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Audio Spotlighting 2013

Seminar Report

INTRODUCTION
Hi-fi speakers range from piezoelectric tweeters to various kinds of mid-range speakers and woofers which generally rely on circuits and large enclosures to produce quality sound, whether it dynamic, electrostatic or some other transducer based design. Engineers have struggled for nearly a century to produce a speaker design with the ideal !Hz !,!!!Hz capability of human hearing. "hen you listen to sound over loudspeakers, you don#t have any control over where the sound goes. $ometimes you don#t want it to go everywhere. $cientists have devised a way to solve that problem. %hey have figured out how to &steer& sounds by aiming them only where he wants them to go with a device they call 'udio $potlight. 'udio spot lighting is a technology that creates focused beams of sound similar to light beams coming out of a flash light. (y )shining* sound to one location, $pecific listeners can be targeted with sound without others nearby hearing it, i.e. to focus the sound into a coherent and highly directional beam. +t makes use of non-linearity property of air. +magine pro,ecting sound in a narrow beam, much like the light from a spotlight- +n the past we were limited by sound invading all of the space surrounding the loudspeaker or sound source. .ot anymore- "ith the 'udio spotlighting $ound systems, you can put sound wherever you want. "ith a spotlight, when you step into the beam of light, you are clearly illuminated by the light. "hen you step out of the beam, you are lit only by the background light. $imilarly you can*t see the beam of sound, but when you step into it, you can hear the sound or narration inside- $tep back out of the beam and the sound is gone- $tepping into the directional sound beam is like putting on a set of virtual headphones. /ou can now have several different soundtracks or musical styles co-e0ist in one small space, heard only by those who should. %he 'udio spotlight developed by 'merican %echnology 1orporation uses ultrasonic energy to create e0tremely narrow beams of sound that behaves like beam of light.'udiospotlight e0ploits the property of non-linearity of air. "hen in audible ultrasonic pulses are fired into the air, it spontaneously converts the inaudible ultrasound into an audible sound. ' device known as parametric array employs the non-linearity of the air to create audible by products from inaudible ultrasound, resulting in e0tremely directive and beam like BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page 2 1ollege of 'pplied

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sound. %his source can pro,ected about an area much like a spotlight and creates an actual specialized sound distant from a transducer. %he ultrasound column acts as a airborne speaker, and as the beam moves through the air gradual distortion takes place in a predictable way. %his gives rise to audible components that can be accurately predicted and precisely controlled. $ound from ultrasound is the name given here to situations when modulated ultrasound can make its carried signal audible, without needing a receiver set. %his happens when the modulated ultrasound passes through anything which behaves nonlinearly and thus acts intentionally or unintentionally as a demodulator. 4or now, customers are testing out the technology for a variety of uses. (ut adoption may be slow due to the cost of the system and the fact that each unit needs to be handmade.'lso, problems with creating low bass tones will keep 'udio spotlighting systems out of audiophiles for the present. 5n the other hand, this is not preventing $ony from incorporating the technology in plasma screens for specialty applications. "idespread application of 'udio spotlighting could still be years away, but with companies like $ony interested, it can only speed mainstream adoption of the technology.

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HISTORY
History is replete with rival inventors battling one another to bring breakthrough creations to market. Howe and $inger over the sewing machine, (ell and 6ray over the telephone, Edison and $wan over the light bulb. .ow, in that same tradition, two inventors Elwood "oody .orris of 7oway, 1'-based 'merican %echnology 1orporation 8'%19, and 4. :oseph 7ompei, of "atertown, 3'*s Holosonic ;esearch <abs, have harnessed the same scientific principle to create competing directional-sound systems. %he technique of using a nonlinear interaction of high-frequency waves to generate lowfrequency waves was originally pioneered by researchers developing underwater sonar techniques dating back to the 2=>!s. %hey called this device a parametric array. +n 2=?@, an article cited the nonlinear effects occurring in air. 5ver the ne0t two decades, several large companies, including 3atsushita, .1 Aenon, and ;icoh attempted to develop a loudspeaker based on this principle. %hey were successful in producing some sort of sound, with e0tremely high levels of distortion 8B@!C9. %his drawback caused the total abandonment of the technology by the end of the 2=D!#s. <ater during the spring of 2==>, Elwood "oody .orris one of the founders of 'merican %echnology 1orporation was working blind to his competitor in the East within his garage in 7oway 1'. He felt that ultrasound could be used to create a sound beam. +n :uly the same year, he felt that he had a breakthrough and he rushed off to the patent office, and patented the same.

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+n 2==D, :oseph 7ompei presented the paper F%he Gse of 'irborne Gltrasonic for generating 'udible $ound (eamsH to the 'udio Engineering $ociety, at their 2!@th 1onvention in san 4rancisco 1'. +n 2=== he founded holosonic ;esearch <abs or Holosonics to commercialize this technology. He named it F'udio spotlightingH.

TECHNOLOGY OVERVIE
%he technique of using a nonlinear interaction of high frequency waves to generate low frequency waves was originally pioneered by researchers developing underwater sonar techniques in 2=>!*s. +n 2=?@, an article cited the nonlinear effects occurring in air. 5ver the ne0t two decades, several large companies including 7anasonic and ;icoh attempted to develop a loudspeaker using this principle. %hey were successful in producing some sort of sound but with higher level of distortion 8B@!C9. +n 2==!s, "oody .orris a ;adar %echnician solved the parametric problems of this technology. 'udio spotlighting is a paradigm shift in sound production based on solid principles of physics. 'udio spotlighting technology pro,ects a column of modulated ultrasonic frequencies into the air. %hese ultrasonic frequencies are inaudible by themselves. However, the interaction of the air and modulated ultrasonic frequencies creates audible sounds that can be heard along a column. %his audible acoustical sound wave is caused when the air down-converts the ultrasonic frequencies to the lower frequency spectrum that humans can hear. 'udio spotlighting technology works by emitting harmless high frequency ultrasonic tones that we cannot here. %hese tones use the non-linearity 8fig E.29 property of air to create new tones that are within the range of human hearing. %he result is an audible sound. %he acoustical sound wave is created directly in the air. +n a 'udio spotlighting system, there are no voice coils, cones, crossover networks or enclosures. %he result is )sound with a potential purity and fidelity* which we attained never BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page I 1ollege of 'pplied

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before. Sound !ua"it# is no "onger tied to s$ea%er si&e' %he 'udio spotlighting system holds the promise of replacing conventional speakers in homes, movie theatres, and automobiles everywhere.

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(ig )'-+ .ressure v/s distance curve

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't normal atmospheric pressure and a temperature of !J1, a small audio signal travels through air at appro0imately E!!mKsec. 's the amplitude of the sound signal increases to more than appro0imately 2!! d(, the speed of sound changes over the course of a single cycle. %he upper part of the waveform sufficiently compresses air molecules to increase the local temperature and pressure and, therefore, slightly boost the speed of sound. <ikewise, the negative portion of the waveform slows sound propagation. %hese speed variations result in a distorted waveform that resembles a triangular wave 8figE. 9. (ecause triangular waves are rich in harmonics, the speed variations demodulate the ultrasound signal. %he blue line in fig-E. is a pure sine wave, and the red represents the same form after it has propagated through the nonlinear air for a time. )'* CONVENTION0L SOUND+ %he regular loudspeakers produce audible sound by directly moving the air molecules. %he audible portions of sound tend to spread out in all directions from the point of origin. %hey do not travel as narrow beams. +n fact the beam angle of audible sound is very wide, ,ust about E>! degrees. %his effectively means that the sound you hear will be propagated through the air equally in all directions. 1onventional loudspeakers suffer from amplitude distortions, harmonic distortion, inter - modulation distortion, phase distortion, crossover distortion, cone resonance etc. $ome aspects of their mechanical aspects are mass, magnetic structure, enclosure design and cone construction. +n nature, sound travels in waves spreading in every direction, bouncing off some surfaces and being absorbed by others. +t is certainly not linear. +t helps to visualize the traditional loudspeaker as a light bulb. 's with the light bulb, a traditional loudspeaker radiates sound fairly uniformly in all directions. ' listener can stand anywhere in an acoustical environment and point to the speaker as the source of the sound. 'udio spotlighting technology is much more analogous to the beam of light from a flashlight. 4igures E.E shows the conventional speakers distribution of sound and figure E.I shows the beam of sound targeted to particular place. +f you stand to the side or behind the light, you can only &see& the light when it BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page > 1ollege of 'pplied

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strikes a surface. 'udio spotlighting technology is similar in that you can direct the ultrasonic emitter toward a hard surface, a wall for instance, and the listener perceives the sound as coming from the spot on the wall. %he listener does not perceive the sound as emanating from the face of the transducer but, only from the reflection off the wall. Every form of distortion contributed by a conventional loudspeaker is traceable to some aspect of its mechanical natureL mass, magnetic structure, enclosure design, cone construction, etc. 'll form an important part of the final product#s capability to perform its function in as perfect a manner as possible.

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(IG )'1 'GA+5 $75%<+6H%+.6

$peaker cone motion is sub,ect to the laws of physics. %his all-important element, more than any other in a speaker system, affects the overall purity of sound and can be a source of various forms of distortion. +deally, when reproducing sound, the speaker cone should follow precisely the delicate nuances of any electrical waveform presented to it. %he cone or radiating surface of a perfect loudspeaker would have virtually no mass or resonances over the entire range of hearing, and would offer perfect linearity while at the same time being able to couple enough energy into the air to produce any sound level desired. 'udio spotlighting technology does precisely that. +t provides linear frequency response with virtually none of the forms of distortion associated with conventional speakers. .h#sica" si&e no "onger de2ines 2ide"it#. %he faithful reproduction of sound is freed from bulky enclosures. %here are no woofers, tweeters, crossovers, or bulky enclosures. 'lso, it is now possible to dramatically minimize room effects in a listening environment.

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)'- R0NGE O( HU30N HE0RING+ %he human ear is sensitive to frequencies ranging from !Hz to !,!!!Hz. +f the range of the human hearing is e0pressed as a percentage shift from the lowest audible frequency to the highest, it spans a range of 2!!,!!! percent. .o single loudspeaker element can operate efficiently over such a wide range of frequencies. +n order to deal with this, speaker manufacturers carve the audio spectrum into smaller sections 8figE.@9, and make use of multiple transducers and crossovers as necessary. %hey range from piezoelectric tweeters that recreate the high end of the audio spectrum, to various kinds of mid-range speakers and woofers that produce the lower frequencies. Gsing a technique of multiplying audible frequencies upwards and superimposing them on a &carrier& of say, !!,!!! cycles the required frequency shift for a transducer would be only 2!C. "hether they are dynamic, electrostatic, or some other transducer-based design, all loudspeakers today have one thing in commonL they are direct radiating i.e., they are fundamentally a piston-like device designed to directly pump air molecules into motion to create the audible sound waves we hear. 'udio spotlighting technology produces sound in the air indirectly as a by-product of some other process. Gsing 'udio spotlighting technology, it is possible to design nearly a perfect transducer 8fig E.>9.

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(ig )'5+ ."ot o2 6ass cut7 6ass 6oost and nor,a" sound Aepending on the user requirements the bandwidth of 'udio spotlighting unit can be ad,usted. %he red plot shows the normal usage. %he blue plot is the (ass cut plot, where the lower frequencies are cut. %his is very useful for speeches. %he black plot is the (ass boost plot, where the lower frequencies are given importance. %his is very useful for musical concerts.

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OR8ING O( 0UDIO S.OTLIGHTING SYSTE3+ %he original low frequency sound wave such as human speech or music is applied into an

audio spotlight emitter device. %his low frequency signal is frequency modulated with ultrasonic frequencies range. %he output of the modulator will be the modulated form of original sound wave. $ince ultrasonic frequency is used the wavelength of the combined signal will be in the order of few millimeters. $ince the wavelength is smaller the beam angle will be around E degree, as a result the sound beam will be a narrow one with a small dispersion. %he model of spotlighting emitter is shown in firure-E.?.

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(IG )'9+ 'GA+5 $75%<+6H%+.6 E3+%%E;

"hile the frequency modulated signal travels through the air, the nonlinearity property of air comes into action. ' normal sound wave is a small pressure wave that travels through the air. 's the pressure goes up and down, the nonlinear nature of the air itself slightly changes the sound wave. +f there is change in a sound wave, new sounds are formed within the wave. %herefore if we know how the air affects the sound waves, we can predict e0actly what new frequencies 8sounds9 will be added into the sound wave by the air itself. +f the audio spectrum could be superimposed on this high frequency carrier, and emitted into the air as an ultrasonic acoustical wave front, the only thing remaining would be to )down convert* the ultrasonic energy to sonic energy we could hear. %his ultrasonic sound wave 8beyond the range of human hearing9 can be sent in to the air with sufficient volume to cause the air to create the required new BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page 22 1ollege of 'pplied

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frequencies. $ince we cannot here the ultrasonic sound, we only hear the new sounds that are formed by the non linear action of the air. E0ampleL +n order to generate a frequency 8sound9 of 2!!!Hz, we use ultrasonic waves of @!,!!!Hz and @2,!!!Hz frequency. %hese frequencies, due to nonlinearity and also distortion produce 2!2,!!!Hz 8inaudible9 and 2!!!Hz 8audible9 which is the required frequency. @2,!!!O@!,!!!P2!2,!!!Hz @2,!!!-@!,!!!P2!!!Hz %hus in an audio spotlighting there are no actual speakers that produces the sound but the ultrasonic envelope acts as the airborne speaker. %he directivity of the beam i.e, output of the system is shown in the figure-E.D.

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%he new sound produced virtually has no distortions associated with it and faithful reproduction of sound is feed from bulky enclosures. %here are no woofers or crossovers. %his technology is similar in that you can direct the ultrasonic emitter towards a hard surface, a wall for instance and the listener perceives the sound as coming from the spot on the wall. %he listener does not perceive the sound as emanating from the face of the transducer, but only from the reflection of the wall. 4or the ma0imum volume 8sound level9 that trade show use demands, it is recommended that the audio spotlight speakers, more accurately called a transducer, is mounted no more than E meters from the average listeners ears, or @ meters in the air the mounting hardware is constructed with a ball ,oint so that the audio spotlights are easily aimed wherever the sound is desired.

(IG )'<+ 1537G%E; $+3G<'%+5. 54 $5G.A (E'3 (y creating a comple0 ultrasound waveform8using a parametric array of ultrasound sources9figure-E.= shows computer simulation of sound propagation with comple0 sets, many different sources of sound can be created. +f their phases are carefully controlled, then these interfere destructively laterally and constructively in the forward direction, resulting in a collimated sound beam or audio beam or audio spotlight. %oday, the transducers required to BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page 2E 1ollege of 'pplied

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produce these beams are ,ust half an inch thick and lightweight, and the system required to drive it has similar power requirements to conventional amplifiers technology.

)'1 ;E03 DIS.ERSION+

(ig )'*=+ Dis$ersion o2 sound 6ea, +n general, the dispersion is less than EJ in either direction or a total of >J overall 8fig E.2!9. Aispersion of the audio wave front can be tightly controlled by contouring the face of the audio spotlighting ultrasonic emitter. 4or e0ample, a very narrow wave front might be developed for use on the two sides of a computer screen while a home theater system might require a broader wave front to envelop multiple listeners. +n addition, audio spotlight does not follow the traditional loudspeaker inverse-square law, which dictates that you have a >d( decrease in level for every doubling of the distance from BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page 2I 1ollege of 'pplied

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the source. %his fact means that 'udio spotlight can travel much greater distances while maintaining intelligibility than the sound from conventional speakers. )'4 HY ULTR0SONIC> Airectivity of the wave depends on its wavelength compared to the transmitting surface. %he larger the source is compared to the wavelength of the sound waves, the more directional beam results. 'ssuming that H$$ uses ID kHz, following calculations could be made. %he speed of sound is about E!! mKsec, or E!,!!! cmKsec. $peed P 8wavelength9Q8frequency9 PB "avelengthPspeed/frequency i.e. E!,!!!KID,!!! P !.>E cm.

.ormally, the emitter#s frontal area is D cm 0 D cm, or appro0 II wavelengths square. %his fact is the basic source of the device#s tight directionality. "hen an emitter#s size appro0imates the wavelength of the emitted signal, a spherical wave front is produced 8fig E.2 a9, which e0pands with a surface area proportional to the square of the distance from the emitterR thus producing inverse-square dispersal of energy across the e0panding surface.

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Audio Spotlighting 2013 (ig )'**+ T#$es o2 u"trasonic e,itters

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' frequency of 2!!!Hz, for instance, yields a wavelength of E! cm or about one foot. %hus a signal in this frequency range, produced by a normal speaker whose diameter might be appro0imately one foot, will produce a spherical wave front. However when the wavelength is a small fraction of the size of the emitter, an essentially flat wave front is produced 8fig E.2 b9. +f it were truly flat and constrained to a channel, such a signal would lose strength only due to interactions with the channel, and could travel very long distances. $ince our 'udio spotlight beam is not in a channel, it will lose some energy to ad,acent air. %he ultrasound, whose wavelengths are only a few millimeters long, are much smaller than the source, and consequently tend to travel in a straight line. 5f course, this ultrasound, which contains frequencies far outside our range of hearing, is completely inaudible. (ut as the ultrasonic beam travels through the air, the inherent properties of the air cause the ultrasound to distort 8change shape9 in a predictable way. %his distortion gives rise to frequency components in the audible bandwidth. (y generating the correct ultrasonic signal, we can create, within the air itself, essentially any sound desired. (oth audible sound waves from traditional speakers and ultrasound waves from a directional-sound system distort when they travel through the air. (ut, in a traditional sound system, the distortion slightly degrades the sound a listener ultimately hears. (ut in a directionalsound system, the distortion is actually the mechanism that generates the audible sound, breaking the ultrasound waves into lower-frequency, audible sound waves along a straight, narrow path. "hen the waves encounter a solid ob,ect or person, they slow, distort and crash together. %he result is the ultrasonic waves re-create the original sound in the air around the ob,ect, so humans can hear it. Mariations in the speed of sound cause this phenomenon. %hus, sound from a distant 'udio spotlight speaker seems like its right at your ears because it is actually being created right at your ears. +f you step out of the beam, the waves have nothing to distort and mi0 them, so the inaudible ultrasonic waves slide silently past. %he equations that govern nonlinear acoustics is given below

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Audio Spotlighting 2013 "here, 'udible secondary pressure wave. N P physical parameter. 7ressure of ultrasonic carrier. Envelope function 8A$(9

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7revious equation says that the audible demodulated ultrasonic pressure wave 8output signal9 is proportional to the twice differentiated, squared version of the envelope function 8input signal9.

)'5' CO3.ONENTS O( 0UDIO S.OTLIGHTING SYSTE3+ 2. 7ower $upply. . 4requency oscillator. E. 3odulator. I. 'udio signal processor @. 3icrocontroller. >. Gltrasonic amplifier. ?. %ransducer.

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(IG )'*-+ (lock Aiagram 5f 'n 'udio $potlighting $ystem

2. .ower Su$$"#+ <ike all electronic systems, the audio spotlighting system works off A1 Moltage, ultrasonic amplifier requires IDv for its working and low voltage. 4or microcontroller and other processing unit management. . (re!uenc# osci""ator+ %he frequency oscillator generates ultrasonic frequency signals in the range of 8 2,!!! Hz to modulation of information signals. E. 3odu"ator+ +n order to convert the source program material into ultrasonic signals, a modulation scheme is required. +n addition, error correction is needed to reduce distortion without loss of efficiency. %he goal, of course, is to produce audio in the most efficient manner while maintaining acceptably low distortion levels. ' A$( scheme is straightforward way to generate the required ultrasonic frequencies BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page 2D 1ollege of 'pplied D,!!! Hz9 which is required for the

Audio Spotlighting 2013 for a given base band signal. 4rom the basic principles of the 4ourier analysis,

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multiplication in the time domain is analogous to convolution in the frequency domain. 1onvolution between a baseband signal and a carrier frequency effectively images the baseband signal around both sides of the carrier frequency spectral component, as shown in 4ig E.D. "e know that for a A$( system, the modulation inde0 can be reduced to decrease distortion, because total harmonic distortion increases proportionally with the square of m. %his is because as the side bands gain more power, there is more cross interference between the side bands rather than between the side bands and the carrier frequency component. I. 3icrocontro""er+ ' dedicated microcontroller circuit takes care of the functional management of the system. +n the future version, it is e0pected that the whole process like functional management, signal processing, double side band modulation and even switch mode power supply would be effectively taken care of by a single embedded +1.

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@' 0udio signa" $rocessor+ %he audio signal is sent to an electronic signal processor circuit where equalization, dynamic range control, distortion control and precise modulation are performed to produce a composite ultrasonic waveform. %his amplified ultrasonic signal is sent to the emitter, which produces a column of ultrasonic sound that is subsequently converted into highly directional audible sound within the air column. $ince ultrasound is highly directional, the audio sound placement is precise. 't the heart of the system is a high precision oscillator in the ultrasonic region with a variable frequency ranging from I! to @! kHz. >. U"trasonic 0,$"i2ierL High efficiency ultrasonic power amplifiers amplifies the management of the system. +n the future version, it is e0pected that the whole process like functional management, signal processing, double side band modulation and even switch mode power supply would be effectively taken care of by a single embedded +1. ?. Transducer+ %he most active piezo film is $o"#vina"idene di2"uoride. %his film is commonly used in many industrial and chemical applications. +n order to be useful for ultrasonic transduction, the raw film must be polarized or activated. %his is done by one of the two methods. 5ne method yields a )unia0ial* film that changes length along one a0is when an electric field is applied through it. %he other method yields a )bia0ial* film that shrinksKe0pands along two a0es. 4inally, the film needs to have a conductive electrode material applied to both sides in order to achieve a uniform electric field through it. 7iezoelectric films operate as transducers through the e0pansion and contraction of )S* andKor )/* a0es of the film surface. 4or use as a hypersonic sound emitter, the film is to be curved or distended. %he curving results in e0pansion and contraction in the )T* a0is, generating acoustic output.

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%he music or voice from the audio source is converted into a highly comple0 ultrasonic signal by the signal processor before being amplified and emitted into the air by the transducer. $ince the ultrasonic energy is highly directional, it forms a virtual column of sound directly in front of the emitter, much like the light from a flash light. 4ig E.2I shows the structure of piezo sound emitter. "hen a voltage is applied across the pins, the red element gets longer while the blue one shortens, causing a bend in the piezo. "hen the polarity changes, the opposite bend occurs. %he ma0imum displacement change is in the center of the element where the cone is attached. %he latest '%1 parametric sound generator is a monolithic, thin-film structure that maintains coherent amplitude and phase across the entire device in a package measuring less than a half-inch thick 8fig E.2@9. (ecause the emitter is larger than the wavelength of the frequencies involved, it emits the ultrasound wave as a pure plane wave with virtually no e0pansion in the beam diameter with distance.

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(ig )'*1+ .ie&o sound e,itter

(ig )'*4+ L-7arametric <oudspeaker- 'mazing 'udio $potlight

+t is 2. ? cm thick and 2?H in diameter. +t is capable of producing audibility up to !! meters with better clarity of sound. +t has the ability of real time sound reproduction with zero lag. +t can BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally Page 1ollege of 'pplied

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be wall, overhead or flush mounted. %hese transducers are arranged in form of an array called parametric array in order to propagate the ultrasonic signals from the emitter and thereby to e0ploit the nonlinearity properly of air.

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3ODES O( LISTENING

%here are two modes of listeningL 2. Airect 3ode. . 7ro,ected 3ode.

(IG 1'*+ A+;E1%EA 'GA+5 '.A 7;5:E1%EA 'GA+5 Direct 3ode+ Airect mode requires a clear line of approach from the sound system unit to the point where the listener can hear the audio. %o restrict the audio in a specific area this method is appropriate. %his method is appropriate when we want to restrict the audio in a specific area. 4ig I.2 shows the concept of direct mode.

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.ro?ected or Virtua" ,ode+ %his mode requires an unbroken line of approach from the emitter of audio spotlighting system, so the emitter is pointed at the spot where the is to be heard. 4or this mode of operation the sound beam from an emitter is made to reflect from a reflecting surface such as a wall surface or a diffuser surface. ' virtual sound source creates an illusion of sound source that emanates from a surface or direction where no physical loudspeaker is present. %his method is appropriate when we want to send the information to a large number of people. 4ig I.2 shows the concept of virtual mode.

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0DV0NT0GES
2. $mall sizeL 'udio spotlighting not only has the conventional speaker#s crossover network

and enclosure been eliminated, but the ultra-small radiating ultrasonic emitter is so small and light-weight that the inertial considerations ordinarily associated with traditional direct-radiation speakers are virtually non-e0istent. %he voice coil and support structure normally associated with the conventional speaker used to attach the moving cone in place are eliminated. . $ingle sourceL 'udio spotlighting has the ability to produce nearly the entire audible spectrum of frequencies from a single source. Hence the improvement in phase response, time alignment, and frequency response becomes obvious. E. Gltimate control in audio placementKHighly directionalL 'udio spotlight can focus sound only at the place where we want it. %his is achieved by controlling the dispersion of the wave. %hese focused sound travels much farther in a straight line than conventional counterpart. I. @. 3inimizes noise pollutionL 'udio spotlight reduces the unnecessary noise from public Ease of installationL 'udio spotlighting has a built-in amplifier, modulator and audio functions or gatherings. signal processor. $o the headache of installing e0ternal components and setting them up for proper working is avoided. >. ?. D. <owest maintenance costL $ince 'udio spotlight system has no mechanical, and very few ;educed feedbackL 's 'udio spotlight systems allow us to direct the produced audio %here is no need to worry about pets, either. Aogs and cats can hear sounds up to perhaps electrical components, the maintaining cost very less. away from any live mic, the tendency of feedback is significantly reduced. I!,!!! Hz, and 'udio spotlight system operates well above this range.

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0..LIC0TIONS
2. 0uto,o6i"es+ (eam alert signals can be directly propagated from an announcement

device in the dashboard to the driver. 7resently 3ercedes (enz buses are fitted with audio spotlighting speakers so that individual travelers can en,oy the music of there on interest.

. Retai" sa"es+ 7rovide targeted advertising directly at the point of purchase.

E' Sa2et# o22icia"s+ 7ortable audio spotlighting devices for communicating with a specific person in a crowd of people. I. .u6"ic announce,ent+ Highly focused announcement in noisy environments such as subways, airports, amusement parks, traffic intersections etc. (y maintaining a beam of sound, across the traffic, traffic police can use 'udio spotlighting to help the blind people cross the road at the signals.

BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally

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@. Entertain,ent s#ste, + +n home theatre system rear speakers can be eliminated by the implementation of audio spotlighting and the properties of sound can be improved.

>. 3useu,s+ +n museums audio spotlight can be used to describe about a particular ob,ect to a person standing in front it, so that the other person standing in front of another ob,ect will not be able to hear the description.

?. 3i"itar# a$$"icationsL $hip to ship communications and shipboard announcements. 'nd also it is used to misguide the enemy by creating the false shouting area away from the military camps.

BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally

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.o"itica"+ "ith the help of H$$ international gatherings, such as the Gnited .ations,

$'';1 summit could have translated speech beamed directly to individualsL $panish at one seat, Hindi at the other and 'rabic at the ne0t. 'll this without interference or individual earphones.

DIS0DV0NT0GES
2. <ack of mass production.i.e, each unit must be handmade. . %he most common form of distortion is clipping. 'n <EA on top of the 'udio spotlight system reports clipping, which is also perceptible to the listener as a kind of a #chirping# effect. +f any signal produces distortion, the input level of the source is reduced until perceptible distortion is eliminated.

BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally

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CONCLUSION 0ND ENH0NCE3ENTS


F(eing the most radical technological development in acoustics since the coil loudspeaker was invented in 2= @... %he audio spotlight will force people to rethink their relationship with soundUH 'udio spotlighting is going to make a revolution in sound transmission and the user can decide the path in which audio signal should propagate. Aue to the unidirectional propagation its finds applications in large number of fields. %he main intention of 'udio spotlighting system is to reduce the unnecessary sound and to promote peace and quiet environment. "ith the companies like $ony and (ose interested, it is going to shape the future of sound and will serve our ears with magical e0perience. %he audio spotlighting holds the promise of replacing conventional speakers. Gltrasonic emitters have super high impedance, which allows low current in power amplifiers making them lighter. %he future developments of this technology include a full functioning embedded system, including modulation, audio processing and distortion control.

BSc.Electronics $cience,3allappally

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RE(ERENCES
2. . E. I. @. >. www.techalone.com 'udio spotlighting www.wikipedia.org - $ound from Gltrasound www.holosonics.com www.silentsound.co.za $ilent sound Electronics 4or /ou Mol. I! :anuary !!D httpLKKwww.en.wikipedia.orgKwikiKsoundVfromVultrasound

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