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BAB VI USE CASE

Use Case Model

• Teknik pemodelan untuk mendapatkan functional requirement dari sebuah sistem

• Menggambarkan interaksi antara pengguna dan sistem

• Menjelaskan secara naratif bagaimana sistem akan digunakan

• Menggunakan skenario untuk menjelaskan setiap aktivitas yang mungkin terjadi

• Kadangkala notasi kurang detail, terutama untuk beberapa aktivitas tertentu

Kapan Menggunakan Use Case?

• Use case sederhana digunakan pada saat proses requirement analysis

- Tidak semua pengguna paham bahasa teknis

• Versi yang lebih detail dibuat sebelum implementasi rancangan

- Dibuat khusus untuk mempermudah desain sistem oleh para developer

Skenario

Buy a product scenario

* The customer browses the catalog and adds

desired items to the shopping basket.

* When the customer wishes to pay, the customer describes the shipping and credit card information and confirms the sale

* The system checks the authorization on the credit card and confirms the sale both immediately and with a follow-up e-mail

Bagaimana jika proses pembayaran menggunakan CC gagal atau konsumen lama yang tidak perlu merekam informasi CC?

Buat skenario baru

• Catatan: Proses pada skenario tidak selalu harus berhasil Kesimpulan:

* USE CASE adalah sekumpulan skenario yang dihubungkan satu sama lain dengan satu tujuan yang sama dari pengguna * Use Case berisi apa yang dilakukan oleh sistem / apa yang terjadi pada sistem, bukan bagaimana sistem melakukan

Level Use Case Model

Use Case memiliki dua istilah

* System use case : interaksi dengan sistem

* Business use case : interaksi bisnis dengan konsumen atau kejadian nyata

Cookburn menyarankan adanya pembedaan level

* Sea level : interaksi sistem dengan aktor utama

* Fish level: use case yang ada karena include dari use case sea-level

* Kite level : menggambarkan sea-level use case untuk interaksi bisnis yang lebih luas

Use Case Mdl. Key Elements

What actions or procedures exist within a

system

Elements What actions or procedures exist within a system Use Case Who’s involved in those actions

Use Case

Who’s involved in those actions

How those actions related to each other in

Actor

a system Use Case Who’s involved in those actions How those actions related to each other

a system

a system Use Case Who’s involved in those actions How those actions related to each other

Relationship

Element: Use Case

Aksi yang terdapat di dalam sistem, melingkupi semua aksi yang harus maupun dapat terjadi Tidak harus berelasi dengan seorang/ sebuah aktor Pada umumnya berupa kata kerja

SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Actor menggambarkan segala sesuatu yang berinteraksi dengan sistem untuk melakukan pertukaran informasi. Actor adalah pengguna, pemeran (role), yang bisa berupa sistem eksternal maupun orang.

Actor menginisiasi aktivitas sistem, dalam bentuk use case, bertujuan untuk melengkapi beberapa kegiatan bisnis.

Actor menggambarkan peranan yang dilakukan oleh user yang berinteraksi dengan sistem dan bukan menggambarkan individual jabatan pekerjaan.

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Element: Actor

Dalam notasi Use Case, pengguna sistem disebut dengan Actor (role) Actor bisa berupa manager, pimpinan, mahasiswa, dan lain sebagainya

* Actor tidak harus berupa manusia

* Jika sistem A mengerjakan sebuah fungsi untuk sistem sistem B, maka sistem B disebut actor

Satu use case diagram bisa memiliki banyak actor didalamnya

Use Case Models

USE CASE TEXT

* lebih detail

* tidak ada visualisasi (berbentuk teks) * Cocok bagi developer

USE CASE DIAGRAM

* lebih abstrak kurang detail * bentuk visual (gambar) * Cocok untuk berkomunikasi dengan client

Use Case Text

Pilih salah satu skenario sebagai skenario utama yang sukses Tuliskan langkah-langkah untuk menyelesaikan skenario tersebut

* Setiap langkah menampilkan tujuan dari sang actor

* Tidak perlu menuliskan bagian user interface

Tulis skenario lain dan sebut sebagai extensions ,variasi dari skenario utama

* Extension bisa sukses atau gagal, tetapi interaksinya harus berbeda dengan skenario utama

* Extension bisa kembali ke skenario utama

SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Keuntungan Use Case

1. Sebagai dasar untuk membantu mengidentifikasi objek-objek dan hubungan tingkat tinggi dan tanggung jawab masing-masing.

2. Sebagai gambaran dari behavior sistem yang akan dibuat dari sisi pengguna eksternal.

3. Sebagai alat yang efektif untuk memvalidasi kebutuhan.

4. Sebagai alat komunikasi yang efektif

5. Sebagai dasar untuk melakukan perencanaan testing.

6. Sebagai dasar untuk melakukan pembuatan user manual.

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Langkah-langkah dalam membuat use case modeling

1. Mengidentifikasi actor-actor tambahan dan use case-use case

2. Buatlah model Use Case

3. Dokumentasikan kejadian-kejadian dalam Use Case

4. Definisikan Analysis Use Cases

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

 

Step 1: Identifying Actors and Use Cases

Actor

Use Case Name

Use Case Description

Potential

SUBMIT NEW SUBSCRIPTION

Potential member joins the club by subscribing. (“Take anu 12 CDs for one penny and agree to buy 4 more at regular club prices within two years.”)

Member

Club

PLACE NEW MEMBER ORDER

Club member places order.

Member

Club

MAKE ACCOUNT INQUIRY

Club member wants to examine his or her account history. (90-day time limit)

Member

Club

MAKE PURCHASE INQUIRY

Club member inquires about his/her purchase history. (three-year time limit)

Member

Club

MAINTAIN MEMBER ORDER

Club member wants to revise an order or cancel an order.

Member

Club

SUBMIT CHANGE OF ADDRESS

Club member changes address. (including e-mail and privacy code)

Member

Past

SUBMIT

Past member rejoins the club by resubscribing.

Member

RESUBSCRIPTION

Marketing

SUBMIT NEW MEMBER SUBSCRIPTION PROGRAM

Marketing establishes a new membership resubscription plan to entice new members.

Marketing

SUBMIT PAST MEMBER RESUBSCRIPTION PROGRAM

Marketing establishes a new membership resubscription plan to lure back former members.

Marketing

SUBMIT NEW PROMOTION

Marketing initiates a promotion. (Note: A promotion features specific titles, usually new, that company is trying to sell at a special price. These promotions are integrated into a catalog sent (or communicated) to all members.)

Time

GENERATE QUARTERLY PROMOTION ANALYSIS

Print quarterly promotion analysis report.

Time

GENERATE QUARTERLY SALES ANALYSIS

Print annual sales analysis report.

Time

GENERATE QUARTERLY MEMBERSHIP ANALYSIS

Print annual membership analysis report.

Time

GENERATE ANNUAL SALES ANALYSIS

Print annual sales analysis report.

Time

GENERATE ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP ANALYSIS

Print annual membership analysis report.

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Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved

SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Step 2: Constructing a Use Case Model Diagram

Order Subsystem Maintain Member Order initiates Place New initiates Member Order initiates Make Purchase Inquiry
Order Subsystem
Maintain Member
Order
initiates
Place New
initiates
Member Order
initiates
Make Purchase
Inquiry
initiates
Operations Subsystem
Make Account
Generate Quarterly
Inquiry
Membership
Time
Analysis
initiates
Quarterly Inquiry Membership Time Analysis initiates Generate Annual Sales Analysis initiates initiates
Generate Annual Sales Analysis initiates initiates initiates Generate Quarterly Generate Annual Sales Analysis
Generate Annual
Sales Analysis
initiates
initiates
initiates
Generate Quarterly
Generate Annual
Sales Analysis
Membership
Analysis
Subscription Subsystem Submit Change of Address Submit New Subscription initiates initiates Submit Resubscription
Subscription Subsystem
Submit Change of
Address
Submit New
Subscription
initiates
initiates
Submit
Resubscription
initiates
Submit Past
Submit New
Member
Member
Resubscription
Subscription
Program
Program
Promotion Subsystem
initiates
initiates
Generate Quarterly
Submit New
initiates
initiates
Promotion Analysis
Promotion

Past Member

Marketing

Promotion Analysis Promotion Past Member Marketing Potential Member Club Member Irwin/McGraw-Hill

Potential Member

Club Member

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Step 3: Documenting the Use Case Typical Course

Author: S. Shepard

Date: 10/05/2000

Use Case Name:

Submit New Member Order

 

Actor(s):

Member This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that

 

Description:

 
 

the order was accepted.

 

References:

Typical Course of Events:

MSS-1.0

1
1
 
 

System response Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address is validated against what is currently recorded in member services. Step 3: The member’s credit status is checked with Accounts Receivable to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 4: For each product being ordered, validate the

 
2
2

Actor Action Step 1: This use case is

initiated when a member submits an order to be processed

 

Step 7: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice.

product number and then check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information. Step 5: Create a picking ticket for the member order containing all ordered products that are available and route it to the warehouse for processing. Step 6: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member.

 

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Step 3: Documenting the Use Case Typical Course (concluded)

Alternate

Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the promotion order, update the club member’s record with the new information. Step 3: If Accounts Receivable returns a credit status that the customer is in arrears, send an order rejection notice to the member. Step 4: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting them to submit a valid product number. If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark as “back-ordered.” Orders can only be submitted by members.

Courses:

Pre-condition:

Post-condition:

Member order has been recorded and the picking ticket has been routed to the warehouse.

Assumptions:

None at this time.

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Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved

SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Extension and Abstract Use Cases

• An extension use case extends the functionality (typical course) of an original use case. An extension use case can only be invoked by the use case it is extending.

• An abstract use case contains typical course steps that were common to two or more original use cases. An abstract use case reduces redundancy and promotes reuse.

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Depicting Extension and Abstract Use Cases using UML Notation

Generate Warehouse Packing Order

Cases using UML Notation Generate Warehouse Packing Order Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax Extension use

Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax

Packing Order Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax Extension use case Extension use case Place New
Packing Order Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax Extension use case Extension use case Place New
Packing Order Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax Extension use case Extension use case Place New
Packing Order Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax Extension use case Extension use case Place New

Extension use case

Extension use case

& Sales Tax Extension use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address

Place New Member Order

Extension use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case
Extension use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case
Extension use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case

Revise Street Address

use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case Submit
use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case Submit
use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case Submit

Abstract use case

use case Extension use case Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Abstract use case Submit

Submit Change of Address

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Step 4: Defining the Analysis Use Case

ANALYSIS USE CASE

Author: S. Shepherd

Date: 10/25/2000

USE CASE NAME:

ACTOR(S):

DESCRIPTION:

REFERENCES

TYPICAL COURSE OF EVENTS:

Place New Member Order

Club Member

This use case describes the process of a club member submitting a new order for SoundStage products. On completion, the club member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted.

MSS-1.0 Actor Action

Step 1: This use case is initiated when a member submits an order to be processed.

Step 9: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice.

System Response

Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address and phone number is validated against what is currently on file. Step 3: For each product being ordered, validate the product number. Step 4: For each product being ordered, check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information such as the quantity being ordered.

Step 5:

Invoke extension use case Calculate Order

Subtotal & Sales Tax.

Step 6: The member’s credit card information is verified based on the amount due and Accounts Receivable transaction data is checked to make sure no payments are outstanding.

Step 7:

checked to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 7 : Invoke extension use case Generate

Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse

Step 7 : Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse Packing Order . Step 8 : Generate

Packing Order. Step 8: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member.

(continued)

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Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved

SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Step 4: Defining the Analysis Use Case (concluded)

ALTERNATE

Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the

COURSES:

order,

invoke abstract use case Revise Street Address.

 

Step 3: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting the member to submit a valid product number. Step 4: If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark the order as “backordered.” Step 6: If member’s credit card information is invalid or if member is found to be in arrears, a credit problem notice is sent to the member. Modify the order’s status to be “on hold pending payment.”

PRECONDITION:

Orders can only be submitted by members.

 

POSTCONDITION:

Member order has been recorded and the Packing Order has been routed to the Warehouse.

ASSUMPTIONS:

None at this time.

 

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Copyrighth@2000 The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved

SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Finding and Identifying Business Objects

• Step 1: Find the Potential Objects

 

Underlining (or highlighting) the use case nouns

• Step 2: Select the Proposed Objects

 

Removing the nouns that represent:

• Synonyms

• Nouns outside the scope of the system

• Nouns that are roles without unique behavior or are external roles

• Unclear nouns that need focus

• Nouns that are really actions or attributes

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Use Case with Nouns
SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition
Whitten Bentley Dittman
Use Case with Nouns Highlighted
Author: S. Shepherd
ANALYSIS USE CASE
Date: 10/25/2000
USE CASE NAME:
Place New
Member Order
ACTOR(S):
Club Member
DESCRIPTION:
This use case describes the process of a club member submitting a new order for
SoundStage
products.
On completion, the club member will be sent a notification
that the
order was accepted.
REFERENCES
MSS-1.0
TYPICAL COURSE
OF EVENTS:
Actor Action
System Response
Step 1:
This use case is initiated
Step 2:
The
member’s personal information such as
when a member submits an
order to be processed.
address and
phone number is validated against what is
currently on file.
Step 3: For each
product being ordered, validate the
product number.
Step 4: For each product being ordered, check the
availability in inventory
and record the ordered product
information such as the quantity being ordered.
Step 5: Invoke extension use case Calculate Order
Subtotal & Sales Tax.
Step 6: The member’s credit card information is verified
based on the amount due and Accounts Receivable
transaction data is checked to make sure no payments are
outstanding.
Step 7: Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse
Packing Order.
Step 9: This use case concludes
when the member receives the
order confirmation notice.
Step 8: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating
the status of the order and send it to the member.
(continued)
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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Use Case with Nouns Highlighted (concluded)

ALTERNATE

Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the

COURSES:

order, invoke abstract use case

Revise Street Address.

 

Step 3: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting the member to submit a valid product number. Step 4: If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark the order as “backordered.” Step 6: If member’s credit card information is invalid or if member is found to be in arrears,

a

credit problem notice

is sent to the member. Modify the order’s status to be “on hold

pending payment.”

PRECONDITION:

Orders can only be submitted by members.

 

POSTCONDITION:

Member order has been recorded and the Packing Order has been routed to the Warehouse.

ASSUMPTIONS:

None at this time.

 

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

Potential Objects Extracted from Use Case

 

POTENTIAL OBJECT LIST

 

Accounts Receivable Department

Amount Due

Club Member

Credit Card Information

Credit Problem Notice

Credit Status

File

Marketing Department

Member Address

Member Order

Member Phone Number

Member Services Department

Member Services System

Order

Order Confirmation Notice

Order Sales Tax

Order Status

Order Subtotal

Ordered Product

Ordered Product Information

Ordered Product Quantity

Past Member

Payments

Potential Member

Product

Product Inventory

Product Number

Street Address

Transaction

Warehouse

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Warehouse Packing Order

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SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition

Whitten Bentley Dittman

 

Analysis of the Potential Objects

 

POTENTIAL OBJECT LIST

 

REASON

Accounts Receivable Department

x

Not relevant for current project

Amount Due

x

Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER”

Club Member

/

/

Type of “MEMBER”

Credit Card Information

x

Attribute of “MEMBER”

Credit Problem Notice

x

Potential Interface item to be addressed in object-oriented design

Credit Status

x

Attribute of “MEMBER”

File

x

Not relevant for current project

Marketing Department

x

Not relevant for current project

Member Address

x

Attribute of “MEMBER”

Member Order

/

/

“MEMBER ORDER”

Member Phone Number

x

Attribute of “MEMBER”

Member Services Department

x

Not relevant for current project

Member Services System

x

Not relevant for current project

Order

x

Another name for “MEMBER ORDER”

Order Confirmation Notice

x

Potential Interface item to be addressed in object-oriented design

Order Sales Tax

x

Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER”

Order Status

x

Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER”

Order Subtotal

x

Attribute of “MEMBER ORDER”

Ordered Product

/

/

“MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT”

Ordered Product Information

x

Unclear noun

Ordered Product Quantity

x

Attribute of “MEMBER ORDERED PRODUCT”

Past Member

Past Member Type of “MEMBER”

Type of “MEMBER”

Payments

Payments Type of “TRANSACTION”

Type of “TRANSACTION”

Potential Member

Potential Member Type of “MEMBER”

Type of “MEMBER”

Product

/ / / /

/ / / /

“PRODUCT”

Product Inventory

x

Attribute of “PRODUCT”

Product Number

x

Attribute of “PRODUCT”

Street Address

x

Attribute of “MEMBER”

Transaction

/

/

“TRANSACTION”

Warehouse

x

Not relevant for current project

Warehouse Packing Order

x

Potential Interface item to be addressed in object-oriented design

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Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

• Sebuah use case menjelaskan interaksi antara user dengan sistem aplikasi.

• Sebagai contoh dalam sebuah sistem reservasi peminjaman mobil (rent a car), sebuah use case harus dapat menjelaskan apa yang user lakukan dengan sistem aplikasi dalam sebuah kejadian/event bisnis dalam sebuah proses bisnis. Misalnya reservasi sebuah mobil Ferrari untuk Pak Agus.

• Sebuah proses dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa use case jika dapat diketahui dengan jelas tiap-tiap kejadiannya atau jika bagian-bagian yang diidentifikasi tersebut dikerjakan oleh orang-orang yang berbeda.

• Jika diasumsikan sistem yang akan di analisa adalah Sistem Informasi Peminjaman Mobil (Rent a car) maka orang yang akan kita temui adalah:

Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

• Customer service (central telephone operator)

– Information

– Reservation

• Customer service (branch office)

– Vehicle hand-over

– Vehicle return

• Service personnel (branch office, vehicle clerk)

• Branch office management

• Phone service management

• Managing clerks, vehicle transfer staff, accounting staff (jika diperlukan)

Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

Objek-objek yang disebutkan diatas harus dapat diidentifikasi dan diberi nama. Sebagai contoh objek-objek tersebut adalah:

• Data customer

• Kontrak

• Invoice

• Konfirmasi reservasi

• Aturan pengembalian mobil

• Aturan pemarkiran

• Dokumentasi kendaraan

Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

• Aksesories yang ada dalam mobil

• Fixed accessories (AC, tape, sun roof)

• Kunci-kunci kendaraan

• File-file customer

• Alokasi / lot tempat parkir

• Contract condition / aturan kontrak

• Dsb.

Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

Identifikasi use case dan actor

• Gambar use case dari kasus diatas dapat dilihat pada gambar di bawah ini. Disini actor-nya adalah interested party yaitu customer, dan staff untuk reservasi (staff for reservation), penyerahan mobil yang akan dipinjam (vehicle hand-over) dan pengembalian mobil (vehicle return)

• Interested party (Calon customer) berbeda dengan Customer, karena calon customer biasanya belum ada datanya (anonymous), karena data mereka belum terdaftar

Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Car Rental Agency Advise, give information Interested Party
Developing Software Woth UML
Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh
Car Rental Agency
Advise, give
information
Interested Party
<<include>>
Reservation Staff
reserve
Stipulate contract
Customer
Handover vehicle
Hand-over staff
Take back vehicle
Driver
Return Staff
Invoice
Customer
Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

Business use case dan System use case

Dalam bisnis use case, actor adalah semua peran (role) yang terlibat dalam proses bisnis, sedangkan dalam system use case, mereka dibatasi hanya kepada mereka yang mempunyai kontak langsung dengan sistem aplikasi. Biasanya customer tidak memiliki akses langsung dengan sistem aplikasi, tetapi dalam bisnis use case mereka tetap dicatat. Jika customer dapat melakukan reservasi melalui self-service terminal atau melalui internet, mereka berinteraksi langsung dengan sistem aplikasi dan oleh karena itu mereka harus digambarkan dalam system use case.

Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Jika use case car rental agency diatas dikelompokkan,
Developing Software Woth UML
Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh
Jika use case car rental agency diatas dikelompokkan,
bentuknya :
Reservation
Advise,
Interested party
give information
<<include>>
Reservation
Reserve
Customer
Rental
Stipulate
Vehicle
contract
hand-over
Hand over
vehicle
Accept
Driver
return vehicle
Vehicle
Invoicing
return
Customer
Invoice
Addison-Wesley

Developing Software Woth UML

Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh

Menggunakan use case

• Menggambarkan use case dalam bentuk diagram elips adalah langkah pertama, setelah itu yang berikutnya adalah menjelaskannya dalam bentuk lebih detil lagi.

• Penjelasan detil dari use case adalah tujuan utama dari use case analysis untuk itu ada dua contoh yang menggambarkan use case lebih detil.

Addison-Wesley