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EC6211 CIRCUITS & DEVICES LABORATORY

OBSERVATION

Sri Venkateswara Co e!e o" En!ineerin! De#art$ent o" E e%tri%a an& E e%troni%s En!ineerin! EE21'' E e%tri%a Cir%(it La)orator*

Se+(en%e o" E,#eri$ents-

1. Verification of Ohms laws and Kirchhoffs Current Law using Mesh analysis. 2. Verification of Kirchhoffs Voltage Law using Nodal analysis. 3. Verification of eci!rocity "heorem. #. Verification of $u!er!osition "heorem. %. Verification of "he&enins and Nortons "heorem '. Verification of Ma(imum )ower "ransfer "heorem. *. Measurement of $elf +nductance of a Coil. ,. "ransient res!onse of L and C circuits for -C in!ut. .. /re0uency res!onse of $eries and )arallel esonance Circuits. 11. /re0uency res!onse of /irst Order 2igh and Low )ass /ilters. .E,#eri$ents / to 10 wi )e &one in a %*% e )asis1

INDE2
E,#t3 No3 Na$e o" t4e E,#eri$ent Date o" S()$ission Si!nat(re o" 5a%( t* 6e$)er

13 23 73 83 '3 63 /3 93

:3 103

Com!leted and $u3mitted on

$ignature of the /aculty Mem3er.


Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

a1 O4$;s Law-

)1 <ir%44o"";s C(rrent aw-

6o&e Ca %( ation-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

Veri"i%ation o" a1 O4$;s Law an& )1 <ir%44o"";s C(rrent Law (sin! 6es4 Ana *sis

Ai$a. "o calculate the current flowing through the gi&en circuit for &arious resistance &alues and hence &erify Ohms law. 3. "o calculate loo! currents 63y using mesh current analysis7 for the gi&en circuit and &erify Kirchhoffs current law.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3 No3 1.

Na$e o" t4e A##arat(s egulated )ower $u!!ly

Ran!e 61 8 317 V

T*#e -ual

=(antit* 1

2.

esistors

3. #. %. '.

)O" Milliammeter Voltmeter 9read 3oard

*.

Connecting :ires

>re%a(tions-

i. ii. iii. i&. &.

emo&e all !re&ious connections. $witch off the !ower su!!ly 3efore gi&ing the connections. Voltage ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in minimum !osition. Current ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in ma(imum !osition. )olarity of &oltages and direction of currents must 3e ta;en care.

>ro%e&(re-

a1 O4$;s Law-

1. 2. 3. #. %. '.

Connect the elements as !er the circuit diagram. Vary the )O" < - 9 in con&enient ste!s and measure the current through the milliammeter for each setting. /or each )O" setting= remo&e the )O" and measure its resistance using a multimeter. "a3ulate the o3ser&ed readings. Connect the )O" 3ac; to the circuit and re!eat ste!s 2 to #. Com!are the theoretical and !ractical &alues and hence &erify Ohms law.

6o&e Ca %( ation-

>ro%e&(re-

)1 <ir%44o"";s C(rrent Law-

1. 2. 3. #. %.

Connect the elements as !er the circuit diagram. Connect the milliammeter at a!!ro!riate loo!s to measure the loo! currents. $witch ON the )$ and &ary the &oltage ;no3 till the su!!ly &oltage is o3tained. "a3ulate and o3ser&e the milliammeter reading. e!eat ste!s 2 to # till all the loo! currents are measured.

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

a3 O4$;s Law-

V ? 20 @o ts3
s

5i,e& Resistan%e R ? 8/0 o4$s3

S3No3

Varia) e Resistan%e R in o4$s


1

Tota Resistan%e R ? R A R in o4$s


T 1

Loa& C(rrent I in $A
L

"heoretical

)ractical

)1 <ir%44o"";s C(rrent Law-

S3No3

Loo# C(rrent

T4eoreti%a @a (e .$A1

>ra%ti%a @a (e .$A1

Res( t-

"hus load current and mesh currents were com!uted. "hese &alues were com!ared with the e(!erimental &alues and hence Ohms law and Kirchhoffs law were &erified.

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

6o&e Ca %( ation-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

Veri"i%ation o" <ir%44o"";s Vo ta!e Law (sin! No&a Ana *sis

Ai$a7 "o calculate the &oltage dro! across resistors using Nodal analysis. 37 "o e(!erimentally &erify Kirchhoffs &oltage law 3y com!aring the theoretical and e(!erimental &alues.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3 No3

Na$e o" t4e Ran!e T*# =(antit* A##arat(s e 1. egulated )ower 61 8 317 -ual 1 $u!!ly V

2.

esistors

3. Voltmeter #. -igital Multimeter %. 9read 3oard '. Connecting :ires

>re%a(tions-

i. ii. iii. i&. &.

emo&e all !re&ious connections. $witch off the !ower su!!ly 3efore gi&ing the connections. Voltage ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in minimum !osition. Current ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in ma(imum !osition. )olarity of &oltages and direction of currents must 3e ta;en care.

>ro%e&(re-

1. 2. 3.

Connect the elements as !er the circuit diagram. $witch on the )$ and &ary the &oltage ;no3 till the gi&en &oltage &alue is reached. Csing &oltmeter measure and ta3ulate the &oltage across all elements !resent in the circuit.

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

S3 No3

Vo ta!e a%ross e e$ents

T4eoreti%a Va (e .@o ts1

>ra%ti%a Va (e .@o ts1

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Res( t-

a. "hus the node &oltages and &oltage across elements were o3tained using nodal analysis. 3. Kirchhoffs Voltage law was &erified 3y com!aring the !ractical &alues with the theoretical &alues.

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

6o&e Ca %( ation-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

Veri"i%ation o" Re%i#ro%it* T4eore$

Ai$-

"o e(!erimentally &erify eci!rocity "heorem 3y com!aring the theoretical and !ractical &alues of ratio of res!onse to e(citation.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3No3 1.

Na$e o" t4e Ran!e T*# =(antit* A##arat(s e egulated !ower su!!ly 61D -ual 1 31V7

2.

esistors

3. Milliammeter #. -igital Multimeter %. 9read 3oard '. Connecting wires

>re%a(tions-

i. ii. iii. i&. &.

emo&e all !re&ious connections. $witch off the !ower su!!ly 3efore gi&ing the connections. Voltage ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in minimum !osition. Current ;no3 of the )$ must 3e ;e!t in ma(imum !osition. )olarity of &oltages and direction of currents must 3e ta;en care.

State$ent-

eci!rocity theorem states that in any linear 3ilateral networ; the ratio of res!onse 6out!ut7 to e(citation 6in!ut7 in any element remains the same e&en when the !osition of in!ut and out!ut are interchanged.

>ro%e&(re-

1. 2. 3. #. %. '.

+dentify the !ositions of in!ut 8 out!ut com3ination as !osition 1 and !osition 2. Connect the elements as !er the circuit diagram for !osition 1. $witch on the )$ and &ary the &oltage ;no3 till the gi&en &oltage &alue is reached. Measure and ta3ulate the &alue of the current through the load resistance. e!eat ste!s 2 to # for !osition 2. /ind out the ratio of res!onse to e(citation in 3oth !ositions and ta3ulate them.

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

$u!!ly Voltage V E

&olts.

C(rrent in #osition 1 .$A1 "heoretical Measure d

C(rrent in #osition 2 .$A1 "heoretical Measure d

Res#onse to E,%itation Res#onse to E,%itation ratio .IDV1 >osition 1 ratio .IDV1 >osition 2

Res( t-

"hus the ratio of res!onse to e(citation was com!uted. com!aring the !ractical &alues with the theoretical &alues.

eci!rocity "heorem was &erified 3y

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

6o&e Ca %( ation-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5 Veri"i%ation o" S(#er#osition T4eore$

Ai$-

"o e(!erimentally &erify $u!er!osition theorem 3y com!aring the theoretical and !ractical &alues of the res!onses.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3No3 1.

Na$e o" t4e Ran!e T*# =(antit* A##arat(s e egulated !ower su!!ly 61D -ual 1 31V7

2.

esistors

3. Milliammeter #. -igital Multimeter %. 9read 3oard '. Connecting wires

>re%a(tions-

i. ii. iii. i&. &.

emo&e all !re&ious connections. $witch off the !ower su!!ly 3efore gi&ing the connections. "he &oltage ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in minimum !osition. "he current ;no3 of the )$ must 3e ;e!t in ma(imum !osition. )olarity of &oltages and direction of currents must 3e ta;en care.

State$ent-

$u!er!osition theorem states that in a linear 3ilateral networ; consisting of multi!le sources= the net res!onse in an element is gi&en 3y alge3raic sum of res!onses due to indi&idual sources acting alone.

>ro%e&(re-

1. 2.

+dentify the indi&idual res!onses + and + due to sources V and V res!ecti&ely. Connect the gi&en circuit so as to o3tain + first.6short circuit V 7
1L 2L 1 2 1L 2

3. #. %. '. *.

$witch on the )$ and &ary the &oltage ;no3 till the gi&en &oltage &alue of V is reached. Note down current through . Let it 3e + $hort circuit V and find the current through . Let it 3e + . :hen two &oltage sources are acting together find the current through . Let it 3e + . "a3ulate the o3ser&ed readings + = + and + .
1 L 1L. 1 L 2L L L 1L 2L L

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

I .$A1
1L

I .$A1
2L

I ? I A I .$A1
L 1L 2L

"heoretical )ractica "heoretica )ractica l l l

"heoretical

)ractical

Res( t-

"hus the indi&idual res!onses and net res!onse were o3tained theoretically and !ractically. $u!er!osition theorem was &erified 3y com!aring the !ractical &alues with the theoretical &alues.

Re"eren%es-

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112. Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

1. 2.

6o&e Ca %( ation-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

Veri"i%ation o" T4e@enin;s an& Norton;s T4eore$

Ai$-

"o calculate "he&enins resistance = "he&enins o!en circuit &oltage V = load current + and e(!erimentally &erify "he&enins and Nortons theorem.
"2 "2 L

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3 No3

Na$e o" t4e Ran!e T*# =(antit* A##arat(s e 1. egulated )ower 61 8 -ual 1 $u!!ly 317V

2.

esistors

3. Milliammeter #. Voltmeter %. Multimeter '. 9read 3oard *. Connecting :ires

>re%a(tions-

i. ii. iii. i&. &.

emo&e all !re&ious connections. $witch off the !ower su!!ly 3efore gi&ing the connections. Voltage ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in minimum !osition. Current ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in ma(imum !osition. )olarity of &oltages and direction of currents must 3e ta;en care.

State$enta1 T4e@enin;s T4eore$-

+n a linear 3ilateral networ;= the networ; 3eha&iour at any !air of terminals can 3e re!resented 3y a &oltage source in series with a resistance. "he &alue of the &oltage source is the o!en circuit &oltage which would 3e im!ressed across the !air of terminals. "he &alue of resistance is o3tained 3y loo;ing 3ac; into the networ; from the !air of terminals when all sources are remo&ed.

)1 Norton;s T4eore$-

+n a linear 3ilateral networ;= the networ; 3eha&iour at any !air of terminals can 3e re!resented 3y a current source in !arallel with a resistance. "he &alue of the current source is the short circuit current which would flow through the !air of terminals. "he &alue of resistance is o3tained 3y loo;ing 3ac; into the networ; from the !air of terminals when all sources are remo&ed. 6o&e Ca %( ation-

>ro%e&(re-

a1 To @eri"* T4e@enin;s T4eore$-

1. 2. 3.

Mar; the load terminals in the gi&en circuit as F and 9. emo&e the load resistance and connect the remaining circuit. $witch on the )$ and &ary the &oltage ;no3 till the gi&en &oltage &alue is reached. #. Csing multimeter measure and ta3ulate the "he&enins &oltage V across load terminals F and 9. %. -isconnect the )$ from the circuit. '. $hort circuit the nodes across which )$ was !resent earlier. *. Csing multimeter measure and ta3ulate the "he&enins e0ui&alent resistance as seen from the terminals F and 9. ,. -raw the "he&enins e0ui&alent circuit. .. Connect the elements as !er the "he&enins e0ui&alent circuit. 11. Connect the milliammeter in series with the load resistance . 11. Note down the &alue of load current + .
"2 "2 L L

)1 To @eri"* Norton;s T4eore$-

1. 2. 3.

#.
%. '.

*.
,.

Mar; the load terminals in the gi&en circuit as F and 9. emo&e the load resistance and connect a milliammeter 3etween F and 9. $witch on the )$ and &ary the &oltage ;no3 till the gi&en &oltage &alue is reached. Note down the milliammeter reading. "his gi&es Nortons current + . -isconnect the )$ from the circuit. $hort circuit the nodes across which )$ was !resent earlier. Csing multimeter measure and ta3ulate the Nortons e0ui&alent resistance as seen from the terminals F and 9. -raw the Nortons e0ui&alent circuit.
N N

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

a1 T4e@enin;s T4eore$-

T4e@enin;s Vo ta!e V .@o ts1 "heoretical


TE

T4e@enin;s E+(i@a ent Resistan%e R .o4$s1


TE

Loa& C(rrent I .$A1 )ractica l "heoretical

)ractica l

"heoretical

)ractical

)3

Norton;s T4eore$-

Norton;s C(rrent I .$A1


N

Norton;s E+(i@a ent Resistan%e R .o4$s1 )ractica l "heoretical

Loa& C(rrent I .$A1


L

"heoretical

)ractica l

"heoretical

Res( t-

a. "he&enins e0ui&alent circuit !arameters V and


"2 L

were !ractically o3tained and com!ared with theoretical &alues. 3. "he load current + was measured from the "he&enins e0ui&alent circuit and com!ared with theoretical &alue. c. Nortons e0ui&alent circuit !arameters + and were !ractically o3tained and com!ared with theoretical &alues.
"2 N "2

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

6o&e Ca %( ation-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

Veri"i%ation o" 6a,i$($ >ower Trans"er T4eore$

Ai$-

"o calculate "he&enins resistance theorem.

"2

and e(!erimentally &erify ma(imum !ower transfer

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3 No3 1.

Na$e o" t4e T*# Ran! =(antit* A##arat(s e e egulated )ower

$u!!ly

2.

esistors

3. )O" #. Milliammeter %. Voltmeter '. -igital Multimeter *. 9read 3oard ,. Connecting :ires

>re%a(tions-

i. ii. iii. i&. &.

emo&e all !re&ious connections. $witch off the !ower su!!ly 3efore gi&ing the connections. Voltage ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in minimum !osition. Current ;no3 of the )$ must 3e in ma(imum !osition. )olarity of &oltages and direction of currents must 3e ta;en care.

State$ent-

+n a linear 3ilateral networ;= ma(imum !ower will 3e transferred across a load when its &alue is e0ual to the "he&enins e0ui&alent resistance.

6o&e Ca %( ation-

>ro%e&(re-

1.

2.
3. #. %. '.

*. ,.
..

Connect the elements as !er the circuit diagram. Connect )O" in !lace of load resistance . Vary the )O" < - 9 in con&enient ste!s and measure the current through the milliammeter for each setting. emo&e the )O" and measure the resistance &alue using multimeter. Connect the )O" 3ac; to the original circuit. e!eat ste!s 3 to % and ta3ulate the o3ser&ed readings. Com!ute the !ower dissi!ated in load resistance . )lot load resistance &ersus load !ower ) . O3ser&e and ta3ulate the ma(imum !ower and the resistance at which it occurs.
L L L L

6o&e Fra#4-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

S3No3

Loa& Resistan%e R in o4$s


L

Loa& C(rrent I in $A
L

>ower > ? I R in watts


L 2 L L

Res( t-

"hus the &alue of load resistance 6 7 at which ma(imum !ower is transferred is calculated theoretically and &erified e(!erimentally. F !lot of load resistance &ersus load !ower ) was !lotted. "hus ma(imum !ower transfer theorem is &erified.
L L L

T4e@enin;s Resistan%e R .o4$s1 T4eoreti%a


TE

Loa& C(rrent w4en R ? R .$A1


L TE

>ower &issi#ate& a%ross oa& > .$C1


L

>ra%ti%a T4eoreti%a

>ra%ti%a T4eoreti%a

>ra%ti%a

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111.

#.

S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

esistance

E '0 ohms.

Multi!lication /actor 6M./7 of :attmeter E

S3No3

S(## * Vo ta!e V .V1


s

In#(t C(rrent I.A1

Rea I$#e&an%e Resistan%e >ower G. 1 . 1 >.C1 O)s A% t R


Tota

In&(%ti@e Rea%tan%e 2 . 1
L

Se " In&(%tan%e L.E1

int

O)s5 O3ser&ed eading= A%t5 Fctual eading 6O3s ( Multi!lication /actor7

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

6eas(re$ent o" Se " In&(%tan%e o" a Coi

Ai$"o determine the self inductance and internal resistance of the gi&en coil.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3No3

Na$e o" t4e A##arat(s

Ran!e 231 < 61 8 2*1 V7= 1 ;VF %1 G < % F 61 8 311V7 61 8 %F7 311V= %F

1. $ingle !hase auto transformer 2. 3. #. %. '. heostat Voltmeter Fmmeter :attmeter Coil

T*# =(antit* e 1 1 M+ 1 M+ 1 L)/ 1 1

5or$( ae-

i. ii. iii.

i&.

6henry7

>re%a(tions-

i. "he autotransformer should 3e ;e!t in minimum !otential !osition.

>ro%e&(re-

1. 2. 3. #. %.

Connections are gi&en as !er the circuit diagram. "he autotransformer is adHusted to set the in!ut &oltage at a !articular &alue. "he &oltmeter= ammeter and wattmeter readings are noted down. "he a3o&e ste! is re!eated till the in!ut &oltmeter shows rated &oltage 6231V7. Csing the formulae= the re0uired !arameters are calculated and ta3ulated.

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Res( t-

"hus the self inductance and internal resistance of the gi&en coil was !ractically determined and found to 3e a7 L E 2= 37 E .
int

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

6o&e Fra#4-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5 Transient Res#onse o" RL an& RC Cir%(its "or DC In#(t

Ai$-

"o o3tain the transient res!onse and measure the time constant of a series L and C circuit for -C in!ut.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3No3

Na$e o" t4e A##arat(s

Ran! T*# =(antit* e e

1.

esistors

2. +nductor 3. Ca!acitor #. /unction @enerator %. C O '. C O )ro3es *. 9read3oard and connecting wires -ual 1 1 2

>re%a(tion-

i.

Choose the in!ut fre0uency / in function generator such that = is the circuit time constant.67
in

>ro%e&(re-

1. 2. 3. #. %. '. *.

Ma;e the connections as !er the circuit diagram. Choose s0uare wa&e mode in signal generator Csing C O= adHust the am!litude to 3e 2 &olts !ea; to !ea;. "a;e care of the !recaution and set the in!ut fre0uency. 67 O3ser&e and !lot the out!ut wa&eform. Calculate the time re0uired 3y the out!ut to reach 1.'32 times the final &alue 6!ea;7. "his &alue gi&es the !ractical time constant. "a3ulate the theoretical and !ractical &alues.

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Res( t-

"hus the transient wa&eform is o3tained for a series L and C circuit and the time constant is com!uted !ractically and theoretically. "he theoretical and !ractical time constants are gi&en 3y5

"heoretical "ime Constant E

)ractical "ime Constant E

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it

Dia!ra$-

6o&e Fra#4-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

5re+(en%* Res#onse o" Series an& >ara e Resonan%e Cir%(its

Ai$"o o3tain the fre0uency res!onse of series and !arallel resonant circuits.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3No3 1.

Na$e o" t4e A##arat(s esistors

Ran! T*# =(antit* e e

2. +nductor 3. Ca!acitor #. /unction @enerator %. C O '. C O )ro3es *. 9read3oard and connecting wires -ual 1 1 2

5or$( a-

i.

esonant /re0uency

ii.

9andwidth

iii.

Iuality /actor

>ro%e&(re-

1. 2. 3. #. %. '.

Connect the elements as shown in the circuit diagram. $witch on the function generator and set it in sine wa&e mode. Choose a !articular fre0uency 6say 1 ;2J7 in the function generator. :ith the hel! of C O= adHust the in!ut &oltage to 3e 1 &olts !ea; &alue. educe the in!ut fre0uency to 111 2J. $tarting from 111 2J= o3ser&e and ta3ulate the !ea; &alues of out!ut &oltage for &arious in!ut fre0uencies well 3eyond the resonant fre0uency 6say u! to 2 M2J7. *. Calculate and ta3ulate the current magnitude using Ohms law. ,. e!eat the a3o&e ste!s for one more resistance &alue. .. )lot a gra!h 3etween fre0uencies &ersus current in a semi 8 log sheet. 11. O3ser&e the resonant fre0uency / from the !lot and ta3ulate it. 11. Calculate the u!!er and lower cut 8 off fre0uencies from the gra!h and note down. 12. Calculate the 0uality factor and 3andwidth 6for 3oth the resistance &alues7 using the gi&en formulae and ta3ulate it.
r

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

a1 Series Resonant Cir%(it-

+n!ut Voltage V E 2 V 6!ea; to !ea;7


in

5re+(en%* " .EH1

Resistan%e R ?
o

Resistan%e R ?
o

>eak @a (e o" o(t#(t @o ta!e V C(rren >eak @a (e o" o(t#(t @o ta!e V C(rrent .@o ts1 t .@o ts1

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

)1 >ara e Resonant Cir%(it-

+n!ut Voltage V E 2 V 6!ea; to !ea;7


in

5re+(en%* " .EH1

Resistan%e R ?
o

Resistan%e R ?
o

>eak @a (e o" o(t#(t @o ta!e V C(rren >eak @a (e o" o(t#(t @o ta!e V C(rrent .@o ts1 t .@o ts1

Res( t-

"hus the fre0uency res!onse of a series and !arallel LC circuits were o3tained. "he following !arameters were o3tained e(!erimentally and from the fre0uency res!onse !lot.

a1 Series Resonant Cir%(it-

"heoretical esonant /re0uency E

2J.

)ractical esonant /re0uency E

2J.

Resistan%e .o4$s1

U##er C(t O"" 5re+(en%* " .EH1


2

Lower C(t O"" 5re+(en%* " .EH1


1

=(a it* 5a%tor =

Ban&wi&t4 B3C3 .EH1 T4eoreti%a >ra%ti%a

)1 >ara e Resonant Cir%(it-

"heoretical esonant /re0uency E

2J.

)ractical esonant /re0uency E U##er C(t O"" Resistan%e 5re+(en%* .o4$s1 " .EH1
2

2J. Lower C(t O"" 5re+(en%* " .EH1


1

=(a it* 5a%tor =

Ban&wi&t4 B3C3 .EH1 T4eoreti%a >ra%ti%a

Re"eren%es-

1. 2.

T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.

Cir%(it Dia!ra$-

6o&e Fra#4-

4(!eriment No5

-ate5

5re+(en%* Res#onse o" Low >ass an& Ei!4 >ass 5i ters

Ai$-

a7 "o construct and study the fre0uency res!onse characteristics of !assi&e low !ass and high !ass filter. 37 "o com!are the theoretical and !ractical cut 8 off fre0uency.

A##arat(s Re+(ire&-

S3No3 1.

Na$e o" t4e A##arat(s esistor

Ran! T*# =(antit* e e 1 1 ; 1.1 / 1

2. Ca!acitor

3. C O #. /unction @enerator %. C O )ro3es '. 9read3oard and connecting wires

-ual

1 1 2

5or$( aei. Cut 8 Off fre0uency ii. @ain in d9 E where V E Out!ut Voltage 6&olts7 and V E +n!ut Voltage 6&olts7
o in

Desi!ni. Cut 8 Off fre0uency ii. /or the gi&en cut off fre0uency= assume the &alue of ca!acitance 6say 1.1 K/7. iii. 9y using the a3o&e formula= find the &alue of resistance.

>ro%e&(re-

Connect the elements as shown in the circuit diagram. $witch on the function generator and set it in sine wa&e mode. Choose a !articular fre0uency 6say 1 ;2J7 in the function generator. :ith the hel! of C O= adHust the in!ut &oltage to 3e 1 &olts !ea; &alue. educe the in!ut fre0uency to 111 2J. $tarting from 111 2J= o3ser&e and ta3ulate the !ea; &alues of out!ut &oltage for &arious in!ut fre0uencies well 3eyond the cut 8 off fre0uency 6say u! to 2 M2J7. *. Calculate the gain in d9 using the gi&en formulae and ta3ulate them. ,. )lot a gra!h 3etween fre0uencies &ersus gain in d9 in a semi 8 log sheet. .. Calculate the !ractical cut 8 off fre0uency from the gra!h and note it down. Ta)( ar Co ($n-

1. 2. 3. #. %. '.

a1 Low >ass 5i ter-

+n!ut Voltage V E 2 &olts 6!ea; to !ea;7


in

S3No3

In#(t 5re+(en%* 5 .EH1


in

O(t#(t Vo ta!e V .@o ts1


o

Fain in &B ?

6o&e Ca %( ation-

Ta)( ar Co ($n-

)1 Ei!4 >ass 5i ter-

+n!ut Voltage V E 2 &olts 6!ea; to !ea;7


in

S3No3

In#(t 5re+(en%* 5 .EH1


in

O(t#(t Vo ta!e V .@o ts1


o

Fain in &B ?

Res( t-

a7 "hus !assi&e low !ass and high !ass filters ha&e 3een constructed and their fre0uency res!onse has 3een o3tained.

37 "he theoretical and !ractical cut 8 off fre0uencies of 3oth filters ha&e 3een o3tained and ta3ulated 3elow.

Na$e o" t4e 5i ter

C(t O"" 5re+(en%* .EH1 "heoretical )ractical

Low )ass /ilter

2igh )ass /ilter

Re"eren%es-

1. T4eo&ore 53 Bo!art= >Electric Circuits?= 2nd ed.= @lencoe 8 Mc@raw 2ill= New Aor;= 1.... 2. C4ar es A S%4( er an& Ri%4ar& B3 5ow er= >Electric Circuits Analysis?= Mc@raw 2ill +nternational 4dition= New Aor;= 1..3. 3. Ba$es C3 Ni son an& S(san A3 Rie&e = >Electric Circuits?= )rentice 2all +nternational +nc.= New Bersey= 2111. #. S(&4akar3 A an& S4*a$$o4an S3 >i a*= >Circuits and Networks Analysis and Synthesis ?= 2nd ed.= "ata Mc@raw 2ill )u3lication Co. Ltd.= New -elhi= 2112.