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1. What is the working principle of a transformer?

Transformer is static piece of electric apparatus which transfers electric power from one circuit to the other without change in the frequency. Transformer works under the principle of electromagnetic induction or mutual induction. If one coil is connected to a source of alternating voltage, an alternating flux is set up in the laminated core, most of which is linked with the other coil in which it produces mutually induced E.m.f according to Faradays law of electromagnetic induction.

2. What is the difference between core and shell type transformer?

Core type In core type transformer the windings surrounds a considera le part of the core. The coils used are form!wound and are of the cylindrical type. It has small si"e and in the form of single rectangular core. #ut for large si"e in round cylindrical core. In core type transformer insulating cylinder of fuller oard are used to separate the cylindrical windings.

Shell type In shell type transformer the core surrounds a considera le part of the windings. The coils are form wound and are multi!layer disc type in the form of pancakes. It may have a simple rectangular form. The coil spaces forming hori"ontal cooling and insulating ducts. In shell type transformer core consists of lamination arranged in groups which radiate out from the centre.

3. Write the e.m.f. equation of a transformer?

! ".""#1 f $m % ! ".""#2 f $m %

!!!!!!!!!! $%& !!!!!!!!!! $'&

From $%& and $'& we get,

$E%(E'& ) $*%(*'& ) +.++f,m -here, #1 no. of turns in primary. #2 no. of turns in secondary. f maximum flux in core in -e er. &m frequency of a.c. input in .".
1

induced emf in /rimary. induced emf in secondary.

". Why transformer power rating is in '(%?

0ore losses correspond to voltage $1& and copper losses to current $2&, so that the transformer power rating is generally in volt ampere $or 312&.

). What are the types of loads? The various types of loads are as follows4 %. 5esistance. '. Inductance and 6. 0apacitance.

*. What are the two coils of a wattmeter? 0urrent coil $7 8 9 terminals& and pressure $or voltage& coil $0 8 1 terminals& are the two coils of a wattmeter.

+. What does the terminals ,- .- C- ( of a wattmeter indicates? , 7ain . 9ine $or load&

C 0ommon terminal $ etween current and voltage coil& ( 1oltage terminal

/. What does ,0 and ,C type of meters indicate? 7I type meters indicate moving iron, which is used generally for measuring 20 values. 70 type meters indicate moving coil, which in used only for measuring :0 values.

1. What are the uses of auto transformer? It is used to give small oost to a distri ution code to correct the voltage drop. It is used as auto!starter transformer to give up to ;<= to ><= full voltage to an induction motor during starting. It is used to give varia le input voltages from < to rated value and hence called as variac. It is used to control equipment for %!phase and 6!phase electrical locomotive.

12. Why transformer 3oltage rating is generally in multiples of 11? The emf equation of the transformer is proportional to the form factor. The form factor value is %.% for sinusoidal input, ecause of this the emf induced in the transformer will e a multiple of %%. ?o, the transformer voltage rating is generally in multiples of %%. What happens if the transformer is gi3en a 4C supply? For a transformer only 20 supply should e given ecause :0 voltage supply cannot produce magnetic flux in the windings of the transformer. .ence the transformer gets heated if :0 supply is continuously given and finally its windings urns out.

32. What is the range of the efficiency of a transformer? The efficiency of the transformer ranges a ove @<=.

33. What are the losses in a transformer? What are the causes for each loss? There are two types of losses in a transformer and they are %& 0ore loss or iron loss4 This includes the a& .ysteresis loss and & Eddy current loss. a& .ysteresis loss 4 It is due frequent magnetic reversals & Eddy current loss 4 It is due leakage flux in the air gap.

This iron or core loss remains practically constant for all the loads. '& 0opper loss4 This loss occurs due to the ohmic resistance of the transformer windings.

3". 5ow the losses can be minimi6ed? The hysteresis losses can e minimi"ed y using steel of high silicon content for the core and the eddy current losses can e minimi"ed y using very thin laminations for construction of the core.

3). What is the principle of a 4C motor? -henever a current carrying conductor is placed in the magnetic field, it experiences a mechanical force whose direction is given y FlemingAs 9eft .and 5ule. The magnitude of the force is given y F)#Il $*&.

3*. What is necessity of a starter? The current drawn y the armature is given y Ia ) $1!E & ( 5a -here 1! supply voltage E ! ack emf 5a! armature resistance -hen motor is at rest, ack emf is "ero. Thus if full voltage is applied across the stationary armature, there will flow a huge amount of current which will e ;!B times the

rated current of the motor. This heavy current will low off the fuse efore that it will damage the commutator and rushes. Thus starter with high resistance is used to start the :0 motor.

3+. What are the types of starter is used in 4C motor? The types of starter used in the :0 motor are %& Three point starter. '& Four point starter.

3/. What are the classifications of 4C motor? :0 motor can e classified into the following types :0 motor

?hunt wound 7otor

?eries wound

0ompound wound

:ifferential compound motor 0umulative compund motor

?hort ?hunt compound 9ong ?hunt compound

31. What does the terminal .- 7 and % of a three pointer starter indicates?

The terminals of a three point starter are descri ed as follows 9 C line F C Field A armature

"2. What is the position of rheostat before starting an e8periment and why?

The rheostat should e in minimum position while starting an experiment. #ecause, -kt, * D E (E

If the rheostat is kept at the maximum position the field current will e less and hence the flux produced will also e less and this results in dangerously high speed at the starting. Therefore the rheostat is kept at minimum position at the starting then adFusting for rated speed after the starting the motor. What are the applications of motors. S59#: For driving constant speed line shafting 9athes 0entrifugal pumps 7achine tools #lowers and fans 5eciprocating pumps S ;0 S For traction work Electric locomotives 5apid transit systems Trolley, cars 0ranes and hoists 0onveyors C<,9.%:0( C<,=<9#4 For intermittent high torque loads For shears and punches Elevators 0onveyors .eavy planers 5olling millsG Ice machinesG /rinting pressesG 2ir compressors.

. Working principle of single phase induction motor:

As a general rule, conversion of electrical power into mechanical power takes place in rotating part of an electric motor. In AC motors, the rotor does not receive electric power by conduction but by induction in e actly the same way as secondary of a two winding transformer receives its power from primary. !hat"s why the motors are known as induction motors.

#$. Is a single phase induction motor self starting % why %

&ingle phase induction motor has distributed winding and a s'uirrel cage rotor. When fed from a single phase supply, its stator winding produces a flu which is only alternating. It is not in a synchronously revolving flu , as in case of a two or three phase stator winding, fed from two or three phase supply. (ow, the alternating or pulsating flu acting on a stationary s'uirrel cage rotor can"t produce rotation. !hat"s why single phase induction motor is not self starting.

#). !ypes of single phase induction motors:

&plit phase, capacitor, and shaded pole.

Define power factor: Power factor of an AC electric system is defined as ratio of real power to apparent power.

Real power Capacity of circuit for performing work in particular time Apparent power pdt of I x V of the circuit. Usually apparent power> Real power due to energy stored in load and returned to the source. 5. What does term LPF and UPF indicate P! " ower power factor

UP!

"

Unity power factor