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Introduction

All structures are composed of a number of interconnected elements. They enable the internal/external loads to be safely transmitted down to the ground, e.g. slabs beams columns walls foundations

Theory and Design of Structures I


Structural Loads & Response

Sequence of load transfer


Reactions R1 R1 R2 R2 Loads

Sequence of load transfer


From roof slab to beam From beam to column From floor slab to beam From beam to column

Transfer of loading

From column to foundation

It is usually assumed that the reaction from one element is a load on the next

Sequence of load transfer load path


Tributary

Sequence of load transfer

River

Sequence of load transfer is not clear.

The design process


The designer must make an assessment of the future likely level of loading to which the structure may be subjected during its design life.
Determination of design loads acting on the structure

Determination of design loads on individual elements

Nature of loading & design loads

Calculation of bending moments, shear forces and deflections of beams

Sizing of beams

Sizing of columns

Nature of loading & design loads

Nature of loading & design loads

Live load

Seismic disturbance

Wind load (gusts)

Temperature load (shrinkage?)

Nature of loading & design loads

Nature of loading & design loads


It is usually assumed that the dynamic loads on the building structures can be reduced to equivalent static loads, e.g. live loads seismic disturbances gusting of wind movement of machinery

Foundation settlement

Impact

Nature of loading & design loads


Actual loading: dynamic (not static); changing For design: equivalent static load LL uniform design load (on buildings) basic LL + impact allowance (on bridges) WL equivalent static load (kN/m2 of exposed surface area) EQL equivalent static load (% of gravity load) Others: essentially STATIC

Nature of loading & design loads


The loads acting on a structure are divided into different basic types: dead load live load wind load earthquake load loading from other sources For each type, the characteristic and design values must be estimated

Nature of loading & design loads


Wind load Live load Combination of loading Max axial load

Dead Loads (DL)

Most adverse effects

The designer will have to determine the particular combination of loading which is likely to produce the most adverse effect on the structure in terms of bending moments, shear forces, deflections, etc.

Dead Loads (DL)


DLs are all the permanent loads acting on the structure including: self-weight finishes fixtures partitions

Dead Loads (DL)


Estimation of the self-weight of an element cyclic process since its value can only be assessed once the element has been designed

LL DL

Dead Loads (DL)


Assume a cross-section DL LL BM, SF, etc Check if OK Yes End Revise crosssection No

Imposed Loads (IL) / Live Loads (LL)

Economical?

Live Loads (LL)


Imposed load or live load represents the load due to the proposed occupancy and includes: the weights of the occupants and furniture roof loads including snow They are much more variable than DL, and are more difficult to predict

Live Loads (LL)


Heavy live loads are rare There are a few medium live loads Most of the live loads are light

Live Loads (LL)


It is possible to concentrate a heavy load over a rather small area (0.2-0.6 m2) amounting to, say, 25 or 50 kN/m2 on that small area.

Live Loads (LL)


When a large tributary area (over 10 or 15 m2) is supported by a primary structural component, the significance of that concentration as compared with the overall load will be reduced correspondingly

Bigger equivalent UDL!

Smaller equivalent UDL

Live Loads (LL)


An average design load value can be assigned when the actual or probable type of building occupancy is known basic live load for application when considering the larger tributary areas For smaller areas, the effect of concentrated live load should be considered as a special case

Live Loads (LL)


Loading on a one-way slab supported on four beams

Live Loads (LL)


Column Primary beam Secondary beam
Medium tributary area of a corner column

Live Loads (LL)


Different types of live loads: L.L. on floors (depending on uses) L.L. on roof L.L. on bridges (impact factor or formula)

Large tributary area of a primary beam

Small tributary area of a secondary beam

Wind Loads (WL)


Wind load on a building is dynamic, but it is conveniently expressed as equivalent static load in kN/m2 of exposed surface area

Wind Loads (WL)

Wind loads vary with wind speed, surface shape, exposed area, etc

Wind Loads (WL)


Wind pressure can either add to the other gravitational forces acting on the structure or, equally well, exert suction or negative pressures on the structure

Wind Loads (WL)


Wind pressure primarily depends on its velocity the slope and shape of the surface the protection from wind offered by other structures and to a smaller degree the density of the air the surface texture

Wind Positive pressure

Suction or negative pressure

Wind Loads (WL)


Examples of wind-sensitive structures: long-span bridges (suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges) tall buildings slender towers Wind tunnel tests are often needed

Earthquake Loads (EQL)

The Structural Engineer 15 November 2005

Earthquake Loads (EQL)


EQL mainly lateral loads produced by earthquake dynamic, expressed as % of overall mass or gravity load (W) of a building The % may vary from 2% to 5% (of W) for tall buildings in moderate seismic zones 10% to 20% for short stiff buildings in active seismic zones

Earthquake Loads (EQL)


There are two basic objectives in design for earthquake: 1. To protect the public from loss of life and serious injury and to prevent buildings from collapse and dangerous damage under a maximum-intensity earthquake 2. To ensure buildings against any but very minor damage under moderate to heavy earthquakes

Earthquake Loads (EQL)


Earthquake resistance calls for energy absorption (or ductility) rather than strength only

Earthquake Loads (EQL)


Actual seismic loads depend on the following factors: 1. The intensity and character of the ground motion as determined at the source and its transmission to the building, e.g. max. ground acceleration, frequency spectrum, direction of motion, etc

Brittle

Ductile

No good!

Desirable!

Earthquake Loads (EQL)


2. The dynamic properties of the building, such as its mode shapes and periods of vibration and its damping characteristics
Mode shapes

Earthquake Loads (EQL)


3. The mass of the building as a whole or of its components Mass of building

F=ma
Certain amount of overstress allowed

Effect of damping

f0

f1
Frequencies

f2

Int. & ext. movement in structures


Internal movements or strains in a structure can be produced as a result of differential movement due to temperature variation across the structure.

Internal & External Movements in Structures

Int. & ext. movement in structures


If a structure is entirely free to expand and contract under temperature changes, then there may be no internal stresses produced.
Uniform rise in temperature

Int. & ext. movement in structures


Different parts of a building will be exposed to, and will respond differently to, environmental conditions Hot
Stresses induced

Linear distribution of temperature


Hot

Hot Cold Cold Stresses induced Hot

No stress induced

Int. & ext. movement in structures


To minimize the internal stresses and strains, provisions of expansion joints (or movement joints) is necessary, particularly along the roof lines and the outside walls of a building Such provisions may be unsightly and expensive
Movement joint (MJ) Movement joint

Int. & ext. movement in structures


Certain material such as concrete tends to shrink and/or creep under load as time goes on, and hence produces differential strains of one floor versus the other. Such deformations may also create stresses. Forces may also be created by unequal settlement of the foundations uniform settlement, no serious forces uneven foundation settlement may result in undesirable stresses and strains

Elevation of a large building

Movement joint

Abutment

Bearing

Bearing

Abutment

Example 1 Self-weight of a reinforced concrete beam


Calculate the self-weight of a reinforced concrete beam of breadth 300 mm, depth 600 mm and length 6000 mm.

Examples

Assuming that unit mass of reinforced concrete is 2400 kg/m3 and the gravitational constant is 10 m/s2 (strictly 9.807 m/s2), the unit weight of reinforced concrete, , is = 2400 10 = 24 000 N/m3 = 24 kN/m3 Hence, the self-weight of beam, SW, is SW= volume unit weight = (0.3 0.6 6) 24 = 25.92 kN

Example 2 Design loads on a floor beam

Example 2 Design loads on a floor beam


5m 3m 3m 3m

5m

3m

3m

3m

Unit weights of materials

Example 2: Design loads on a floor beam.

Example 2: Design loads on a floor beam.

A composite floor consisting of a 150 mm thick RC slab supported on steel beams spanning 5 m and spaced at 3 m centres is to be designed to carry an imposed load of 3.5 kN/m2. Assuming that the unit mass of the steel beams is 50 kg/m run, calculate the design loads on a typical internal beam.

RC ( = 2400kg/m3, gravitational constant 10m/s2) 2400 10 = 24 000 N/m3 = 24 kN/m3 Steel beams Unit mass of beam = 50 kg/m run Unit weight of beam = 50 10 = 500 N/m run = 0.5 kN/m run

Example 2 Design loads on a floor beam


5m

Example 2 Design loads on a floor beam


5m

Loading

3m

3m

3m

Slab DL = 0.15 24 = 3.6 kN/m2 IL= 3.5 kN/m2 Total load = 3.6 + 3.5 = 7.1 kN/m2 Beam DL = 0.5 kN/m run

Example 2: Design loads on a floor beam.

Loading

3m

3m

3m

Example 2: Design loads on a floor beam.

Total load (each internal beam supports a uniformly distributed load from a 3 m width of slab plus selfweight) Design load on beam = slab load + self-weight of beam = 7.1 5 3 + 0.5 5 = 109 kN UDL on beam = 109 kN / 5 m = 21.8 kN/m

Example 2 Design loads on a floor beam


5m

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


The floor shown below with an overall depth of 225 mm is to be designed to carry an imposed load of 3 kN/m2 plus floor finishes and ceiling loads of 1 kN/m2. Calculate the design loads acting on beams B1-C1, B2-C2 and B1-B3 and columns B1 and Cl. Assume that all the column heights are 3 m and that the beam and column weights are 70 and 60 kg/m run respectively.
3 3m 2 3m 1 3m A B 6m C

Loading

3m

3m

3m

Example 2: Design loads on a floor beam.

Alternatively, UDL on beam can be calculated as = 7.1 3 + 0.5 = 21.8 kN/m

Example 3. Design loads on floor beams and columns.

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


Unit weights of materials RC ( = 2400kg/m3, gravitational constant 10m/s2) 2400 10 = 24 000 N/m3 = 24 kN/m3 Steel beams Unit mass of beam = 70 kg/m run Unit weight of beam = 70 10 = 700 N/m run = 0.7 kN/m run Steel columns Unit mass of column = 60 kg/m run Unit weight of column = 60 10 = 600 N/m run = 0.6 kN/m run

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


Loading

Slab
DL (SW) = 0.225 24 = 5.4 kN/m2 DL (FF) = 1 kN/m2 Total DL = 5.4 + 1 = 6.4 kN/m2 IL= 3 kN/m2 Total load = 6.4 + 3 = 9.4 kN/m2

Beam
DL = 0.7 kN/m run

Column
DL = 0.6 kN/m run

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


3

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


3

RB1

6m Beam B1-C1

RC1

3m 2 3m 1 3m A B 6m C

RB2

6m Beam B2-C2

RC2

3m 2 3m 1 3m A B 6m C

Beam B1-C1

Example 3.

Design loads on floor beams and columns.

Beam B2-C2

Example 3.

Design loads on floor beams and columns.

Design load on beam B1-C1 = slab load + self-weight of beam = 9.4 6 1.5 + 0.7 6 = 88.8 kN RB1 = RC1 = 88.8 / 2 = 44.4 kN

Design load on beam B2-C2 = slab load + self-weight of beam = 9.4 6 3 + 0.7 6 = 173.4 kN RB2 = RC2 = 173.4/2 = 86.7 kN

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


3 3m

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


Beam B1-B3
3 3m

RB1

3m Beam B1-B3

3m

RB3
3m

Beam A1-B1 Column B1

Beam B1-C1
3m

1 3m 6m B C 3m 6m B C

Beam B1-B3

A Example 3.

Design loads on floor beams and columns.

Column B1

A Example 3.

Design loads on floor beams and columns.

Design load on beam B1-B3 = slab load + self-weight of beam + point load RB2 = (9.4 1.5 6 + 0.7 6) + 86.7 = 88.8 + 86.7 = 175.5 kN RB1 = RB3 = 175.5/2 = 87.75 kN

Beam B1-C1: RB1 = 44.4 kN Beam B1-B3: RB1 = 87.75 kN Beam A1-B1: RB1 = 0.73 / 2 = 1.05 kN (self-wt only) Column B1 = 0.63 = 1.8 kN (self-wt only) Total load = = 44.4 + 87.75 + 1.05 + 1.8 = 135 kN

Example 3 Design loads on floor beams and columns


Beam C1-C3
3 3m 2 3m

Beam B1-C1 Column C1


1 3m 6m B C

Column C1

A Example 3.

Response of Structures

Design loads on floor beams and columns.

Beam B1-C1: RC1 = 44.4 kN Beam C1-C3: RC1 = (86.7 + 4.2)/2 = 45.45 kN Column C1 = 0.63 = 1.8 kN (self-wt only) Total load = = 44.4 + 45.45 + 1.8 = 91.65 kN

Response of structures

Response of structures
The structure must be able to respond with proper behaviour and prescribed stability
Elastic behaviour Plastic behaviour Ultimate load Plastic range Elastic range of load
Ultimate load Plastic range Elastic range of load

Reserve load capacity Load

Wind or EQ load * Live load

Dead load

Deflection Life history of a structure (* only partial or zero live load is considered together with wind or EQ load).

Response of structures
DL only Very little deflection, if any, in the lateral direction LL + DL More deflection and higher stresses are produced locally
Elastic behaviour Plastic behaviour Ultimate load Plastic range

Response of structures
WL or EQL
higher forces and stresses are produced in various components one-third or so increase in allowable stresses is permitted since these loads occur rather infrequently
Elastic behaviour Plastic behaviour

Reserve load capacity

Reserve load capacity Load

Load

Wind or EQ load * Live load

Elastic range of load

Wind or EQ load * Live load

Dead load

Dead load

Deflection Life history of a structure (* only partial or zero live load is considered together with wind or EQ load).

Deflection Life history of a structure (* only partial or zero live load is considered together with wind or EQ load).

Response of structures
Reserve load capacity
takes care of unexpected events, e.g. high wind (margin of safety) keeps the behaviour of the structure within tolerable limits of movement and strain under the normally expected high wind or earthquake condition
Elastic behaviour Plastic behaviour Ultimate load Plastic range

Response of structures
Under catastrophic earthquakes, the building is permitted to extend into plastic range so that certain portions of the building will suffer minor damage
Elastic behaviour Plastic behaviour Ultimate load Plastic range Elastic range of load

Reserve load capacity

Reserve load capacity Load

Load

Wind or EQ load * Live load

Elastic range of load

Wind or EQ load * Live load

Dead load

Dead load

Deflection Life history of a structure (* only partial or zero live load is considered together with wind or EQ load).

Deflection Life history of a structure (* only partial or zero live load is considered together with wind or EQ load).

Building codes
It is normal practice to design buildings according to building code requirements Codes set up minimum requirements and serve as rough guides for design. They specify: minimum loading to be considered maximum stresses not to be exceeded Specified loading and allowable stresses are used as empirical approximations

Building Codes, Structural Behaviour and Strength

Structural behaviour and strength


Allowable stress or permissible stress approach

Structural behaviour and strength


Load factor method or ultimate strength method is a more rational approach than the allowable stress approach the specified load has to be multiplied by a factor to be equated to the (least) ultimate strength of the structure

c fc / (FOS) t ft / (FOS)

Pu
Safe P =

Pu Factor of safety

Structural behaviour and strength


Other points to check: deflections vibrations cracks human sensitivity to vibration * Simple rules often used (e.g. span / depth ratio, aspect ratio, etc)

Structural behaviour and strength


Drawback of load factor method difficult to predict the actual load capacity of a building uncertain about whether the structure behaves properly, e.g. excessive deflections/vibrations, cracks, etc Limit state design method is used instead in which both ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state are addressed

The End