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INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Communication is the process of exchanging information 2 Main Barriers to Human Communications Language Distance

Milestones in the history of electronic communications 1837 Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. In 1844 he patented it, Telegraph (from Greek: tele
"far", and graphein "writing") is the long-distance transmission of messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.

1843 Alexander Bain invented the facsimile From the Latin facere simile, which translates to make similar. Technology that enables the transmission of images between paired transmitters and receivers.The transmitting fax scans the image document from top to bottom and from left to right, looking for dots of color 1866 First trans-Atlantic telegraph cable was laid between US and England 1876 Telephone was invented by Alexander Bell 1887 Heinrich Hertz discovered radio waves 1887 Guglielmo Marconi demonstrates wireless communications by radio waves 1901 First trans-Atlantic radio contact between England and Newfoundland 1903 John Fleming invented the two-electrode vacuum tube 1906 Reginald Fessenden invented the AM 1906 Lee de Forest Invented the triode vacuum tube 1923 Vladimir Zworykin invented and first demonstrated the Television 1933 Invented superheterodyne receiver and FM 1948 Invention of transistor by Bell Laboratories 1957 First active communication satellite was used 1958 Jack St. Clair Kilby invented the first integrated circuit

Communication Systems All communication systems have a transmitter, communication channel or medium and a receiver. Along the way Noise is being added. Transmitter It converts the information into electronic form suitable for transmission. Communication Channel It is the medium by which the electronic signal is sent from one place to another. Different types of media are used in communication systems including wire conductors, fiber optic cable and free space. Receivers Collection of circuits that accept and convert the transmitted signal back to a form understandable by humans. Noise is the general term applied to any phenomenon that degrades or interferes with the transmitted information. Transceivers These are equipments that incorporate circuits that both transmit/send or receive/accept. Attenuation Means degradation. It is proportional to the square of the distance between the transmitter and receiver. Transducers devices that convert one form of energy to another form. Types of Electronic Communication Electronic Communications are classified according to whether they are (1) one-way (simplex) or two-way (Full duplex or half-duplex) transmission and (2) analog or digital signals. Simplex In simplex communication, a device can only transmit or can receive but not both. The most common forms of this type of communication are radio and TV broadcasting. Half-Duplex

In this type of communication system, a device is capable of transmitting and receiving but not at the same time. Most radio transmissions, such as those used in military, fire, police, aircraft, marine and other services are half duplex communications. Full-duplex In full duplex, the device involve can transmit and receive simultaneously. People communicating over the telephone is one of the best example. They can talk and listen simultaneously. Analog signals This are signals with continuously varying voltage or current. A sine wave is a single-frequency analog signal. Digital signals In contrast with analog, digital do not vary continuously, but change in steps or in discrete increments. Most digital signals use binary or two-state codes. Modulation and Multiplexing Modulation makes the information signal more compatible with the medium Multiplexing allows more than one signal to be transmitted concurrently over a single medium Baseband transmission putting the original signal on the medium Broadband transmission the modulated carrier is amplified and sent to the medium for transmission. Importance of Modulation It reduces antenna height Separates different signals of different frequency Allows more channel and greater bandwidth

Bandwidth Is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupied by a signal It is also the frequency over which a receiver or other electronic circuit designed to operates Can be computed as the difference between the upper and lower frequency limits of the signal

Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of electromagnetic signals encompassing all frequencies is referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum. All signals that radiate into free space fall into the electromagnetic spectrum. Not included are signals carried by cables.

Frequency is the number of times a particular phenomenon occurs in a given period of time. Wavelength is the distance occupied by one cycle of a wave, and usually expressed in meters. ELF (30-300Hz) Low end of Human audio range, AC power lines VF- (300 -3000Hz) Range of human speech, most of human intelligible sounds VLF- (3-30kHz) Higher end of human audio range, musical instruments, submarines LF- (30-300kHz) Aeronautical and marine navigation MF- (300-3000kHz) Amplitude Modulation (AM) broadcasting HF- (3-30MHz) Citizen band (CB) radio VHF- (30-300MHz) Frequency Modulation (FM) and TV broadcasting UHF- (300-3000MHz) TV broadcasting, Mobile communications, Wifi SHF- (3-30GHz) Radar and satellite communications EHF- (30-300GHz) Radar and satellite communications Spectrum Management 1934 US Congress passed the Communications Act of 1934. This act established regulations for the use of spectrum space. It also established the FCC (Federal Communications Commission). Standards are specifications and guidelines that companies and individuals follow to ensure compatibility between transmitting and receiving equipment. The term used to describe the ability of equipment from one manufacturer to work compatibly with that of another is interoperability. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) International Telecommunications Union (ITU) International Engineering Task Force (IETF) Telecommunication Institute of America (TIA) International Organization for standardization (ISO)