %bps$ performance. !. U"(ra 7ide)a%d 'udi$ S2s(e/

Fig 8! Ce""$%i!s. U76 7ire"ess 'udi$ Radi$ S2s(e/

3ig Ic shows the bloc- diagram of a G2+ radio system. This system demonstrates the live transmission of compact disc music using G2+ wireless technology. "igital data from two C".<6% players is tapped at a rate of 11.= %bps. This data stream is fed into a G2+ pulse generator and transmitted wirelessly. At the receiver end, the signal is detected and then fed to a Cellonics/ receiver to decode and the original music data is recovered9sent to an audio player for real.time playbac-. !ote8 This demo highlights future application and good noise immunity. d. U"(ra 7ide)a%d ,ide$ S2s(e/

Fig 8d Ce""$%i!s. U76 7ire"ess ,ide$ Radi$ S2s(e/ 3ig Id shows the bloc- diagram of a second G2+ demonstration system that transmits real. time video images at a data rate of 1(%bps wirelessly to a video monitor. In this system, a simple web camera is used as the video capture source. The digital video information is fed into a pulse position modulation processing board a 3ield Brogrammable Fate Array or 3BFA board$ via a G#+ connection before being fre)uency translated to a higher fre)uency band at a transmitter for sending over the air. The airborne signals are then detected by a G2+ receiver and pulse position demodulated bac- into digital video information for display at a video monitor. In both instances, an ultra simple Cellonics Transmitter and a simple Celloncis receiver are used. The speed of the system is only limited by the ?ideo camera1s G#+ interface data rate. !ote8 This demo highlights the ultra simplicity, speed and robust performance of the Cellonics G2+ transceiver technology in a popular consumer application.

CELLONICS. 'D,'NT'GES
The impact of Cellonics/ is such that it effects a fundamental change in the way digital communications have traditionally been done. As such, many communication devices will benefit from its incredible simplicity, speed and robustness. "evices built with the Cellonics/ technology will save on chip9BC+ real estate, power and implementation time. 1. Ne1 Li3e ($ C$//u%i!a(i$% De-i!es The strength of the Cellonics/ technology lies in its inherent Carrier.rate "ecoding/ i.e. e,tremely fast decoding rate$, multilevel capability spectral efficiency$, simple circuitry, low power consumption and low cost. #ome telecommunication application e,amples in wireless communication are cellular networ-s (959= F and beyond$, 2.*A!9>ome networ-s ,*%"#, broadcasting, military radio, <3 identification tags, low cost radar with fine range precision and sensor for automobiles. In wire line communication, some areas where the Cellonics/ technology is deployable are8 high.speed modem cable modem, ,"#*$, *A!9>ome networ-s, bac-bone telephony9data networ-s, power line communications and military applications. +eyond its application in telecommunication, the Cellonics / technology is also applicable in the electronics circuits such as gated oscillators, delta modulators, sigma.delta modulators and cloc- multipliers, etc. 1:Sa-i%gs $% C*i#< PC6 Rea" Es(a(e +ecause of its simplicity, a receiver implemented with Cellonics/ can save as much as = times the chip real estate. Comparison made with a 'ero.I3 receiver designed with the same 0.K%m +iC%6# process.$ 2:Sa-i%gs $% P$1er Gsing the same design and comparison above, it was found that a Cellonics/.based receiver consumed 5 times less power. This is possible because a Cellonics/ circuit is built with a few discrete components that are mostly passive and hence consume very little or negligible power. Cellonics/ returns a high Lpower budgetL bac- to a communication device. "esigners can use this Le,traL power to LfinanceL other power.needy features in a device such a color screen, FB# receiver, etc. Clse, the device will simply end up having a longer battery life. As in the case of mobile phones.$

Ta)"e ::a &:Sa-i%gs i% I/#"e/e%(a(i$% Ti/e In a receiver, the Cellonics/ circuit replaces many traditional subsystems such as the amplifier, mi,er, B**, oscillator, filter, crystal )uart', etc. that are necessary in a common #uper heterodyne and #uper homodyne design. These parts in these subsystems can be costly, fragile and noisy. Aside from this, the subsystems need great e,pertise to be put together and fine.tuned. It is also difficult to miniaturi'e. 2ith the simplicity and robustness of Cellonics/, implementation time is swift without the sacrifice on performance. 0:6ui"d $r Re=u-e%a(e 2$ur Pr$du!(s 1i(* Ce""$%i!s. The incredible simplicity, low cost, low power consumption of Cellonics/ ma-es it ideal for use in your ne,t generation of feature.rich products that need to be small in si'e and long on power reserve. Clse, the technology is also ideal in giving your current products a new low. cost and power.saving receiver engine.

CONCLUSION
The Cellonics communication method is one inspired by how biological cells signal. It is a fresh and novel loo- at how digital signals may be conveyed. In this digital day and age, it is timelyJ current digital communication designs are mostly derived from old analog signal methods. 2ith the Cellonics method, much of the sub.systems in a traditional communication system are not re)uired. !oise.generating and power.consuming systems such as voltage.controlled oscillators, B**s, mi,ers, power amplifiers, etc., are eliminated. To a communications engineer, this is unheard off. 6ne &ust doesn1t build a communication device without an oscillator, mi,er, orM. #uch is the revolutionary impact of Cellonics. Cngineers will have to reform their thin-ing. that such a simple solution is possible.

REFERENCE

18www.cellonics.com (8www.future(0hottechnologies.com