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# Engi3055 Final Examination Page 2 of 11

STRESS ANALYSIS
Stress vector on an oblique plane P having the directional cosines ( ) , , n li mj nk l m n = + + =

is

p px py pz
i j k o o o o = + +

where
; ;
px xx xy xz py xy yy yz pz xz yz zz
l m n l m n l m n o o o o o o o o o o o o = + + = + + = + +
Normal and shear stress on an oblique surface

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 ,
pN xx yy zz xy yz xz pS px py pz pN
l m n lm mn ln o o o o o o o o o o o o = + + + + + = + +
Octahedral stress

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 1
2 2
2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2
1 1 1
3 3 3
1
6
3
1 2 2
3 9 3
oct xx yy zz
oct xx yy yy zz zz xx xy yz zx
I
I I
o o o o o o o
t o o o o o o o o o
o o o o o o
= + + = + + =
= + + + + +
= + + =

Stress transformation at a point

( )
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
XX xx yy zz xy yz xz
YY xx yy zz xy yz xz
ZZ xx yy zz xy yz xz
XY xx yy zz xy yz
l m n l m m n l n
l m n l m m n l n
l m n l m m n l n
l l m m n n l m l m m n
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
= + + + + + ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 1 1 2 2 1
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3 3 2
1 3 1 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 1 1 3 3 1
xz
YZ xx yy zz xy yz xz
XZ xx yy zz xy yz xz
m n l n l n
l l m m n n l m l m m n m n l n l n
l l m m n n l m l m m n m n l n l n
o
o o o o o o o
o o o o o o o
+ + +
= + + + + + + + +
= + + + + + + + +

Principal stresses (3D)

3 2
1 2 3
0 I I I o o o + =
where
1
2 2 2
2
3
xx yy zz
xx yy yy zz zz xx xy yz zx
xx xy xz
xy yy yz
xz yz zz
I
I
I
o o o
o o o o o o o o o
o o o
o o o
o o o
= + +
= + +
=

And the roots of the cubic equation are
( )
( )
( )
1
1 3
1
1 3
1
1 3
2 1
1 1 1
1 2 9 3 3
3 3
1 2
1 2 3 1 3 27
2 cos
2 cos 120
2 cos 240
, cos
2
,
a
o
b
o
c
S I
S I
S I
Q
S I I
T
T S Q I I I I
o o
o o
o o
o

= +
= + +
= + +
| |
= =
|
\ .
= =

Directional cosines ( ) , , l m n corresponding to the principal stress o
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
0
0
0
1
xx xy xz
xy yy yz
xz yz zz
l m n
l m n
l m n
l m n
o o o o
o o o o
o o o o
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =

Maximum shear stress

1 3
max
2
o o
t

=
Plane stress:

0
zz xz yz
o o o = = =

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
sin 2 cos 2
2
xx yy xx yy
XX xy
xx yy
XY xy
o o o o
o u o u
o o
o u o u
+
= + +

= +

Engi3055 Final Examination Page 3 of 11

Principal stresses and directions in plane stress

( )
1 2
2
2
2
; ; tan 2 ;
,
2 2
xy
avg avg p
xx yy
xx yy xx yy
avg xy
R R
R
o
o o o o u
o o
o o o o
o o
= + = =

+ | |
= = +
|
\ .

Maximum in-plane shear stress and its corresponding direction

( )
max
in-plane
; tan 2
2
xx yy
s
xy
R
o o
t u
o

= =
Equilibrium equations in Cartesian coordinate system
0
0
0
xy
xx xz
x
xy yy yz
y
yz
xz zz
z
B
x y z
B
x y z
B
x y z
o
o o
o o o
o
o o
c
c c
+ + + =
c c c
c c c
+ + + =
c c c
c
c c
+ + + =
c c c

and in Cylindrical coordinate system

1
0
1
2 0
1
0
r rr rr rz
r
r z r
z rz zz rz
z
B
r r z r
B
r r z r
B
r r z r
u uu
u uu u u
u
u
o o o o o
u
o o o o
u
o o o o
u
c c c
+ + + + =
c c c
c c c
+ + + + =
c c c
c c c
+ + + + =
c c c

STRAIN ANALYSIS
Strain in terms of displacement in Cartesian coordinate system
, , , 2 , 2 , 2
xx yy zz xy xy yz yz zx zx
u v w u v v w w u
x y z y x z y x z
c c c c c c
c c c c c c c c c
= = = = = + = = + = = +
c c c c c c c c c

and in Cylindrical coordinate system

1 1
, , , 2 , 2 , 2
rr zz r r z z zr zr
u v w u v v v w w u
r z r r r z r r z
uu u u u u
c c c c c c
u u u
c c c c c c c c c
= = = = = + = = + = = +
c c c c c c c c c

Compatibility relations

2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 , 2 , 2 ,
, ,
yy xy yy yz
xx xx xz zz zz
xy yz yy xy zy yz xy
xz xz xx xz zz
y x x y z y y z x z x z
x y z z x z y x z y y z y x y z x x y
c c c c
c c c c c
c c c c c c c
c c c c c
c c c c
c c c c c
+ = + = + =
c c c c c c c c c c c c
c c c c c c c
c c c c c
+ = + + = + + = +
c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c cx z c

Principal strains (3D)

3 2
1 2 3
0 I I I c c c + =
where
1
2 2 2
2
3
xx yy zz
xx yy yy zz zz xx xy yz zx
xx xy xz
xy yy yz
xz yz zz
I
I
I
c c c
c c c c c c c c c
c c c
c c c
c c c
= + +
= + +
=

Directional cosines ( ) , , l m n
( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
xx xy xz
xy yy yz
xz yz zz
l m n
l m n
l m n
c c c c
c c c c
c c c c
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =

Engi3055 Final Examination Page 4 of 11

HOOKES LAW
For isotropic materials

( )
( )
( )
1
,
1
,
1
,
xy
xx xx yy zz xy
yz
yy yy zz xx yz
xz
zz zz xx yy xz
E G
E G
E G
o
c o v o o
o
c o v o o
o
c o v o o
(
= + =

( = + =

(
= + =

or

1
2 ,
2 ,
2 ,
xx xx xy xy
yy yy yz yz
zz zz xz xz
xx yy zz
e G G
e G G
e G G
e I
o c o
o c o
o c o
c c c
= + =
= + =
= + =
= + + =

or

( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 ,
1 1 2 2 1 1
1 ,
1 1 2 2 1 1
1 ,
1 1 2 2 1 1
xx xx yy zz xy xy xy
yy yy zz xx yz yz yz
zz zz xx yy zx zx zx
E E E
E E E
E E E
o v c v c c o c
v v v v
o v c v c c o c
v v v v
o v c v c c o c
v v v v
(
= + + = =

+ + +
( = + + = =

+ + +
(
= + + = =

+ + +

Plane stress ( 0
zz zx zy
o o o = = = )

( )
( )
( )
2
2
,
1
,
1
2 1 1
xx xx yy
yy yy xx
xy xy xy
E
E
E E
o c vc
v
o c vc
v
o c
v v
= +

= +

= =
+ +

Plane strain ( 0
zz zx zy
c c c = = = )

( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
1 ,
1 1 2
1 ,
1 1 2
,
1 1 2
2 1 1
xx xx yy
yy xx yy
zz xx yy
xy xy xy
E
E
E
E E
o v c vc
v v
o vc v c
v v
v
o c c
v v
o c
v v
( = +

+
( = +

+
( = +

+
= =
+ +

Thermoelasticity

( )
( )
( )
1
,
1
,
1
,
xy
xx xx yy zz xy
yz
yy yy zz xx yz
xz
zz zz xx yy xz
T
E G
T
E G
T
E G
o
c o v o o o
o
c o v o o o
o
c o v o o o
(
= + + A =

( = + + A =

(
= + + A =

or

2 ,
2 ,
2 ,
xx xx xy xy
yy yy yz yz
zz zz xz xz
e G c T G
e G c T G
e G c T G
o c o
o c o
o c o
= + A =
= + A =
= + A =

Material constants

( )
( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
3 2
, , , , 3 2
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
G G E E E
E G c G
G G
v
v o o
v v v v
+
= = = = = + =
+ + + +

For orthotropic materials
Engi3055 Final Examination Page 5 of 11

1
,
1
,
1
,
yx xy
zx
xx xx yy zz xy
x y z xy
xy zy yz
yy xx yy zz yz
x y z yz
yz
xz xz
zz xx yy zz xz
x y z xz
E E E G
E E E G
E E E G
v o
v
c o o o
v v o
c o o o
v
v o
c o o o
= =
= + =
= + =

and
, ,
yx xy zy yz
zx xz
y x z x z y
E E E E E E
v v v v
v v
= = =

or

11 12 13 44
12 22 23 55
13 23 33 66
,
,
,
xx xx yy zz xy xy
yy xx yy zz yz yz
zz xx yy zz xz xz
C C C C
C C C C
C C C C
o c c c o
o c c c o
o c c c o
= + + =
= + + =
= + + =

FORSION
Circular cross section

4
, , 0; ;
; ;
2
u yz v xz w Gyi Gxj
T Tr
J r
GJ J
u u t u u
t
u t
= = = = +
= = =

General shape of the cross section
( ) , , , ; 2 ; ,
zx zy
A
u yz v xz w x y T dxdy
y x
| |
u u u | o o
c c
= = = = = =
c c
}}

2 2
2 2
2 and const on the boundary G
x y
| |
u |
c c
+ = =
c c

Elliptical cross section

( )
( )
2 2
max 3 3 2
2
, when
T b h
T
h b
G b h bh
u t
t t
+
= = s

Equilateral triangle cross section (h is the height of the triangle)

max 4 3
15 3 15 3
,
2
T T
Gh h
u t = =

Torsion of thin-walled members open section
( ) ( )( )
3 1
, 2 , 2 2
3
T T
h J b h
GJ J
u t = = =

Rectangular cross section
( )( )
( )( )
3
1
1 max 2
2
2
2 2 , 2 ,
2 2
k T T
J k b h G h
k GJ
k b h
t u u = = = =

Hollow thin-walled section

2
1 1 4
, ,
1
2 2 2
T q T A
q t dl dl J
A GA GA t GJ
dl
t
t u t = = = = = =
} }
}

BENDING
Unsymmetric bending

( )
2 2
tan
, is the angle of neutral axis.
tan
x y y xy y x x xy x
zz
x y xy x y xy x xy
M I M I M I M I M y x
y x
I I I I I I I I
o
o o
o
+ +
= =

cot
tan , is the angle of plane of load.
cot
y x x xy xy x
x y y xy y xy
M I M I I I
M I M I I I
|
o |
|
+
= =
+

( )
2
2 2
2 2
, tan ,
x y y xy
x y xy
M I M I
d v
u v u v
dx E I I I
o o
+
= = = +

Curved beam

( )
( ) ( )
, ,
m
n m
m m m
M A rA
N AM dA
R A
A A RA A r A M A RA N r
uu
o

= + = =
+
}

( )
, , ,
r r
m m
rr m
m a a
AA A A T A dA
T N M A dA A
tr A A RA A r
o
' ' '
' ' = = + = =

} }

SHEAR CNETRE FOR THIN-WALL BEAM
Engi3055 Final Examination Page 6 of 11

2 2
y y x xy x x y xy
x y xy x y xy
V I V I V I V I
q t A y A x
I I I I I I
t

' ' ' ' = = +

THICK-WALL CYLINDER
Stress and radial displacement for constant temperature
Closed end

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
1 2
2 2 2 2
rr
zz
p a p b a b
p p
b a r b a
p a p b a b
p p
b a r b a
p a p b P
b a b a
uu
o
o
o
t

= +

= +

( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2 2
1 2 1
r a b P
u p a p b p p
r E b a
v v v
t
(
= + +
(

Open end

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2
1 2 2 2 2 2 2
0 in the absence of axial force
rr
zz
p a p b a b
p p
b a r b a
p a p b a b
p p
b a r b a
uu
o
o
o

= +

=

( )
( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 2 1 2 2 2 2
1 1
r a b
u p a p b p p
r E b a
v v
(
= + +
(

Stress for temperature change only

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
ln ln
2 1 ln
1 ln ln
2 1 ln
2
1 2ln ln
2 1 ln
rr
zz rr
a b r
ET b b
b
r a r b a
a
a b r
ET b b
b
r a r b a
a
ET b a b
b
r a r b a
a
uu
uu
o
o
v
o
o
v
o
o o o
v
(

( = +

(

(
+
( =

(

(
( = + =

(

Rotating disk for constant temperature
Disk with a hole

( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
3 1 3
3 3
1 , 1
8 8 3
rr
a r
a r a a
b b
b r b r
uu
v v
v v
o e o e
v
( + + ( + +
= + = + +
(
(
+

Maximum stresses

2
2
2 2 2 2
,max ,max 2
3 3 1
1 occurs at , 1 occurs at
8 4 3
rr
a a
b r ab b r a
b b
uu
v v v
o e o e
v
| | + + | |
= = = + =
| |
+
\ .
\ .

( )( )
( )
( )( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 3
1 3 1 3
1
8 8 8
a b
u a b r r
E r
v v v v
e v
+ + + (
= + +
(

Solid disk

( )
( )
2
2
2 2 2 2
2 2
1 3
3 3
1 , 1
8 8 3
rr
r
r
b b
b b
uu
v
v v
o e o e
v
( + ( + +
= =
(
(
+

Maximum stresses

2 2
,max ,max
3
occurs at 0
8
rr
b r
uu
v
o o e
+
= = =