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FOUNDED 1862

ABA

Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts

February 2000

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MISSION
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ABS

Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts

February 2000

American Bureau of Shipping Incorporated by Act of the Legislature of the State of New York 1862

Copyright 2000 American Bureau of Shipping ABS Plaza 16855 Northchase Drive Houston, TX 77060 USA

This Guide represents the latest position of the American Bureau of Shipping in this subject and is being released for trial use. ABS will consider the modification of these requirements as necessary and appropriate.

Foreword
This Guide is applicable to motor pleasure craft 24 m (79 ft) or greater in length overall up to Elm (200 ft) in length, that are not required to be assigned a load line. Application to vessels outside these limits will be specially considered. The format in Sections 8 to 11 is a change from other ABS Rules in that design loads are defined together with stress/deflection criteria for three materials, i.e. steel, aluminum and FRP. The equations are based on the current design practice and satisfactory service experiences. The machinery Sections are developed from the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels Under 90 meters (295 feet) in Length incorporating refinements since 1983. This Guide is being released at this time, with the intent that modifications will be made as may be found necessary and appropriate so that formal Rules may be published after a reasonable period of its trial use. The subject February 2000 edition is a consolidation of the November 1990 edition into which the Corrigenda No. 1, dated August 1992 and the Rule Change Notice No. 2 dated January 1997 have been incorporated, together with some minor additional editorial changes for clarification purposes.

Contents
Guide for Building and Classing Motor Pleasure Yachts

Section 1 Scope and Conditions of Classification 2 Definitions 3 General 4 Materials 5 Fabrication and Quality Control 6 Structural Arrangement 7 Details and Fastenings 8 Design Pressures 9 Hull Scantlings, High Speed Craft 10 Hull Scantlings, Displacement Craft 11 Longitudinal Strength 12 Keels, Stems, Stern Frames and Shaft Struts 13 Rudders 14 Closing Appliances and Bulwarks, Rails, Vents, Ventilators and Freeing Ports, Portlights and Windows 15 Welding 16 Equipment 17 Corrosion Prevention and Protective Coatings 18 Propulsion, Steering Gear and Auxiliary Machinery 19 Shafting and Propellers 20 Pumps and Piping Systems 21 Electrical Installations 22 Fire Extinguishing Systems 24 Surveys after Construction

SECTION

Scope and Conditions of Classification 1.1 Classification 1.1.1 Process The Classification process consists of a) the development of rules, guides, standards and other criteria for the design and construction of marine vessels and structures, for materials, equipment and machinery, b) the review of design and survey during and after construction to verify compliance with such rules, guides, standards or other criteria, c) the assignment and registration of class when such compliance has been verified, and d) the issuance of a renewable Classification certificate, with annual endorsements, valid for five years. The Rules and standards are developed by Bureau staff and passed upon by committees made up of naval architects, marine engineers, shipbuilders, engine builders, steel makers and by other technical, operating and scientific personnel associated with the worldwide maritime industry. Theoretical research and development, established engineering disciplines, as well as satisfactory service experience are utilized in their development and promulgation. The Bureau and its committees can act only upon such theoretical and practical considerations in developing Rules and standards. For classification, vessels are to comply with both the hull and the machinery requirements of the Rules. 1.1.2 Certificates and Reports a. Plan review and surveys during and after construction are conducted by the Bureau to verify to itself and its committees that a vessel, structure, item of material, equipment or machinery is in compliance with the Rules, Guides, standards or other criteria of the Bureau and to the satisfaction of the attending surveyor. All reports and certificates are issued solely for the use of the Bureau, its committees, its clients and other authorized entities. b. The Bureau will release information from reports and certificates to the Port State to assist in rectification of Such deficiencies during port state control intervention. information includes text of conditions of classification, survey due dates, and certificate expiration dates. The owner will be advised of any reduest and /or release of informafion. The Bureau will release certain information to the vessel's hull underwriters and iP&I clubs for underwriting purposes. Such information includes text of overdue conditions of classification, survey due dates, daf, es. The owners will be advised of any request and/cr release of information. In she case of overdue ccndlfions of

Section 1/1

classification, the owners will be given the opportunity to verify the accuracy of the information prior to release.

1.1.3 Representations as to Classification


Classification is a representation by the Bureau as to the structural and mechanical fitness for a particular use or service in accordance with its Rules and standards. The Rules of American Bureau of Shipping are not meant as a substitute for the independent judgement of professional designers, naval architects, marine engineers, owners, operators, masters and crew nor as a substitute for the quality control procedures of shipbuilders, engine builders, steel makers, suppliers, manufacturers and sellers of marine vessels, materials, machinery or equipment. The Bureau, being a technical society, can only act through Surveyors or others who are believed by it to be skilled and competent. The Bureau represents solely to the vessel Owner or client of the Bureau that when assigning class it will use due diligence in the development of Rules, Guides and standards, and in using normally applied testing standards, procedures and techniques as called for by the Rules, Guides, standards or other criteria of the Bureau for the purpose of assigning and maintaining class. The Bureau further represents to the vessel Owner or other client of the Bureau that its certificates and reports evidence compliance only with one or more of the Rules, Guides, standards or other criteria of the Bureau in accordance with the terms of such certificate or report. Under no circumstances whatsoever are these representations to be deemed to relate to any third party. The user of this document is responsible for ensuring compliance with all applicable laws, regulations and other governmental directives and orders related to a vessel, its machinery and equipment, or their operation. Nothing contained in any Rule, Guide, standard, certificate or report issued by the Bureau shall be deemed to relieve any other entity of its duty or responsibility to comply with all applicable laws, including those related to the environment.

1.1.4 Scope of Classification


Nothing contained in any certificate or report is to be deemed to relieve any designer, builder, owner, manufacturer, seller, supplier, repairer, operator, other entity or person of any warranty express or implied. Any certificate or report evidences compliance only with one or more of the Rules, Guides, standards or other criteria of American Bureau of Shipping and is issued solely for the use of the Bureau, its committees, its clients or other authorized entities. Nothing contained in any certificate, report, plan or document review or approval is to be deemed to be in any way a representation or statement beyond those contained in 1.1.3. The validity, applicability and interpretation of any certificate, report, plan or document review or approval are governed by the Rules and standards of American Bureau of Shipping who shall remain the sole judge thereof. The Bureau is

Section 1/2

not responsible for the consequences arising from the use by other parties of the Rules, Guides, standards or other criteria of the American Bureau of Shipping, without review, plan approval and survey by the Bureau. The term "approved" shall be interpreted to mean that the plans, reports or documents have been reviewed for compliance with one or more of the Rules, Guides, standards, or other criteria of the Bureau. The Rules are published on the understanding that responsibility for stability and trim, for reasonable handling and loading, as well as for avoidance of distributions of weight which are likely to set up abnormally severe stresses in vessels does not rest upon the Committee.

1.3 Suspension and Cancellation of Classification 1.3.1 Termination of Classification


The continuance cf the Classification of any vessel is conditional upon the Rule requirements for periodical, damage and other surveys being duly carried out. The Committee reserves the right to reconsider, withhold, suspend, or cancel the class of any vessel or any part of the machinery for noncompliance with the Rules, for defects reported by the Surveyors which have not been rectified in accordance with their recommendations, or for nonpayment of fees which are due on account of Classification, Statutory or Cargo Gear Surveys. Suspension or cancellation of class may take effect immediately or after a specified period of time. 1.3.2 Notice of Surveys It is the responsibility of the owner to ensure that all surveys necessary for the maintenance of class are carried out at the proper time. The Bureau will notify an owner of upcoming surveys and outstanding recommendations. This may be done by means of a letter, a cuarterly vessel status or other communication. The non-receipt of such notice, however, does net absolve the owner from his responsibility to comply with survey requirements for maintenance of class . 1.3.3 Special Notations If the survey requirements i- ieted to maintenance of scecie 7 notations are not carried out as required, the suspension or on may be limited to those sberial notations canc=1 1.3.4 Suspension of Class C 7 ass wiLi cc susbeted from tie date anv use, operation, will become inval. other application of anv vessel for which loading condition, , or has het been atpr:vv d and which effertav affect Sec on 1/3

classification or the structural integrity, quality or fitness for a particular use or service. b Class will be suspended and the Certificate of Classification will become invalid in any of the following circumstances: 1 if recommendations issued by the Surveyor are not carried out by their due dates and no extension has been granted, 2 if Continuous Survey items which are due or overdue at the time of Annual Survey are not completed and no extension has been granted, 3 if the periodical surveys required for maintenance of class, other than Annual, Intermediate or Special Surveys, are not carried out by the due date and no Rule allowed extension has been granted, or 4 if any damage, failure, deterioration, or repair has not been completed as recommended. c Class may be suspended, in which case the Certificate of Classification will become invalid, if proposed repairs as referred to in 1.25.1 have not been submitted to the Bureau and agreed upon prior to commencement. d Class is automatically suspended and the Certificate of Classification is invalid in any of the following circumstances: 1 if the Annual Survey is not completed by the date which is three (3) months after the due date, 2 if the Intermediate Survey is not completed by the date which is three (3) months after the due date of the third Annual Survey of the five (5) year periodic survey cycle, or 3 if the Special Survey is not completed by the due date, unless the vessel is under attendance for completion prior to trading. Under resuming exceptional circumstances, consideration may be given for an extension of the Special Survey, a provided the vessel is attended and the attending Surveyor so recommends; such an extension shall not exceed three (3) months, or b if the vessel is at sea on the Special Survey due date, and there is documented agreement to an extension prior to the due date, positive arrangements have been made for a Surveyor to attend the vessel at the first port of call, and the Bureau is satisfied there is technical justification for an extension; such an extension shall be granted only until arrival at the first port of call after the due date.
7 .3.5

Lifting of Suspension a Class will be reinstated after suspension for overdue surveys, upon satisfactory completion of the overdue surveys. Such surveys will be credited as of the original due date. b Class will be reinstated after suspension for overdue recommendations, upon satisfactory completion of the overdue recommendation. c Class will be reinstated after suspension for overdue continuous survey items, upon satisfactory completion of the overdue items. Section 1/4

1.3.6

Cancellation of Class a If the circumstances leading to suspension of class are not corrected within the time specified, the vessel's class will be canceled. b A vessel's class is canceled immediately when a vessel proceeds to sea without having completed recommendations which were reauired to be dealt with before leaving port. c When class has been suspended for a period of three (3) months due to overdue Annual, Intermediate, Special, or other periodical surveys required for maintenance of class; overdue or overdue items; outstanding Survey Continuous recommendations, class will be canceled. A longer suspension period may be granted for vessels which are either laid up, awaiting disposition of a casualty, or under attendance for reinstatement.

1 .3.7

Alternative Procedures for Certain Types of Vessels Alternatives to I/1.3.4d procedures for automatic suspension class and 1/1.3.6c procedures for cancellation of class, may applied to military vessels; commercial vessels owned chartered by governments which are utilized in support military operations or service; or laid-up vessels: of be or of

1.4

Application This Guide is applicable to motor pleasure craft 24 m (79 ft.) or greater in length overall to 61 m (200 ft) in length as defined in 2.1, that are not required to be assigned a load line. Application to vessels outside these limits will be specially considered. For vessels receiving load line assignment see 1 .39.

1.5 Alternatives a General The Committee is at all times ready to consider alternative arrangements and scantlings which can be shown, through either satisfactory service experience or a systematic analysis based on sound engineering principles, to meet the overall safety and strength standards of the Rul s. b National Regulations The Committee will consider peciaa arrangements or details of hull, equipment or machinery which can be shown to comply with standards recognized in the country in which the vessel is .tive reaistered or built, Pr.77ded. they are not less efer - Other Rules The Committee will consider hull, equipment or machinery b _it to the satisfaction of the Surveyors of the Sureau in accordance with the p ans that have been approved to the Rules - ion of another recognized classification society with verificet A spec _ a' comment will be of compliance bv the aureau. S c 1/5

entered in the Record indicating that classification has incorporated the provisions of this paragraph. Submission of plans is to be in accordance with 1.15 and 1.17. 1.7 Novel Features Craft that contain novel features of design in respect of hull, equipment or machinery to which the provisions of the Rules are not directly applicable may be classed, when approved by the Committee, on the basis that the Rules insofar as applicable have been complied with and that special consideration has been given to the novel features based on the best information available at the time. 1.9 Effective Date of Changes

1,9.1

Six Month Rule Changes to the Guide are to become effective on the date specified by the Bureau. In general, the effective date is not less than six months from the date of their publication. However, the Bureau may bring into force individual changes before that date if necessary or appropriate.

1.9.2

Implementation of Changes In general, until the effective date, plan approval for designs will follow prior practice unless review under the latest Guide is specifically requested by the party signatory to the application for classification. If one or more vessels are to be constructed from plans previously approved, no retroactive application of the later changes will be required except as may be necessary or appropriate for all contemplated construction.

1.11

Classification Symbols

1.11.1

Hull Yachting Service Yachts built to the satisfaction_ of a the Surveyors to the Bureau to the full requirements of this Guide, or to their equivalent, where approved by the Committee for yachting service will be classed and distinguished _n the Record by the symbol aA.1 Yachting Service, indicating compliance with the hull requirements of the Rules. Yachts not Built under Survey Yachts not built under b survey to this Bureau, but submitted for classification, will be subjected to special classification surveys. W ere found satisfactory and thereafter approved by the Comm tee, they will be classed and distinguished in the Record by the applicable symbols and notation in 1,11.1a, but the mark signifying he survey during construction will be omitted.

Section 1/S

1.11.2

Equipment Symbol The symbol ID placed after the symbols of classification, e.g. C4A1 ID Yachting Service, signifies that a yacht's equipment of anchors and anchor cables complies with the requirements in Section 16 for that symbol.

1.11.3

Machinery EVUVIS Symbols Machinery constructed and installed to a the satisfaction of the Surveyors to the Bureau to the full requirements of this Guide, or their equivalent, when found satisfactory after trial and approved by the Committee, will be classed and distinguished in the Record by the symbols godms. AMS Symbols Machinery not constructed and installed b under survey to this Bureau, but submitted for classification, will be subjected to special classification surveys. When found satisfactory and thereafter approved by the Committee, the machinery will be classed and distinguished in the Record by the The mark C4 signifying the survey during symbols AMS. construction will be omitted.

1.11.4

Centralized or Automatic Control Systems Where, in addition to individual unit controls, remote, centralized, or automatic control systems are proposed to be provided for propulsion units, or essential auxiliaries, relevant data is to be submitted to permit the assessment of the effect of such systems on the safety of the yacht. All controls necessary for the safe operation of the yacht are to be proved to the Surveyor's satisfaction.

1.11.5

Operational Limits Yachts, by virtue of their service or design features may have limits to their mode of operation, their speed, their range of operation or the sea conditions in which they may operate. These may be implied in the design such as in the closing appliances, windows, fittings, fuel oil capacity, etc or in the construction for a particular operation, and are expected to be acknowledged by good practice and the experience and seamanship of the master It is recommended that such limits be and owner of the vessel. indicated in auidance manuals. See also 1.19.

1.13

Plan Review ---1 " ,hall be interpreted to mean that the plans, The term "aporovren reviewed by ABS for compliance l ance reports or documents htJ the Rules, Guides, standards, and other with one or more OF criteria of the Bureau. Nothing contained 7 an y _et ter, report, to be determ i ned to be in any way = a Plan or docume nt representation or statement beyond that contained in Subs e ction The validity, aoplioation, apcjice ,biitv, ,enH 1.1.3 above. interpretation of any latter, report, plan or document reviewed Section 1/7

are governed by the Rules, Guides, standards, or other criteria of the American Bureau of Shipping who shall remain the sole judge thereof1.15 SOlmission of Hull Plans Plans showing the scantlings, arrangements, and details of the principal parts of the hull structure of each vessel to be built under survey and of each vessel to have Bureau plan approval, are to be submitted and approved. Plans are to be submitted before These plans are to the work of construction is commenced. indicate clearly the scantlings and fastenings, the minimum physical properties of the construction materials, and details of In general, plans should include the following; construction. some of the structural items, where practicable, may be shown on the same plan. General arrangement Midship and framing sections Scantling profile and scantling deck plans Bottom construction, floors, girders, etc. Inner bottom Shell expansion Pillars and girders Watertight and tank bulkheads Non-tight structural bulkheads Machinery casinos Engine and main auxiliary foundations Welding schedule and details, bonding details (FRP) Rudders and steering gear Shaft struts Superstructures and deckhouses and their closing appliances Hatches, portlights, windows and closing arrangement Ventilation system exposed to weather FRP Laminate Lay-up information giving cured ply thicknesses and mechanical properties of cured plies and cured laminate, Physical and mechanical mechanical properties of cores. properties of resins in liquid and cured form. 1 17 Submission of Machinery Plans & Data Machinery general arrangement, installation and equipment plans and data as detailed below and in the following sections containing machinery requirements, as applicable to each vessel to be built under survey, are to be submitted and approved before It is desired that the sizes, proceeding with the work. dimensions, welding and other details, make and size of standard approved appliances be shown on the plans as clearly and fully as possible. All welded construction is to meet the requirements of Fart 2, Chapter 4 of the latest edition of the Rules for Building and Cla s sing Steel Vessels.

Section 1/5

Arrangement and details of propulsion system: Engine Engine foundation arrangement, rating, approval details from design manufacturer, if not of previous approved design. Foundation arrangement, rating, design approval details from manufacturer, if not of previous approved design. Material specifications, design approval details and strength calculations, if not in accordance with Rules. See 19.3. See 18.5 See 18.11.2 and 21.3 See 18.3 See 20.3 See 21.3

Reduction gear

Propellers

Propulsion Shafting

Torsional Vibration Analysis Steering Gear Boilers and Pressure Vessels Piping Systems Electrical Equipment & Systems

Arrangement & Details of Engine Exhaust Systems Arrangement and Details of Fire Extinguishing Systems Waterjet Units See 19.27

Plans to be reviewed by an ABS Technical office should generally be submitted in triplicate, one copy to be returned to those making the submission, one copy for the use of the Surveyor where the vessel is being built, and one copy to be retained in the ABS Technical office for record. Additional copies may be required where the required attendance of the Surveyor is anticipated at more than one location. A fee may be charged for the review of plans for which there is no contract of classification. 1.19 Loading and Operating Conditions Approval and classification are aiven with the understanding that the vessel will be operated with good seamanship having regard to loading, stability, safety and speed; review and classification of the vessel are C.P. condition that the speed is appropriately H rotting reduced with increasing sea conditions with reaard to 1__ _ v i ew dynamic hull responses on which design is based and e carried out.
1

.21

ding Process Description tne builder Foto , ubm-.t the re construction process description of the 'be suo tec are aiven 1.ntormation starts. Decails of

Section 1/9

1.23

Trials A final under-way trial is to be made of machinery and engineering systems covered by classification, including the steering gear. All automatic controls, including trips which may affect the vessels propulsion systems, are to be tested underway or alongside the dock, to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. See 18.9, 18.11.11 and 21.31.

1.25 Conditions for Surveys after Construction 1.25.1 Damage, Failure and Repair Damage, failure, deterioration or repair to hull, machinery or equipment which affects or may affect classification, is to be submitted by the owners or their representatives for examination by the Surveyor at first opportunity. All repairs found necessary by the Surveyor are to be carried out to his satisfaction. Nothing contained in this section or in a rule or regulation of any government or other administration, or the issuance of any report or certificate pursuant to this section or such a rule or regulation, is to be deemed to enlarge upon their representations expressed in subsections 1.1.1 through 1.1.4 hereof and the issuance and use of any such reports or certificates are in all respects to be governed by subsections 1.1.1 through 1.1.4 hereof. 1.25.2 Notification and Availability for Survey The Surveyors are to have access to classed vessels at all reasonable times. For the purpose of Surveyor Monitoring, monitoring Surveyors shall also have access to classed vessels at all reasonable times. Such access may include attendance at the same time as the assigned Surveyor or during a subsequent visit without theassigned Surveyor. The Owners or their representatives are to notify the Surveyors on all occasions when a vessel can be examined in dry dock or on a slipway. The Surveyors are to undertake all surveys on classed vessels upon request, with adequate notification, of the Owners or their representatives and are to report thereon to the Committee. Should the Surveyors find occasion during any survey to recommend reoairs or further examination, notification is to be Given immediately to the Owners or the representatives in order that appropriate action may be taken. The Surveyors are to avail themselves of every convenient opportunity for carrying out periodical surveys in conjunction with surveys of damages and order to avoid duplication of work. repairs 1.25,3 an dance at Port State Request It is r e cognized that Port State authorities legally may have a vessel. in cooperation with Sort States, ASS access Surveyors will attend on board a classed vessel when so requested by a Fort State, and upon concurrence by the vessel's master will carry out a survey in order to facilitate the rectfioaion or reocred deficiencies or other discrepancies that affect or may Section 1/10

affect classification, ABS Surveyors will also cooperate with Port States by providing inspectors with background information, if requested. Such information includes text of conditions of class, survey due dates, and certificate expiration dates. Where appropriate, the vessel's flag state will be notified such attendance and survey. 1.27 Fees Fees in accordance with normal ABS practice will be charged Expenses incurred by the all services rendered by the Bureau. Bureau in connection with these services will be charged in Fees and expenses will be billed to addition to the fees. party requesting that particular service. 1.29 Government and Other Regulations While this Guide covers the requirements for the classification of new vessels, the attention of Owners, designers, and builders is directed to the regulations of international, governmental, canal and other authorities dealing with those requirements in addition to or over and above the classification requirements. 1.31 IACS Audit The International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) conducts audits of processes followed by all its member societies to assess the degree of compliance with the IACS Quality System Certification Scheme requirements. For this purpose, auditors from IACS may accompany ABS personnel at any stage of the classification or statutory work which may necessitate the auditors having access to the vessel or access to the premises of the manufacturer or shipbuilder. In such instances, prior authorization for the auditor's access will be sought by the local ABS office. 1.33
Litnits

of Liability

The combined liability of American Bureau of Shipping, its officers, employees, agents or subcontractors for any loss, claim or nonor damage arising from its neg -_gent performance oerformance of any of its services or from breach of any imcl'ed w-ith or express warranty of workmanlike performance in connect those services, or from any other reason, to any person, corporation, partnership, business entity, sovereign, country C r -100,00C or an nation, will be limited to the greeter of a amount edual to ten times the sum actuall , ca alleged to be deficient, an amount The limitation of liability ma be increased -,1Pr v- fi ta mes that sum paid 'o- se'_' a ces Don rec0-" - o-rmance Client's written request at or before the time ,1 serv-ice-, and upon payment by Client of an addi ,on7 310.00 for every SL,000.00 increase in the limitaton, Section 1/11

1.35

Disagreement 1.35.1 Rules and Guides Any disagreement regarding either the proper interpretation of ABS Rules and Guides, or translation of the Rules and Guides from the English language edition, is to be referred to the Bureau for resolution. 1.35.2 Surveyors In case of disagreement between the Owners or builders and the Surveyors regarding the material, workmanship, extent of repairs, or application of the Rules relating to any vessel classed or proposed to be classed by this Bureau, an appeal may be made in writing to the Committee, who will order a special survey to be held. Should the opinion of the Surveyor be confirmed, the expense of this special survey is to be paid by the party appealing.

1.37

Type Approval Equipment, fittings, and materials not required to be certificated may be type approved by ABS and included in the ABS List of Type Approved Equipment. Type approval comprises a technical review to a designated standard, a plant inspection and a quality assurance verification. ABS type approval eliminates the need for verification of the manufacturer's data and survey for each individual application.

S-e, --tion 1/12

SECTION 2

DEFINITIONS

The following definitions of symbols and terms are to be understood (in the absence of other specifications) where they appear in the Guide.

2.1

Length L is the distance in meters or feet on the estimated summer load line or design waterline, from the foreside of the stem to the after side of the rudder post or sternpost; where there is not a rudder post or sternpost, L is to be measured to the centerline of For use with the Guide, L is not to be less the rudder stock. than 96% and need not be greater than 97% of the length on the summer load line or design waterline.

2.3

Breadth B is the greatest molded breadth in meters or feet.

2.5

Depth D is the molded depth in meters or feet, measured at the middle of L, from the base line or rabbet line to the underside of the main weather deck at side.

2.7

Draft d is the draft in meters or feet measured at the middle of L from the base line or rabbet line at its lowest point to the summer load line or design waterline.

2.9

Main Weather Deck The main weather deck is the uppermost continuous deck having pelwanent means for weathertight closing of all openings in its weather portions, and below which all openings in the vessels side are equipped with permanent means for watertight closure.

2.11 Strength Deck The strength deck is the deck that forms the top o the effective hull-girder at any part of its length. 2.13 Superstructure Deck The superstructure deck is the first deck above the main weather deck and to which the side shell plating extends, or of which the

Sect ion 9/1

sides are fitted inboard of the hull side not more than 4% of the breadth, B. 2.15 Bulkhead Deck The bulkhead deck is the deck to which watertight bulkheads extend. 2.17 Superstructure A superstructure is an enclosed structure on the main weather deck having side plating as an extension of the shell plating, or fitted inboard of the hull side not more than 4% of the breadth B. 2.19 Deckhouse A deckhouse is an enclosed structure on the main weather deck or other exposed deck, having side plating fitted inboard of the hull side more than 4% of the breadth B. 2.21 Rabbet Line (Fiber Reinforced Plastic) The rabbet line is the line intersection between the outside of a vessel's bottom and the vessel's keel. Where there is no keel, the rabbet line is the bottom of the vessel. 2.23 Base Line (Steel and Aluminum) The base line is the longitudinal fore and aft reference line at the upper surface of the flat plate keel on centerline, or in the case of tunnel hulls, the longitudinal line through the lowest point in the transverse section of the hull, excluding keel type extensions. In multi-hulled vessels the base line is to be that of the individual hull. 2.25 Displacement Vessel A displacement vessel is a craft that is supported by the buoyancy of the water it displaces. 2.27 Semi-Planing and Planing Vessels A semi-planing vessel the buoyancy of water pressure generated by a planing vessel is a by the bottom surface weight of the vessel. is a craft that is supported partially by it displaces and partially by the dynamic the bottom surface running over the water; craft in which the dynamic lift generated running over the water supports the total

2.29 ydrodynamically Supported Vessels A hydrodynamically supported vessel is a vessel of which the weight or significant part thereof is balanced in at least one mode of operation by hydrodynamic forces.

Section 2/2

2.31 Motor Pleasure Craft Motor pleasure craft are those engaged exclusively in recreational, non-revenue earning services. Vessels chartered as motor yachts and considered by the administration as yachts, and not passenger vessels, are considered motor pleasure craft. 2.32 Administration For use with this Guide, the Administration is defined as the government of the State whose flag the yacht is entitled to fly. 2.33 Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) FRP consists of two basic components: a glass-filament or other material fiber reinforcement filament and a plastic, or resin, in which the reinforcing material is imbedded. 2.33.1 Reinforcement Reinforcement is a strong, inert material bonded into the plastic to improve its strength, stiffness and impact resistance. Reinforcements are usually fibers of glass (a lime-aluminasilicate composition having a low alkali content) or other approved material such as aramid or carbon fiber, in a woven or non-woven form, with a strong adhesive bond with the resin. a Strand A bundle of continuous filaments combined in a single, compact unit. A blanket of randomly oriented b Chopped-strand Mat chopped-glass strands held together with binder. A band or ribbon or parallel strands grouped c Roving together. d Woven Roving A coarse fabric woven from rovings. A twisted strand or strands suitable for weaving e Yarn into a fabric. f Cloth A fabric woven from yarn. g Uni-directional A woven or non-woven reinforcement with substantially more fibers in one principal axis of the reinforcing ply h Hi-axial A woven or non-woven reinforcement with fibers primarily in the principal axes of the reinforcing ply. i Double Biased A woven or non-woven reinforcement with fibers primarily at m 45 to the principal axes of the reinforcing olv. A woven or non-woven reinforcement wi Tri-axial fibers running n the two principal axes of the ply and or - 45 to the warp. addition, with fibers running at The two principal axes cf k Ply Principal Axes parallel Lo the warp and reinforcing ply are, the axis that the axis that is caralP.1 to the fill.

Section 2/3

The roving or yarn running lengthwise in woven I Warp fabric. m Fill, Weft or Woof The roving or yarn running at right angles to the warp in a woven fabric. n Binder A substance applied in small quantities to fibers to hold them lightly together in mat form. o Size A substance applied to fibers at the time of their formation to allow resin to flow freely around and adhere to them, and to protect them from abrasion. p Finish A substance applied to fabrics to promote wetting of the fibers by the resin, to improve adhesion, and to reduce interfilament abrasion.
Resin 2.33.2 Resin is a highly reactive synthetic that in its initial stage is a liquid, but upon activation is transformed into a solid. a Accelerator A material that, when mixed with resin, speeds the cure time. b Catalyst or Initiator A material that is used to activate resin, causing it to harden. Hairline cracks, either within or on the surface c Crazing of resin, caused by mechanical or thermal stresses. d Cure To change resin from a liquid to a solid. The time required for resin to change from a e Cure time liquid to a solid after a catalyst has been added. The heat given off as the result of the f Exothermic Heat action of a catalyst on resin. g Filler A material added to resin to modify its working properties or other qualities, or to lower costs. h Gel A partially cured resin in a semi-solid state similar Not to be confused with gel coat to gelatin in consistency. (2.33.3e). i Gel Time The time required to change a flowable, liquid resin into a nonflowing gel. j Inhibitor A material that retards activation or initiation of resin, thus extending shelf life or influencing exothermic heat or gel time. k Polymerization The reaction that takes place when resin is activated or initiated. 1 Pot Life The length of time that a catalyzed resin remains workable. m Shelf Life The length of time that an uncatalyzed resin maintains its working properties while stored in a tightly sealed, opaque container. n Tack The degree of stickiness of the resin. o Thixotropy The property or phenomenon, exhibited by some resins, of becoming jelly-like at rest but becoming fluid again when stirred or agitated. This facilitates the application of the resin to inclined or vertical surfaces.

2.33.3 Laminate A laminate is a material composed of successive bonded lavers plies, of resin and fiber or other reinforcing substances. Section 2/4

a Bi-directional Laminate A laminate with fibers oriented primarily in the warp and fill directions in the plane of the laminate and where the mechanical properties in the warp and fill Bi-directional laminates may be of the laminate are similar. constructed of bi-axial, double bias, tri-axial, mat or unidirectional reinforcing layers, or a combination of any of these. A laminate with substantially b Uni-directional Laminate more of the fibers in the plane of the laminate oriented in one of the two principal axis of the laminate plane so that the physical properties along that axis, are appreciably higher than along the other natural axis. A measurement of the hardness of a c Barcol Hardness laminate and thereby the degree of completion of the cure. d Delamination The separation of the layers of material in a laminate. The first resin applied to a mold when e Gel Coat fabricating a laminate. It provides a smooth protective surface For decorative purposes, it usually has a for the laminate. coloring matter added. Not to be confused with gel (see 2.35.2h). The process of applying to a mold the layers of f Layup resin and reinforcing materials that make up a laminate. These materials are then compressed or densified with a roller or squeegee to eliminate entrapped air and to spread resin evenly. Also a description of the component materials and geometry of a laminate and laminate that has been assembled. g Peel Ply A partially impregnated, lightly bonded layer of glass, cloth or woven roving used to protect a laminate in anticipation of secondary bonding, providing a clean, fresh bonding surface. h Secondary Bonding The practice of bonding fresh material to a cured or partially cured laminate. i Verified Minimum Physical Property The physical properties verified by the appropriate test given in Table 5.1. j Laminate Principal Ares The two principal axes of a square or rectangular plate panel are for the application of these Rules those perpendicular and parallel to the plate panel edges. 2.33.4 Encapsulation The containment of a core material such as softwoods, including plywood, balsa, or plastic foam between The cores may be structurally two FRP single-skin laminates. effective or ineffective.

2.35

Wood 2.35.1 Softwood Softwoods are botanically named Gymnosperms, and fall into the category called conifers, having the seeds exposed, usually in cones. 2.35.2 Hardwoods Hardwoods are botanically named Angiosperms. They have true flowers and broad leaves and the seeds are enclosed in fruit. Section 2/5

2.37

Mechanical Properties Steel and Aluminum 2.37.1 a Yield Stress Throughout this Guide, yield stress refers to either yield point or yield strength as applicable to the material. The yield point is the first stress in a i) Yield Point test at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. Ordinary strength steels and some higher strength steels have a yield point. The yield strength is the stress at ii) Yield Strength which a material exhibits an offset strain of 0.2% for aluminum and steel or for steel an extension under load of 0.5%. b Tensile Strength The stress obtained by dividing the maximum load a specimen sustains during a test by the original crosssectional area of the specimen. Fiber-Reinforced Plastic 2.37.2 a Flexural Strength The measure of the capability of a plate to withstand a bending load without failing. b Flexural Modulus The number used to calculate the distance a plate will deflect under a given bending load. c Tensile Strength The measure of the capability of a plate or stiffening member to withstand a stretching load without failing. d Tensile Modulus The number used to calculate the amount a plate or stiffening member will increase in length when a stretching load is applied to it. e Compressive Strength The measure of the capability of a plate or stiffening member to withstand a compressing load without crushing. f Compressive Modulus The number used to calculate the amount a plate or stiffening member decreases in length when a compressing load is applied to it. g Shear Strength The measure of the capability of a body such as a plate or stiffening member to withstand a shearing load without one part of the body being forced to slide past the other. h Shear Modulus The measure of the stiffness of a plate or stiffening member when a shearing load is applied to it. Also called the modulus of rigidity. i Interlaminar Shear The shear strength of the bond between plies of reinforcing material. The measure of the capability of the bond to withstand a shear load without delamination. 2.37.3 Wood a Modulus of Rupture in Bending A measure of the maximum load carrying capacity. It is obtained by the maximum bending moment that can be carried without rupture divided by the minimum section modulus of the plating or stiffening member. Values given are generally bending parallel to the grain.

Section 2/6

b Modulus of Elasticity The number used to calculate the distance a plate or stiffening member will deflect under a given bending load. Values given are generally for bending parallel to the grain. c Tensile Strength Parallel to Grain The maximum stretching load divided by the initial sectional area of the specimen, parallel to the grain, that a plate or stiffening member can withstand without rupture. As relatively few data are available for this property it may be conservatively estimated, for clear, straight-grained wood, by the modulus of rupture in bending. d Tensile Strength Perpendicular to Grain The maximum stretching load divided by the initial sectional area of the specimen, perpendicular to the grain, that a plate or stiffening member can withstand without rupture. e Compressive Strength A measure of the maximum compressive load a plate or stiffening member can withstand without crushing. It is obtained by the maximum load that can be carried without crushing, divided by the cross-sectional area of the plate Values given are generally for the stiffening member. compressive stress parallel to the grain. 2.39 Systems of Measurement This Guide is written in three systems of units, i.e., SI units, Each system is to be used MKS units and US customary units. independently of any other system. The format of presentation in the Guide of the three systems of units is as follows: SI units (MKS units, US customary units) unless indicated otherwise.

Section 2/7

SECTION 3 GENERAL 3.1 Materials The materials of which the hull is constructed will be indicated in the Record as, steel, higher strength steel, (HTS), or fiber Where advanced composits are reinforced plastic (FRP). substantially used, the material will be identified as FRP, Advanced Composites.

3.3 Structural Arrangement and Details The structural arrangements and details are to be in accordance with Sections 6 and 7. Major openings such as hatches and large vents are to be avoided in the hull in close proximity to the gunwale. Corners of openings in strength structures are to have generous radii. Compensation may be required for openings. 3.5 Structural. Members The scantling requirements of this Guide are applicable to either aluminum or steel standard rolled or extruded structural shapes and bars, including flat bars, or fabricated sections, or fiber reinforced plastic members, with or without effective cores. The section modulus of a stiffening member is obtained in association with the plating to which the member is attached. The effective width of plating is given in 3.7. The section modulus of a shape, bar, or fabricated section, or layed-up member not attached to plating is that of the member only. 3.7 Effective Width of Plating 3.7.1 General The section modulus and moment of inertia of stiffening members are provided by the member and a portion of the plating to which it is suitably attached. The effective width is to not exceed that given in the following paragraphs. 3.7.2 FRP Laminates Where the plating is an FRP single-skin laminate, the maximum effective width of plating for floors, frames, beams, girders and bulkhead stiffeners etc. is not to exceed either the stiffening member spacing or the width obtained from the following equation, whichever is less. See Figure 3.1. w 18t + b Where w = t b = effective width of plating in mm or in. thickness of single skin plating in mm or in. net width of stiffening member in mm or in., but not more than 18t Section 3/1

Where the plating is an FRP sandwich laminate with a flexurally and compressively ineffective (balsa or plastic) core, t in the above equation is the thickness of a single skin laminate having the same moment of inertia per unit width as the two skins of the sandwich, about the neutral axis of the sandwich, excluding the core. For a stiffening member along an opening, the maximum effective width of plating is equal to either one-half the stiffening member spacing or the width obtained from the following equation, whichever is less.

w 9t

where w, t and b are as defined above. 3.7.3 Plywood Plating Where the plating is either plywood or an FRP sandwich laminate with a plywood core, the maximum effective width of plating is equal to either the stiffening member spacing or the width obtained from the following equation, whichever is less. w 50t +b where w and b are as defined in 3.7.2. t thickness of plating in mm or in.

For a stiffening member along an opening, the maximum effective width of plating is one-half of the effective width given above. 3.7.4 Steel and Aluminum Plating Where the plating is either steel or aluminum the maximum effective width of plating is equal to either the stiffening member spacing or the width obtained from the following equation, whichever is less.
w

80t

where

w is as defined in 3.7.2 t thickness of plating in mm or in.

For a stiffening member along an opening, the maximum effective width of plating is one-half of the effective width given above. 3.9 Brackets 3.9.1 Steel Brackets Where brackets are fitted having thicknesses as required by Table 3.1 and a face at approximately 45 degrees with the bulkhead, deck or shell and the bracket is supported by the bulkhead, shell, or deck the length of each member, /, may be measured to a point 25% Section 3/2

of the extent of the bracket beyond the toe of the bracket as shown in Figure 3.2. The minimum overlap of the bracket arm along the stiffener is not to be less than obtained form the following equation. x 1.5y x length of overlap along member in mm or in. y depth of member in mm or in. Where a bracket laps a member, the amount of overlap generally is to be not less than 25 mm (1 in.) 3.9.2 Aluminum Brackets Aluminum brackets are to comply with 3.9.1 except that the thicknesses given in Table 3.1 are to be multiplied by 1.45 for the same length of face.

Section 3/3

FIGURE 3.1

Effective Width of F1RP Platirig

9t tc =
LSt b.

9r

Section 3/4

FIGURE 3.2
Bracket

TABLE 3.1 Steel Brackets Metric Length of Face f, mm Not exceeding 305 Over 305 to 455 Over 455 to 660 Over 660 to 915 Over 915 to 1370 Thickness, mm Plain Flanged 5.0 6.5 8.0 8.5 11.0 Width of Flange, mm -38 50 63 75

5.0 6.5 8.0 9.5

Inches Length of Face f, in. Not exceeding 12 Over 12 to 18 Over 18 to 26 Over 26 to 36 Over 36 to 54 Thickness, in. Plain Flanged

Width of Flange, in
1 1/12 2 2 1/2 3

3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16

3/16 1/4 5/16 3/8

Section 315

SECTION 4 MATERIALS 4.1 Aluminum Alloys The weld filler metals and aluminum alloys used in vessels built to comply with this Guide are to be in accordance with the requirements in Sections 30 and 35 of the "Rules for Building and Consideration will be given to Classing Aluminum Vessels". aluminum alloys of different properties provided they are suitable for marine applications and welding. Care is to be taken that aluminum alloys are insulated where necessary from Timber and paints containing copper, lead or other metals. mercury are not to be used with aluminum alloys. For guidance, Table 4.1 gives the physical properties of some of the aluminum alloys in Sections 30 and 35 of the "Rules for Building and Classing Aluminum Vessels". The physical properties of other aluminum alloys suitable for marine applications, specified in recognized national or industrial standards, will Requirements for welding are given in also be considered. Section 15. 4.3 Steel The steel used in vessels built to comply with this Guide are to be in accordance with the requirements for Grade A ordinarystrength hull structural steel or Grade AH higher-strength structural steel in Part 2, Chapter 2 of the latest edition of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels", or steel in accordance with other approved standards. Flat-rolled steel and flat bars less than 5 mm (0.20 in.) in thickness and shapes of cross-section less than 645 mm2 (1 in`) need not be subjected to tensile tests but chemistry consistent with the required tensile properties is to be complied with. For guidance, Table 4.2 gives the physical properties of Grade A The physical properties of other steels, and AB steels. specified in recognized national or industrial standards, will Requirements for welding are given in also be considered. Section 15. 4.5 Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) 4.5.1 General The basic laminate referred to in this Guide is composed of an unsaturated, general purpose polyester resin and fiberglass reinforcement of alternate layers of glass fiber chopped-strand mat and woven roving, having a glass content of approximately 35% of weight and fabricated by the contact or hand-layup process. Laminates of other compositions and other types of lay-up will be considered on the submission of lay-up details and test data on

Section 4/1

See also Section 17, Corrosion the cured laminate properties. Prevention and Protective Coatings. 4.5.2 Resins Resins for the basic laminate of this Guide, other than those utilized for gel coats, are to be unsaturated, general-purpose or fire-retardant polyesters suitable for marine use, and are to be with accordance manufacturers' strict catalyzed in recommendations. Other resins, such as epoxy or vinylester, may be used. The properties of a resin are to be for the final form of the resin actually used in production with all additives and fillers included. The amount of silicon dioxide or other material added to provide thixotrophy is to be the minimum necessary to resist flowing or draining. If mineral fillers are added,they are All to be of a type recommended by the resin manufacturer. additives are to be in accordance with the resin manufacturers The strain at failure of the cured gel coat recommendations. resin is generally to exceed that of the cured laminating resin. Relevant details of the resins in liquid and cured form are to be submitted. 4.5.3 Reinforcing Materials Fiber reinforcing materials are to be as described in 2.33.1. Binders, where used, are to be soluble polyester, epoxy, or vinylester resin, as appropriate for the laminating and gel coat resins. Sizes and finishes are to be of the silane type, and are to be compatible with the laminating resins. Binders, sizes and finishes are to be non-water-soluble. 4.5.4 Laminates a Basic Laminate The basic laminate consists of generalpurpose polyester resin and alternate plies of fiberglass mat and The minimum glass content of this fiberglass woven roving. laminate is 35% by weight. b Minimum Physical Properties of Laminate The minimum physical properties of basic laminate are given in Table 4.3 for the warp direction. For all laminates, the properties used in design are to be verified by approved material tests. See 5.3.6h3 and 4. c Exemptions from the Basic Laminate Gel coats and skin coats of either fiber mat or fiber cloth weighing less than 30 grams per square meter (0.1 ounce per square foot) are considered to be nonstructural, and therefore are not to be included when calculating basic laminate scantlings. For design purposes the average d Laminate Thicknesses thicknesses are given below for mat and woven roving plies layedup separately. The cured resin-and-mat plies may be taken to have average thicknesses equal to 0.25 millimeters per 100 grams of mat in each square meter (0.03 inches per ounce of mat in each square foot) of

Section 4/2

The cured resin-and-woven roving plies may be the laminate. taken to have having average thickness equal to 0.12 millimeters per 100 grams of woven roving in each square meter (0.0016 inches per ounce of woven roving in each square yard) of the basic laminate. For mat and woven roving laminate differing from the basic FRP laminate in glass content, the average cured laminate thickness, t, varying with the glass content, can be obtained from the following equations: 305 Wk ( t = c \ fg 2.690 mm (in.)

Where: k = 0.35 mm (0.0138 in.) fg= the glass percentage content by weight, of one ply of the mat and one ply of the woven-roving of the laminate to be used c = glass content per pair of composite fiberglass reinforcement of basic laminate, = 1272 g/m2 or 4.17 oz/ft2 W = total weight of fiberglass reinforcement in g/m2 or az/ft2, of the laminate to be used Thicknesses obtained form the above equations are average effective thicknesses not including exemptions, see 4.5.4c. Composites Differing from Basic Laminate Where bie directional reinforced-plastic laminates other than the basic laminate are to be used, the appropriate verified minimum physical properties are to be used in the scantling equations. See 5.3.6h3 and 4. These properties of the laminate, and lay-up detail showing the thickness and weight of the plies are to be indicated on the drawings. f Laminates Utilizing Uni-directional Reinforcing Materials Where uni-directional reinforcing materials are used, a sufficient balance of properties in the warp and fill directions is to be maintained to prevent laminate failure in any direction. For uni-directional laminates the ratios of the verified minimum laminate strengths in the fill direction to the verified minimum strength properties in the warp direction are to be not less than the following:

Section 4/3

Member Panel, aspect ratio - 1.0 Panel, aspect ratio > 2.0 Stiffening member

Fill Strength/Warp Strength 0.80 0.61 0.25

For panels with aspect ratios between 1.0 and 2.0, the factors are to be obtained by interpolation. The required scantlings are to be determined by using the appropriate verified minimum physical properties in the scantling The values of EF/F, ET/T and Ec/C in the fill equations. direction are not to exceed the same ratios in the warp direction. Where the properties of the finished laminates forming the crown, webs or shell or deck flanges of an internal member differ in the direction of bending stresses, the internal is to meet the requirements of Section 9 or 10, as appropriate, for each different strength laminate. Where the arrangements of the layers and the physical properties of the laminate are such that the laminate meets the definition of a bi-directional laminate it may be considered as such. 4.7 Wood 4.7.1 General All wood used is to be of good marine quality, properly seasoned, clear, free of defects adversely effecting its strength and with the grain suitable for the purpose intended. Wood members, except cold-molded wood laminates coated with resin, are to be treated with a preservative. The strength properties for some such woods are given in Table 4.4. Where other woods are to be used, the strength properties are to be based on the recognized national standards. 4.7.2 Wood Preservatives Wood preservatives are to be of an approved type. Consideration should also be given that they do not have a harmful effect on coatings or, where used, on synthetic resins. Wood encapsulated in FR2 or used in cold-molded wood laminate is not to be treated with a preservative of a type that will prevent adhesion of polyester, or other resin, where used. 4.7.3 Wood Glues Wood glues, where used, are to be of a waterproof type having the necessary durability and strength, and are to be mixed and applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Attention is to be given to the application which is to be appropriate to the particular species of wood.

Section 4/4

4.9

Plywood Plywood is to be of marine quality and manufactured in accordance with a recognized national standard or with ISO standards.

4.11 Core Materials The minimum shear strength of typical core materials are shown in Table 4.5. Materials other than shown will be subject to special consideration. The shear strength for use in the design is to be verified by test, as required in 5.3.6h. 4.13 Fastening Mechanical fastenings are to be of material suitable for the service intended and are to be either galvanically compatible with the materials being fastened or provided with the necessary insulation. Brass fastenings are not to be used. NoncorrosionFastenings resistant ferrous fastenings are to be galvanized. used with aluminum alloys are to be austenitic corrosion-resistant (stainless) steel or of a suitable aluminum alloy .

Section 4/5

Table 4.1 Properties of Aluminum Alloys Sheet and Plate Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength Alloy 5083 HO H116 H321 H112 H112 H116 H32 H34 H32 H34 H116 H321 Thickness Up to 38mm (1.5 in) Up to 38mm (1.5 in) Up to 38mm (1.5 in) Up to 12.5 mm (0.499in) Up to 25.5 mm (1.0 in) Up to 51.0 mm (2.0 in) Up Up Up Up to to to to 51.0 25.5 51.0 25.5 mm mm mm mm (2.0 (1.0 (2.0 (1.0 in) in) in) in) N/mm2 275 275 275 240 240 240 240 240 215 215 290 290

Minimum Yield Strength Unwelded Condition N/mm2 kgf/mm2

kgf/nmi2 28.1 28.1 28.1


24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 24.6 21.8 21.8 29.5 29.5

psi 40000 40000 40000 35000 35000 35000 35000 35000 31000 31000 42000 42000

psi

125 215 215 125 110 195 195 235 180 200 215 215

12.6 21.8 21.8 12.6 11.2 19.7 19.7 24.0 18.3 20.4 21.8 21.8

18000 31000 31000 18000 16000 28000 28000 34000 26000 29000 31000 31000

5086

5454 5456

Up to 38 mm(1.5 in) Up to 38.0 mm (1.5 in)

Table 4.1 Properties of Aluminum Alloys Extrusion


Minimum Ultimate

Alloy

Tensile Strength Welded Condition psi kgf/nme Ninm2


0 H112 0 275 275 240 28.1 28.1 24.6 40000 40000 35000

Minimum Yield Strength Unwelded Condition N/nm2 kgf/mme psi


16000 16000

5083

110 110

11.2 11.2

5086 5456 6061 6082 6351

H112 0 H111 T6 T6 T6

240 290 290 165 165 165

24.6 29.5 29.5 16.8 16.8 16.8

35000 42000 42000 24000 24000 24000

95 95 130 180

9.8 9.8 13.4 18.3

14000 14000 19000 26000

Section 4/6

TABLE 4.2 Properties of Steels Minimum intimate Tensile Strength Grade A AH32 AH36 Ninme 400 470 490 Kgf/m/a2 41 48 50 pal 58,000 68,000 71,000 Table 4.3 Properties of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Basic Laminate N/mm2 Flexural strength, F Flexural modulus, Ey Tensile strength, T Tensile modulus, ET Compressive strength, C Compressive modulus, Ec Shear strength perpendicular to warp Shear strength parallel to warp, Shear modulus parallel to warp,Es Interlaminar shear strength 172 7580 124 6890 117 6890 76 62 3100 17.3 Kgfirara2 17.5 773 12.6 703 11.9 703 7.7 6.3 316 1.76 psi 25,000 1.1 x 106 18,000 1.0 x 106 17,000 1.0 x 106 11,000 9,000 0.45 x 106 2500 Minimum Yield Strength

witme
235 315 355

Kgftiont2 24 32 36

psi 34,000 45,000 51,000

Section 4/7

TABLE 4.4 Properties of Various Woods Bending Modulus Common Name of Species Specific of Rupture Gravity N/mm2 2 (kgf/mm psi) 106 0.60 2adas,Alaaka
0.44

Tensile Strength Moduluz l of Elasticity


N/=m2

Perpendicular to Grain N/ mm2 (kgf/mm2 , psi) 5.5 (.56, 940) 2.5 (.25, 360) 1.5 (.16,220) 4.6 (.47,660)
(-, -)

Compressing Strength Parallel to Grain 8imm2 Ckglimm2, psi) 51 (5.22, 44 (4.45, 31 (3.22, 38 (3.90, 34
(3.53,
49

(kgf/mm2 , psi) 12.00=10 3

Ash, White

(10.87, 15400) 76
(7.84, 11100)

6 (1228, 1.74=10 ) 3 9.79=10


6 (1002, 1,42=10 )

7400) 6310) 4560) 5520)


5000)

Cedar, Western Red Elm, American 0.50 Elm, British 0.56


Elm, Rock

52 0.32 (5.30, 7500) 81 (6.33, 11800) 41 (4.24, 6000) 102 0.53 (10.45, 14800) 86 0.48 (8.75, 12400) 80 (8.19, 11600) 66 0.70 (6.78, 9500) 105 0.68 (10.73, 15200)
100

7.65x103 (783, 1.11=106 ) 9.242:10 3 5 (964, 1.34=10 )


3 7.52=10

6 (783, 1.11=10 ) 3 10.52=10 (1087, 1.54x106 ) 13.45x103 (1376, 1.95x106 ) 10.41x103 6 (1065. 1.51=10 ) 3 10.00=10 6 (1023, 1.45=10 ) 3 12.27=10 (1255, 1.78x105) 13.65x103
6 (1398, 1.98=10 ) 3 13.43=10

(-, -)

(4.98, 50 (5.11, 46 (4.63, 30


(5.08,

7050) 7240) 5630)


7200)

Fir, Douglas Mahogany, Central & South America Oak, English Oak, White
Pine,Longleaf

2.3 (.24,340)
(-, -)

(-, -)

5.5 (.55,800) 3.2 (.33,470) 2.3 (.24,340)


(-. -)

51
(5.25, 7440)

56 (5.98, 50 (5.11,
35 (3.55, 5040)

Yellow
Pine, Oregon

0.59 0.48

(10.24, 14500)
85

8470) 7240)

(8.75, 12400)
67

5 (1375, 1_95=10 ) 10.07x103 6 (1031, 1.45=10 ) 3 8.55x10 6 (875, 1.24=10 ) 3 10.83=10 5 (1108, 1.57=10 ) 3 12.41=10 (1271, 1.80x106 )

Pine, Western
0.38

(5.35, 9700)
59 (5.07, 8500)

Pine, White 0,35 Spruce, Sitka 0.40


0.53

2.1 (.22,310) 2.5 (.25,37 0)


(-, -)

33 (3.39, 39 (3.96,
70 5510)

4800)

70 (7.20, 10200) 88
(9.04, 12800)

(7.06,

10000)

Values given are adjusted for 122 moisture content. Unless otherwise given these values may be used for tensile strength parallel to ' e ra_ .

Table 4.5 Core Material Properties Minimum Shear Strength Kgf/nme psi

Density Material Balsa, end-grain Balsa, end-grain Polyvinyl chloride, crosslinked Polyvinylchloride, linear Kg/m3 lb/f t3 N/mm2 128 144 80 100 80-96 8 9 5 6.25 5-6

1.9 0.19* 270* 2.1 0.21* 300* 1.0 to 1.2 0.10 to 0.12 145 to 170 1.4 to 1.5 0.14 to 0.15 200 to 215 1.2 0.12 170

Note: * These values are for Ecuadorian balsa.

Section 4/9

SECTION 5 FABRICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL 5.1 Steel and Aluminum The requirements of this Guide apply to all-welded vessels; workmanship is to be of good quality. In general, the welding for steel or aluminum vessels is to comply with Section 15. 5.3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic 5.3.1 General The use of fabricating procedures differing from those in this Guide will be specially considered. 5.3.2 Fabrication Procedures a General The laminate is to be fabricated by the contact or hand-layup process for either single-skin or sandwich construction. Other methods of fabrication will be subject to consideration. The resin gel time used in production is to be within the limits recommended by the resin manufacturer. b Laminate Layup A layer or ply of reinforcing material may consist of a number of pieces. The pieces are to be lapped along their edges and ends. The width of each lap is to be not less than 50 mm (2 in.). Unless otherwise specifically approved, no laps in the various plies of a laminate are to be closer than 100 mm (4 in.) to each other. Transitions in laminate thickness are to be tapered over a length not less than three times the thickness of the thicker laminate. A gradual transition in fiber reinforcement is to be provided between bi-directional and uni-directional laminates. c Sandwich Panel. Layup Sandwich panels may be laminated with cores that either are effective in resisting bending, compression and deflection (e.g. plywood) or are essentially ineffective in resisting bending, compression and deflection, but capable of carrying shear loads, (e.g. balsa wood and plastic foam). All cores are to be effectively bonded to the skins. Joints in core materials are to be scarphed and bonded, or connected by similar effective means. Where sandwich panels with ineffective cores are used in way of mechanically connected structures, gears and equipment, a core effective in resisting flexure and compression is to be inserted. The inserts are to be bonded to the skins or faces of the sandwich and to the adjacent less effective core. The ply of skin laminate in contact with each face of a core material is in general to be chopped-strand mat. The mat is to be thoroughly impregnated with resin and the core is to be coated with resin before layup. The use of plies other than chopped strand mat adjacent to the core will be approved with due SECTION 5/1

consideration being given to the adhesive used to bond the ply to the core. The surfaces of cured laminates are to d Secondary Bonds be fresh and free from wax, grease, dirt and dust. The first ply of the secondary layup is to be chopped-strand mat.The final ply of laminate along the bond line of the cured laminate is to be preferably chopped-strand mat. 5.3.3 Building Process Description The building process description is to be submitted for review by the builder before construction starts. Information on the following items is to be included. Description of construction facilities, including environmental control and material storage and handling. Specifications for resins, reinforcing products, and core materials. Layup procedures, including type, orientation of reinforcements, sequence, resin mixing methods, and resin pot-life limits Secondary bounding procedures Inspection and quality-control systems Laminate properties derived from destructive qualification testing 5.3.4 Building Facilities a. Material Storage Premises The premises are to be equipped and arranged so that the material manufacturer's recommendations for storage and handling can be followed: i) Premises are to be cool, clean, dry and sufficiently free of dust so that materials are not contaminated or degraded, materials are to be remain sealed in storage as recommended by the manufacturer. Before being used, fiber reinforcements are to be stored for a period of time and at a temperature and humidity as recommended by the manufacturer but not less than 48 hours.

ii)

iii) Resins, catalysts, hardeners and accelerators are to be stored in a well-ventilated space at temperatures recommended by the manufacturer. The storage period is not to exceed the shelf lives. Fillers and additives are to be stored in closed containers impervious to humidity and dust. Resin tanks are to be arranged so that they can be stirred at the frequency and time recommended by the manufacturer. iv) Core materials are to be stored in a dry space and protected against damage; they are to be contained in their protective packaging until immediately prior to use.

SECTION 5/2

Laminating Premises b. Premises are to be arranged and equipped so that the material manufacturer's recommendations and builder's standards for handling, laminating and curing can be followed: i) Premises are to be fully enclosed, dry, clean, shaded from the sun, and adequately ventilated and lighted. Temperature is to be maintained adequately constant at a temperature between 16C and 32C (60F and 90F). The humidity is to be kept adequately constant to prevent condensation and is not to exceed 80%. Where spray molding is taking place the humidity is not to be less than 40%. Temperature and humidity are to be within limits recommended by the materials manufacturer's. Departures from the foregoing will be considered provided temperatures and humidity are within the limits recommended by manufacturer and are reviewed by the Bureau prior to laminating. iii) Scaffolding is to be provided where necessary so that all laminating work can be carried out without standing on cores or on laminated surfaces. 5.3.5 Inspection Inspection is to be carried out by the builders and Surveyors as indicated and approved in the building process description and building quality control manual. A constant visual inspection of the laminating process is to be maintained by the builder. If improper curing or blistering of the laminate is observed, immediate remedial action is to be taken. Inspections of the following are to be carried out. i) ii) Mold inspection prior to applying releasing agent and gel coat. Gel coat, check thickness, uniformity and application and cure before applying laminating resin first layer of reinforcement.

ii)

iii) Check resin formulation and mixing, check and record amounts of base resin, catalysts, hardeners, accelerators, additives and fillers. iv) Check that reinforcements are uniformly pregnated and well wet-out, and that lay-up is in accordance with approved drawings and standards of overlaps are complied with. Check and record resin/fiber ratios.

v)

SECTION 5/3

vi)

Immediate Check that curing is occurring as specified. redemial action is to be taken when improper curing or blistering is noted.

vii) Visual overall inspection of completed lay-up for defects that can be corrected before release from the mold. viii) Check and record hardness of cured hull prior to release from mold. 5.3.6 Quality Control a General A quality-control system is to be set up in association with the building process description. The objective of the system is to measure and record compliance with approved plans and the process description. Quality-control records are to be carefully kept, and are to be available at all times for review and routine verification by the Surveyor to the Bureau. Prior to conducting the tests described in h, the dates of the tests are to be given to the Surveyors by the builder. b Receiving As all materials are received by the builder, they are to be inspected by the builder to assure conformance with the builder's purchase orders, which in turn are to reflect the material specifications on the approved plans and in the process description. Tests are to be carried out as necessary on the resins and results recorded. c Gel Time The builder is to establish and implement a resin gel-time control system for the gel-time desired in production. This gel time is to be within the gel-time upper and lower limits recommended by the resin manufacturer. Resin mixes are to be monitored and recorded to assure proper gel times. During layup the temperature and humidity in the laminating area is to be recorded at regular intervals, and the catalyst and gel time are to be adjusted to suit changing conditions. d Lamination The plies and cores as applicable are to be layed-up in accordance with the approved plans. This is to be monitored and recorded. e Laminate Proportions The quantities of resin and reinforcement going into a laminate are to be monitored and recorded. f Laminate Thickness The cured laminate thickness in general is not to differ more than 15% from the thickness indicated on the approved plans. g Defects Defects are to be assessed using a recognized national standard. Defects deemed by the Surveyors to be repairable without affecting the serviceability and strength of the laminate may be rectified; methods used to make the repairs are to be acceptable to the Surveyors. h Tests 1. Barcol Hardness Prior to removal from the mold the laminate is to be checked with a Barcol hardness tester at a suitable number of locations to determine the degree of cure. The

SECTION 5/4

Barcol hardness number of the cured laminate measured on the surface without the gel coat, is to be not less than 40. Burnout and Thickness The builder is to conduct and 2 record the results of a predetermined, sufficient number of tests for glass/fiber content and thickness checks on cutouts or plugs that have been removed from laminates to make way for through-hull The plugs are to be identified by and through-deck fittings. their location in hull. Each burnout test for glass reinforced laminates is to be made on a sample that is at least 25 mm (1 in.) A record is to be made of the cured laminate in diameter. Fiber content thickness and the glass content by weight. measurement for carbon and aramid (kevlar) fiber reinforced laminates are to be carried out by acid tests. Additionally, a visual inspection of the residue may be required to determine the types and the number of layers of reinforcement used in the laminate. 3 Laminate Properties Determination of laminate properties (specific gravity, glass content, tensile strength and modulus, flexural strength and modulus, shear strength, and, where glass content is 40% or more, interlaminar shear strength) is to be made on the basis of destructive qualification tests of panels assembled by the fabricator under environmental conditions and using resin formulations and process techniques simulating the conditions, formulations, and techniques to be used in actual production. The fabricator is to lay up the test panels at an angle of about 45. All panels are to be tested in the as-cured condition. Test procedures are to be in accordance with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications or equivalent. All test results are to be reported. Bureau review of laminate design will be predicated on the quality of laminate produced by the fabricator. Laminate properties derived from qualification testing of sample panels, which are to be witnessed as necessary by the Surveyor are to be included in the process description. Test samples may be taken also from hull cut-outs or plugs or hull laminate extension tabs. In series production, maintenance of laminate quality in vessels subsequent to the prototype vessel is to be demonstrated by an approved method of assembling and testing panels, in accordance with the following frequency schedule or as required by the Surveyor. Test panels may be either layed up as a qualification test sample at the time of boat lay-up, or may be taken from hull cut-outs or hull laminate extension tabs.

SECTION

Length (L) ft Under 9./ 9.1 to 12.2 12.2 to 15.2 15.2 to 18.3 18.3 to 21.3 21.3 to 24.4 24.4 and over Under 30 30 to 40 40 to 50 50 to 60 60 to 70 70 to 80 80 and over

Frequency of testing Every Every Every Every Every Every Every 12th vessel 10th vessel 8th vessel 6th vessel 4th vessel other vessel vessel

The tests associated with the laminate properties are shown in Table 5.1. Tests alternative to those listed will be specially considered. 4. Test Results One copy of the test results is to be forwarded promptly to the technical office doing hull plan approval. Where test results are less than laminate design properties indicated on approved plans, this is to be drawn to the attention of the technical office. One copy of all test results is to be filed. in the classification survey report. In the case of advanced composites, one copy of all test results is to be forwarded to the technical hull plan approval staff. 5. Tests Hull hydrostatic, hose tests and machinery and electrical tests are to comply with applicable Rule or Guide requirements.

Section 5/6

TABLE 5.1 Tests for Physical Properties of F.R.P. Laminates

ILIM

arty

Test ANSIIASTM D 790 or 0790M


ANSI/ASTM D 790 or D 790M ANSI/ASTM D 638 or D638M or ASTM D 3039

Flexural Strength Flexural Modulus Tensile Strength Tensile Modulus Compressive Strength Compressive Modulus Shear Strength, Perpendicular to Warp Shear Strength, Parallel to Warp Interlaminar Shear Strength Core Shear Strength Shear Modulus Tensile Strength, Facings Compressive Strength. Facings Flexural Strength, Composite Shear Stiffness, Composite Shear Strength, Composite Bond Strength, Core to Facings

ANSI/ASTM D 636 or D638M or ASTM D 3039


ANSI/ASTM D 695 or D 695M or ASTM D 3410

Single

ANSI/ASTM D 695 or D 695M or ASTM D 3410 FTMS 406 1041 FTMS 406 1041
ASTM D 3846 ASTM C 273 ASTM C 273

Sandwich Composite (Structural Test)

ASTM C 393 ASTM C 393 ASTM C 393 ASTM C 393


ASTM C 393 ASTM C 393

Section 5/7

SECTION 6 STRUCTURAL ARRANGEMENT 6.1 ALL MATERIALS 6.1.1 Framing, Webs, Girders, and Non-tight Structural Bulkheads a. General The shell, main weather, or freeboard deck, and the sides and tops of long superstructures are in general to be longitudinally framed; depending on vessel length, speed and structural Short stability, vessels may also be transversely framed. superstructures, deckhouses and bulkheads may be longitudinally or transversely framed. Bulkheads, partial bulkheads or web frames are to be arranged in the main hull and in long superstructures or deckhouses to provide effective transverse rigidity. They are to be provided also in the main hull under the ends of superstructures or deckhouses. Longitudinal frames are to be supported by transverse web frames, transverse bulkheads or other transverse structure. Longitudinals are in general to be continuous in way of transverse supporting members except at transverse bulkheads where they may be intercostal provided continuity of strength and end fixity are maintained. Depending on boat length and details, special consideration will be given to longitudinals being intercostal at transverse webs. With transverse framing, deck and bottom girders are to be provided. Girders may be intercostal at transverse bulkheads provided continuity of strength is maintained and end fixity is provided. Transverses are to be arranged as continuous web rings and girders are to be aligned with stiffeners at bulkheads. Alternative arrangments that provide fixity at the ends of transverses and girders will be specially considered. Engines are to be supported and secured by substantial girders, suitably stiffened, supported against tripping and supported at bulkheads. Foundations for auxiliary machinery are to provide for secure attachment of the equipment and are to be effectively attached to the hull structure. b. Attachments and stiffenings At supporting members, the attachment of all internal structural members is to provide end fixity, and effective load transmission. Special consideration will be given to reduced end fixity where the alternative structure has equivalent strength. The webs of all members are to be effectively attached to the shell, deck or bulkhead plating, to their supporting members and to face bars. 6.1.2 Watertight Bulkheads a. Collision Bulkhead Vessels having a length, as defined in Section 2, of or exceeding 15 m (50 ft) are to be provided with a collision bulkhead fitted Section 6/1

not less than 0.051. abaft the stem at the design load waterline. This bulkhead is to extend to the main weather deck, and may be stepped, provided the forward end of any step is not less than 0.05L, measured horizontally, from the stem. In vessels having long superstructures at the forward end, the bulkhead is to be extended weathertight to the superstructure deck. Provided the extensions are not less than 0.051. abaft the stem at the design load waterline, they need not be fitted directly over the collision bulkhead; in such cases, the part of the deck that forming the step is to be weathertight. One door or opening with a watertight closing appliance may be fitted in the collision bulkhead below the freeboard or main weather deck of vessels less than 30.5 m (100 ft) in length. This door or closure is to be kept closed and secured at sea. b. Engine Room The engine room is to be enclosed by watertight bulkheads extending to the main weather deck except that for smaller vessels consideration may be given to the extent and arrangement of enclosing the engine space. c. Chain Locker Chain lockers located abaft collision bulkheads or extending into forepeak tanks are to be watertight. 6.1.3 Tanks The arrangement of all integral tanks, their intended service, and the heights of the overflow pipes are to be indicated clearly on the drawings submitted for approval. Where potable water tanks are fitted, water closets are not to be installed on top of the tanks nor are soil lines to run over the top of the tanks. Pipes containing nonpotable liquids are not to be run through the tanks. Attention is directed to the regulations of national authorities that might govern the location, construction or design of such tanks. Scantlings of pressurized tanks will be subject to special consideration. Baffle or swash plates are to be provided on light scantling tanks. 6.1.4 Means of Escape At least two means of escape to the main weather deck are to be provided from the main hull spaces. They are to be as far apart as practicable, and are to be operable from both sides. 6.3 Additional Requirements for Fiber Reinforced Plastic Hulls 6.3.1 Tanks Where integral tanks are of sandwich construction, the cores are to be approved end grain balsa or approved closed cell polyvinylchloride foam. With balsa, each block is to be individually set with the spaces around it filled with resin. No Section 6/2

stiffeners within integral tanks are to penetrate the tank boundaries. No gasoline tanks are to be fitted integrally. All internal surfaces of FRP tanks are to be covered with fiberglass chopped strand mat weighing at least 600 grams per square meter (2 ounces per square foot). This covering is to be in addition to the scantlings required by this Guide. A heavy coat of the laminating resin, or other suitable coating, is to be applied to this covering, alternatively a suitable thickness gelcoat is to be applied. 6.3.2 Encapsulation Wood Softwoods encapsulated in FRP are considered effective a. structural materials where used in the shell above the waterline and clear of tanks. They are not recommended for use in the shell below the waterline or in or as boundaries of tanks. If used in these locations they are to be considered nonstructural core materials. Hardwoods are not to be used as core materials in the shell or tank boundaries except that balsa may be used in these Consideration will be given to the hardwood locations. encapsulation in decks. Plywood encapsulated in FRP is considered an b. Plywood effective structural core. The required inertia of the laminate is to meet the requirements for FRP. The structure is to be considered as a composite section with the areas adjusted for modulii, and stresses in the plywood and FRP determined by distance from neutral axis and strain. Resulting stresses are not to exceed allowable design limits. Effective wood or plywood cores are to be bonded c Bonding to the encapsultory member and to the shell, deck or bulkhead plate, at joints in the core and at end connections.

Section 6/3

SECTION 7 STRUCTURAL DETAILS AND FASTENINGS PART A Steel or Aluminum Hulls

7A.1 Structural Details General 7A.1.1 Structural details are to be designed and constructed to minimize hard spots, notches and other structural discontinuities. Care is to be taken to ensure structural continuity; sharp corners and abrupt changes in sections are to be avoided; toes of brackets and ends of members are not to terminate on plating without attachment to an adjacent member, unless specially approved. Openings In Internal Members 7A.1.2 Openings in webs, girders and other structural internal members are to be arranged clear of concentrated loads or areas of high stresses. Slots in transverses and girders for longitudinals or beams in these areas are to be fitted with filler plates, Access and lighting holes are to be arranged clear of areas of load concentration of high stresses with suitably radiused corners. The depths of holes are generally not to exceed 0.5 times the depth of the members and the lengths of the holes 0.75 times the depth of the member. Air and limber holes are to be arranged to eliminate air pockets and avoid any accumulation of water of other liquids. In general the depths of limber holes are to be not less than 40 mm (1 1/2 in.) or 1/3 the depth of the member whichever is less. 7A.1.3 Longitudinals and Stiffeners Deck, bottom and inner bottom longitudinals are in general to be continuous unless specially approved otherwise, but in way of bulkheads they may be intercostal provided continuity of strength and end fixity are maintained by the end brackets. The end connections are to provide fixity and load transmission to the supporting member. Alternative structure with equivalent strength may be considered. 7A.1.4 Girders and Transverses Girders and transverses are to have depths not less than twice the depth of slots for longitudinals and beams or other openings. In general, stiffeners on bottom transverses are to be fitted at every other longitudinal.

Section 7/1

7A.3 Fabrication General 7A.3.1 The requirements in this Guide apply to vessels of welded construction. Aluminum rivets, where desired, are to be in accordance with 7A.3.2. Expanding rivets may be used within the limitation in 7A.3.3. See also Section 15 for welding and Section 17 for corrosion prevention. 7A.3.2 Aluminum Rivets Non-heat-treatable and heat-treatable aluminum alloy cold heading rod and wire for use in manufacturing rivets is to be in agreement with a specification equivalent to ASTM Designation B316. Material differing from ASTM B316 in chemical composition, mechanical properties or heattreatment may be specially considered. 7A.3.3 Expanding Rivets Rivets of the expanding type (blind or "pop" rivets) may be used for lightly loaded connections where lack of accessibility prohibits the use of through fastenings. Such rivets are not to be used for permanently joining components having a total thickness exceeding 12.5 mm (0.50 in.) nor for joining decks to hulls.

Section 7/2

PART B

FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC HULLS

7B.1 Structural Details General 7B.1.1 Structural continuity is to be maintained and where changes in thickness or structural section occur, they are to be gradual to prevent notches, hard spots and other structural discontinuities. The requirements below are for the basic laminate given in 4.5.1; special consideration will be given where other laminates or resins are used. The ends of all internal structural members are to provide end-fixity and load transmission to the supporting member, departures from this may be considered where the alternative structure has equivalent strength. Openings, Holes and Raw Edges 7B.1.2 Access and lighting holes with suitably radiused corners are to be arranged as necessary and clear of areas of load concentration or high stresses. Their depths and lengths are generally not to exceed 0.5 and 0.75 times respectively the depths of the members. Air and limber holes are to be arranged to eliminate air pockets and avoid any accumulation of water or other liquids. In general they are to be not less than 40 mm (1 1/2 in.) or 1/3 the depth of the member whichever is less. All exposed edges of FRP single-skin laminates are to be sealed with resin. Edges of sandwich panels and edges of holes in sandwich panels are to be Ferrules installed in sealed with resin-impregnated mat. sandwich panels or stiffeners for drains or wire penetrations are to be set in bedding compound. Stiffeners 7B.1.3 Stiffeners, frames, girders, deck beams, a General bulkhead stiffeners, etc. used to support FRP panels may be entirely of FRP, FRP laid over nonstructural cores or forms, composites of FRP or other approved structural materials such as plywood or wood. See also 5.3.2c. b Stiffeners without Cores or with Nonstructural Cores Unless specially approved, stiffeners without cores and stiffeners laid over nonstructural cores or forms, including ineffective wood cores, are to conform to Figure 7.1, and the thickness of the crown and web of the stiffeners is to be not less than obtained from the following equation. ti w/20 h/30

ti thickness of stiffener crown thickness of stiffener webs t w width of stiffener crown h height of stiffener webs

Section 7/3

Where the stiffeners are of laminates with properties differing from the basic laminate, the thickness is to be modified by the factor

compressive modulus of basic laminate given in 4.5.4b. E = compressive modulus of proposed laminate. sub ultimate compressive strength of basic laminate given in 4.5.4b. su ultimate compressive strength of proposed laminate.
Eb

Lesser thicknesses may be considered where shear strength and a panel stability are satisfactory. Hat-section stiffeners constructed by laying FRP over premolded FRP forms (Figure 7.2a) are to conform with Figure 7.1 and the above equations; the premolded forms may be considered structurally effective if their physical properties are at least equal to those of the overlay laminates. Premolded stiffeners bonded to the laminates with FRP angles, flanges or tapes (Figure 7.2b) are also to conform to Figure 7.1 and the above equations. The thickness of each bonding angle, flanges or tapes, is to be not less than the thickness of the webs of the stiffeners, and the legs of the bonding angle, flange or tape, are to be of equal length in accordance with 78.3.4. Joints in premolded stiffeners are to be scarphed and spliced or otherwise reinforced to maintain the full strength of the stiffeners. c Stiffeners with Structural Cores Where approved polyvinylchloride, balsa, or other approved core material is used, thicknesses less that given above may be accepted provided the buckling stresses of the stiffener skins comply with the buckling stress criteria in 9A.3.4d and the following requirements are met. The use of encapsulated wood or plywood (Figure 7.2c) is to be in accordance with 6.3.2. The thickness of FRP webs and crowns encapsulating effective cores is not subject to the limitations in 7B.1.3b but is to be at least 3 mm (0.125 in.). The thicknesses of the flanges or tapes are to be not less than the thickness of the webs. 7B.1.4 Girders and Longitudinals Frames Girders and longitudinals frames are to be continuous through floors and web frames. Except in way of integraltank end bulkheads, girders and longitudinal frames are also to be continuous through transverse bulkheads. Where such members are intercostal, attention is to be given to minimizing structural discontinuities.

Section 7/4

An acceptable type of continuous girder and longitudinalframe FRP connection is shown in Figure 7.3. The laps of the connections onto the supporting structure are to be not less than the over-all widths of the structural members including flanges, and the thicknesses of the connections are to be not less than the thicknesses of the structuralmember flanges or tapes. Shell Details 7B.1.5 Plate keels are to meet the requirements in a Keels Figures 7.4a and 7.4b and vertical keels or skegs are to comply with Figures 7.5a and 7.5b. b Chines and Transoms Chines and transoms are to meet the requirements in Figure 7.6. 7B.1.6 Engine Foundations The engine beds are to be of thicknesses and widths appropriate to the holding-down bolts, are to be set in mat putty or resin putty to assure uniform bearing against the girders, and are to be bolted through the webs of the Figure 7.7 shows several typical, acceptable girders. engine foundations. 7B.1.7 Deck Fittings Deck fittings such as cleats and chocks are to be bedded in sealing compound or gaskets, through-bolted, and supported by either oversize washers or metal, plywood, or wood backing plates. Where washers are used, the laminate in way of the fittings is to be increased at least 25% in thickness. 7B.1.8 Piping and Wiring in Foam Piping and wiring passing through foam-filled spaces is to be installed in plastic tubing to facilitate removal and replacement. 7B.1.9 Mast Reinforcement Where masts are fitted, they are to be suitably stepped with web frames or transverse bulkheads, and suitable means of transmitting the chain plate and stay loads into hull are to be provided. The structure around the mast opening is to be suitably reinforced. Where the deck is of sandwich construction, a single skin laminate or approved high density core is to be fitted in way of the mast. 7B.3 Fastening 7B.3.1 General Components may be fastened with bolts, machine screws or self-tapping screws. Where machine screws or self-tapping screws are used, they are not to have countersunk heads. Shanks of all threaded fastenings are to be long enough to pass through the joints. Where watertight joints are

Section 7/5

required, suitable sealants or bedding compounds are to be For materials of used in addition to the fastenings. fastenings, see 4.13. Bolts and Machine Screws 7B.3.2 Bolts or machine screws are to be used where accessibility permits. The diameter of each fastener is to be at least equal to the thickness of the thinner component being fastened. Bolts and machine screws less than 6.5 mm (0.25 in.) in diameter are not to be used. Fasteners are to be spaced at a minimum of 3d center to center and are to be located at a distance from the edges of laminates not less than 3d where d is the fastener diameter. In way of bolts and machine screws, low-density core materials are to be replaced with structurally effective inserts. Diameters of fastening holes are not to exceed fastening diameters by more than 0.4 mm (0.016 in.). Washers or backing plates are to be installed under all fastening heads and nuts that otherwise would bear on laminates. Washers are to measure not less than 2.25d in outside diameter and 0.1d in thickness. Nuts are to be either of the self-locking type,, or other effective means are to be provided to prevent backing off. Care is to be taken to ensure that the bolt, nut or other components into which the bolt is screwed are of materials having the same mechanical properties. Where materials of different strength are used, this is to be considered in determining the length of thread engagement between members. 7B.3.3 Self-tapping Screws Self-tapping screws having straight shanks may be used for lightly loaded connections where lack of accessibility prohibits the use of through fastenings. Self-tapping screws are not to be used for joining laminates either of which is less than 5 mm (0.20 in.) thick. Where used, selftapping screws are to have coarse threads. 7B.3.4 Boundary Angles, Flanges or Tapes a FRP to FRP Secondary bonding of FRP components by means of double boundary angles, flanges or tapes is to be in accordance with 5.3.2d. Typical boundary angles, flanges or tapes for FRP components are shown in Figure 7.8. At the end connections of sandwich laminates the core shear strength is to be effectively developed. The thickness of each boundary angle flange or tape is to be not less than obtained from the following. 1. Single-skin the thinner 2. Sandwich to thicknesses attached. 3. Sandwich to to Single-skin One-half the thickness of of the two laminates being joined. Sandwich The greater of the mean of the skins of the sandwich panels being Single-Skin Either one-half the thickness

Section 7/6

of the single-skin laminate or the mean thickness of the skins of the sandwich panel being attached, whichever is less. The thickness of each FRP-to-FRP boundary angle also is to be not less than obtained from the following equation, 0.11L 1.0 mm t 0.00132L + 0.04 in.

but need not exceed 6 mm (0.24 in). where length, in m or ft, as defined in Section 2 The width of each flange is to be at least 10 times the thickness given above or 50 mm (2 in.) if that be greater and the width including the end taper, 13 times the thickness given above. b Plywood or Wood to FRP Plywood or wood girders, plywood floors, and bulkheads are to be bedded in foam, a slowcuring polyester putty, a microballoon-and-resin mixture, or other approved material. Boundary angles of FRP are to be applied over fillets made of the bedding material. The nominal size w of each fillet is to be 9.5 mm to 12.5 mm (0.375 in. to 0.50 in.). The boundary angles are to be at least equal in thickness to one-half the thickness of the laminate, and the width of each flange is to be as shown in Figure 7.9a. Secondary bonding of these angles to FRP is to be in accordance with 5.3.3. Where plywood floors and structural bulkheads are to be secured with boundary angles and bolts or machine screws, it is to be as shown in Figure 7.9b. Each boundary angle is to be at least equal in thickness to one-half the thickness of the laminate, secondary-bonding to the laminate, and both bonded and bolted to the plywood. Fastening diameters are to be in accordance with 78.3.2. The width of the boundaryangle bolted flange is to be at least 6 times the diameter of fastening. The minimum width of the other flange is to be as shown in Figure 7.9b. Bolts are to be single-spaced; the maximum spacing is to be in accordance with Table 7.1. Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation. 7B.3.5 Deck-to-Hull Joints a Weather Joints Typical acceptable deck-to-hull weather joints are shown in Figure 7.10. Where joints differing from those shown are submitted, they will be subject to special consideration. All joints are to be lapped and bolted unless otherwise specifically approved. Where flanges are used, the hull flanges are to be equal in thickness to the hull laminates and the deck flanges are to be equal in thickness to the deck laminates. Faying surfaces are to be set in bedding compound, polyester putty, or other approved material. Minimum widths of overlaps,

Section 7/7

minimum bolt diameters, and maximum bolt spacing are to be in accordance with Tables 7.1 and 7.2. Intermediate values may be obtained by interpolation. FRY bonding angles, where used, are to have flanges that are at least one-half as thick as the hull or deck laminate, whichever is thicker. The widths of the flanges are to be in accordance with the widths of overlaps in Table 7.2. Each joint is to be protected as shown in Figure 7.10 by a guard, molding, fender, or rail cap of metal, wood, rubber, plastic, or other approved material. The size and ruggedness of this protective strip are to be consistent with the severity of the service for which the vessel is intended. The strip is to be installed in such a manner that it may be removed for repair or replacement without endangering the integrity of the deck-to-hull joint. b Interior Joints Interior decks are to be joined to the hulls by shelves, stringers, or other structural devices that resist vertical and horizontal loads. Alternatively, glassed-in interior decks will be considered. 7B.3.6 Joints in Wood or Plywood Longitudinals Glued joints in wood or plywood girders, shelves, clamps, and other longitudinals are to be scarphed. Bolted joints in wood members are to be scarphed and nibbed, and may be hooked, key-locked, or hooked and key-locked. The slopes of the scarphs are to be not greater than 1 in 12. The depth of each nib and hook and the width of each key are to approximate 25% of the depth of the member (see Figure 7.11). In a member having two or more scarphs, the scarphs are to be not less than 1.5 m (5 ft) apart. In a bolted joint the bolt diameter is to approximate 17% of the width of the member. Each scarph is to be fastened with at least four bolts. Washers, essentially of the same material as the bolts, are to be installed under all bolt heads and nuts. Bolt holes are to be prebored and are to provide neat, smooth, tight fits so bolts can be inserted by tapping lightly.

Section 7/8

FIGURE 7.1 Propordans of Stiffeners

re

h
t

Mini=tuni Ina = 0.2h or 50 =a vrizic.z ".ever is gezr.L. -7,


however lap 1 im e= of 50 inza (2. hi..) need not '3e m.r.er .113. lot

Half ' rolvoci

Mini= lap = to/2 or 5/ rem (2. in.), whicite ver is greater

Section 7/9

FICURE 7.2

tiffener Variaticns

For=

a Fremoicied

b '27-=oicied st:lener

Ez=ussalated wood or plywood

Section.

7/10

FIGURE 7.3

Conner:ion of Loncitudinals to Transverses

web. or aaar

Section

7/11

FIGURE

7 - 4a

Plate Keel in One-Piece Hull

13/10

FIGURE -. 7 . 4b

Plat= Keel in Hull McIdec; in Halves

Section- 7/12

- 5a

Vertimi Keel or Skec

FiGL1RE

7 - 5b

jmi Keels Eailasted Ver-

Section

7/13

FIGURE --Chine or Transom

7.6

=3:

Section-

If77I4

FiCURE 7.7

Entine Foundaticns

Nitestil

=sic
bracket

Section

7/15

FiGURE 7.8

Boundary Andes for FRP Ccrnpcnents

Sius~ie sic

SandwioX

FiGUSE 7. 9

Boundary- Andes Connectinc Plywood cr Wood tc FRP

alvisemdeammoite- acer ..aro

4462.4.v.

lad
"Mt or 50 cool fa in.) vim/Cr-ever is csr=t= Boit aia = t or 6-5 = (WM to.) Nvi:ith.ev= ix geo.ter t 0.5t 1 1 -ka.

-Boor or XuBasemti

' ry =ogles bolted booths

Section-

7/16

FIGURE 7.10

Deck-to-Hull Weather Joints

Bulwark Flanged or shoe-box" joint Bonding angle

Bulwark Bonding angle Bonding angle 0.5t Wood clamp 1.5t

Bulwark Bonding angle

Lag bolts

Wood rail cap

Double-flanged joint

Section

7/17

FIGURE

7.11

Bolted S=r;h Joints

Nibbed and :zocikeri

Nibbed sad key-locked

Nibberi.

and key-:Locked

reys are doable wedrz

Section

7 18

TABLE 7 . 1

Maximum Boit Spacing


Metric Units

Bolt Spacing. mm Length of Vessel


L, m 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 38 Inch Units Bolt Spacing, in. Length of Vessel L. ft 30 40
Umestried

Service 152.5 185.0 177.5 190.5 203.0 216.0 228.5 241.5 254.0 266.5

Limited Service 228.5 241.5 254.0 268.5 279.5 292.0 305.0 317.5 330.0 343.0

Unrestricted Service
8.0 6.5 7.0 7.5

Limited Service
9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.0 12.5 13.0 13.5

50
60 70 80 90 100 110 120

8.0
85 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5

Section 7/19

TABLE 7.2 Deck-to-Hull Joints Metric Units Length of Vessel L, m 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 Inch Units Length of Vessel L, ft 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 Minimum Width of Overlap in. 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 Minimum Bolt Diameter, in. 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 Minimum Width of Overlap, mm 63.5 75.0 87.5 100.0 112.5 125.0 137.5 150.0 162.5 175.0 Minimum Bolt Diameter, mm 6.50 7.75 9.00 10.25 11.50 12.75 14.00 15.25 16.50 17.75

Section 7/20

SECTION 8 DESIGN PRESSURES

8.1

Semi-Planing and Planing Craft 8.1.1 Bottom Structure Design Pressure

The minimum bottom design pressure is to be the greatest of a, b or c as given in the following equations, for the location under consideration. Lesser pressures may be used for operation limited to protected or partially protected waters.

a b. c.

Pb NI, Pi

(1 + n) FD Fv1 kN/m2 (tf/m2,psi) LwB kN/m2 (tf/m2, psi) 7.5k1 NdFDFV2 kN/m2,PD (0+1.22) tf/m2,PD 0.44(D+4)psi

PD a 9.5 (D+1.22)

Where: V2 B2 w + 1.009 r (50 - 0 ) (L A B Ni N2 A 0.1 SI units (0.01 MKS units, 0.069 US units) 0.0046 SI units (0.0046 MKS units, 0.00094 US units) displacement, stationary, in kg or lbs, at design waterline length on design waterline, stationary,in m or ft B
r

- maximum beam, in m or ft, running trim at V, in degrees, but generally not to be taken less than 4, unless verified by the designer deadrise at LOG, degrees;

V FD

maximum design speed in calm water knots, design area factor given in Figure 8.1 for given values of AD and AR. FD for P i is not to be taken as less than 0.19. vertical acceleration distribution factor as given in Figure 8.2 9.8 Si units (1.0 MKS units, 0.44 US unts)

SECT I ON 8/1

Fv2 = Vertical acceleration distribution factor given in Figure 8.3 AD


=

design area, cm2 (in2); for plating it is the actual area of the shell plate panel but not to be taken as more than 2 s2. For longitudinals, stiffeners, transverses and girders it is the shell area supported by the longitudinal stiffener, transverse or girder; for transverses and girders the area need not be taken less than 0.33 e.

= reference area, cm2 (in2), = 6.95 A/d cm2 = 1.61 A/d in2 = spacing of longitudinals or stiffeners, in cm or in. d = stationary draft in m or ft, vertical distance from outer surface of shell at centerline to design waterline at middle of design waterline length, but generally not to be taken as less than 0.04L. N = service dynamic factor, depending on displacement, speed and sea conditions, in general to be taken not less than 1.00 except that where the sea and speed induced vertical acceleration at LOG may exceed 9.806 m/sec2 (32.2 ft/sec2), an appropriately higher value is to be used. Where the vertical acceleration at LOG will be less than 9.806 m/see (32.2ft/sec2) appropriately lesser values of 1.00 may be specially considered. In both cases designers are to submit details of speed, displacement, running trim, sea conditions and predicted vertical acceleration at LOG. Operational guidance may also be required on board. D = molded depth, in m or ft, as defined in 2.5. Special consideration will be given to Pb where any of the vessel parameters are outside the following ranges: AT
0 . 0 1L )3

= 3600 to 9000 metric units = 100 to 250 ft/ton units

where AT = 1,/B= maximum displacement in metric tons (long tons) 3 to 5 3 to 7

10 to 30

V in knots from 3.62AiL to 10.87j, L in meter s

r-

Section 8/2

V in knots from 21

to 6I L in feet,

8.1.2 Side Structure, Design Pressure The side design pressure, ps is to be not less than given by the equation Ps klh+0.20 Pb kN/m2 (tf/m2,psi) Where: ki
h

as defined in 8.1.1 - distance in m or ft, from lower edge of plate panel or from center of area supported by the longitudinal or transverse, to the freeboard or main weather deck at side, but not less than 0.5D.

Pb - design pressure given in 8.1.la,except that Fvi may be taken as 1.0 for forward 0.45L. - molded depth in m or ft as defined in 2.5. D 8.1.3. Deck and Deck House Structure Design Pressure The design pressures, pd, are to be as given in Table 8.1. 8.1.4. Bulkhead Structure, Design Pressure a Tank Boundaries The design pressure for tank boundaries is to be not less than given by the following equation Pt kN/m2 (tf/m2, psi)

Where: as defined in 8.1.1 ki = greatest of distances in m or ft from lower edge of h plate panel or the center of area supported by stiffener, to: 1.A point located above the top of the tank, at a distance of two-thirds the height from the top of the tank to the top of the overflow. 2.A point located at two-thirds of the distance to the main weather deck. 3.A point located above the top of the tank, not less than the greater of the following, a. 0.01L + 0.15 m or 0.01L + 0.5 ft b. 0.46 m or 1.5 ft The heights of overflows are to be clearly indicated on the plans submitted for approval. SECTION 8/3

The heights of overflows are to be clearly indicated on the plans submitted for approval. Pressurized tanks will be subject to special consideration. The design pressure for watertight Watertight Boundaries b boundaries is to be not less than given by the following equation: Pw = kih kN/m2 (tf/m2, psi)

Where: kl as defined in 8.1.1 = distance in m or ft from the lower edge of the plate h panel or the center of area supported by the stiffener to the bulkhead deck at centerline 8,3 Displacement Craft Where the maximum speed in knots is less than 2.36/7 L in meters or 1.30iL, L in ft, the design heads are to be as given in Table 8.2. 8.5 Hydrofoils, Air Cushion Vehicles, Surface Effect Craft, and Multihull Vessels Design pressures for shell, bulkheads and decks are to be not less than given in 8.1.1, 8.1.2 and 8.1.3. Those from 8.1.1 may be obtained using N values appropriate to vessel service and type. Design calculations for the external design pressures due to sea loading for the various operational modes and for structures peculiar to the vessel type such as hydrofoil struts and foils etc, are to be submitted for review.

SECTION 8/4

TABLE 8.1 DECK AND DECKHOUSE DESIGN PRESSURES,

k.W/m2

( tf /m2,

psi)

Exposed Main Weather Deck, and Superstructure deck for 0.251 from forward Main Weather deck inside enclosed houses and superstructures Exposed Superstructure deck elsewhere and internal decks Internal accommodation only decks, Platform decks and house tops 2nd tier

0.2L+4.5

(0.020L+0.46,

0.0088L+0.66)

0.11+4.5 0.1LA1 .5

(0.010L+0.46, (0.010140.16,

0.00441+0.66) 0.00441+.0.66)

3.4

(.30,

0 . 30)

L-72.2m & less (40 ft & less) kWm (tf/m2,psi) Superstructure and Deckhouse Front Plating Stiffeners Superstructure and Deckhouse Arc End and House Sides Plato Stiffeners House Tops, Forward, Placing and Stiffeners , tl ng and Stiffeners Aft, P.'

L-30.5 to Him (100 to 200

13.8 (1.41, 2.0) 10.3 (1.05, 1.5)

27.6 (2.81, 4.0) 17.2 ;1.75, 2.5 )

10.3; (1.05, 1.5) 6.13 (0.70, 1.0) 5.9 (0.70, 1.0) 3.1 (0.35, 0.5)

10.3 1.5) 6.0 (0.70, 1.0) 6.0 (0.70, 1.0) 3.4 0.35,

For 7.ressels between 12,2 and 30.3m (40 and 1C0ft), design pressure is a be obtained bv interpolation.

Sec ion 3/3

TABLE 8.2 Displacement Craft, Design Heads, h "Member Bottom Structure distance to main weather deck at side, from lower edge of plate panel for plating and from center of area supported for internals, but not less than L/10 or 2.15 m (7.05 ft) whichever is greater. distance to main weather deck at side, from lower edge of plate panel for plating, and from center of area supported for internals, but not less than 0.5D or L/20 whichever is greater. For first tier above main weather deck, h is that required for deckhouse fronts. distance from lower edge of plate panel for plating or from the center of area supported for internals to the greater of the following, 1. a point at two-thirds the distance to the main weather or bulkhead deck. 2. a point at two-thirds of the distance from the top of the tank to the top of the overflow. 3. a point above the top of the tank, not less than 0.011. + 0.15 m (0.011. + 0.5ft) or 0.46 m (1.5 ft). distance from the lower edge of the plate for plating or from the center of area supported for internal to the main weather or bulkhead deck at centerline.

Side Structure

Deep Tanks

Watertight Bulkheads

DECKS Main Weather Deck and Superstructure Deck Forward of 0.25L Superstructure Decks elsewhere internal decks DECKHOUSE TOP 1st Tier 2nd Tier 3rd Tier (& 2nd tier Weather Cover) SUPERSTRUCTURE Front Aft End DECKHOUSE Front Aft End Side

0.021. + 0.46
0.01L + 0.46 0.011. + 0.30

(0.021. + 1.5) (0.011. + 1.5) (0.011. + 1.0)

0.01L + 0.30 0.011, 0.15 0.011.

(0.011. (0.011. (0.01 T)

1.0) 0.5)

0.050T0.0151.

0.61 0.30

(0.0501 (0.015L
3'3 -71' in ,
(f)

2.0) 1.0)

0.0271 0.0151. 0.0151.

0.46 0.30 fl .q0

ri7 c7

1 5) 1.0)

f0.013L

Section 3/6

:uli
ON -4
kG, 0

II Design Area Factor - F

RPM

0'002

0 00I

04013 o Nt

b. DI

1) Pi

0 44

t1 Pi,

0I

0,i

0.6 018

1 41 ,_..) , ( , .1:1iI1) 1 514 1.


J

t m

:1 4

In X

7'i L

46 1516

et4

109 trNi cre-J .49 q (

)zogiv 4-atyLsia 411 .

My

3u3a raoDy reonzaA


1!-1.11t.t L114111 II kil 1.1114.1 KU IL, LL11111.4.1.1.1.141.141.1_11{ (I 11.1.1111(1 k1.1.1.1 U U I iiiLinn 111.1111111.1.11ili

7,'0

MIMIMtn

1J

Sec t ion

46 1516

vta

YVGOIA

qd 1-Am

Section 9 Hull Scantlings, High Speed Craft 9.1 Application This section applies to crafts having maximum speed (in knots) not less than 2.36 j(1.30 NE) where L is the length in m (ft) as defined in 2.1. Part A 9A.1 Plating Aliminum or Steel General The bottom shell is to extend to the chine or upper turn of The thickness of sea chests, where installed, is to be bilge. not less than required for the bottom shell. In general the side shell is to be of the same thickness from its lower limit to the All openings are to have well rounded corners and gunwale. generous radii are to be provided at hull breaks. Thick plating of sufficient breadth to prevent damage is to be fitted around hawse pipes. The plating is to be effectively protected against corrosion. 9A.1.2 Thickness The thickness of the plating is to be not less than given by the greater of the following equations, a All Plating

t=

pk

1000 a,

mm

t = s

pk

a,

in

b Strength Deck and Shell t = (c, 0.042L) t = (ci 0.0005L) c


MM

.1,T,

in

is generally to be taken not less than 12.2 m (40 ft) Strength Deck and Bottom Shell, within 0.561, Amidships, L t = k, d All Plating 0.012s but 4.0 mm (0.16in) minimum for aluminum .10 in.) minimum _ steel 0.01s but 2.5 mm mm or

Section 9/1

where: s the spacing, in mm or in, of the shell, deck, superstructures, deckhouse or bulkhead longitudinals or stiffeners, and always the lesser dimension of the plate panel design pressure, in kN/m2, (tf/m2, psi) given in Section 8 plate panel aspect ratio factor, given in Table 9A.1 design stress, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) given in Table 9A.2 vessel length in m or ft as defined in 2.1 factor for service and location, given in Table 9A.3 235/cry SI units (24/ay MKS units, 34000/ay US units) yield stress of material in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi). required hull-girder section modulus given in Section 11 proposed hull-girder section modulus of midship section modulus of elasticity in N/mm2 (kgf/nina2, psi) with longitudinal framing, 2.5 with transverse framing, 1.5 for .2/s 2.0 or above with transverse framing, 2 for l/s 1.0

p k aa L = c1 q

a
Si E kb

Shell thickness in way of skegs and shaft struts is to be not less than 50% greater than the required thickness for the bottom shell from equation a, using the pressure Pb in 8.1.1 and actual frame spacing. Suitable framing reinforcement is to be provided in way of shaft struts. 9A.3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic General 9A.3.1 The shell, decks and bulkheads may be either single skin or sandwich Where both are used, a suitable transition is to be construction. obtained between them. The bottom shell is to extend to the chine or upper bilge turn. A suitable transition is to be obtained between the bottom and side shell plating. The thickness in way of the keel is to be at least 50% greater and in way of shaft struts and skegs it is to be at least 100% greater than the required thickness for bottom shell, given in equation using the presssure pb in 8.1.1 and actual frame spacing. Suitable framing reinforcement is to be provided in way of shaft struts. The shell, deck or bulkhead laminates may be bi-directional, having essentially same strength and elastic properties in the two inplane principal axes of the shell, deck or bulkhead panels or the laminate may be uni-directional, having different strength or elastic properties in the two principal axes of the shell, deck or bulkhead panels. Bonding angles, flanges or tapes are to have essentially same strength and elastic properties as the plating laminate being bonded, and are in general to be in accordance with 7B.3.4. 9A.3.2 Fiber Reinforcement The basic laminate given in 4.5.4 or other approved laminate of glass, aramid or carbon fiber in mat, woven roving, cloth, knitted fabric or non-woven uni-directional reinforcing plies may be used. For the shell and deck a sufficient number of plies are to be layed-up with the warp in the 0 (longitudinal) axis, with the warp and fill being as close as practicable, parallel to the longitudinal and transverse edges of the T1ON 9/2

shell and deck panels. Depending on the directionality and fiber orientation of these plies, other plies may be required or permitted in the 90' (transverse) axis; reinforcing plies in other axes such as 45' (diagonal) may also be used, when approved. Where the strength and stiffness in the two principal axes of the panel are different, panel bending in each of the panel principal axes is to be considered. See 9A.3.3b and 9A.2.4b. 9A.3.3 Single Skin Laminate a With essentially same properties in 0 and 90 axes. The thickness of the plating is to be not less than given by the following equations. 1 All Plating t = sc 2 All Plating
t = Sc 3

pk 1000 as

ram

t = sc Pk in as

pk, 1000k2EF

3 Strength Deck and Shell t = k3 (c1 0.26L) Vq,

t = k3 (ca + 0.0031L) Vq. in L is generally to be taken not less than 12.2m (40 ft) 4 Strength Deck and Bottom Shell, Within 0.66L Amidships, 30.5 m (100 ft)

t=
Where:

in mm or in

the spacina in mm or in of the shell or deck lonaitudinals or superstructure, deckhouse or bulkhead stiffener and always the lesser dimension of the plate panel. factor for o_s.te curvature in the direction parallel to s, given by (1-./s), but is not to be taken less than 0.-70

Section 9/3

A =

distance in mm or in. measured perpendicular from the chord of length, s, to the highest point of the curved plate arc between the panel edges design pressure, given in Section 8

k or k1 = co-efficient varying with plate panel aspect ratio as given in Table 9A.1
kb

as defined in 9A.1.2 = design stress, given in Table 9A.5. for shell, deck and bulkhead=0.015; for superstructures and deckhouse fronts=0.020 flexural modulus of laminate, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2,psi). vessel length in m or ft as defined in 2.1

da

k2 = E, L =

cl & k, = factor for service and location, given in Table 9A.4


qi

170/F SI units (17.5/F MKS unit, 25000/F US units) minimum flexural strength of laminate, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi)

auc E, = kb = SMR = SNa =

minimum compressive strength of laminate in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2,psi). compressive modulus of elasticity in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) as defined in 9A.1.1. required hull-girder section modulus given in Section 11 proposed hull-girder section modulus of midship section

b With Different Properties in 00 and 900 Axes For laminates with different strength and elastic properties in the 00 and 900 (principal panel) axes where the strength is less, or the stiffness greater in the direction perpendicular to s, the thickness is to be also not less than given by the following equations
t sc

pk,
1000 cs

mm

sc

Pk in ba s pke
ae n

2.
100Ccr,i E,

Mill

t_ sc

Where
s, c, and p are as defined above and

co-efficient for plate panel aspect Table 9A.1A.


Ca 5

io, given in

design stress, given in Table 9A.5, based on strength properties in the direction parallel to s flexural modulus of laminate, in N/mm- (kcf/mm, psi), the

Section 9/4

direction parallel to s
Oae

= design stress, given in Table 9A.5, based on properties in the direction perpendicular to s

strength

EQ = flexural modulus of laminate, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi), in the direction perpendicular to s 9A.3.4 Sandwich Laminate

Laminate With Essentially Same Bending Strength and a Stiffness, in 0 and 90 Axes In general the outer and inner skins are to be similar in lay-up and in strength and elastic properties, each with similar tensile and compressive strengths and modulii. Special consideration In general, single will be given where this is not the case. skin laminate is to be used in way of the keel and in way of hull appendages such as shaft struts, skegs and rudders and in way of deck fittings, bolted connections, and other areas of Alternatively, cores effective in concentrated local loads. flexure and compression may be considered in these locations. The section modulus and moment of inertia about the neutral axis of a strip of sandwich panel, 1 cm (1 in.) unit width, are to be not less than given by the following equations

1. SM,
2.

(sc) 2pk
cm3

SM0

(sc)2 pk
i n3

6x105aao

6cra,
cm3

SM,
3

(sc) 2pk 6x10' ca,

SM,-

(sc) 2pk
64:Nal

in3

I=
where:

3pki (sc) 120x103k2ET,

cm '

(SC)

pk, 'n4 12k2ET,

s,c,o,k,k, and k, are as defined in 9A.3.3 SM0 = required section modulus, in cm3 or i.., qmi reql.ijred section modulus, required moment of inertia,
3 CM OZ

to cuter skin

to inner skin

cm or inl

for outer skin, given in Table 9A.3, based on c, = design str,... strength of outer skin in direction parallel to

Section 9/5

CY-air =

design stress, for inner skin, given in Table 9A.5, based on strength of inner skin in direction parallel to s

ETC = 0-5(Ec + ET) Ec = mean of compressive modulii of inner and outer skins, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) ET = mean of tensile modulii of inner and outer skins, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) Laminates with Different sending Strength and Stiffness in 0 and 90 Axes For laminates with different properties in the 0 and 90 (principal panel) axes the section modulus and moment of inertia about the neutral axis of a strip of sandwich panel, 1 cm (1 in.) unit width, are to be also not less than given by the following equations.

In direction parallel to s
SM, -7-

(sc) 2pks 6x105 a

CM

SM =

2 (SC) pk, 66aso

in

- aso

In direction parallel to SM0


(sc)2 pke Crri 3

6x105ciae, 3 In direction parallel to s SM i = 4 (sc) 2pks 6x105crasi In direction parallel to SMi = (sc) 2pke
e

2pke Ee SI% = (sc) In 6c7ae, y E5

cm3

SM i =

(sc) 2pks Eaas,

Ee
Cm

SM, = SM,

(sc) 2pke 6aaei

a3

6x105aa a Es In direction parallel to E 1 = Where: p and k2 are defined in 9A.3.3 SM, = required section modulus, in cm or (sc) 3pk, (12 0x1 OS k,,Es) cm

(sc) 3pk, 4 in (12k2Es)

to outer akin

Section 9/6

SM1 =

required section modulus, in cm- or in3, to inner skin co-efficient for plate panel aspect ratio, given in Table 9A.1A.

C13.130 =

design stress, for outer skin, given in Table 9A.5 based on strength properties in direction parallel to s design stress, for outer skin, given in Table 9A.5 based on strength properties in direction perpendicular to s design stress, for inner skin, given in Table 9A.5 based on strength properties in direction parallel to s design stress, for inner skin, given in Table 9A.5 based on strength properties in direction perpendicular to s 0.5 (ET, + Er,)

C3a0 =

oast' = owi =

Ee

0.5

(E'rm Erm)

ETs, Erg =

mean of tensile modulii of inner and outer skins, and mean of compressive modulii of inner and outer skins, in N/mm2(kgf/mm2, psi) in direction parallel to s, respectively mean of tensile modulii of inner and outer skins, and mean of compressive modulii of inner and outer skins, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in direction parallel to P, respectively

ELF

Ecf =

c. Shear Strength The average thickness of core and sandwich laminate is to be not less than given by the following equation. Special consideration will be given where cores differing from those in 4.11 are proposed. See also 9A.3.4e for minimum thickness of skin. =
2

vps
1000 T

do
mm

do vps in. 2

Where: do = overall thickness of sandwich, excluding gel coat, in mm or dc = thickness of core, in mm or in. co-efficient varying with plate panel aspect ratio, given in Table 9A.6. Where the elastic properties of the skins are different _ the principal axes, V is to be taken not less than 0.5. lesser dimension of e pane tin or in.

Section 9/7

2, psi), as given in Section 8, p - design pressure in kN/m2 (tic/m. except that AD is to be taken not less than s2 and FD taken not less than 0.75. ultimate shear strength of core material. See 4.11.
is

to be

r - design stress, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) is 0.40 times minimum

Skin Stability The skin buckling stress, cc, given by the following equation, is in general to be not less than 2.0 aai and 2.0 aac ac = 0.6 3,/ ES . Ec . Cc
Where: Es compressive modulus of skins, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in 0 and 90 in-plane axis of panel

N/mm2 (kg.f/mm2, psi)

compressive modulus of core, in N/mm2 perpendicular to skins

(kgf/mm2, psi),

core shear modulus, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2 , psi), in the direction parallel to load

e.

Minimum Skin Thickness

After all other requirements are met, the thickness of the outer skin, tcs and inner skin, tis, is in general to be not less than given by the following equations. tcs- 0.5k3 (C/ + 0.26L) mm 0.35k3 (C1 0.26L) mm tcs- 0.5k3 (CL 0.0031L) in. 0.35k3 (C1 + 0.003114 in.

Where: - thickness of outer skin in mm or in. ti, - thickness of inner skin in mm or in. k3 & Cl factors for service and location, given in Table 9A.4 vessel length in m or ft, as defined in 2.1,zeneraL-7 not to be taken as less than 12.2 m (40 ft).

SECTION 9/3

TABLE RA.1 Aspect Ratio Co-efficient For Isotropic Plates Panel Aspect Ratio

> 2.0 2.0 1 .9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0

0.50 0.497 0.493 0.487 0.479 0.468 0.454 0.436 0.412 0.383 0.348 0.308

0.028 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.026 0.025 0.024 0.024 0.021 0.019 0.017 0.014

s = shorter edge of plate panel in mm or in = longer edge of plate panel in mm or in

TABLE 9A.1A Aspect Ratio Co-efficient for Orthotropic Plates

(//s)

k,
.500 .497 .493 .487 .479 .468 .454 .436 .412 .383 .348 .308

kP .342 .342 .342 .342 .342 .342 .342 .342 .338 .333 .323 .308

>2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1 .4 1.3 1.2 1. 1 < .0

Section 9/9

TABLE 9A.2

DESIGN STRESSES, aa, ALUMINUM AND STEEL PLATING

ALUMINVIe SHELL DECKS 0.70 ay/0.58 a u 0.50 ay10.42 ou

STEEL ay 0.6 ay

SUPERSTRUCTURE & DECKHOUSES

FRONTS, SIDES & ENDS TOPS TANK EHDS W.T. EHDS

0.78 o,/0.65 ou 0.50 ay /0.42 ou 0.50 ay /0.42 a, 0.75 a /0.62 a,

aY 0.6 u, 0.6 cy 1.0 a,

ay - yield stress of steel or unwelded aluminum, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) uu= ultimate tensile strength of welded aluminum, in N/ mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) Note: The lower of the indicated values is to be used.

Section 9/10

TABLE 9A.3 ALUMINUM AND STEEL FACTOR cl Steel mm (in) Bottom Shell Side Shell Strength Deck 2.5 (0.10) 2.00 (0.08) 1.80 (0.07) Aluminum mm (in) 3.5 (0.14) 3.0 (0.12) 2.7 (0.11)

Consideration will be given to lesser values for vessels limited to service in relatively sheltered waters.

Section 9/11

TABLE 9A.4 FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC FACTOR c1 and k3

ci

k3

mm (in) 3.2 (0.125)

Bottom Shell

Side Shell & Deck

Consideration will be given to lesser value of cl for vessels limited to service in relatively sheltered waters.

Section 9/12

TABLE 9A.5 DESIGN STRESSES FRP, ca Bottom Shell Side Shell Decks 0.33au 0.33au 0.33au

Superstructures and Deckhouses Front Sides, Ends Tops Tanks Bhds W.T. Bhds Core Shear au

0.33au

0.33au 0.50au O.5ru

for single skin laminate, minimum flexural strength, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) for sandwich laminates; - for shell or deck outer skin, minimum tensile strength, in N /mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) for shell or deck inner skin, minimum compressive strength, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) for bulkhead, less of tensile or compressive strength, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2 , psi) ru minimum core shear strength, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2 , psi)

au and ru are to be verified from the approved test results. 5.3.6h3 and 4.

See

Section 9/13

TABLE 9A.6 Coefficient v for FRP sandwich panels shear strength Plate Panel Aspect Ratio //s. >2.0 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.500 0.500 0.499 0.499 0.494 0.490 0.484 0.478 0.466 0.455 0.437 0.420
v

s shorter edge of plate panel in mm or in. I longer edge of plate panel, in mm or in. Values of y less than 0.5 may be used only where the inner and outer skins have essentially same strength and elastic properties in the 0 and 90 axes.

Section 9/14

Part B

Internals

913.1

Aluminum and Steel General 93.1.1 Structural arrangements and details are to be in accordance with Sections 6 an 7. Section Modulus 913.1.2 The section modulus of each longitudinal, beam, transverse frame, stiffener, transverse web, stringer or girder is to be not less than given by the following equation. SM 83.3 ps/2 cm3 SM as where p design pressure in kN /m2 (tf/m2 , psi) given in Section 8 spacing in m or ft, of longitudinal, beam, transverse frame, s stiffener, transverse web or girder / length, in m or ft, of the longitudinal stiffener, transverse web or girder, between supports; where bracketed end connections are supported by bulkheads, shell or decks, I may be measured onto the bracket, the distance, 0.5 x bracket length from the toe of bracket, provided both bracket arms are about the same length design stress, in N /mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) as given in Table 93.1 93.1.3 Proportions a. Aluminum For built-up sections, the web depth to thickness ratio is not to exceed 55 and the flange width to thickness ratio is to be not more than 12. For flat bar stiffeners the depth to thickness ratio is in general not to exceed 12. For all members, the web depth is to be not less than twice the depth of any web cut-out. The webs of girders and transverses are to be suitably supported to provide lateral stability. Steel b. For built-up sections the web depth to thickness ratio is not to exceed 70 and the flange width to thickness ratio is to be not more than 15. For flat bar stiffeners the depth to thickness is in general not to exceed 15. For all members, the web depth is to be not less than twice the depth of any cut-out. The webs of girders and transverses are to be suitably supported to provide lateral stability. 144ps/2 aa in3

Section 9/15

9B.3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic General 9B.2.1 Structural arrangments and details are to be in accordance with Sections 6 and 7. Laminates may be bi-directional, having comparable strength and elastic properties in the two, in-plane, principal axes of the panel or they may be uni-directional, having different strengths and elastic properties in the two, in-plane, principal axes of the panel. Bonding angles, flanges or tapes are to have strength and elastic properties same as the laminates of the plating and internal being bonded. 9B.3.2 Fiber Reinforcement The basic laminate given in 4.5.4a, or other approved laminate, of glass, aramid, or carbon fiber, in mat, woven roving, cloth knitted fabric, or woven or non-woven uni-directional reinforcing plies may be used. The plies are in general to be layed-up parallel to the direction of the internal. The strength of the laminate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the internal is in general not to be less than 25% of the warp strength except for the uni-directional caps of the flange or crown of the internal members. In way of continuous longitudinal members, the section modulus and moment of inertia of transverse members is to be attained by the shell or deck plating and that part of the transverse member that is continuous over the longitudinal member. Where higher strength or higher modulus plies are used in the flange or crown of the internal, it may be advisable to provide similar higher strength, higher modulus local plies in the shell or deck plating, in the direction parallel to the internal to balance the strength and stiffness of the high strength and high modulus plies in the flange or crown of the internal. 9B.3.3 Strength and Stiffness a. Section Modulus The section modulus of each longitudinal, stiffener, transverse web and girder including the plating to which it is attached is to be not less than given by the following equation SM 83.3ps/2 cm3 oa where p,s,2 and as are as defined in 9B.1.2. In calculating the section modulus and inertia, where the shell, deck or bulkhead plating, and the webs and flange and crown of the member are constructed of different strength or elastic property laminates, consideration is to be given to the effect of the different modulii laminates in calculating the moment of inertia; the required section SM 144ps/2 in3 oa

Section 9/16

modulus is to be considered at each different strength laminate of the member. b. Moment of Inertia The moment of inertia of each longitudinal, stiffener, transverse web, stringer or girder, including the plating to which it is attached, is to be not less than given by the following equation
2 601DS-e 3

cm4

54pse k4E

k4E where: p,s, and i are as given in 9B.1.2

0.015 for bottom, side, deck and bulkhead internals 0.020 for superstructure front and house front internals tensile or compressive modulus, in N /mm2 (kgf/mm2,psi) representative of the laminates used in the moment of inertia calculation. c. Shear Area The web area, A, of the member is to be not less than given by the following equation 1 where: p,s,and A = are as given in 9B.1.2 net web area in cm' or in at location being considered design shear stress in N/mm2 (kgf/mm7, psi), to be taken. not less than 0.4 Tu lesser of ultimate shear strength in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in either warp or fill of the web laminate 7.5pst cm
2

A =

108psf
t

in2

Ta

9B.3.4 Proportions The thickness of webs and flanges are to be in accordance with 7B.1.3.

Section 9/17

98.5 Stanchions 93.5.1 General Supports under stanchions are to be of sufficient strength to distribute the loads effectively. Stanchions above are to be arranged directly above stanchions below wherever possible; where this is not possible, effective means are to be provided for transmitting the loads to supports below. Stanchions in double bottom tanks and under the tops of deep tanks are to be metal and of solid cross section. Stanchions are in general not to be used in the bottom or double bottom structure where subjected to high impact loads in service. 93.5.2 Stanchion Load The load on a stanchion is to be obtained from the following equation: W W b s = pbs kN(tf) W = 4.064pbs Ltf

= load in kN (tf, Ltf) = mean breadth in m or ft of area supported = mean length in m or ft of area supported design pressure in kN/m2 (tf/m2, psi) given in Section 8. Where a stanchion supports two or more decks, p is to be the design pressure for the deck at the top of the stanchion plus the sum of the design pressures for all complete decks and one-half the design pressure for all tops of deck-houses above the deck being directly supported.

Permissible Load 93.5.3 The load a stanchion may carry is to be equal to or greater than the load on the stanchion obtained in 98.3.2. This permissible load is to be obtained from the following equations. a. Mild Steel Stanchions

kN Wa = (12.09 - 4.43 e/r) A Wa = (1.232 - 0.452e/r) A tf Wa = (7.83 - 0.345.e/r) A Ltf b. Aluminum-Alloy Stanchions

Wa = (10.00 - 5.82 e/r) Aoy/165 kN tf Wa = (1.02 - 0.593e/r) Any /17 Wa = (6.49 - 0.452e/r) Any/24000 Ltf where: = permissible load in kN (tf, Ltf) least radius of gyration of stanchion in cm or in A = area of stanchion in cm- or in unsupported length of stanchion in m or ft ay = minimum yield strength of aluminum alloy under consideration, given in Table 4.1 Wa

Section 9/18

The adoption of aluminum-alloy test values higher than given in Table 4.1 will be subject to special consideration. FRP Stanchions 9B.5.4 Normally FRP is not considered to be a material suitable for stanchions. If for special reasons FRP stanchions are contemplated, they will be subject to specially consideration. Support by Bulkheads 9B.5.5 . Bulkheads supporting girders or bulkheads fitted in lieu of stanchions are to be stiffened to provide supports not less effective than required for stanchions.

Section 9/19

TABLE 9B.1 DESIGN STRESSES

ALUMINUM Bottom Longitudinals Side Longitudinals Deck Longitudinals House/Superstructure Stiffeners Bottom Transverse and Girders Side Transverse and Girders Deck Transverse and Girders W.T. Bulkhead Stiffeners Tank Bulkhead Stiffeners W.T. Bulkhead Webs and Stringers Tank Bulkhead Webs and Stringers 0.55 ay/0.46 cs, 0.55 cy/0.46 a, 0.55 ay/0.46 du 0.70 ay/0.58 c, 0.55 ay/0.46 c, 0.55 cry/0.46 au 0.70 cy/0.58 cu 1.00 ay/0.83 au 0.60 oy/0,50 du 0.75 cy/0.62 cu 0.60 cy/0.50 Cu

STEEL 0.80 ay 0.72 ay 0.50 ay 0.70 ay 0.80 ay 0.80 a, 0.70 o, 1.00 a -, 0.75 ay 0.75 ay 0.75 Cy

FRP 0.50 c 0.40 cu 0.40 au 0.33 cu 0.33 a, 0.33 a, 0.33 a, 0.55 0, 0,33 ou 0.50
cu

0.33 Cu

cry = yield strength, unwelded condition, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) Cu = ultimate tensile strength, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) for aluminum, the value in the welded condition is to be used. Note: The lower of the indicated values is to be used.

Section 9/20

SECTION 10 HULL SCANTLINGS, DISPLACEMENT CRAFT 10.1 Application This section applies to crafts having maximum speed in knots less than 2.36j (1.30j) where L is the length in m (ft) as defined in 2.1. Part A Plating 10A.1 Aluminum and Steel General 10A.1.1 The bottom shell is to extend to the upper turn of bilge or to In general the side shell is to be of the same the chine. thickness from its lower limit to the gunwale. All openings are to have well rounded corners. The thickness of sea chest, where installed, is to be not less than required for the bottom shell. Thick plating of sufficient breadth is to be fitted around hawsepipes to prevent damage. Thickness 10A.1.2 The thickness of the plating is to be not less than given by the following equations: a All Plating t = qh + 2 mm 272 t = sl /qh + 0.08 in 495

b Strength Deck and Shell Plating t = (C1 + 0.042L),Th - mm t = (C1 + 0.0005L) q in. 0.66L Amidships,

c Strength Deck and Bottom Shell, Within L 30.5m (100 ft) t = Kb where: ay SM, mm or in. E SMA

L = q = ay = C1 = Kb =

smaller dimension of plate panel in mm or in design head as given in Table 8.2, in m or ft vessel length as defined in 2.1 but in general not to be taken less than 12.2 m (40 ft) 235/oy SI units (24/ay MKS units, 34,000/oy2 US Units) minimum yield strength of material in N/mm' (kgf/mm2, psi) factor for service and location, given in Table 10.1 2.5 with longitudinal framing 1.5 with transverse framing, = 2.0 or above

Section 10/1

1.0 2.5 with transverse framing, .2/s SMR- required hull-girder section modulus given in Section 11 SMN- proposed hull-girder section modulus of midship section After all other requirements are met the thickness is in general not to be less than 4.0 mm (0.16 in) for aluminum and 2.5 mm (0.10 in) for steel. Shell thickness to be at least bottom shell reinforcement rudders horns. 10A.3. in way of skegs, rudder horns and shaft struts is 50% greater than the required thickness for the from equations a and b. Suitable framing is to be provided in way of shaft struts and

Fiber Reinforced Plastic

10A.3.1 General The shell, decks and bulkheads may be either single skin or sandwich construction. Where both are used a suitable transition is to be obtained between the two. The bottom shell is to extend to the chine or upper bilge turn. A suitable transition is to be obtained between the bottom and side shell plating. The thickness in way of the keel is to be at least 50% greater and in way of shaft struts and skegs it is to be at least 100% greater than the required thickness for bottom shell, given in equation 10A.3.3, a, b or c and actual frame spacing. Suitable framing reinforcement is to be provided in way of shaft struts and rudder horns. The shell, deck or bulkhead laminates may be bi-directional, having essentially same strength and elastic properties in the two inplane principal axes of the shell, deck or bulkhead panels or the laminate may be uni-directional, having different strength or elastic properties in the two principal axes of the shell, deck or bulkhead panels. Bonding angles, flanges or tapes are to have strength and elastic properties essentially same as the plating laminate being bonded, and in general are to be in accordance with 7B.3.4. 10A.3.2 Fiber Reinforcement The basic laminate given in 4.5.4 or other approved laminate of glass, aramid or carbon fiber in mat, woven roving, cloth, knitted fabric or woven or non-woven uni-directional reinforcing plies may be used. For the shell and deck a sufficient number of plies are to be layed-up with the warp in the 0 {longitudinal) axis, with the warp and fill being as close as practicable, parallel to the longitudinal and transverse edges of the shell and deck panels. Depending on the directionality and fiber orientation of these plies, other plies may be required or permitted in the 90 (transverse) axis; reinforcing plies in other axes such as -i- 45 (diagonal) may also be used, when approved. Where the strength and stiffness in the two principal axes of the panel are different, panel bending in each of the principal panel axes is to be considered. See 10A.3.3b and 10A.3.4b.

Section 10/2

10A.3.3

Single Skin Laminate

a With Essentially Same Properties in 0 and 90 Direction The thickness of the shell, deck and bulkhead plating is to be not less than given by the greatest of the applicable equations in the following. 1 All Plating t = 0.015sc Vkhql mm 2 All Plating .1k1hq2 mm t = 0.0518 sc 3 3 Strength Deck and Shell t = k3 (C1 + 0.261, Vgi mm 4 (C1 0.0031L t = k3 mm t = 0.034sc 3Vki q in. t = 0.084sc

ji14,7

in.

Strength Deck and Bottom Shell, Within 0.66L Amidships, L > 30.5m (100 ft) t = .Kb 0.6a.SMa MM or ECSMA

Where: Kb is defined in 10A.1.2 Ec, SM SMA are as defined in 9A.3.3a smaller dimension of plate panel, in mm or in, S = correction factor for curved plating, (1-A/s), not to be c = taken less than 0.70 distance in mm or in measured perpendicular from the chord A = length S to the highest point of the curved plating arc between panel edges design head as given in Table 8.2, in m or ft h = kl & k = co-efficient varying with plate panel aspect ratio, given in Table 9.1 170/F SI units (17.5/F MKS units, 25000/F US units) ch = 7580/EF SI units (773/EF MKS units 1.1x106/EF US units) C12 = flexural strength of laminate in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) F = flexural modulus of laminate in N/mm2, (kgf/mm2,psi) EF= factors for service and location given in Table 10.2 Ci & k3 = minimum compressive strength of laminate in N/mm2, a, = (kgf/mm2, psi) b With Different Properties in 0 and 90 Direction Where the stiffness is greater in the plate panel direction perpendicular to s, than that in the direction parallel to s, the thickness is to be also not less than given by the following equations whichever is areater.

Section 10/3

1. 2.

t = 0.015sc Vkshcli mm t = 0.015sc Vkihqi 1lE-e


Es

t = 0.0084sc Ilkshch in. t = 0.084sc l ikth q

Where s and h are as defined above and ks = co-efficient for plate panel aspect ratio, obtained from Table 9A.1A. ke = co-efficient for plate panel aspect ration, obtained from Table 9A.IA. = greater dimension of rectangular plate panel in mm or in, equal to s for square panels E, = flexural modulus of laminate in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in the direction parallel to s Et = flexural modulus of laminate in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in the direction perpendicular to s F5 = flexural strength of laminate in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in the direction parallel to s Fe = flexural strength of laminate in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in the direction perpendicular to s 10A.3.4 Sandwich Laminate

a. With Essentially Same Properties in 0 and 90 Direction In general the inner and outer skins are to be similar in reinforcing form, in lay-up, and in strength and elastic properties, each having also not greatly dissimilar tensile and compressive strengths and modulii. Special consideration will be given where this is not the case. In general, single skin laminate is to be used in way of the keel, shaft struts, skegs, and rudder horns, deck fittings, bolted connections and other areas of concentrated local loads. Alternatively, cores effective in flexure and compression may be considered in these locations. The section modulus and moment of inertia about the neutral axis of a strip of sandwich panel, 1 cm (1 in) unit width, are to be not less than given by the following equations a. SM, = 5.2x10-7(sc)2 khq3 CM3 b. SMi = 5.2x10-7(sc)2 khq3 CM3
c

SM, = 0.000016(sc)2 khq3 in3 SMi = 0.000016(sc) 2 khq3 in3 I = 0.0000033(sc)3 k1 hq4

I = 1 . 1X10-8 (SC) 3 kihq4 cm4

Where s,c,h,k, and kl are as defined in 10A.3.3a


SMo= SM;_=

required section modulus, in cm3 or in3 to the outer skin required section modulus, in cm3 or in3 to the inner skin

Section 10/4

= required moment of inertia, in cm4 or in4 q3 = 124/au SI units (12.6/cu MKS units, 18000/au US units) q4 = 7580/ETc SI units (773/ETC MKS units, 1.1x106/ETC US units) auo= tensile strength of outer skin in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) cr= compressive strength of inner skin, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) ETC= 0.5(ET Ec) ET
=

mean of tensile modulii of inner and outer skins, in N /mm2 (kgf/cm2, psi)

Ec = mean of compressive modulii of inner and outer skins, in N/mm2 (kgf/cm2, psi) b. With Different Properties in 0 and 90 Direction Where the stiffness is greater in the panel direction perpendicular to s than that in the direction paralles to s, the section modulus about the neutral axis of the strip of sandwich, 1 cm (1 in) unit width, are also to be not less than given by the following equations whichever is greater. 1 In direction parallel to s SM = 5.2x10-7(sc)2 ksh q3 cm3, 2 In direction parallel to i SM, = 5.2x10-7(sc)2 kehql cm3 SM, = 0.000016(sc)2 keh q3 E, 3 In direction parallel to s SMi = 5.2x10-7(sc)2 k,hq3 cm3 4 In direction parallel to t SM, = 5.2x10-7(sc)2 k,hq3
Eo z E ' s cm

SMo = 0.000016(sc)2 ksh q3 in3

in3

SMi = 0.000016(SC)2 ksh q3 in

SMi = 0.000016(sc)2 keha3

--2-- in3 E,

where s,c, h, k5, ke and e are as defined in 10A.3.3. and SM0 and SM, are as defined in 10A.3.4

Section 10/5

Cruos

Cruoe

Crui s

cull

tensile strength of outer skin, in N /mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in direction parallel to s tensile strength of outer skin, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in direction parallel to compressive strength of inner skin, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) in direction parallel to s compressive strength of inner skin, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2,psi) in direction parallel to i

c Shear Strength The thickness of.the core and skins of a sandwich laminate are to be not less than given by the following equation. Special consideration will be given where cores differing from those in 4.11 are proposed. d, dc = k4vhs mm or in 2 Where: do = d, = v = overall thickness of sandwich, excluding gel coat, in mm or in thickness of core, in mm or ins. co-efficient varying with plate panel aspect ratio, given in Table 9A.6.Where the elastic properties of the skins are different in the principal axes, v is to be taken not less than 0 5 0.01(0.001, 0.44) in SI (MKS, US) units lesser dimension of plate panel, in mm or in. design head as given in Table 8.2. design stress, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi), is 0.50 times the minimum ultimate shear strength of the core material. See 4.11.

k4 = s = h= t

d. Minimum Skin Thickness After all other requirements are met, the thickness of the outer skin, t0 and inner skin tis, is in general to be not less than given by the following equations. t = 0.5k3 (cl + 0.26L) mm ti, = 0.35k3 (el + 0.26L) mm Where: k3 & cl = factors for service and location, given in Table 9A.4 L = vessel length in m or ft, as defined in 2.1, generally not to be taken as less than 12.2 m (40 ft). to, = 0.5k3 (cl 0.0031L) in. t,, = 0.35k3 (cl + 0.0031L) in.

Section 10/6

t os t is

thickness of outer skin in mm or in. thickness of inner skin in mm or in.

Part B

Internals

103.1 Aluminum and Steel General. 103.1.1 Structural arrangements and details are to be in accordance with Sections 6 and 7. Where different strength alloys are used, for the stiffener, longitudinal, transverse web, girder etc and for the plating to which it is attached, the section modulus is to be determined in way of each different strength alloy. Strength 108.1.2 The section modulus of each longitudinal, beam, frame stiffener, transverse web, stringer and girder together with the plating to which it is attached, (see 3.5), is to be not less than given by the following equation. SM 7.8 chs.22 q cm3 SM 0.0041 chs.22 q in3

The section modulus of collision bulkhead stiffeners is to be 25% greater than the values given above. Where: c 0.85 for bottom longitudinals, superstructure and deckhouse bhd stiffeners 0.70 for all other shell members and for members of tank boundaries, including double bottom tank members 0.64 for strength deck longitudinals amidships, 0.48 outside amidships 0.51 for all other strength and internal deck members, and for girders and webs on watertight bulkheads 0.48 for superstructure and house top members 0.37 for attached-end, watertight bulkhead stiffeners 0.46 for unattached-end, watertight bulkhead stiffeners design head in m or ft, given in Table 8.2 the spacing of the member in m or ft unsupported span in m or ft, where end brackets are supported by bulkheads, decks or shell, the length .2 may be measured onto the bracket, as given in 3.7 minimum yield strength in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) for aluminum alloys it is in general for the as-welded condition for strength deck and shell structure and unwelded condition for other structure. 235/ay SI units (24/ay MKS units, 34,000/ay US units)

h s

Section 10/7

108.1.3

Proportions

a. Aluminum The web depth to thickness ratio is not to exceed 59 and the outstanding flange width to thickness ratio it to be not more than 12. For flat bar stiffeners the depth to thickness ratio is in general not to exceed 12. The web depth in general is to be not less than twice the depth of cut-outs in the web, nor less than given in Table 10.3. The webs of girders and transverse are to be suitably supported to provide internal stability. b. Steel The web depth to thickness ratio is not to exceed 70 and the outstanding flange width to thickness ratio is to be not more than 15. For flat bar stiffeners the depth to thickness ratio is in general not to exceed 15. The web depth in general is to be not less than twice the depth of cut-outs in the web, nor less than given in Table 10.3. The webs of girders and transverses are to be suitably supported to provide lateral stability. 10B.1.4 Double Bottom

a. Center Girder The center girder is to extend as far forward and aft as practicable, the depth, ho, and the thickness, t, are to be not less than given by the following equations h, = (32 8+154 115)1K mm h, = (0.384 8+3.35 v)K in

t = (0.059 L Where: B D L K q = = = = =

4.6).g mm

t = (0.0007L

0.18) IF:1 in

breadth of vessel in m or ft, as defined in Section 2 depth of vessel in m or ft, as defined in Section 2 length of vessel in m or ft, as defined in Section 2 1.0 for steel and 1.15 for aluminum as defined in 108.1.2.

b. Side Girder and Floors Intercostal side girders are to be spaced not more than 4.57 m (15 ft), where the distance between the center girder and side shell does not exceed 4.57 (15 ft), side girders need not be fitted. Solid floors are to be spaced not more than 0.61 m (2 ft), or not more than 1.52 m (5 ft) in association with longitudinal framing, in the machinery space and not more than 3.05 m (10 ft) elsewhere, in association with open floors or longitudinal framing. They are also to be fitted under transverse bulkheads. The thickness of side girders and floors is to be not less than given by the following equations.

Section 10/8

(0.048L + 3.6)

(0.00058L + 0.14) A- in

Where L and q are as defined in 108.1.4a.

Open Floors c. The bottom frames and inner bottom frames are to be as required in 108.3.1.

d. Inner Bottom Plating Inner bottom plating is to be not less than obtained from the following equation t (0.033L + 0.008s) fiTmm t (0.0004L + 0.008s) Ain

Where L and q are as defined in 108.1.4.a frame spacing in mm or in 108.3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic 10B.3.1 General The structural arrangements and details are to be in accordance with Sections 6 and 7. These requirements may also apply to plywood in which case the requirements and the different strength and elastic properties are to be considered for each of the different materials in the composite section Laminates may be bi-directional, having comparable strength and elastic properties in the two, in-plane, principal axes of the panel or they may be uni-directional, having dissimilar strengths and elastic properties in the two, in-plane, principal axes of the panel. Bonding angles, flanges or tapes are to have strength and elastic properties similar to the laminates of the plating and internal being bonded. 108.3.2 Fiber Reinforcement The basic laminate given in 4.5.4a, or other approved laminate, of glass, aramid, or carbon fiber, in mat, woven roving, cloth, knitted fabric, woven or non-woven unidirectional reinforcing plies may be used. The plies are in general to be layed-up parallel to the direction of the internal. The strength of the laminate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the internal is in general not to be less than 25% of the warp strength except for the uni-directional caps of the flange or crown of the internal members. In way of continuous longitudinal members, the section modulus and moment of inertia of transverse members are to be attained by the shell or deck plating and that part of the transverse member that is continuous over the longitudinal member. Where higher strength or higher modulus plies are used in the flange or crown of the internal, it may be advisable to provide similar higher strength, higher modulus local plies in the shell or deck plating, in Section 10/9

the direction parallel to the internal to balance the strength and stiffness of the high strength and high modulus plies in the flange or crown of the internal. 108.3.3 Strength and Stiffness The section modulus and moment of inertia of each longitudinal, stiffener, transverse web and girder including the plating to which it is attached is to be not less than given by the following equations

SM = 22.91 chse q3 cm3 I = 34.85 chst3 q5 cm3

SM = 0.0119 chse q3 in3 I = 0.0022 chst3 q5 in3

Where c,h,s and t are as given in 108.1.2 q3 = as defined in 10A.3.4a. q5 = 6890/E SI units (703/8 MKS units, 1.0x106/E US units) E = the modulus of elasticity of the cured laminate, in the direction parallel to the member, in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi) where the member or plating to which it is attached are constructed of different modulii laminates, E is the base value used in the inertia calculation of the member. 108.3.4 Proportions The thickness of webs and flanges are to be in accordance with 78.1.3. 108.5 Stanchions 108.5.1 General Stanchions in displacement craft are to meet the requirements in 98.5 using in lieu of 98.5.2 the stanchion load as defined in 108.5.2. 108.5.2 Stanchion Load The load in a stanchion is to be obtained from the following equations: W = nbhs kN(tf,Ltf) n W b s h = 10.5 (1.07, 0.03) = load in KM (tf, Ltf) = mean breadth in m (ft) of the area supported = mean length in m (ft) of the area supported = design head in m (ft) given in Table 8.2. Where a stanchion supports two or more decks, h is to be the design head for the deck at the top of stanchion plus the sum of the design head for all complete decks and one-half of the design head for all tops of deck-houses above the deck being directly supported.

Section 10/10

TABLE 10.1 ALUMINUM AND STEEL INTERNALS MINIMUM WEB DEPTH

Aluminum mm (in)

Steel mm (in)

Bottom Shell Side Shell Strength Deck

3.5(0.14) 3.0(0.12) 2.5(0.10)

2.5(0.10) 2.00(0.08) 1.80(0.072)

TABLE 10.2 FIBER REINFORCED PLASTIC FACTORS C1 & k3 C1 mm (in) 3.0(0.12) k3 Bottom Shell 1.0 k3 Side Shell & Deck 0.90

Consideration will be given to values of CI and k3 for vessels limited to service in relatively sheltered waters.

TABLE 10.3

Member Bottom Girders and Transverses Side Stringers and Transverses Deck Girders and Transverses Tank Boundary Girders and Webs

Depth Steel mm (in) Aluminum mm (in) 83.31 (1.01) 501 (0.61) 501 (0.61) 501 (0.61) 95.41(1.1451) 57.3/ (0.6871) 57.31 (0.6871) 57.31 (0.6871)

is the unsupported length of the members in m or ft.

Section 10/11

SECTION

11

LONGITUDINAL STRENGTH 11.1 General The hull girder section modulus is to be in accordance with the requirements of this section. The equations are, in general, valid for vessels having breadths B not greater than twice their depths D as defined in Section 2. Vessels whose proportions exceed these limits will be subject to special consideration. 11.3 Longitudinal Hull Girder Strength

11.3.1 a. Section Modulus, All Yachts The required hull girder section modulus SM at amidships is to be not less than given by the following equation. SM = 0.01C1L2B(Cb+0.7)(CQ) cm2-t (in2-ft) where CI

3.65(L/10)2-20.37(L/10)+37.38 12 L < 25m 0.57(L/10)2-5.47 (L/10)+19.38 25 L < 45m 45 6.30 L < 61m C1 = 0.0144 [3.65 (L/32.8)2-20.37 (L/32.8)+37.881 39 5 L < 82 ft 0.0144 [0.57 (L/32.8)2-5.47(L/32.8)+19.38] 82 L < 148 ft 0.0144 [6.30] 148 5 L < 200 ft Length of yacht in m or ft as defined in Section 2 breadth in m or ft as defined in Section 2 block coefficient at design draft, based on the length, Cb = L, measured on the design load waterline. Cb is not to be taken as less than 0.45 for L 5 35 m (115 ft) or 0.6 Cb is to be determined by for L > 61 m (200 ft). interpolation for lengths between 35 m (115 ft) and 61 m (200 ft) 1.0 for steel vessels, 0.90 for aluminum vessels and 0.80 for fiber-reinforced plastic vessels Q for steel 1.0 for ordinary strength steel = 0.78 for grade 32 steel 0.72 for grade 36 steel Q for aluminum q6 but not less Qo 0.9 115/ay SI units, 12/ay MKS units, 17000/ay US units = c16 Q0 = 635/(sy+su) SI units, 65/(ay+au) MKS units, 92000/(ay-Fau) US units ay = minimum yield strength of unwelded aluminum in N/mm2 (kaf/m12, psi) minimum ultimate strength of welded aluminum in N/mm au = (kgf/mm2, psi)

Section 11/1

N/mm2 (kgf/mm2 , psi) Q for fiber reinforced plastic 400/au SI units, 41/au MKs units, 58000/au US units. minimum ultimate tensile or compressive strength (7u whichever is less in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi), verified by approved test results. See 5.3.6h 3 and 4. Section Modulus, High Speed Yachts Where the vessel speed exceeds 25 knots, the hull-girder section modulus is also to be not less than obtained by the following equations, whichever is greater. SM ALw (128 YF g Cy 178 YCG g 50) CQ cm2 -Win2 ft) b.

SM =ALw (78 Ycs Cy Where A Lw YF Cy YCG YA g


C Q

128 YA

50) CQ cm2-m (in2 ft)

maximum displacement in metric tons or long tons = length of design waterline in m or ft vertical acceleration at forward end, average 1/10 highest, m/sec2 (ft/sec2) 1320 SI and MKS units or 8380 US units vertical acceleration at longitudinal center of gravity, average 1/10 highest, m/sec2 (ft/sec2) vertical acceleration at aft end, average 1/10 highest, m/sec2 (ft/sec2), taken negative 9.806 m/sec2 (32.2 ft/sec2) co-efficient given in 11.3.1a. - material co-efficient given in 11.3.1a

c.

Moment of Inertia

The hull-girder moment of inertia, I, at amidships is to be not less than given by the following equation I - C1L3 B (Cb 0.70) x C cm2 m2 (in2 ft2)
K

where:
CI, L, B, Cb and C are as defined in 11.3.1a; except that the block co-efficient, Cb, at design draft is to be taken not less than 0.40

Section 11/2

= 4000 for steel 1333 for aluminum 180 for fiber reinforced plastic, basic laminate

Special consideration will be given for fiber reinforced plastic laminates differing from the basic laminate, see 4.5.4. 11.3.2 Section Modulus Calculation In general, the following items may be included in the calculation of the section modulus and inertia provided they are continuous or effectively developed within the midship 0.4L, have adequate buckling strength, and are gradually tapered beyond the midship 0.4L. Deck plating (strength deck and other effective decks) Shell and inner bottom plating Gunwale angle or its equivalent, bulwark Plating and longitudinal stiffeners of longitudinal bulkheads All longitudinals of deck, sides, bottom, and inner bottom In general, the net sectional areas of longitudinal strength members are to be used in the hull girder section modulus calculations. The section modulus to the deck or bottom is obtained by dividing the moment of inertia by the distance from the neutral axis to the molded deck at side amidships or base line, respectively. Where a continuous bulwark or long deckhouse or superstructure is considered as part of the hull girder, the section modulus to the deck is obtained by dividing the moment of inertia by the distance from the neutral axis to the top of the bulwark, deckhouse or superstructure. 11.3.3 Hull-girder Shear Strength Hull-girder shear strength will be specially considered on large fiber reinforced plastic craft. 11.5 Deck Sectional Areas 11.5.1 All Effective Decks In general, the effective sectional area of the deck for use in calculating the section modulus is to exclude hatchways and other large openings in the deck, deckhouse and superstructure sides and tops and recessed decks, but may include seam overlaps and continuous gunwale angles or their equivalent. The deck sectional areas used in the section modulus calculations are to be maintained throughout the midship 0.4L. They may be reduced to one-half the normal requirement at 0.15L from the ends.

Section 11/3

11.5.2 Effective Lower Decks To be considered effective for use in calculating the hull girder section modulus, the thickness of the lower deck plating is to comply with the requirements of Section 9.

Section 11/4

SECTION 12

Keels, Stems, Stern Frames and Shaft Struts

12.1 Materials 12.1.1 Ordinary Strength Steel The requirements in the following subsections are based on ordinary strength steel. For other materials see 12.1.2 and 12.1.3. 12.1.2 Other Metals Unless otherwise specified, the required section modulus and inertia for steels other than ordinary strength or aluminum is to be not less than those obtained from the following: SM = SM, x Q I = I, x E5/E0 where SM, I = required section modulus and inertia. Unless specifically stated otherwise, the properties about the minor axis (axis perpendicular to h or w) are to be used. SM5,15 = Section modulus and inertia obtained from the dimensions given for ordinary strength steel. Q = E, = Eo = as defined in 11.3.1 20.6x104 N/mm2 (21x103 kgf/mm2, 30x10 psi) Modulus of elasticity of the material used in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi)

12.1.3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic For fiber reinforced plastic hulls, keels and skegs are to have proportions as indicated in Figure 7.9 and 7.10. 12.3 Bar Keels Where bar keels are used the thicknesses and depths are to be not less than obtained from the following equations. t = (0.6251 12.5) mm h = (1.461, 100) mm t = (0.00751, 4- 0.50) in h = (0.0175L 4.0) in

t =required thickness in mm or in. h =required depth in mm or in.

Section 12/1

12.5 Stems Bar Stems 12.5.1 Where bar stems are used, their thickness and widths are not to be less than obtained from the following equations.

t w

(0.625L + 6.35) mm (1.25L -1- 90) mm w

(0.0075L + 0.25) in (0.015L + 3.5) in

required thickness in mm or in. t w - required width in mm or in. L - as defined in 12.3. This thickness and width are to be maintained between the keel and design load waterline. Above the design load waterline they may be gradually reduced until the area at the head is 70% of that obtained from the equations. 12.5.2 Cast or Forged Stems Cast or forged stems of special shape are to be proportioned to provide strengths at least equivalent to those of bar stems; all joints and connections are to be at least as effective as would be required on equivalent bar stems. Plate Stems 12.5.3 Where plate stems are used, they are to be not less in thickness than the bottom shell plating as obtained in Section 9. 12.7 Stern Frames Inner Posts 12.7 1 Where bar type stern frames are fitted, the inner posts at the propeller bosses in single-screw vessels are to have thicknesses and widths not less than obtained from the following equations. Below the bosses, the widths and thicknesses are to be increased gradually in order to provide strength and stiffness in proportion to the shoe pieces.

t - (1.458L + 9.52) mm

(0.0175L + 0.375) in

.283L + 87.4) mm

(0.0154L + 3.44) in

t, L, and w, as given in 12.3 and 12.5

Above the propeller bosses the widths of inner posts may be 85% of the widths obtained by the above equations.

Section 12/2

Floors in Way of Stern Frame 12.7.2 The stern frame posts are to be attached to floors having suitable thicknesses and depths sufficient for welded attachments. Cast, Forged, or Fabricated Stern Frames 12.7.3 Cast, forged, or fabricated stern frame posts of special shape are to be at least equal in strength to bar-type stern frame posts, and all joint connections are to be at least as effective as would be required on equivalent bar-type stern frames. All connections to the stern frames in the vicinity of the shoe pieces are preferably to be either rabbeted or flush-butted with backing bars where necessary. 12.9 Shoe Pieces Shoe pieces are to have a width approximately twice the depth. The section modulus about the vertical axis of the shoe piece is to be not less than the value obtained from the following equation. . /1000 cm3 (in3) 2 cAV2 where 2y Y c A V = required section modulus, at any section of the shoe piece a coefficient varying with speed, from Table 12.1 total area of rudder, in square meters or square feet design speed in knots with the vessel running ahead at the maximum continuous rated shaft rpm and at the designed waterline. horizontal distance, in mm or tn., between centerline of rudder stock and the particular section of the sternframe shoe

Where aluminum is used, the section modulus is to be multiplied by a factor Es/Eo in lieu of Q in 12.1.2. The depth of the pintle housing is to be not less than 1.2 times the The thickness of diameter of the pintle required in Section 13. unbushed housing is to be not less than 55%, and that of bushed housing not less than 50% of the diameter of the pintle. 12.11 Rudder Horns Rudder horns are to have ample strength and stiffness against bending and torsion to resist the forces from the rudder. Webs within the horn are to be arranged to extend down as far as possible and are to be effectively developed into the floors in the after peak.

Section 12/3

12.13 Shaft Struts General 12.13.1 Shaft struts may be of V or I type. The thickness of the strut barrel or boss is to be at least one-fifth the required diameter of the tail Special consideration will be given to the use of materials shaft. other than steel or aluminum. The following equations are for struts having streamline cross-sectional shapes. Other methods of determining scantlings will be considered. Width and Thickness 12.13.2 The thickness and width of each strut arm is to be not less than those obtained from the following equations: a. V strut t= 0.365d b. I strut t 0.515d where thickness of strut (minor axis) t w width of strut (major axis) d required diameter of ABS grade 2 steel tail shaft in mm or in. Where the included angle of V strut is less than 450, the sizes in 12.13.2a above will be specially considered. Strut Length 12.13.3 The length of the longer leg of a V strut or the leg of an I strut, measured from the outside of the strut barrel or boss to the outside of the shell plating, is not to exceed 10.6 times the required diameter of the tail shaft. Where this length is exceeded, the width and thickness of the strut are to be increased, and the strut design will be given special consideration.

w 2.27 d

w 3.22 d

Section 12/4

TABLE 12.1 Values of c Intermediate values of c are to be obtained by interpolation Speed, V Metric Units c without an outer post 2.054 1.811 1.617 1.464 1.339 1.235 1.138 < 10 11 12 13 14 15 > 16

Inch/Pound Units c without an outer post 0.296 0.261 0.233 0.193 0.178 0.164

0.211

Section 12/5

SECTION 13

Rudders

13.1 General All vessels are to be provided with an approved steering system. The use of speed, direction, or pitch variation of specially designed propelling units as a means of steering will be specially considered. Effective rudder stop is to be provided. 13.3 Materials Steel materials for rudder stocks, frames, pintles, crossheads, tillers, quadrants, etc., are to be in accordance with the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. The surfaces of rudder stocks in way of exposed bearings are to be of noncorrosive material. Where rudders are of aluminum the material is to be in accordance with the Rules for Building and Classing Aluminum Vessels. Special consideration will be given to aluminum rudder stocks and fiber reinforced plastic rudders and rudder stocks. Material specifications are to be indicated on the plans. 13.5 Unbalanced Rudders This subsection applies to rudders having their area located totally abaft the axis of rudders. Upper Rudder Stocks 13.5.1 Rudder stocks above the top pintle are to have diameters not less than obtained from the following equation. S = 0.26c jkRAV 2 in 21.66c ifkRAV2 mm required diameter of upper stock in mm or in. 0.85, where V is 20 knots or less, 1.35-0.039 V/A1/6, where V is greater than 20 knots, but need not exceed 0.85 and is not to be taken less than 0.65 420/u SI units (41/u MKS units, 58,000/u US units) ultimate tensile strength of steel in N/mm2 (kgf/mm, psi) distance in m or ft from the rudder axis to the centroid of area of A maximum displacement in metric tons or long tons total projected rudder area in m' or ft design speed in knots with the vessel running ahead at the maximum continuous rated shaft rpm and at the

A = A

Section 13/1

design waterline, but not less than the least speed mentioned below. The least speed V to be used with the equation is 8 knots for vessels of 30 m (100 ft) length or less, 9 knots for 45 m (150 ft), and 10 knots for 61 m (200 ft). In all cases the stock diameter is to be adequate for the maximum astern speed. Lower Rudder Stocks 13.5.2 Lower stocks are to be of the required diameter for upper stocks at the top arm of a single-plate rudders or at the top of a built-up rudders having the uppermost of the pintles at the top of the rudder. The diameter may be gradually reduced below this point until it is 0.75S at the bottom. Lower stocks within built-up rudders may be omitted provided the strength of the rudder in torsion and bending is equivalent to that required for the lower stock. 13.5.3 Rudder Couplings a General Rudder couplings, where provided, are to be supported by ample metal worked out from the stocks with no narrowing or necking of the material permitted. If the center of the lower part of the stock is abaft that of the upper part of the stock, the latter is to be suitably increased in area where it makes the transition between centers. Where flanges are not worked out from the stock, coupling flanges are to be generally of the same material as the stock. The bolts are in general to be of the same material as the stock and flanges. Where this is not the case the materials are to be compatible, and the sizes of the various items in the connection system are to be based on the properties of the particular material of the items in question. b Fastenings Where S is 150 mm (6 in.) or more, at least six bolts are to be used in each coupling; where S is less than 150 mm (6 in.), at least four bolts are to be used. Coupling nuts and bolts are to be locked in position after tightening. The total area of the bolts is not to be less than obtained from the following equations. Horizontal Couplings a - 0.3053 ru rub r Where a= required total bolt area in square millimeters or square inches S- required diameter of upper stock in mm or in. ru - ultimate shear strength of stock material Vertical Couplings a = 0.33S2 ru rub

Section 13/2

mean distance in mm or in. of the bolt centers from the center of the system of bolts. The minimum distance between the bolt holes and the edges of the coupling flanges is to be two-thirds the diameter of the bolts. c Flanges Where flanges are used as couplings, the minimum thickness of each flange is to be 0.255. If keyways are cut in the flanges, the thickness of each flange is to be increased by an amount equal to the keyway depth. Special consideration will be given where bolts and flanges are of different materials. d Vertical Couplings Where a vertical scarphed coupling is used, the minimum length of scarph and the minimum width of scarph at top and bottom is to be 2.5S. The minimum thickness of scarph is to be 0.13S. 13.7 Balanced Rudders This subsection applies to rudders having part of their area located forward of the axis of rudder. 13.7.1 Upper Rudder Stocks Rudder stocks above neck bearings are to have diameters not less than obtained from the following equation. Where an upper pintle is provided at the top of the rudder, the upper stock may extend to the top of the rudder. S = 21.66c /kRAV2 mm S = 0.26c /kRAV2 in

S = required diameter of upper stock in mm or in. c, k, A,V,R = as defined in 13.5.1 In addition, the upper stock is not to be less in diameter than obtained from the above equation where R and A are for the rudder area between the centerline of the upper stock and the back edge of the rudder, V is equal to the minimum speed appropriate to the vessels length, and c is adjusted by using the minimum speed as permitted above. In all cases, the stock diameter is to be adequate for the maximum astern speed. 13.7.2 Lower Rudder Stocks Rudder stocks in way of and below neck bearings are to have diameters not less than obtained from the following equation. Si = 21.66c V;;ATi l mm S1 = 0.26c JkRAV2 in.

S1 = required diameter of lower stock in mm or in. c, k, A, V = as defined in 13.5.1

Section 13/3

0.25 (a -4bearings -

a2

161)2) with efficient bottom

a + j a2 b2 without bottom bearings vertical distance in m or ft from the center of the neck bearing to the centroid of A horizontal distance in m or ft from the rudder axis to the centroid of A

The stock of a balanced rudder having efficient neck and bottom bearings is to be the full diameter for at least two-thirds of the distance from the neck to the bottom bearing. The diameter may be gradually reduced below this point until it is 0.7551, at the bottom bearing of the rudder. The lower stock in the bottom bearing is to comply with the requirements of 13.9 for a pintle in the same location. Where the diameter of, the ,-lower stock in the bottom bearing is less than the diameter-of' the-lower stock at the bottom of the rudder, a suitable transition is to be provided. The bearings are to be.bushedp,and the bushing is to be effectively secured against movement. The stock of a balanced rudder having no bottom bearing is to be the full diameter to the underside of the top rudder arm if a single-plate rudder, or to the top of the rudder if a built-up rudder. The diameter may be gradually reduced below this point until it is O.33S1 at the bottom. The length of the neck bearing is to be 1.551, and the bearing is to be bushed and the bushing is to be effectively secured against movement. Lower stocks for built-up rudders may be omitted provided the strength of the rudder in torsion and bending is equivalent to that required for the lower stock. 13.7.3 Rudder Couplings Couplings on balanced rudders are to be not less effective than couplings on unbalanced rudders as required by 13.5.3. Where the couplings are so located as to be subject to bending as well as torsion, the coupling is to be in accordance with 13.5.3, using the required lower stock diameters, SL instead of S.

Section 13/4

13.9

Pintles Pintles are to be of steel. Where rudders or rudder stocks are of aluminum, pintles are in general to be of austentic stainless steel, or other approved material. The pintle diameters are to be not less than given by the following equation. d = c Vc1' 5

j kA

where V,k,A and c are as defined in 13.5.1 and required diameter of pintle in mm or in. d 4.52 (0.054), 3.67 (0.044) and 3.18 (0.038) for rudders having two, three or four pintles respectively. The depth of the pintle boss is to be not less than Pintles are to extend for the full depth of the 1.2d. gudgeons; the top pintle is to be placed as high as practicable. In general, pintles are to be fitted as taper bolts; there is to be no shoulder on the pin and the nuts Where are to be fitted with efficient locking devices. steel pintles of 90 mm (3.5 in.) diameter and greater are required and are protected by sheathing shrunk onto the pintle, the diameter may be measured over the sheathing. 13.11 Single Plate Rudders 13.11.1 Thickness Single-plate rudders with upper stock diameters S measuring 76 mm (3 in.) or less are to have plating thicknesses not less than obtained from the following equation. t (0.15S + 6) j q mm t (0.15S + 0.23)

j q in.

Single-plate rudders with upper stock diameters S measuring more than 76 mm (3 in.) are to have plating thickness not less than obtained from the following equation

t (0.04S +14)

FT

MM

(0.04S + 0.56) j7i in.

t required thickness of rudder plate in mm or in. S required diameter of upper stock in mm or in. 235/ay SI units (24/ay MKS units, 34000/ay US units) 3y minimum yield strength of the material in N/mm2 (kgf/mm2, psi); for welded aluminum, it is for the as-welded condition Where the speed of the vessel exceeds 17 knots, the required thickness is to be increased by jq mm (0.04 jq in.) per knot of excess speed.

Section 13/5

Rudder Arms 13.11.2 a Spacing The distance between centers of rudder arms is not to be greater than obtained from the following equation. h m 2.5S + 950 mm h - 2.5S + 37.5 in.

where h - maximum allowable spacing of arms in mm or in. S - required upper stock diameter in mm or in. Where the distances between rudders arms is less than given by the above equation, the thickness t, will be subject to special consideration. b Section Modulus The section modulus, SM, of the rudder arm in way of the forward and after edges of the stock is not to be less than obtained from the following equation SM 0.8(S-50) q cm3 SM where S
q

I.24(5-2) q in.3

required upper stock diameter, m mm or in, as given in 13.5.1 as defined in 13.11.1.

c Breadth The breadths b of the arms may be tapered forward and aft of the maximum breadths required to meet the above section modulus; however, the breadths at the leading and trailing edges of the rudder are not to be less than obtained from the following equation b (0.1S + 8) q mm b - (0.1S + 0.32) q in.

Where b - required breadth of arms m mm or in S,q - as defined above Special consideration will be given to fiber reinforced plastic rudders.

13.13

Double-Plate Rudders Double-plate rudders are to have horizontal internal diaphragms. The thickness of the diaphragms and the side plating is not to be less than obtained from the following equation t - (0.117V

IT+

5.00 ) c1-5 ,fir

Section 13/6

(0.00142V jr-4- 0.20 ) c1.5 = required thickness in side plating and diaphragms, in mm or in A,V,c - as defined in 13.5.1 q = as defined in 13.11.1
t

The distance between centers of the diaphragms is not to be greater than obtained from the following equation. S = 585 where Sp - distance between centers in mm or in. V and A are as defined above The thickness of the plating is to be increased at the rate of 0.015 mm for each millimeter (0.015 in. for each inch) of spacing greater than given by the equation, and may be reduced at the same rate for lesser spacing. Diaphragms are to be attached to the side plating by fillet welds consisting of 75 mm (3 in.) increments spaced 150 mm (6 in.) between their centers. Where the interior of a rudder is inaccessible for welding, it is recommended that the diaphragms be fitted with the flat bars and the plating be connected to these flat bars by continuous or slot welds. Double-plate rudders are to be watertight. Means for draining them are to be provided. Special consideration will be given to fiber reinforcement plastic rudders. 2.41V A mm S - 23 0.029V

Section 13/7

SECTION 14 Closing Appliances, Bulwarks, Rails, Ventilators and Freeing Ports. 14.1 Protection of Openings in Weather Decks. Superstructures and Deckhouses. 14.1.1 Exposed Hatch Covers and Doors

Exposed hatch covers and doors are to be weathertight with proper In general they are to be permanently and securing arrangments. efficiently connected to the structure in which they are fitted. Openings are to be framed to provide support for the closing appliances and associated structure. All doors are to be operable from both sides. Hatch covers intended for escape purposes are also to be operable from both sides. Hatch covers and doors are in general to have strength equivalent to that required for the structure in which they are located, except that standard type doors and hatches may be approved for particular applications on the basis of satisfactory experience in that service. Hatch covers and doors are in general to be constructed of steel, aluminum or other approved material such as fiber reinforced plastic. Hatches are to be gasketed and secured by clamping devices; depending on location, degree of protection and height above design waterline. Doors, other than those in exposed machinery casings, may be considered for approval without clamping devices and gaskets, provided they can be effectively secured. Detail plans need not be submitted for doors and hatch covers that are maintained under ABS type approval program. 14.1.2 Coaming and Sill Heights

Coamings and sill heights above the deck are in general to be not less than given in Table 14.1. Greater heights may be required where closing appliances are not permanently attached. Where applicable, sill heights are to comply with Administration requirements. For the application of Table 14.1 the deck positions are as follows: Deck Position 1 - On exposed main weather decks or in exposed superstructure deck forward of 0,25L, where L is as defined in Section 2. Deck Position 2 - On exposed superstructure deck aft of 0.25L. A companionway is an access opening that leads directly to spaces below the main weather deck or superstructure, including access openings in the machinery casing.

Section 14/1

14.3 Portlights and Windows 14.3.1 Portlights Portlights fitted below the main weather deck or in superstructure and house side plating are to be of substantial construction and provided with efficient watertight steel, aluminum or other approved material inside deadlights, permanently attached to the frame. Except that depending on the type, size and thickness of the portlight and on the intended service and where the portlights are recessed into the hull, consideration will be given to not fitting deadlights. Portlights may be of the opening type with hinge pins of non-corrosive material. Portlight frames are to be of steel or other approved material and are to be attached to the hull by through bolts or equivalent. Lower edges of portlights are not to be below a line parallel to the main weather deck at side with its lowest point located above the design water line at a distance equal to either 2.5% of the vessel breadth or Portlights in way of the 500 mm (19.5 in) whichever is greater. machinery space are in general to be of the non-opening type. Depending on portlight material and thickness and on service, portable deadlights may be required for portlights on the front bulkheads. Other details are to be as given above. Consideration will be given also to the acrylic or polycarbonate portlights. The thickness of portlights of tempered or toughened glass is to be Where applicable, portlight not less than given in Table 14.2. thicknesses are to comply with appropriate Administration requirements. TABLE 14.1 SILL HEIGHTS

DECK POSITION I Hatch Coamings Companionways Other Access Openings 150 ram (6 in.) 450 mm (17.5 in.) 150 mm (6 in)

DECK POSITION 2 75 mm (3 in) 150 mm (6 in) 50 mm (2.0 in)

Section 14/2

TABLE 14.2

THICKNESS OF TEMPERED OR TOUGHENED GLASS PORTLIGHTS L 15 m (49.2 ft) 0.033d 0.025d 0.020d

Location A B C

24m (79 ft) 0.40d 0.33d 0.025d

< 15 m (49.2 ft) 0.02d 0.02d 0.02d

d = diameter between inner edges of the portlight frame For calculation of required thickness on limited service vessels, d is not to be taken less than 250 mm (10 in.). Location A. B. C. Side shell below main weather deck Superstructures or deckhouses on main weather deck Deckhouses above location B.

The thickness is to be not less than 5 mm (0.20 in) 14.3.2 Windows

Windows in deckhouses and in the front and ends of superstructures are to be suitably framed and effectively secured to the adjacent structure. Frames are to be of metal or other approved material. Depending on window size and thickness and on intended service, portable storm shutters may be required. The window glazing is to be of tempered or toughened glass, consideration will also be given to acrylic and polycarbonate material. The glazing is to be set into the frame in a suitable, approved packing or compound. The thickness is to be not less than given in a, or b.below, whichever is greater. a. b. t = t = mm (ins) 1.9 s k 9.5 mm (0.37 in), front windows 6.5 mm (0.25 in), side and end windows

where s = lesser dimension of window in ram of ins. k --. factor given in Table 14.3 K - factor given in Table 14.4 Where applicable, window thicknesses are to comply with appropriate Administration requirements.

Section 14/3

TABLE 14.3 VALUES OF k Fronts of Superstructures or Deckhouses on Main Weather Deck At 0.1L from Forward At 0.5L & Aft
y - 1.5m(4.92 ft) 3.Om(9.84 ft) 1.5m(4.92 ft) 3.0 m(9.84 ft) L 0.009 12.2m (40 ft) 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.009 0.01 24.4 m (80 ft) 0.013 0.009 0.014 36.6 m (120 ft) 0.018 0.015 0.012

48.8 m (160 ft) 61.0 m (200 ft)

0.020 0.022

0.016
0.018

0.016
0.018

0.014
0.015

Generally in association with storm shutters

Fronts of 2nd Tiers of Superstructures or Deckhouses Above Main Weather Deck At 0.1L from forward At 0.5L & Aft
L y 1.5m(4.92 ft) 12.2m (40 ft) 0.007 24.4 m (80 ft) 0.013 36.6 m (120 ft) 0.016 48.8 m (160 ft) 0.018 61.0 m (200 ft) 0.019
3.Om(9.84 ft) 1.5m(4.92 ft)

0.007 0.009 0,013 0.015 0.016

0.007 0.01 0.0125 0.014 0.015

3.0 m(9.84 ft) 0.007 0.008 0.011 0.0125 0.013

Deckhouse Sides At 0.1L from Forward


L y - 1.5m(4.92 ft) 3.0m(9.84 ft) 12.2m (40 ft) 0,006 0.006 24.4 m (80 ft) 0.009 0.006
36.6 m (120 ft) 0.013 0.010

At 0.5L & Aft


1.5m(4.92 ft) 0.006 3.0 m(9.84 ft) 0.006

0.008
0.011

0.006
0.008

48.8 m (160 ft) 61.0 m (200 ft)

0.014
0.015

0.012
0.013

0.012 0.013

0.010 0.011

Aft Ends of Deckhouses and Superstructures, 0.5L and Aft.


L 12.2
24.4

(40 ft)
(80 ft)

36.6 48.8 61.0

(120 ft) (160 ft) (200 ft)

y - 1.5 m (4.92 ft) 0.005 0.008 0.011 0.013 0.014

3.0 m (9.84 ft) 0.006 0.006 0.008 0.009 0.0095

For intermediate values of L and y, and locations between 0.1L and 0.5L from forward, obtain values of k by interpolation y distance from design waterline to lowest point of window.

Section 14/4

TABLE 14.4 ,e/S 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0

0.75 0.74 0.71 0.61 0.275

- greater dimension of window panel, in mm or ins S - lesser dimension of window panel, in mm or ins. 14.3.3 Tests

All windows and portlights are to be hose tested after installation. 14.5 Bulwarks and Guard Rails 14.5.1 Location and Heights

Bulwarks or guard rails or a combination of both, are in general to be provided on exposed decks and on exposed tops of superstructures and deckhouses. The height of bulwarks or rails, or combination of both, is to be not less than 750 mm (30 in). Lesser heights may be considered with regard to location and hazards involved. In exposed areas not traversed in the normal operation of the vessel, where it is not practical to fit bulwarks or guard rails, hand or grab rails may be considered. 14.5.2 Bulwarks

Bulwarks are to be of ample strength for their height and location, suitably stiffened at the top, and if necessary at the bottom, and supported by efficient stays or brackets. Stays or brackets are to be suitably spaced with regard to the service involved. Openings in bulwarks are to be smooth-edged, with well-rounded corners. 14.5.3 Guard Rails

The clearance below the lowest course of the guard rails is not to Other courses of guard rails are to be exceed 230 mm (9in). spaced not more than 380 mm (15 in) apart. Consideration may be given to spacings above the lowest course greater than 380 mm (15 in.) with due regard to the service and protection provided, for example by a low bulwark.

Section 14/5

Also, consideration may be given to guard wires provided means are provided to maintain each wire taut at the designed spacing. 14.7 Freeing Ports 14.7.1 General

Where bulwarks on exposed main weather decks form wells, ample provision is to be made for rapidly freeing the decks of water. a. Basic Area The basic freeing port area on each side of the vessel for each well on the main weather deck, in cases where the sheer in way of the well is standard or greater than standard (Standard sheer as defined in the International Convention on Load Lines, 1966), is to be obtained from the following equations: A = Ke where A =freeing port area m2 or ft2 K =0.07 (0.23) for L > 24m (78 ft) 12m (39 ft) =0.035 (0.115) for =by linear interpolation for intermediate length e = length of bulwark on one side in m of ft, but need not exceed 0.7L b. Correction for Height Where the bulwark height exceeds 1.2m (47 in.), freeing-port area is to be increased by 0.0004 m2 per meter (0.04 ft2 per foot) of bulkwark length for each 0.1 meter (3.9 in.) difference in height. Where the bulwarks height is less than 0.9m (36 in.) in height, the freeing port area may be decreased by the same ratio. c. Correction for Less than Standard Sheer Where there is no sheer, the calculated area is to be increased by 50%. Where the sheer is less than standard, the percentage increase is to be obtained by interpolation. d. Superstructure Decks The minimum area for each well on a superstructure deck is to be one half the area given above. e. Vessels Receiving Freeboard Assignment Vessels receiving freeboard assignment are to have freeing port area in accordance with the International Convention on Load Lines. See 1.11. 14.7.2 Trunks or Deckhouses Where a vessel is fitted with a trunk or deckhouse and open rails are not fitted on weather parts of the freeboard deck in way of the trunk or deckhouse for at least half length, the minimum area of the freeing port is to be calculated from the following table. Section 14/6

Breadth of deckhouse, hatchway or trunk in relation to the breadth of vessel 40% or less 75% or more

Area of freeing ports in relation to the total area of the bulwarks

20% 10%

The area of freeing ports at intermediate breadths is to be obtained by linear interpolation. 14.7.3 Open Superstructures In vessels having superstructures which are open at either or both ends, adequate provision for freeing the space within such superstructures is to be provided, and the arrangements are to be subject to special approval. 14.7.4 Details of Freeing Ports The lower edges of the freeing ports are to be as near the deck as practicable. Two-thirds of the freeing port area required is to be provided in the half of the well nearest the lowest point of the sheer curve. All such openings in the bulwarks where they exceed 230 mm (9 in.) in depth, are to be protected by rails or bars spaced approximately 230 mm (9 in) apart. Where shutters are fitted to freeing ports, ample clearance is to be provided to Hinges are to have pins or bearings of non prevent jamming. corrosive material and in general are to be located at or near If shutters are fitted with securing the top of the shutters. appliances, these are to be of approved construction and easily operable from a redily accessible position. 14.9 Ventilators 14.9.1 General Ventilators on the main weather deck, superstructure deck, and on deckhouses are to be substantially constructed, of approved thickness, of steel or other approved material, and effectively secured to the deck. In Position 1, ventilator coamings are to be at least 600 mm (24 in) above the deck, and in Position 2, at least 450 mm (17.5 in) For definitions of Position 1 and Position 2, above the deck. see 14.1.2. Except as provided below, ventilator openings are to be provided with efficient, permanently attached closing appliances. Ventilator coamings in position 1 that extend to more than 4.5 m (14.8 ft) above the deck, and in Position 2 that extend to more than 2.3 m (7.5 ft) above the deck need not be fitted with closing appliances. Section 14/7

14.9.2 Vessels Receiving Freeboard Assignment Vessels whose service requires load line assignment are to comply with the requirements in the International Convention on Load Lines. See 1.11.

Section 14/8

SECTION 15 WELDING AND FABRICATION 15.1 General 15.1.1 Hull Welding Welding in hull construction is to comply with the requirements of this section, unless specially approved otherwise. In all instances welding procedures and filler metals are to produce sound welds having strength and toughness comparable to the base material. Plans and Specifications 15.1.2 The plans submitted are to indicate clearly the proposed extent of welding to be used in the principal parts of the structure. The welding process, filler metal and joint design are to be shown on the detail drawings or in separate specifications submitted for approval. These are to distinguish between manual and automatic welding. The builders are to prepare and file with the Surveyor a planned procedure to be followed in the erection and welding of the important structural members. 15.1.3 Workmanship and Supervision The Surveyor is to satisfy himself that all welders and welding operators to be employed in the construction of vessels to be classed are properly qualified and are experienced in the work The Surveyor is also to be satisfied as to the proposed. employment of a sufficient number of skilled supervisors to ensure a thorough supervision and control of all welding Inspection of welds is to be carried out to the operations. satisfaction of the Surveyor. See 15.5.10. 15.1.4 Welding Procedures Procedures for the welding of all joints are to be established before construction for the welding processes, types of electrodes, edge preparations, welding techniques, and positions Details of proposed welding procedures and sequences proposed. may be required to be submitted for review depending on the For steel construction see Section 2-4-3 intended application. of the latest edition of the "Rules for Building and Classing For aluminum construction see "Rules for Steel Vessels". Building and Classing Aluminum Vessels." 15.3 Preparation for Welding 15.3.1 Edge Preparation and Fitting The edge preparation is to be accurate and uniform and the parts to be welded are to be fitted in accordance with the approved joint detail. For aluminum construction joint edges may be prepared by mechanical means such as saws, millers and routers and by plasma Thermal cutting methods may be employed, provided arc cutting. it can be demonstrated Section 15/1

to the satisfaction of the Surveyor that their use does not have deleterious effects on the base material or completed weld. All means adopted for correcting improper fitting are to be to the satisfaction of the Surveyors. For excessive root openings of butt weld connections, weld build-up of the plate edges may be allowed before welding the members together provided such build-up is carried out to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. Unless specially approved otherwise, such build-up of each plate edge, where permitted, should not exceed 0.5t or 12.5 mm (0.5 in.) whichever is lesser, where t is the thickness of the thinner member being welded. Where sections to be joined differ in thickness and have an offset on either side of more than 3 mm (1/8 in.), a transition having a length not less than three times the offset is to be provided. The transition may be formed by tapering the thicker member or by specifying a weld joint design which will provide the required transition. Alignment 15.3.2 Means are to be provided for maintaining the parts to be welded in correct position and alignment during the welding operation. In general, strong backs or other appliances used for this purpose are to be arranged to allow for expansion and contraction during product welding. The removal of such items is to be carried out to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. 15.3.3 Cleanliness a Aluminum Suitable solvents or mechanical means are to be used to remove oil, grease, indelible markings and all other contaminants from the vicinity of all joints prior to welding. In addition, oxide films including any water stains are to be removed from joint surfaces by mechanical means, such as a power-driven, clean stainless-steel wire brush, or by suitable chemical means. Degreasers are not to be used when the joint is such that the degreaser can collect in crevices such as faying surfaces between plate and backing bars or in way of lapped connections. Fusion welding is not to be performed on anodically treated aluminum except when the surface oxide is removed from the joint areas to be welded. b. Steel All surfaces to be welded are to be free from moisture, grease, loose mill scale, excessive rust or paint. Primer coating of ordinary thickness, thin coatings of linseed oil or equivalent coatings may be used provided it is demonstrated that their use has no adverse effect in the production of satisfactory welds. Slag and scale are to be removed not only from the edges to be welded but also from each pass or layer before depositing subsequent passes or layers. Weld joints prepared by air gouging may require additional preparation by grinding or chipping and wire brushing prior to welding to minimize the possibility of excessive carbon on the surfaces. Compliance with these cleanliness requirements is of prime importance in the welding of higher-strength steels especially those that are quenched and tempered.

Section 15/2

Tack Welds 15.3.4 Tack welds of consistently good quality, made with a suitable filler metal, as intended for production welding and deposited in such a manner as not to interfere with the completion of the final weld, need not be removed, provided they are found upon examination to be thoroughly clean and free from cracks, porosity or other defects. Defective tack welds are to be removed and tack welds with objectionable contours should be tapered or removed before final welding. Preheat may be necessary prior to tack welding when the materials to be joined are highly restrained, see also 15.5.2. Special consideration is to be given to use the same preheat as specified in the welding procedure when tack welding higher-strength steels, particularly those materials which are quenched and tempered, see also 15.5.2. These same precautions are to be followed when making any permanent welded markings. Run-on and Run-off Tabs 15.3.5 When used, run-on and run-off tabs are to be designed to minimize the possibility of high-stress concentrations and base-metal and weld-metal cracking. Stud Welding 15.3.6 The attachment of pins, hangers, studs and other related items by stud welding may be approved at the discretion of the Surveyor. Prior to actual production work, trial stud welds are to be destructively tested to demonstrate their suitability for the intended application. The use of stud welding for structural attachments is subject to special approval and may require special procedure tests appropriate to each application. Aluminum Construction Temporary Back-up Plates and Tapes 15.3.7 A temporary back-up plate may be applied to the opposite side of the joint during welding to assist in reducing distortion and to decrease Anodized "hard" aluminum back-up plates are heat concentration. recommended for this purpose, although clean stainless steel or rustfree mild steel plates may also be used. Back-up plates when used are to be free of contaminants and oxides which would interfere with Welding is to be controlled so as not to allow arcing of welding. aluminum filler metal to the temporary back-up plate. Any accidental arcing to the back-up plate is to be corrected by removal of all contaminated weld or base metal. Approval of procedures involving the use of backing tapes may be considered provided it is demonstrated to the Surveyor's satisfaction that their use results in satisfactory welding and that plate distortion is not excessive. 15.3.8 Forming

a. Aluminum Cold forming of 5000 series aluminum alloys is to be conducted at temperatures below 52C (125F), except for the 5454 alloy, where the When the extent of cold maximum temperature may be 149C (300F). Section 15/3

forming is such that base plate properties are changed beyond acceptable limits, appropriate reheat or stress relief treatments are to be used to re-establish acceptable properties. Hot forming of 5000 series aluminum alloys is generally conducted at temperatures between 260C and 425C (500F and 800F). Hot or cold forming is not to be performed in the structures of any aluminum alloy unless supporting data is presented to the Surveyor's satisfaction indicating that significant deleterious material property changes will not result. Appropriate temperature -control methods are to be used in all hot forming and stress relieving operations. In hot forming or stress relieving, exposure of the 5000 series alloys to the 65C (150F) to 205C (400F) temperature range is to be minimized by the use of appropriate cooling techniques. b. Steel Steel is not to be formed between the upper and lower critical temperatures; forming in the range between 205C (400F) and 425C (800F) should be avoided. If the forming temperature exceeds 650C (1200F) for as-rolled, controlled rolled, thermo-mechanical control rolled or normalized steels, or is not at least 28C (50F) lower than the tempering temperature for quenched and tempered steels, mechanical tests are to be made to assure that these temperatures have not adversely affected the mechanical properties of the steel. 15.5 Production Welding Environment 15.5.1 Proper precautions are to be taken to insure that all welding is done under conditions where the welding site is protected against the deleterious effects of moisture, wind and severe cold. 15.5.2 Preheat

a. General The use of preheat may be desirable when welding materials of thick cross section, materials subject to high restraint, when welding is performed under high humidity conditions or when the temperature of the steel or aluminum alloy is below OC (32F). When preheating is used appropriate production controls are to be used to maintain the specified temperature, in accordance with accepted procedures and to the satisfaction to the Surveyor. b. Aluminum Preheat is generally not required for aluminum. Preheat temperatures which sensitize an alloy to corrosion are to be avoided. For the 5000 series or similar alloys it is generally recommended to avoid prolonged exposure to the 65C to 205C (150F to 400F) temperature range. c. Steel The control of interpass temperature is to be specially considered when welding quenched and tempered higher-strength steels.

Section 15/4

15.5.3

Post Heat

a. Aluminum Weldments of work hardenable 5000 series and similar aluminum alloys are not to be post weld heat treated unless the procedures have been Where use of a heat treatable alloy has been specially approved. approved, any postweld heat treatment proposed is to be as established in procedure qualification tests. Accessibility 15.5.4 Assembly and welding is to be arranged to provide sufficient accessibility to the joint by the welder, the welder equipment, and for inspection. Sequence 15.5.5 Welding is to be planned to progress symmetrically so that shrinkage on both sides of the structure will be equalized. The ends of frames and stiffeners are to be left unattached to the plating at the sub-assembly stage for a distance of about 300 mm (12 in.) until connecting welds are made in the intersecting systems of plating, framing and stiffeners at the erection stage. Welds are not to be carried across an unwelded joint or beyond an unwelded joint that terminates at the joint being welded unless especially approved. 15.5.6 Back Gouging

a. Aluminum Chipping, routing, milling, grinding or other suitable methods are to be employed at the root or underside of the weld to obtain sound metal before applying subsequent beads for all full penetration welds. b. Steel Chipping, grinding, arc-air gouging or other suitable methods are to be employed at the root or underside of the weld to obtain sound metal before applying subsequent beads for all full-penetration welds. When arc-air gouging is used, a selected technique is to be used so that carbon build-up and burning of the weld or base metal is minimized. Quenched and tempered steels are not to be flame gouged. Fairing and Flame Shrinking 15.5.7 a. General Fairing by heating or flame shrinking and other methods of correcting distortion or defective workmanship in fabrication of main strength members, and other plating which may be subject to high stresses, is to be carried out with the approval of the Surveyor. b. Aluminum Fairing by heating or flame shrinkage is not recommended and if intended is to be carried out in the presence of and with the expressed approval of the Surveyor.

Section 15/5

For the 5000 series and similar alloys the heating and cooling through the sensitizing range of 65C - 205C (150F - 400F) is to be as rapid as practicable. c. Steel Fairing by heating or flame shrinkage is to be kept to an absolute minimum when higher-strength steels are involved, due to inducement of high local stresses and the possible degradation of the mechanical properties of the base material. 15.5.8 Low Hydrogen Electrodes or Welding Processes a. Steel The use of low-hydrogen electrodes or welding processes is recommended for welding all higher-strength steel and may also be considered for ordinary-strength steel weldments subject to high restraint. When using low-hydrogen electrodes or processes, proper precautions are to be taken to ensure that the electrodes, fluxes and gases used for welding are clean and dry. 15.5.9 Weld Soundness Finished welding is to be sound and thoroughly fused throughout its cross section and to the base material. Welds are to be crack free and reasonably free from other injurious defects such as lack of fusion or penetration, slag inclusions and porosity. The surfaces of welds are to be visually inspected and are to be regular and uniform with a minimum amount of reinforcement and reasonably free from undercut and overlap. 15.5.10 Inspection of Welds a. General 1) Visual Inspection Visual inspection during construction is to consist of inspecting the surface appearance of welds for the existence of cracks and injurious arc strikes, porosity, cold laps and other flaws or defects. The surface of the welds is to be regular and uniform with proper contour, a minimum amount of reinforcement and reasonably free from undercut and overlap. ii) Dye Penetrant Dye penetrant inspection is to be used when investigating the outer surface of welds or may be considered for use as a check of intermediate weld passes, such as root passes and also to check back-chipped, ground or gouged joints prior to depositing subsequent passes. Any dye penetrant used is to be thoroughly removed from the area before re-welding. Dye penetrant is not to be used where complete removal of the dye penetrant material cannot be assured. iii) Radiographic or Ultrasonic Inspection Radio-graphic or ultrasonic inspection or both may be used when the overall soundness of the weld cross section is to be evaluated. Finished welding is to be sound and thoroughly fused throughout its cross section and to the base Production welds are to be crack free. material. Other discontinuities, such as incomplete fusion or incomplete penetration, slag and porosity are only to be present to the degree permitted by the pertinent inspection standard. The procedures and standards for radiographic and ultrasonic inspection are to be in accordance with the Section 15/6

Bureau's separately issued publication "Rules for Nondestructive Inspection of Hull Welds," or other approved acceptance standards. The practice of taking weld plugs or iv) Weld Plugs or Samples samples by machining or cutting from the welded structure is not recommended and is to be considered only in the absence of other suitable inspection methods and is to be subject to the special approval of the Surveyor. When such weld plugs or samples are removed from the welded structure, the holes of cavities formed are to be properly prepared and welded, using a suitable welding procedure approved by the Surveyor and as established for the original joint. b. Steel Some steels, especially higher-strength steels, exhibit a tendency to delayed cracking. When welding these materials, consideration is to be given to delaying the final nondestructive testing to accommodate occurrence and detection of such defects. 15.5.11 Repair Welding

a. General Defective welds and other injurious defects, as determined by visual inspection, nondestructive test methods, or leakage under hydrostatic tests, are to be excavated in way of the defects to sound metal and corrected by rewelding, using a suitable repair welding procedure consistent with the material being welded. Removal by grinding of minor surface imperfections may be permitted at the discretion of the attending Surveyor. b. Steel Special precautions, such as the use of both preheat and low-hydrogen electrodes, are to be considered when repairing welds in higher-strength steel, material of thick cross section or material subject to high restraint. 15.7 Butt Welds a. Aluminum Hull plating up to 5.0 mm (3/16 in) in thickness may be square-butt welded without beveling the abutting plate edges. Plates exceeding 5.0 mm (3/16 in) may be prepared for welding by similarly beveling the edges of both plates from one or both sides to form a single-Vee or double-Vee butt joint with an included angle of from 60 degrees to 90 degrees. For single-Vee butt joints in material 5.0 mm (3/16 in) and thicker the root face or land may be up to 3.0 mm (1/8 in) in depth. Root faces or lands below 1.5 mm (1/16 in) are not generally recommended. For double-Vee butt joints in material 8.0 mm (5/16 in) and thicker the gap may vary from 0 to 5.0 mm (3/16 in) Joints of other design and root openings, such as the square butt joints for thicker plates, or with thick plating using automated procedures, will be subject to special consideration. Section 15/7

In general, use of double-Vee in lieu of single-Vee joints and the narrowest root gap practicable is recommended to minimize distortion. For both single-Vee and double-Vee joints, the weld metal at the root on the reverse side of a weld made without permanent backing is to be removed to sound metal by an approved method before applying subsequent weld passes. Permanent backing straps of a suitable aluminum alloy, tack welded or otherwise held in place behind the joint may be used for single-Vee butt Cleaning, removal of oxides and fit-up of the backing strap welds. should be adequate to prevent root defects. The backing bar is to be fitted so that a minimum space exists between the backing bar and plates to be joined. Connections in the backing bar are to be made with fullpenetration welds. Upon completion of welding, the backing strap may become an integral part of the joint. Permanent backing straps are not recommended where crevice corrosion is of concern. For use under these conditions, all edges of the backing straps are to be completely welded. b. Steel Manual welding using stick electrodes may be ordinarily employed for butt welds in members not exceeding 6.,5 mm (1/4 in.) in thickness without beveling the abutting edges. Members exceeding 6.5 mm (1/4 in.) are to be prepared for welding in a manner acceptable to the Surveyor by using an appropriate edge preparation, root opening and root face (land) to provide for welding from one or both sides. For welds made from both sides, the root of the first side welded is to be removed to sound metal by an approved method before applying subsequent weld passes on the reverse side. Where welding is to be deposited from one side only, using ordinary welding techniques, appropriate backing (either permanent or temporary) is to be provided. The backing is to be fitted so that spacing between the backing and the members to be joined is in accordance with established procedures. Unless specially approved otherwise, splices in permanent welds are to be welded with full penetration welds prior to making the primary weld. Submerged-arc welding, using wire-flux combinations for butt welds in members not exceeding 16 mm (5/8 in.) in thickness, may be ordinarily employed without beveling the abutting edges. Members exceeding 16 mm (5/8 in.) are normally to be prepared for welding in a manner acceptable to the Surveyor by using an appropriate edge preparation, root opening and root face (land) to provide for welding from one or both sides. Where the metal is to be deposited from one side only, using ordinary welding techniques, backing (either permanent or temporary) is to be provided and the members are to be beveled and fitted in accordance with established procedures. Manual, semiautomatic or machine gas metal-arc welding and flux coredarc welding using wire-gas combinations and associated processes, may be ordinarily employed using the conditions as specified for manual welding, except that specific joint designs may differ between processes.

Section 15/8

Special welding techniques employing any of the above mentioned basic welding processes will be specially considered, depending upon the extent of the variation from the generally accepted technique. Such special techniques include one-side welding, tandem-arc welding and open-arc welding. The use of gas tungsten-arc welding will also be subject to special consideration, depending upon the application and whether the process is used manually or automatically.

15.9 Fillet Welds 15.9.1 a. General Fillet welds may be made by an approved manual, semi-automatic or automatic process. The sizes of fillet welds are subject to approval in each case, and are to be indicated on detail drawings or on a separate welding schedule. b. Aluminum In terminating a weld, either continuous or intermittent, crater filling by back stepping is recommended to provide a sound ending for each fillet. Tee Connections 15.9.2 In general, the required size and spacing of the fillets is to be as given in 15.9.3. Special consideration will be given where there is a substantial difference between the thickness of members being connected. Where the opening between members exceeds 1.0 mm (0.04 in.) and is not greater than 5 mm (3/6 in), the size of the fillets is to be increased by the amount of the opening. Spacing between plates forming tee joints is not to exceed 5 mm (3/16 in) 15.9.3 Fillet Sizes and Spacing Tee connections are to be formed by continuous or intermittent fillet welds on each side, the leg size, w, of the fillet welds is to be obtained from the following equations.

w or

xCx.1 - 1.5 x C x

mm

0.06 in

w min - 0.3 t or 3.5 mm (0.14 in) whichever is greater The throat thickness of fillet is to be not less than 0.7w. Where s the actual length of weld fillet, clear of crater, in mm of in. See Table 15.1 the distance between centers of weld fillets, in mm or in, See Table 15.1 plate thickness of the stem of the tee being connected weld factor given Table 15.1

Section 15/9

in calculating weld factors, the leg length of matched fillet weld is to 2.0mm (0.7 tiol -4- 0.08 be taken as the designed leg length or 0.7tpi in) whichever is less. Where it is intended to use continuous fillet welding, the leg size of fillet welds is to be obtained from the above equations taking s/2 equal to 1. For intermittent welding with plate thicknesses less than 7 mm (0.28 in) welds are to be staggered. Fillet Weld Arrangements 15,9.4 a. Intersections Where beams, stiffeners, frames, etc, are intermittently welded and pass through slotted girders, shelves or stringers, there is to be a pair of matched 75 mm (3 in) intermittent welds on each side of each such intersection and the beams, stiffeners and frames are to be efficiently attached to the girders, shelves and stringers. b. Unbracketed End Attachments Unbracketed beams, frames, etc. and stiffeners of watertight and tank bulkheads and superstructure and house, fronts are to have double continuous welds for length at each end equal to the depth of the member but not less than 75 mm (3 in.) Unbracketed stiffeners of nontight structural bulkheads, deckhouse sides, superstructure and deckhouse after ends are to have a pair of matched 75 mm (3 in) intermittent welds at each end. c. Bracketed End Attachments Frames, beams, stiffeners etc. are to be lapped onto the bracket a length not less than 1.5 times the depth of the member, and are to have continuous fillet welds all around, lapped end connections of longitudinal strength members are also to have a throat size, t, such that the total effective area of the lap welding is not less than the area of the member being attached. d. Lapped Joints Lapped joints are to generally have a width of overlap not less than twice the thickness of the thinner plate plus 25 mm ( 1 in) with welds on both edges of the sizes required by 15.9.3. e. Plug Welds or Slot Welds Plug welds or slot welds are to be specially approved for particular applications. When approved, an appropriate demonstration that adequate weld penetration and soundness is achieved is to be made to the Surveyor's satisfaction. When used in the attachment of doublers and similar applications, plug or slot welds may be spaced at 16 times the doubler thickness, but not more than 300 mm (12 in) between centers in both directions. In general elongated slot welds are recommended. For closing plates on rudders, slots are to be 75 mm (3 in) in length spaced at 150 mm (6 in) between centers. The periphery of the plugs or slots are to be fillet welded, of fillet size, w, generally not less than 0.70 Section 15/10

times plate thickness. Plugs and slots are not to be filled with welded deposit. 15.11 Bi-Material Joints and Raying Surfaces Bi-material Joints 15.11.1 Techniques required for joining two different materials will be subject The use of explosion bonding may be to special consideration. considered depending on the application and the mechanical and corrosive properties of the joint. Such joints, when used, may be required to be appropriately painted, coated, wrapped or protected by other methods to prevent galvanic corrosion. Where aluminum is to be joined to other materials, each Laying surface is to be suitably coated to minimize corrosion. In addition, when one or both sides of an aluminum or steel connection to dissimilar metal joints are exposed to weather, sea water or wet spaces, a minimum of 0.5 mm (0.02 in.) of suitable insulation is to be installed between Laying surfaces and extended beyond the edge of Non-welded oil or water stops are to be of plastic the joint. insulation tape or equivalent which would provide a suitably corrosion resistant system. Special consideration is to be given to connections of aluminum or steel to wood. Paying Surfaces - Aluminum to Aluminum 15.11.2 Aluminum faying surfaces that will be exposed to the weather, sea water or other corrosive environments are to be suitably coated to minimize crevice corrosion in way of the faying surfaces. 15.13 Filler Metals General 15.13.1 Filler metals are to be of a type suitable to produce sound welds that have strength, ductility and corrosion resistant properties comparable to the materials being welded. Appropriate precautions are to be used to prevent any critical property change of filler wire quality during storage and handling. A list of recommended filler metals for different aluminum alloys is given in Tables 15.2. Recommended filler metals for steel construction are given in Appendix C and E to approved Welding Electrode, Wire-flux and Wire-gas Combinations. 15.15 Alternatives The foregoing are considered minimum requirements for welding in hull construction, but alternative methods, arrangements and details will be considered for approval. 15.17 Approval of Welding Procedures. Approval of welding procedures for aluminum and steel construction is to comply respectively with "Rules for Building and Classing Aluminum Vessels" and "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels.

Section 15/11

FIGURE 15.1

+.
LImmori mwIwa

Staggered 1-w---S
w = leg size in mm or in.

Chainedlt

= throat size in mm or

Section 15/12

TABLE 15.1 Weld Factor C (D.C. = double continuous)

Structural Members Floors, Bottom Transverses and Bottom Girders To Shell Bottom forward 3L/8, V>25 knots Bottom forward L/4, V<25 knots In way of propellers and shaft struts In machinery space Elsewhere To Inner Bottom or Face Bar In machinery space To Inner bottom elsewhere To face bar elsewhere Fldors and Bottom Transverse To Bottom Girders Bottom Girders To Bulkheads and Deep Transverses or Floors End Attachments - single bottom construction

Aluminum

Steel

0.25 0.18

0.25 0.16

0.25 0.20 0.16

0.25 DC 0.20 0.14

0.25 DC 0.14 0.14

0.25 DC 0.12 0.12

0.30 DC

0.30 DC

0.30 DC 0.50 DC

0.30 DC 0.50 DC

Section 15/13

TABLE 15.1 Weld Factor C (continued) Aluminum Steel

Structural Members Frames To Shell Bottom forward 3L/8, V>25 knots Bottom forward L/4, V<25 knots In way of propellers and shaft struts Elsewhere End Attachments Girders, Transverses and Stringers To Shell Deck and Bulkheads Clear of Tanks In way of Tanks To Face Bar End Attachments Beams and Stiffeners To Deck To Tank Boundaries and House Fronts To Watertight Bulkheads, House Side and Ends End Attachments

0.25 DC 0.18 0.25 DC 0.14 0.50 DC

0.25 DC 0.16 0.25 DC 0.12 0.50 DC

0.16 0.16 0.18 0.14 0.50 DC

0.14 0..14 0.16 0.12 0.50 DC

0.14 0.14 0.14 0.50 DC

0.12 0.12 0.12 0.50 DC

Section 15/14

TABLE 15.1 Weld Factor C (continued)

Structural Members Engine Foundations To Plating and Face Bar Bulkheads and Tank Boundaries Non-Tight, Internal Watertight, or exposed Tank Decks Non-Tight, Internal Weathertight Strength Deck Rudders Diaphragms to Side Plating Vertical Diaphragms to Horizontal Diaphragms, clear of Mainpiece Horizontal Diaphragm to Vertical Mainpiece Diaphragm Shaft Brackets To boss and doubler

Aluminum

Steel

0.50 DC

0.50 DC

0.16 0.38 DC 0.40 DC

0.14 0.38 DC 0.40 DC

0.25 0.38 DC (1) 0.38 DC (1)

0.25 0.38 DC (1) 0.38 DC (1)

0.30 0.50 DC 0.50 DC 0.50 DC

0.30 0.50 DC 0.50 DC 0.50 DC

Full Penetration

DC double continuous, (1) Where plate thickness is less than 12.5 mm (0.50 in), upper weld to be continuous, lower weld may be intermittent as required by welding beams or stiffeners to tank boundaries.

Section 15/15

TABLE 15.2a

Filler Metals for Welding Aluminum Alloy Sheet Plate, and Extrusions
Recommendations in this table apply to gas shielded-arc welding processes. Filler metal alloys 5183, 5356 and 5556 may be used interchangeably provided that strength, ductility and corrosion resistance are suitable for the service conditions.
Base Metal Alloys 5083

5083

5086

5454 1

5456

6061

5086 5454' 5456 6061

5183 5356 5356 5183 5356

5356 53b6 5356 5358 5358

5356 5356 55541 5356 53562

5183 5358 5.358 5556 5356

5356 5356 5356 5358 40432

Notes 1 5454 aluminum alloy welded with 5554 filler metal is generally recommended for service applications above '65C (150F) such as for smoke stacks and engine room enclosures. 2 5183 or equivalents may be used.

TABLE 15 . 2b

Filler Metals for Welding Aluminum Alloy Castings To Castings and Plate
ASTM

AA Castings

American Society for Testing and Materials Aluminum Association SC70A, SG70B, 357.0
5154, 5454. 6081 (Note 2) 5456, 5083. 5088 (Note 3)

ASTM

AA

(Note 1)

SG70A 358.0 SG70B A356.0 357.0

4043 4043 4043

4043 4043 4043

5358 5356 5358

Notes 1 Filler metal with same analysis as base metal is sometimes used 2 5183, 5356, 5554, 5556 and 5654 may be used. In some cases they may provide higher weld ductility and higher weld strength. 5559 is suitable for elevated temperature service. 3 5183, 5356 or 5556 may be used. 4043 may be used for some applications where filler metal properties are not of primary concern.

Section 15/16

SECTION 16 EQUIPMENT 16.1 General All vessels are to be provided with anchors, and cables or wire rope. The anchors and their cables or wires, are to be connected and positioned, ready for use. Means are to be provided for stopping each cable as it is paid out, and the windlass is to be capable of heaving in Suitable arrangements are to be provided for -either cable or wires. securing the anchors and stowing the cables or wires. The inboard ends of the cables or wires of bower anchors are to be secured by efficient means. Subsection 16.3 is provided as an optional requirement for the symbol 0 which is not compulsory for classification. 16.3 Equipment Weight and Size for Optional 16.3.1 Anchors and Chains Anchors and chains are to be not less than given in Table 16.1 and the numbers, weights and sizes of these are to be based on the equipment number obtained from the following equation. Special consideration will be given where anchoring and mooring conditions are specified. Metric Units 0.269LBD + 0.179/bh + X0.135/1b1h1 Y Equipment Number Inch/Pound Units Y Equipment Number 0.0075LBD + 0.0050/bh + X0.00375/01121 L length of vessel as defined in Section 2 B breadth of vessel as defined in Section 2 D depth of vessel as defined in Section 2 1 total length of superstructure erections in m or ft b maximum breadth of superstructure erections in m or ft h = mean height of superstructure erections in m or ft /1 length of each deckhouse in m or ft bi breadth of each deckhouse in m or ft hl height of each deckhouse in m or ft Where the equipment number is Y60 or less, the weight of the second anchor may be reduced 30%. Where the equipment number is between Y60 and Y170, the weight of the second anchor may be reduced 15%. Where the cable is chain, it is to be unstudded short-link chain or stronger. 16.3.2 Material and Tests Where the symbol is requested for classification, the materials and tests for anchors and chains, are to be in accordance with the applicable requirements of "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels".

Section 16/1

16.3.3 Wire Rope Where the cable is wire rope in accordance with Table 16.1, the wire rope is to be 6 X 19 standard steel or of equivalent strength. A length of chain in accordance with 16.3.4 is to be installed between the wire rope and the anchor. 16.3.4 Nylon Rope Where the cable is nylon rope, a length of chain is to be installed between the rope and each anchor. The length and diameter of chain to be used with each diameter of nylon rope follow.

Nylon

Chain

Nylon

Chain

Diameter Length Diameter Diameter Length Diameter mm mm in ft in 9.5 11.0 12.5 16.0 19.0 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.4 2.4 6.5 8.0 9.5 11.0 12.5 3/8 7/16 1/2 5/8 3/4 4 5 6 8 8 1/4 5/16 3/8 7/16 1/2

Where cordage with natural or man-made fibers other than nylon is proposed, the diameter of the cordage will be subject to special consideration. 16.5 16.5.1 Anchor Types General

Anchors may be either the stockless type or the ordinary (common, oldstyle, kedge, mariner's yachtsman) type. If of the latter type, the weight per anchor given in Table 16. 2 is the weight with stock, and the weight of the stock is to be one -fifth of the total weight of the anchor, including stock. 16.5.2 Special Anchor Types

Where specifically requested, the Bureau is prepared to give consideration to the use of special types of anchors, and where these are of proven superior holding ability, consideration may also be given to some reduction in the weight, up to a maximum of 25% from weights specified in Tables 16.1. In such cases an appropriate notation will be made in the Record.

Section 16/2

16.7

Anchor Handling Satisfactory arrangements are to be provided for handling the The windlass or other approved device for anchors and cables. paying out and heaving in the cables is to be of good and substantial make, and suitable for the size and type of cable to be used. Care is to be taken to insure fair leads to and from this device. It is to be well bolted down to a substantial bed, and deck beams below it are to be extra strength and properly supported.

16.9

Hawse Pipes Where fitted, hawse pipes are to be of ample size and strength; they are to have full, rounded flanges and the least possible lead in order to minimize nip on the cables; they are to be securely attached to thick doubling or insert plates. When in position they are to be hose-tested with a water pressure at the nozzle of not less than 2.06 bar (2.1 kgf/cm2, 30 psi). Hawse pipes for stockless anchors are to provide ample clearances; the anchors are to be shipped and unshipped so the Surveyor may be satisfied that there is no risk of an anchor jamming in the hawse pipe.

16.11

Protection of Hull Structure The hull structure is to be suitably protected both internally and externally against damage by handling or stowing the anchors, cable or wire, or during mooring.

Section 15/3

TABLE 16.1 Equipment for Yachting Service Vessels For intermediate values of the equipment number use equipment complement in sizes and weights given for the lower equipment number in the table.
ST , METRIC UNITS
Anchors Cable per Anchor Number kg Total Length m Diameter mm Wire Rope Nylon Rope

Equipmeat
NUTTE-

Ma s s
Chain

her

15 110 115 12.0 Y30 Y40 150 160 Y70 Y80 190 Y100 Y120 Y140 Y160 1180 1200 1220 Y240 1260 Y280 1300

2
2

2
2

18 22.5 27 32 38 46 55 64 73 82 91 102 116 134 152 170 188 206

55.0 55.0 55.0 73.0 91.5 110.0 119.0 128.0 137.0 146.0 155.5 164.5 183.0 192.0 192.0 210.5 219.5 219.5 219.5 219.5 247.0 247.0

6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 "" 9.5 ,.., a.5 9.5 11.0 11.0 11.0 12.5 12.5 1.2.5 12.5 12.5 1 4.0 14.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 9.5 11.0 11.0 11.0 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 14.0 14.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0 16.0

9.5 9.5 11.0 11.0 12.5 12.5 16.0 16.0 16.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0

2
2

2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 9 2 2
2

224
242

2 2

260 278

Sec:ion 16J

TABLE 16.1 Equipment for Yachting Service Vessels


ror inter mediate values of the equipment number use equipment complement in sizes and weights given for the lower equipment number in the table. Inch/Pound Units
Anchors Equipment Number Cable

Ma s s
Number per Anchor lb

Total Length fathoms

Diameter in. Chain


1 /4
1 /4 5 /16 /16 1 /4 5 /16 5 /16

Wire Rope

Nylon Rope
3 /8 3 /8 7 /16 7 /16

Y5 Y10 Y15 Y20 Y30 Y40 Y50 Y60 Y70 Y80 Y90 Y100 Y120 Y140 Y160 Y180 Y200 Y220 Y240 Y260 Y280 Y300

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

40 50 60 70 85 100 120 140 160 180 200 225 255 295 335 375 415 455 495 535 575 615

30 30 30 40 50 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 100 105 105 115 120 120 120 120 135 135

3/8 7 /16 7 /16


7 /16

3/8
7 /16 7 /16

1 / 5 /8

5 /8
5 /8

7 /16 1 /2
1 /2

%
1 /2

%
/4 3
3 /4

1//'

Y2 /2 1

1/2

1 /2

3 /4

9 /16
9 /16

% 9 /16
9 /16

% % 5 /8 5 /8
5 /8 5 /8

% % 5 /8 5 /8 %
5 /8

Section 16/5

SECTION 17 CORROSION PREVENTION AND PROTECTIVE COATINGS 17.1 Aluminum General 17.1.1 Aluminum alloys intended for hull construction are to be used generally only under conditions that will not induce excessive Where exposure to environments that would induce corrosion. excessive corrosion is expected, suitable coatings, tapes, sacrificial anodes, impressed-current systems or other corrosion When tapes are used for prevention measures are to be used. corrosion protection, they are to be non-wicking and non-water Grease containing graphite is not to be used with absorbing. aluminum, instead, zinc or other suitable base grease is to be used. See also 15.3.3a. Coatings 17.1.2 Coatings are to be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, and are to be preceded by appropriate cleaning and possibly chemical conversion of surfaces as may be required in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Coatings are to be free from voids, scratches or other imperfections that are potential sites for localized corrosion. The composition of coatings is to be compatible with aluminum. Coatings containing copper, lead, mercury or other metals that can induce galvanic or other forms of corrosion are not to be used. Zinc chromate coatings may be used. Insulating coatings intended to prevent galvanic corrosion are not to contain graphite or other conducting materials. Paying Surface between Aluminum and other Metals 17.1.3 a Hull Suitable means are to be taken to avoid direct contact of faying surfaces of aluminum to other metals. When such faying surfaces occur in hull construction, suitable non-wicking and non-water Other absorbing insulating tapes or coatings are to be used. types of joints between aluminum and other metals may be approved in certain applications. b Piping Suitable means, such as special pipe hangers, are to be used to avoid conductive connections between aluminum hulls and nonaluminum metal piping systems. Where watertightness is required, such as when piping passes through bulkheads, decks, tanktops, and shell, special fittings will be required to maintain isolation between dissimilar metals.

Section 17/1

Bearing Areas Bearing areas such as engine beds, pump foundations, propeller shafts, rudder and other appendages of metals other than aluminum are to be suitably isolated by such means as non-metallic bearing casings, non-conductive packing (not containing graphite or other conductors) or suitable tapes and coatings. Alternative methods for minimizing corrosion at these locations will be specially considered. Wicking-type tapes or water-absorbing packing materials such as canvas should not be used. The metals used for such applications are to be selected to minimize galvanic effects; stainless steels are to be considered. The use of copper-base alloys such as brass or bronze is generally not recommended where galvanic corrosion is of concern, and these materials may only be used when specially approved. In those cases where the use of dissimilar metals cannot be avoided, or where galvanic corrosion is of concern, such as in wet tanks, a suitable sacrificial anode or impressed current system should be installed. 17.1.4 Faying Surface between Aluminum and Non-metals

Aluminum in contact with wood or insulating-type materials is to be protected from the corrosive effects of the impurities in these materials by a suitable coating or covering. Concrete used with aluminum is to be free of additives for cold weather pouring. Preformed glass insulation is recommended for piping insulation. Any adhesives which may be used to connect insulation to aluminum are to be free of agents that would be corrosive to aluminum. Foaming agents harmful to aluminum, such as freon, are not to be used for insulating foams. Areas where dirt or soot are likely to collect and remain for prolonged periods are to be protected from pitting corrosion by the use of coatings or other suitable means. 17.1.5 Corrosion in Wet Spaces

Suitable means are to be used to avoid arrangements that could induce crevice corrosion in wet spaces. In bilge spaces, chain lockers, and similar locations where exfoliation corrosion may be of concern, appropriate materials suitably heat-treated for resistance to this form of corrosion are to be employed.

17.1.6

Service at Elevated Temperatures

For service temperatures of 66C (150F) or above, only aluminum alloys and filler metals specially designated for service at these temperatures are to be used. 17.1.7 Cathodic Protection for Corrosion Prevention

For applications where corrosion is of concern, consideration is to be given to the use of sacrificial-anode or impressed current systems of corrosion control. Details of sacrificial anodes and Section 17/2

arrangements are to be submitted for review. Anodes are to be in accordance with ASTM or other recognized standard. When impressed current systems are used, adequate precautions are to be taken that the negative voltage is not excessive. 17.1,8 Stray Current Protection

Precautions are to be taken when in dock to prevent stray currents from welding power or other sources from adversely Whenever possible, the cathodic affecting the aluminum. protection system of the vessel should be in place and operating when the vessel is in the water. A.C. power sources are to be For battery and other D.C. power insulated from the hull. Where safety sources, grounding is to be avoided if possible. considerations require grounding to the hull, the negative pole is to be connected to the hull. 17.3 Fiber Reinforced Plastic 17.3.1 General Cured gel-coat resins and lay-up resins are to be highly resistant to water and other liquid absorption; appropriate materials, lay-up, and lay-up procedures are to be used and Care is manufacturers recommendations followed to attain this. to be taken in the use of lamminates containing carbon fibers so that they are not close to or do not induce galvanic corrosion with metal fittings. 17.3.2 Tanks In water, fuel oil, or other approved tanks, the resins used are to be compatible with the contents of the tanks, the contents of the tanks are not to affect the cured properties of the tank The cured laminate is to be highly resistant to laminate. absorption of the liquid, and is not to have harmful, deleterious, or undesirable effects on the contents of the tank. The tank is generally to be gel-coated on the inside. See also 7.3.3. Cathodic Protection 17.3.3 Cathodic protection is to be provided where shaft struts, propeller shafts, propellers, rudders, fittings etc are constructed of manganese bronze, brass, stainless steel or mild steel. Details of the sacrificial anodes and arrangements are to Anodes are to be in accordance with be submitted for review. ASTM 54I8 or other recognized standard. 17.5 Steel All steel except inside fuel oil tanks is to be coated to prevent corrosion. Coatings are to be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

Section 17/3

SECTION 18 PROPULSION, STEERING GEAR, AND AUXILIARY MACHINERY 18.1 General 18.1.1 Certification Requirements All machinery of 135 horsepower and over is to be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels", except the design of a unit which has demonstrated satisfactory service experience for the intended application will be specially considered. Machinery of less than 135 horsepower is to be designed, constructed, and equipped in accordance with good commercial practice, but need not be inspected at the plant of the manufacturer, and will be accepted subject to satisfactory performance witnessed by the Surveyor For all engines, their mounting in vessels after installation. is to be in accordance with the engine manufacturer's recommendations. Particular attention is to be given to proper mounting in fiberglass vessels. 18.1.2 Service Unless otherwise stated, the requirements in the following sections are applicable to motor pleasure yachts (see 2.31) not exceeding 45.7 m (150 ft) in length. These requirements consider the reduced operating hours and lighter loads associated with such craft. If it is intended to operate the yacht in a more rigorous service, the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels Under 90 m (295 ft) would apply. 18.1.3 Power Rating The vessel's rated power is considered a continuous duty service The pleasure craft rating within the constraint of these Rules. can be considered the rated power for the purpose of these Rules but such engine ratings will be appropriately identified. Boilers and Pressure Vessels 18.3 Boilers and pressure vessels meeting any of the following conditions are to be designed, constructed, and installed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Part 4, Chapter 4 of the latest edition of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels". All boilers having working pressure above 3.4 bar (3.5 kgf/cm2, 50 psi) All unfired pressure vessels having working pressure above 6.9 bar (7 kgf/cm2, 100 psi) All unfired pressure vessels having working pressure of 6.9 bar kgf/cm2, 100 psi) or less but over 1.0 bar (1.0 kgf/cm2, 15 psi), when

Section 18/1

3 the internal volume exceeds 0.14 m 3 (5 ft ) and the temperature exceeds the following values. Fuel oil Lubricating oil Liquids, except fuel and lubricating oils Steam, gas, or vapors 66C (150F) 90C (200F) 149C (300F) 1490 (300F)

Boilers, pressure vessels, cylinders and heat exchangers not indicated may be accepted on the basis of manufacturer's data indicating pressure and temperature ratings and suitability for intended service. Overpressure protection is to be provided and the installation is to be to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. 18.5 Torsional Vibrations

For vessels fitted with unusual propulsion arrangements or engines without vibration dampers, a torsional vibration analysis of the propulsion system is to be submitted. This is not required for vessels under 20 m (65 ft) in length or for installations essentially the same as previous designs which have proven satisfactory. 18.7 Engine Exhaust Systems 18.7.1 Installation Engine exhaust systems are to be so installed that the vessel's structure cannot be damaged by heat from the systems. Exhaust pipes of several engines are not to be connected together but are to be run separately to the atmosphere unless arranged to prevent the return of gases to an idle engine. Exhaust lines from fired units such as furnaces or boilers and engine exhaust lines are not to be connected unless specially approved as in cases where the heat exchange units are arranged to utilize the waste heat from the engines. 18.7.2 Exhaust Discharges Exhaust piping is to be arranged to prevent backflow of water from reaching the engine. An exhaust pipe riser of sufficient height above the vessel's waterline or an exhaust pipe with a continuous downward pitch with a suitable non-return valve fitted at the overboard discharge will be acceptable. Other equivalent arrangements will be subject to special consideration. 18.7.3 Exhaust System Materials Materials used in the exhaust system shall be resistant to salt water corrosion, galvanically compatible to each other and resistant to exhaust products. The use of flexible hoses in wet exhaust systems may be considered in conjunction with the provisions of 20.3.3f of these Rules.

Section 18/2

18.9

Trial

Before final acceptance, the entire propulsion system installation is to be operated in the presence of the Surveyor to demonstrate its reliability and sufficiency to function satisfactorily under operating conditions and its freedom from dangerous vibration at speeds within the operating range. 18.11 Steering Gear General 18.11.1 Steering systems are to be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels" except that for vessels with a required upper rudder stock diameter less than 230 mm (9 in.) the following alternative requirements may be applied as appropriate. The use of thruster, cycloidal, or similar propelling units using speed, direction, or pitch variation as a means of steering will be specially considered. Plans 18.11.2 Detailed plans of the steering arrangement, including machinery, controls, instrumentation, power supplies, piping systems, and pressure cylinders, are to be submitted for approval. The rated torque of the unit is to be indicated in the data submitted for review. Main Steering Gear 18.11,3 Main steering gear are to be at least capable of putting the rudder from 35 degrees on one side to 35 degrees on the other side with the vessel running ahead at maximum continuous shaft rpm and at the design waterline. For vessels with a required upper rudder stock diameter of 120 mm (4.7 in.) and greater, the main steering gear is to be power operated. The main steering gear is to be capable of putting the rudder over from 35 degrees on either side to 30 degrees on the other side in not more than 28 seconds. The arrangement of power operated steering gear fitted on vessels with a required upper rudder stock diameter of less than 120 mm (4.7 in.) will be specially considered. Auxiliary Steering Gear 18.11.4 Effective auxiliary means for actuating the rudder is to be provided and when power-operated is to be capable of putting the rudder from 15 degrees on one side to 15 degrees on the other side in not more than 60 seconds with the vessel running ahead at half speed, or seven knots, whichever is the greater. An auxiliary means of steering will not be required for the following arrangements. a When the steering gear comprises two or more power units, and two independent means of control are provided operable from the navigating bridge

Section 18/3

b When non-power operated mechanical main steering gear is used c When steering is accomplished by positioning the propulsion unit. 18.11.5 Protection The main steering gear is to be protected from the weather and the auxiliary steering gear is to be so protected as to permit satisfactory operation in bad weather. 18.11.6 Power-gear Stops Power gears are to be provided with positive arrangements for stopping the gear before the rudder stops are reached. These arrangements are to be synchronized with the rudder stock or the position of the gear itself rather than with the steering-gear control systems. 18.11.7 Mechanical Steering Gears a Leading-block Sheaves Leading-block sheaves are to be of ample size, about twice the diameter of the rudder stock for chain with pins about three times the area of the steering chains; these blocks are to be placed to provide as fair a lead to the quadrant as possible and to avoid acute angles. Parts subject to shock are not to be of cast iron. For sheaves intended to be used with ropes, the radius of the grooves is to be equal to that of the rope plus 0.8 mm (0.0313 in.), and the sheave diameter is to be not less than fourteen times that of the rope. Buffers Steering gears other than the hydraulic type b are to be designed with suitable buffer arrangements to relieve the gear from shocks to the rudder. Spring buffers used with chain-and-rod type of steering gear are to be so designed that they will not close solid at seven-eighths of the proof load of the required chain and the carrier is to be marked to show the compression at 25% and 50% of the proof load. 18.11.8 Piping Arrangement The arrangement of piping for hydraulically actuated steering gears is to be such that a transfer between units can be readily effected. A relief valve is to be provided for the protection of the hydraulic system. Pressure piping is to meet the applicable requirements of 4-3-4/9 and 4-6-7/3 in Part 4 of the latest edition of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels". After fabrication, the piping system assembled is to be subjected to a hydrostatic test as described in 4-3-4/19.7 and 4-3-4/21 of the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels in the presence of the Surveyor. After installation in the vessel, the piping is to be tried out under working conditions including a check of the relief-valve operation. This test is to be carried out up to the relief valve setting while all hydraulic lines are visible for The hydrostatic test may be carried out after inspection. installation. In addition the following apply:

Section 18/4

a Non-standard Fittings Fittings which are not constructed to a recognized standard will be subject to special consideration. Plans showing details of construction, material and design calculations or test results are to be submitted for review. b Split Flanges steering gear systems. Split flanges are not to be used in

Straight Thread 0 Ring Connections Straight thread 0 c ring type connections may be used for connection to equipment such as pumps, valves, cylinders, accumulators, gauges, and hoses. Such connections are not to be used for joining sections of pipe. 18.11.9 Steering Gear Controls Main Steering Control Control of the main steering a gear is to be provided on the navigating bridge and in the compartment containing the steering gear or power units. If the space in the steering gear compartment is insufficient for operation, the control may be installed in an adjoining space or from the open deck (see 18.11.5). If electrical, there are to be two independent means of control from the navigating bridge. Electrical power is to be supplied from the power unit motor controller, or from the main switchboard. Auxiliary Steering Gear Control Where the auxiliary b steering gear is power operated, it is to be provided with a control system operated from the navigating bridge and this control system is to be independent of the control system for the main steering gear. Control System Disconnect Means are to be provided to disconnect the steering gear control system from the power circuit. Rudder Position Indicator The angular position of the rudder, if the main steering gear is power operated, is to be indicated at all controller positions, i.e. locally, navigating bridge, etc. The rudder angle indication is to be independent of the steering gear control system. Motor Indicators Running indication and overload e alarms for power unit motors are to be provided on the navigating bridge. The operation of these devices is not to interrupt the circuit. 18.11.10 Electrical Power Each electric and electrohydraulic steering gear a Feeders is to be served by an independent circuit fed directly from the main switchboard. Each circuit is to have adequate capacity to supply all motors, control systems and instrumentation which are

Section 18/5

normally connected to it and which operate simultaneously. The circuits for each steering gear motor are to be separated throughout their length as widely as practicable. Protection b Short Circuit Protection Each steering gear feeder is to be 1 provided with short-circuit protection located at the main switchboard. Protection against excess current including starting current, if provided, shall be for not less than twice the full load current of the motor or circuit protected and shall be arranged to permit the passage of appropriate starting currents. Undervoltage Release Power unit motor controllers and other 2 automatic motor controllers are to be fitted with undervoltage release. 18.11,11 Trials The steering gear is to be tried out on the trial trip in order to demonstrate to the Surveyor's satisfaction that the requirements of the Rules have been met. The trial trip is to include the operation of the following, as applicable. a The main steering gear, including a demonstration of hard over to hard over performance, with vessel running ahead at maximum continuous shaft rpm Auxiliary steering gear performance, and transfer between main and auxiliary steering gear The power units including transfer between power units The steering gear controls, including transfer of control, and local control The rudder angle indicator The motor indicators as required by 18.11.9e. The piping systems. See 18.11.8.

b c d e f g

Section 18/6

SECTION 19 Shafting and Propellers 19.1 General

Propulsion shafting and propellers are to be surveyed during manufacture in accordance with the applicable requirements of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels", except that for vessels below 45.7m (150 ft) in length or multiple screw vessels below 61m (200 ft) in The length the following alternative requirements may be applied. following requirements apply for design and survey. SHAFTING 19.3 Tail Shaft, Tube Shaft, and Line Shaft Diameters

Full details of tailshafts, tube shafts, line shafts, couplings and coupling bolts including material specifications are to be submitted for The least diameter of shafting is to be obtained from the review. following equations. D 100 K 3f (H/R) [C1/(11 C1 C2 D K H hpHP R U C2)]

317.4(23.8, 2.10) 160(16.3, 23180) required shaft diameter in mm (in.) for all shafts shaft design factor (see Tables 19.1 and 19.2) power at rated speed in kilowatts (hp, HP) (Metric units 1 hp 0.735 kW) metric horsepower (Inch/lbs units 1 HP 0.746 kW) inch/pound horsehower rpm at rated speed ultimate tensile strength of the material WI N/mm2 (kgf/m 2, psi). Not to be taken as more than 599.8 N/mm (61.2 kgf/mm , 87,000 psi) for non-ant corrosive alloys exposed to sea water nor more than 799.8 N/mm (81.5 kgf/mm2 , 116,000 psi) for other shaft sections. Tail Shafts Liners Thickness at Bearings 19.5.1 Bronze The thickness of bronze liners to be fitted to tail a. shafts or tube shafts of vessels is not to be less in way of bearings than that given by the following equations t T/25 + 5.1 mm t T/25 + 0.2 in.

19.5

t thickness of liner in mm or in. T required diameter of tail shaft in mm or in. Section 19/1

The post machining thickness of Stainless Steel Clad b. stainless steel clad liners to be fitted to tailshafts or tube shafts for vessels in salt water service is not to be less than one-half that required for bronze liners or 4.75 mm (0.1875 inches) whichever is greater. The thickness of liners other than bronze or stainless steel clad will be subject to special consideration.
19.5.2 Thickness Between Bearings

The thickness of a continuous bronze liner between bearings is to be not less than three-fourths of the thickness t determined by 19.5.1. 19.5.3 Continuous Liners Continuous liners are to be one piece or, if made of two or more lengths, the joining of the separate pieces is to be done by an approved method of fusion through not less than two-thirds the thickness of the liner or by a rubber seal.
19.5.4 Fit Between Bearings If the liner does not fit the shaft tightly between the bearing portions, the space between the shaft and the liner is to be filled by pressure with an insoluble noncorrosive compound. 19.5.5 Material and Fit

Liners are to be of a high-grade composition, bronze or other approved alloy, free from porosity and other defects, and are to prove tight under hydrostatic test of 1.0 bar (1 kgf/cm2 , 15 psi). All liners are to be carefully shrunk or forced upon the shaft by pressure and they are not to be secured by pins.
19.5.6 After-end Seal Effective means are to be provided to prevent water having access to the shaft at the part between the after end of the liner and the propeller hub. 19.5.7 Glass Reinforced Plastic Coating

Glass reinforced plastic coatings my be fitted on propulsion shafting when applied by an approved procedure to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. Such coatings are to consist of at least four plies of cross-woven glass tape impregnated with resin, or an equivalent process. Prior to coating, the shaft is to be cleansed with a suitable solvent and gritblasted. The shaft is to be examined prior to coating and the first layer is to be applied in the presence of the Surveyor. Subsequent to coating, the finished shaft is to be subjected to a spark test or equivalent to verify freedom from porosity to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. In all cases where reinforced plastic coatings are employed, effective means are to be provided to prevent water having access to the shaft. Provisions are to be made for over-lapping and adequately bonding the coating to fitted or clad liners. The end of the liner is to be stepped and tapered as required to protect the end of the wrapping.
Section 19/2

Stainless Steel Cladding 19.5.8 Stainless steel cladding of shafts is to be carried out in accordance with an approved procedure (See latest edition of ABS Guide for Repair and Cladding of Shafts). 19.7 Solid Couplings Fitted Bolts 19.7.1 The minimum diameter of fitted shaft coupling bolts is to be determined by the following equations
db

0.65 JD3 (U

C)/NBUL,

C = 160 (16.3, 23180) db diameter of bolts at joints in mm or in.


required diameter of shaft in mm or in. N = number of bolts fitted in one coupling B bolt circle diameter in mm or in. 2 minimuT specified tensile strength of shaft material in N/mm , U kgf/mm or psi Ub = minimuw specified tensile strength of bolt material in N/mm2, kgf/mm or psi. To be not less han U. Ub i to be taken not more than 1.7 U or 1000 N/mm (102 kgf/Ime", 145,000 psi), whichever is less, for calculation purposes. D

Notes 1 Coupling bolts are to be accurately fitted.


2 The material for coupling bolts is to be steel with an elongation of not less than 16%. The use of other materials will be subject to special consideration. Non-fitted Bolts 19.7.2 The diameter of non-fitted coupling bolts will be specially considered upon the submittal of detailed preloading and stress calculations and fitting instructions. The tensile stress in the bolt due to prestressing is not to exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of the bolt material. In addition, the bearing stress on any member such as the shaft, bolt or nut is not to exceed 90% of the minimum specified yield strength of that member's material. Power Transmitted by Prestress Only Where bolts are under a pure tension, the factor of safety against slip under worst of the operating conditions, including mean transmitted torque plus vibratory torque due to torsionals, is to be at least as follows: i ii Inaccessible couplings (external to the hull or not readily accessible) -2.8 Accessible couplings (internal to the hull)-2.0

Section 19/3

Power Transmitted by Combination Prestress and Shear Where b the power is transmitted by a combination of fitted bolts (not including dowels) and prestressed non-fitted bolts, the components are to meet the following criteria: Fitted Bolts The shear stress under the maximum torque corresponding to the worst loaded condition, is to be not more than 50% of the minimum specified tensile yield strength of the bolt material. 2 Non-fitted Bolts The factor of safety against slip, under the maximum torque corresponding to the worst loaded condition and the specified bolt tension, is to be at least 1.6 for inaccessible couplings and 1.1 for accessible couplings.

Flanges 19.7.3 The thickness of coupling flanges is not to be less than the minimum required diameter of the coupling bolts or 0.2 times D (as defined in 19.7.1), whichever is greater. The fillet radius at the base of a coupling flange is not to be less than 0.08 times the actual shaft diameter; special consideration will be given to fillet of multiple radii design. In general, the surface finish for fillet radii is not to be rougher than 1.6 pm (63 pin.) RMS. For the fillet radius for tail shaft to propeller coupling flange, see Table 19.2, Note 5. Demountable Couplings 19.7.4 Couplings are to be made of steel or other approved ductile material. The strength of demountable couplings and keys is to be equivalent to that of the shaft. Couplings are to be accurately fitted to the shaft. Provisions for resisting thrust loading are to be provided. Hydraulic and other shrink fit couplings will be specially considered upon submittal of detailed preloading and stress calculations and fitting instructions. In general, the torsional holding capacity is to be at least 2.8 times the transmitted mean torque plus vibratory torque due to torsionals for inaccessible couplings (external to the hull or not readily accessible) and at least 2.0 times for accessible couplings (internal to the hull). The preload stress is not to exceed 70% of the minimum specified yield strength. 19.9 Tail Shaft Propeller-end Design Tail shafts are to be provided with an accurate taper fit in the propeller hub, particular attention being given to the fit at the large end of the taper. Means are to be provided for sealing the shaft taper in way of the propeller assembly against sea water in accordance with 19.25 as follows:

Section 19/4

Propeller Forward End - Where exposed to seawater, the a propeller assembly is to be sealed at the forward end with a wellfitted soft-rubber packing ring and Propeller aft End - A fairwater cap filled with suitable b sealing material or equivalent sealing arrangement is to be provided at the aft end of the propeller. c Non- corrosive non- pitting Alloys - The sealing in (a) and (b) is not required where the tailshaft is fabricated of corrosion resistant pitting-resistant alloy unless required by the manufacturer. The key is to fit tightly in the keyway and be of sufficient size to transmit the full torque applied to the shaft at rated speed. The forward end of the keyway is to be so cut in the shaft as to give a gradual rise from the bottom of the keyway to the surface of the shaft. Ample fillets are to be provided in the corners of the keyway and stress concentrations are to be reduced as far as practicable. For key details, see 19.23. 19 11 Tail Shaft Bearings Water-lubricated Bearings 19.11.1 (resinous, dense hardwood) The length of Wood Bearings a the bearing, next to and supporting the propeller, is to be not less than four times the required tail-shaft diameter. (rubber, reinforced resins, plastic Synthetic Bearings b materials) The length of the bearing, next to and supporting the propeller, is to be not less than four times the required tail shaft diameter. For a synthetic bearing design substantiated by experimental tests to the satisfaction of the Bureau, consideration may be given to a bearing length of less than four times but not less than two times the required tail shaft diameter. Oil- lubricated Bearings 19.11.2 The length of white-metal-lined, oila. White Metal Lined lubricated propeller-end bearings fitted with an approved oil-seal gland is to be on the order of two times the required tail shaft diameter. The length of the bearing may be less provided the nominal bearing pressure is not more than 0.80 N/mm2 (0.0815 kgf/mm , 116 psi) as determined by static bearing reaction calculation taking into account shaft and propeller weight which is deemed to be exerted solely on the aft bearing, divided by the projected area of the shaft. The minimum length, however, is not to be less than 1.5 times the actual diameter. (rubber, reinforced resins, plastic b. Synthetic Bearings etc.) The length of synthetic rubber, reinforced resin or plastic oil lubricated propeller and bearings fitted with an approved oilseal gland is to be on the order of two times the required tail shaft diameter. The length of bearing may be less provided the nominal bearing pressure is not more than 0.60 N/mm2 (0.0611 Section 19/5

shaft diameter. The length of bearing may be less provided the nominal bearing pressure is not more than 0.60 N/mm2 (0.0611 kgf/mm4 , 87 psi) as determined by static bearing reaction calculation taking into account shaft and propeller weight which is deemed to be exerted solely on the aft bearing, divided by the projected area of the shaft. The minimum length, however, is not to be less than 1.5 times the actual diameter. Where the material has demonstrated satisfactory testing and operating experience, consideration may be given to increased bearing pressure. 19.11.3 Welded Overlays Journal buildup with a weld overlay of stainless steel or other alloy is to be carried out at an approved facility in accordance with an approved procedure. (See latest edition of ABS Guide for Repair and Cladding of Shafts).

Section 19/6

PROPELLERS

19.13 General The propellers need not be designed and constructed in accordance with these requirements provided they do not exceed 1.5m (60 inches) in diameter and are part of a manufacturer's standard In such instances, neither the Surveyor's product line. attendance for material testing and inspection nor the design review will be required. The following requirements apply to propellers which exceed 1.5m (60 in) in diameter. 19.15 Material and Testing 19.15.1 Propeller Material The material of the propeller is to be tested in the presence of the Surveyor in accordance with requirements of Part 2, Chapter 3 of the latest edition of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels" or to other approved specifications. The finished propeller is to be inspected by the Surveyor before installation at the manufacturer's plant and after installation. 19.15.2 Stud Material The material of studs securing detachable blades to the hub is to be of Grade 2 steel or other approved material and is to be tested in the presence of the Surveyor in accordance with the requirements of Part 2, Chapter 3 of the latest edition of the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. The finished studs are to be inspected by the Surveyor. 19.17 Blade Design 19.17.1 Blade Thickness Where the propeller blades are of standard design, the thickness of the blades is not to be less than determined by the following For propellers of unusual design, material, or equation. application, the blade thicknesses will be specially considered. a. Fixed-pitch Propellers
0.25

= K,VAH /CRN 1.72BK/C mm (in)

A = 1.0 + (6.0/P0;70) + 4.3 20,25 B = (4300wa/N) (R/100 ' (D/20) 3 C = (1+1.520.25) (Wf -

Section 19/7

b. Controllable-pitch Propellers t0.35 = K2VAH CRN 1.09BK/C mm (in) A = 1.0 + (6.0/20.7) + 320.35 B = (4900wa/N) (R/100)2 (D/20)3 C = (1 0.6P 0.35) (Wf-B)

t0,25 = required thickness at the one-quarter radius in mm or in. t0,35 = required thickness at the 0.35 radius in mm or in. K1= 1067 (915,41) K2= 857 (735,32.8) H = power at rated speed in kilo-watt (hp,HP) hp= metric horsepower HP= inch/pound horsepower R = rpm at rated speed N = number of blades pitch at one-quarter radius divided by propeller 2 0.25 ---' diameter pitch at 0.35 radius divided by propeller diameter, P0.35 = corresponding to the design ahead conditions 20.7 = pitch at seven-tenths radius divided by propeller diameter, corresponding to the design ahead conditions W = expanded width of a cylindrical section at the 0.25 or 0.35 radius in mm or in. a = expanded blade area divided by the disc area D = propeller diameter, in m or ft K = rake of propeller blade in mm/m or in. /ft multiplied by D/2 (with forward rake, use minus sign in equation; with aft rake, use plus sign) f,w = material constants from the following table Representative Propeller Materials SI, Metric Units f Austenitic Stainless Steel Cast Steel Manganese Bronze Nickel-manganese Bronze Nickel-aluminum Bronze Mn-Ni-Al Bronze 2.10 2.10 2.10 2.13 2.62 2.37 w 7.75 8.30 8.30 8.00 7.50 7.50 Inch/Pound Units f 68 68 68 69 85 77 w 0.28 0.30 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.27

19.17.2 Blade-root Fillets Fillets at the root of the blades are not to be considered in the determination of blade thickness. 19.17.3 Built-up Blades The required blade section is not to be reduced in order to provide clearance for nuts. The face of the flange is to bear on

Section 19/8

that of the hub in all cases, but the clearance of the spigot in its counterbore or the edge of the flange in the recess is to be kept to a minimum. 19.19 Studs 19.19.1 Stud Area The sectional area of the studs at the bottom of the thread is to be determined by the following equation.
s = 0.056Wft2 /rn mm2 s = 0.0018Wft2/rn in2

s n r t

= = = =

area of one stud at bottom of thread in mm2 or in2 number of studs on driving side of blade radius of pitch circle of the studs in mm or in. t0.25 or t0A5 (defined under 19.17.1), as applicable W, f are as defined in 19.17.1.

19.19.2 Fit of Studs and Nuts Studs are to be fitted tightly into the hub and provided with effective means for locking. The nuts are also to have a tightfitting thread and be secured by stop screws or other effective locking devices. 19.21 Blade Flange and Mechanisms The strength of the propeller blade flange and internal mechanisms of controllable-pitch propellers subjected to the forces from propulsion torque is to be at least 1.5 times that of the blade at design pitch conditions. 19.23 Key The key is to have a true fit in the hub. For shape of keyway in Where propellers are fitted without keys, shaft, see 19.9. detailed stress calculations and fitting instructions are to be submitted for review. 19.25 Protection Against Corrosion For vessels engaged primarily in salt water service the exposed steel of the shaft is to be protected from the action of the water by filling all the spaces between cap, hub, and shaft with a suitable material. The propeller is to be fitted with a cap, acorn nut, or other suitable after end sealing arrangement. The propeller assembly is to be sealed at the forward end with a well For tailshafts fabricated of fitted soft rubber packing ring. corrosion resistant pitting resistant alloys, see 19.9c. When the rubber ring seal is fitted in an external gland, the hub counterbore is to be filled with suitable material, and clearances between shaft liner and hub counterbore are to be kept to a minimum. When the rubber ring is fitted internally, ample clearance is to be provided between liner and hub and the ring is to be sufficiently oversized to squeeze into the clearance space when the propeller is driven up on the Section 19/9

shaft. The recess formed at the small end of the taper by the overhanging propeller hub is to be packed with red lead putty or rust preventative compound before the propeller nut is put on. 19.27 Waterjets General 19.27.1 Full details are to be submitted for the force transmitting parts of waterjet units including material specifications. For vessels over 20m (65 ft) the units are to be manufactured under Surveys. Certified mill certificates are to be provided for the components of the steering section. The material tests for the impellers, shafts and couplings are to be witnessed by the Surveyor. Hydraulic cylinders are to be manufactured and surveyed in accordance with the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. Waterjets used in aluminum vessels are to be suitable to preclude galvanic corrosion. 19.27.2 Design Design basis and stress calculations for the impellers, shafting, steering mechanism, and reversing mechanism are to be submitted to substantiate the suitability and strength of component parts for the intended service. For the purpose of design review the stress calculations are to cover the "worst case" condition for each component. The factor of safety for the above components is not to be less than 2.0 when determined by the following equation; FS Ss U + Sa E

nor less than 4.0 when determined by the following equation: FS


N EM

U E

FS Ss Sa U E

factor of safety steady stress or low cycle alternating loads alternating stress ultimate tensile strength of the material corrected fatigue strength of the material (based on 108 cycles).

19.27.3 Housings Calculations or test results to substantiate the suitability and strength of the pressure and suction housing are to be submitted for review. The condition with the inlet of the suction blocked is also to be considered. A factor of safety of not less than 4 based on the ultimate tensile strength of the material (or 2 based on yield strength) is to be maintained at each point in the housing. Housings are to be hydrostatically tested to 1.5 times the maximum working pressure or to 3.4 bar (3.5kgf/cmh , 50 psi) whichever is greater.

Section 19/10

Reversing Mechanisms 19.27.4 Astern thrust is to be provided in sufficient amounts to secure proper control of the vessel in all normal circumstances. The reversing mechanism is to provide for reversing at full power, 19.27.5 Impeller Bearings Antifriction bearings are to have a B10 life of at least 80,000 hours

Section 19/11

UOT 3 0 9S

TABLE 19,1

Shaft Design Factor K for Lineshafts, Thrust Shafts, and Oil Distribution Shafts
Design natures'
In wait

Munn? Integral flange Shaul fit coupling transverse holes 3 lame:gain:11 slots

OH Nth

rtopeshlort typo

Keyways'

sides of thrust collars

of axial hearings used as hearings Straight sections

Turbine Drives Elecitie Drives Mosel Drives through slip couplings (electria or hydraulic) Diesel drives
Noise

0.05 1.0

0.05 1.0

1.001 1.1

1.015 1.1

I.II 1.2

1.015 1.1

1.015 1.1

0.05 1.0

I Ceotnelde features other Iltan those listed will he specially con*Were& 2 After a length of not less than 0.2 x D from the end of the keyway, the shaft diameter may ho reduced to the diameter calculated for straight sections. MINA radii In the transverse section of the bottom of the keyway are to be not len than 0.0125 x D.

3 Diameter of bore not more than 0.3 x D. 4 length of the slot not more than x width of the slot not more than 0.2 x D, whereby D Is calculated with k a 1.0.

TABLE 19.2 Shaft Design Factor K for Tail Shafts and Stern Tube Shafts Tails shafts may be reduced to stern tube shaft diameter forward of the bearing supporting the propeller. The inboard end of tailshafts or tube shafts is to be designed the same as line shafts, with shaft design factors in accordance with Table 19.1. Propeller attachment method 1 Keyless attachment by shrink Keyed2' 3 fit4 1.26 1.22 Stern Tube 8 Shafts7' 1.15

Propulsion type All All

Stern tube configuration Oil lubricated bearings Water lubricated bearings with continuous shaft liners or equivalent Water lubricated bearings with noncontinuous saft liners b

Flanged 1.22

1.26

1.22

1.22

1.15

All

1.29

1.25

1.25

1.18

Notes 1 Other attachments are subject to special consideration. 2 Where keyways are fully spooned, factor for keyless attachment applies. 3 Fillet radii in the transverse section at the bottom of the keyway are not to be less than 0.0125D. 4 See also 19.23. 5 The fillet radius in the base of the flange, for the tail shaft supporting the propeller, is to be at least 0.125D. Special consideration will be given to fillets of multiple radii design. 6 For Great Lakes service vessels, K factor for continuous liners or equivalent may be used. 7 K factor applies to shafting between the forward edge of the propeller-end bearing and the inboard stern tube seal. 8 Where keyed couplings are fitted on stern tube shaft, the shaft diameters are to be increased by 10% in way of the coupling. See Note 2 of Table 19.1.

Section 19/ 13

SECTION 20 Pumps and Piping Systems 20.1 Application Pumps and piping systems are to be in accordance with the applicable requirements of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels" except where vessels are below 45.7 m (150 ft) in length, the following alternative requirements may be applied. 20.2 Piping Groups To distinguish between detail requirements for the various systems, the piping on shipboard is divided into two groups. GROUP I in general includes all piping intended for working pressures or temperatures in various services as follows. Service Pressure bar (kgs/cm12, psi) over over over over over 10.3 15.5 15.5 10.3 15.5 (10.5, (15.8, (15.8, (10.5, (15.8, 150) 225) 225) 150) 225) Temperature C(F) over over over over over 343 (650) 177 (350) 204 (400) 66 (150) 204 (400)

Vapor and Gas Water Lubricating Oil Fuel Oil Hydraulic Fluid

GROUP II includes all piping intended for working pressures and temperatures below those stipulated under GROUP I, and in addition such open-ended lines as drains, overflows and vents. 20.3 General 20.3.1 Plans and Data to be Submitted Before proceeding with the work, plans in a Plans triplicate are to be submitted, showing clearly the arrangement and details of the following: General arrangement of engine room Sanitary System Bilge System Ballast System Vent, sounding and overflow pipes Fuel-oil filling, transfer and service systems Lubricating-oil systems Essential raw-water and fresh-water service systems Fire-main and fire-extinguishing systems Steering-gear piping systems Starting-air piping Exhaust systems Details of any other Group i piping systems not part any independently manufactured unit.

Section 20/1a

b Data

The plans are to consist of a diagrammatic plan of each system accompanied by lists of material giving size, wall thickness, maximum working pressure and material of all pipes and the type, size and material of valves and fittings. Complete construction details (plans) are to be submitted for valves and fittings that are not constructed to recognized standards.

20.3.2 Testing After installation, all piping is to be tested to maximum working pressure in the presence of the Surveyor. Installation Details 20.3.3 a Support Pipes, valves and operating rods are to be effectively supported.
b Pipes Near Switchboards

The leading of pipes in the vicinity of switchboards is to be avoided as far as possible. When such leads are necessary, care is to be taken not to fit flanges or joints over or near the switchboards and provision is made to prevent any leakage from injuring the equipment.

Section 20/lb

Bulkhead, Deck or Tank-Top Penetrations Where pipes c are carried through watertight bulkheads, decks or tank tops, arrangements are to be made to insure the integrity of the watertightness of the structure. Brass Piping Components in Salt Water Systems Where d brass is used, only alloys with a zinc content of 15 percent or less or which contain dezincification inhibitors such as tin, antimony, arsenic are to be used in saltwater systems Plastic Pipe Rigid plastic pipe will be specialy e considered for piping systems of less than 10.3 bar (10.5 kgf/cm', 150 psi) or less than 177C (350 F) for application other than bilge piping in the machinery space, lubricating-oil, fuel oil and fire piping upon submission of the physical characteristics of the material. Where systems are connected to the sea, the sea valve and its connection to the shell are to be metallic. The hydrostatic bursting pressure for rigid plastic pipe is to be at least five times the maximum working pressure for thermoplastic pipes and four times the maximum working pressure for reinforced thermosetting resin pipes. The wall thickness for plain-end thermoplastic pipe is not to be less than Schedule 40 N.P.S. and the wall thickness for threaded thermoplastic pipe is not to be less than Schedule 80 N.P.S. The wall thickness of reinforced thermosetting resin pipes is to be in accordance with manufacturer's standards based on burst test data. f Hose Flexible metallic and nonmetallic hose may be installed throughout in systems such as sanitary drains, potable water, and fresh water cooling for non-vital equipment. Where hose passes through watertight bulkheads, it is to be connected to a rigid sleeve of the same material as the bulkhead and the sleeve is to be fitted with a readily accessible valve at each side of the bulkhead, or a single valve on one side of the bulkhead with a remote operator capable of operation from above the bulkhead deck. Hose may be installed in fuel oil, lube oil, and hydraulic oil systems for short runs provided it is visible at all times, easily accessible, and confined to one watertight compartment. Joining of these hoses is to be with suitable factory assembled or factory supplied end fitting connections. Hose assemblies may be installed in other systems between two points where flexibility is required. In general, the hose is to be limited to the length necessary to provide the required flexibility for proper operation of the machinery. The burst pressure of the hose is not to be less than four times the relief valve setting or design working pressure as applicable. The hose material is to be suitable for the intended service. Hoses for oil service are to be fire-resistant and reinforced with wire braid or other suitable material.

Section 20/2

The hose is to be adequately supported to prevent any strain on the joints and prevent undue sagging. Soft supports or supports with rubber or other suitable lining are to be used to ensure the hose is not damaged. Contact with sharp edges of structure or equipment is to be avoided. The hose is not to be subjected to torsional deflection (twisting) under normal conditions. Joining the hose sections is to be with suitable factory assembled or supplied end fitting connections that will not damage the hose. The use of rubber hoses which are not provided with factory assembled end fittings will be considered for non-combustible liquid service in pipe sizes up to 114.3 mm O.D. (4in. N.P.S.) in accessible locations. Such hoses are to be secured by means of at least two stainless steel hose clamps at each end. Such clamps are to be at least 12mm (0.5 in) wide and are not to be dependent on spring tension to remain fastened. g Pipe Wall Thicknesses Pipe wall thicknesses are to be in accordance with an approved recognized standard. For pipe with an operating temperature over 177 C (350 F) or working pressure over 10.3 bar (10.5 kgf/cm2, 150 psi), the thicknesses are to be in accordance with the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels". 20.5 Bilge System 20.5.1 General All self-propelled vessels 20 m (65 ft) in length or greater are to be provided with two power-driven bilge pumps, one of which may be attached to the propulsion unit. A direct bilge suction led directly from the main machinery space bilge to the suction valve chest of the largest pump is to be provided in the main machinery space. 20.5.2 Bilge Pumps Vessels below 20 m (65 ft) are to be provided with one powerdriven bilge pump, which may be an attached unit, and one suitable hand pump. Power-driven-bilge pump capacity and bilge-pipe size are to be in accordance with the following. Minimum Capacity per Pump 5.5 m3/hr (25gpm) Minimum Pipe Inside Diameter 25 mm(1.in.)

Vessel Length Below 20 m (65ft) 20 m (65 ft) or greater but below 30.5 m (100 ft) 30.5 m (100 ft)or greater but below 45.7 (150 ft)

11.0 m3/hr (50 gpm)

32mm (1.25 in.)

14.33 m3/hr (66.6 gpm) 38 mm(1.5 in.)

Section 20/3

Submersible bilge pumps located in bilge wells may be used in individual compartments provided the vessel will remain stable with the most sensitive of such compartments flooded. In addition to these submersible pumps, one bilge pump is to be installed in the main machinery space complying with the above capacity requirements. A second bilge pump of at least one half this capacity is also to be fitted. 20.5.3 Size of Bilge Suctions The least internal diameter of bilge suction pipes is to be that of the nearest commercial size within 6 mm (0.25 in.) of the diameter determined by the following equations or the above minimum, whichever is greater. 1. Main Line For the diameter of main-bilge line suctions in branch systems and direct bilge suctions to the pumps: d 25 + 1.68 iL (B+D) mm d 1

L (B+D) in.
2500

2. Branch or Submersibles Pump Lines For the equivalent diameter of the combined branch suctions to a compartment or submersible pump lines: d 25 + 2.16 jc (B+D) mm d 1

lc (B+D) in.
1500

d L B D c 20.7

internal diameter of pipe in mm or in. length of vessel on load water line in m or ft breadth of vessel in m or ft molded depth to main deck in m or ft length of compartment in m or ft

Vent, Sounding, and Overflow Pipes 20.7.1 Vent Pipes In all vessels the structural arrangement in tanks is to be such as to permit the free passage of air and gases from all parts of the tanks to the vent pipes. Each tank is to be fitted with at least one vent pipe, which is to be located at the highest part of the tank. Vent pipes are to be arranged to provide adequate self drainage under normal conditions. Vent pipes are to have a minimum internal diameter not less than 25 mm (1 in.) and, for systems where the tank is filled by pump pressure, the aggregate area of the vents in the tanks is to be at least 125% of the effective area of the filling line except that when overflows are fitted, the area of the overflow is to be at least 125% of the effective areas of the filling line and the vents need not exceed 25 mm (1 in.) Not withstanding the above, the pump capacity and pressure head are to be considered in the sizing for vents and overflows. All vent and overflow pipes on the open deck are to terminate by way of return bends or other means that will provide equivalent protection against flooding. Vent pipe outlets on Section 20/4

fuel-oil tanks are to be fitted with metallic corrosion-resistant flame screens having a clear area through the mesh of not less Satisfactory means, than the required are of the pipe. permanently attached, are to be provided for closing the openings of the vent pipes. Vent Heights 20.7.2 Vents of ballast and fuel tanks are to extend above the weather deck to locations where the possibility of ignition of gasses issuing from the vent outlet is remote. Alternatively, the vent pipes may be carried out through the side of the vessel; the pipe is to be raised to a point close to the weather deck and a suitable non-return valve is to be located as close as practicable to the shell. Other means will be considered provided they ensure equivalent protection against flooding. Sounding Arrangements 20.7.3 Sounding pipes are to be provided to determine the level in all permanently installed tanks. Other means for sounding may be considered in each case depending upon the hazard of the liquid. Sounding pipes are to be provided with a means for closing. Sounding pipes for combustible or flammable fluids are not to terminate in accommodation spaces. 20.9 Fuel-oil Piping Systems Filling lines are to terminate at the weather deck and tanks are The fuel-oil pumping to be vented to the open atmosphere. arrangements are to be distinct from the other pumping systems as far as practicable, and the means provided for preventing dangerous interconnection in service are to be thoroughly effective. Where suction pipes are subjected to static head of fuel oil, a positive closing valve operable from a safe and accessible location outside the space is to be fitted at the exit of such lines from fuel oil tanks. This valve, where fitted outside the fuel oil tank, is to be of approved ductile material. Local control at the valve is also to be provided. If this is impracticable, a second control valve is to be fitted within the machinery space. Flexible hose of appropriate material may be used for fuel oil service for short runs provided it is visible at all times, easily accessible, and confined to one watertight compartment. A duplex strainer or a strainer with a suitable bypass arrangement is to be installed in the fuel supply to the propulsion engine. For multiple engine installations with sufficient capacity for maneuverability of the vessel, duplex strainers or by-passes around simplex strainers are not required. 20.11 Shell Connections Fluid lines penetrating the hull near or below the maximum load waterline are to be fitted with positive-closing valves. The valves are to be as close to the shell as practicable and either

Section 20/5

readily accessible or capable of being manually operated from a readily accessible location. 20.13 Lubricating-011 Systems 20.13.1 General The lubricating-oil piping is to be entirely separate from other piping systems. Where oil coolers are provided the sea suctions are to be arranged to minimize the probability of blanking off the cooling water. 20.13.2 Oil Filters Oil filters are to be provided on all engines. 20.15 Cooling-Water System 20.15.1 General Drain cocks are to be provided at the lowest point of all jackets and a relief valve is to be fitted in the main line to the jackets to prevent excessive pressure unless the pumps are of the centrifugal type so designed that the pressure delivered cannot exceed that for which the piping is designed. For vessels over 20 m (65 ft), means are to be provided to ascertain the temperatures of the circulating water at the return from each engine and to indicate that the proper circulation is being maintained. 20.15.2 Sea Suctions For vessels 20 m (65 ft) in length and over at least two independent sea suctions are to be provided for supplying water to the engine jackets or to the heat exchangers. The sea suctions are to be located so as to minimize the possibility of blanking off the cooling water. 20.15.3 Engine Cooling System Where sea water is used for cooling the engine, unless other equivalent arrangements are specially approved, suitable strainers are to be fitted between the sea valves and the pump suctions. For vessels 20 m (65 ft) in length and over, the strainers are to be either of the duplex type or otherwise so arranged that they can be cleaned without interrupting the cooling water supply. For multiple engine installations with sufficient capacity for maneuverability of the vessel, duplex strainers or bypasses around simplex strainers are not required. 20.17 Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Use of LPG and CNG systems on board vessels will be subject to special consideration. In general, these systems are to be in compliance with the applicable piping requirements of the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels and this Guide. Alternatively, applicable recognized standards may also be considered. After Section 20/6

installation and complete assembly, the system is to be leak tested at operating pressure using air. After the system has been repaired for any leakage problems, all appliance valves are to be closed and the cylinder shutoff valve opened. After the gauge registers that the system is pressurized, the cylinder valve is to The gauge pressure reading is to remain be closed. constant for at least 15 minutes. 20.19 Steering Gear Piping See 18.11.8.

Section 20/7

Section 21 Electrical Installations 21.1 General Electrical installations are to be in accordance with requirements in 21.3, 21.5, 21.29, 21.31, 21.33 and other applicable requirements of the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels", except that where the aggregate generator capacity does not exceed 75 kw the alternative requirements in 21.7 through 21.27 may be applied. Electrical installations in machinery spaces with gasoline engines will be specially considered. 21.3 Plans and Data Plans are to be submitted in triplicate. Data to be submitted are to include a complete feeder list giving for each feeder and branch circuit, the load, wire size, and voltage drop for the longest run of each size of cable, type of cable, rating or setting of circuit breakers, rating of fuses and switches and interrupting capacity of circuit breakers and fuses. The following drawings/calculations are to be submitted. Electrical one line diagram Electrical switchboards and panelboards Electrical power and lighting systems Emergency electrical systems Internal communication system Alarm systems Navigating lights Propulsion control system Steering gear power and control systems Impressed current cathodic protection system Electrical load analysis 21.5 Installation Equipment Location 21.5.1 Electrical equipment is to be so placed or protected as to minimize the probability of mechanical injury or damage from the accumulation of dust, oil vapors, steam or dripping liquids. Apparatus liable to arc is to be ventilated or placed in ventilated compartments in which flammable gases, acid fumes and oil vapors cannot accumulate. Skylights and ventilators are to be so arranged as to avoid the probability of flooding the apparatus. Protection from Bilge Water 21.5.2 All generators and motors are to be so arranged that they cannot be damaged by bilge water; and if necessary, a watertight coaming

Section 21/1

is to be provided to form a well around the base of such equipment with provision for removing water from the well. 21.5.3 Accessibility The design and arrangement of electrical apparatus is to provide accessibility to parts requiring inspection or adjustment. 21.5.4 Watertight Equipment All electrical equipment exposed to the weather or located in spaces where it would be exposed to seas, splashing or other severe moisture conditions is to be of the watertight type or be protected by means of watertight enclosures. 21.5.5 Corrosion Resistant Parts Enclosures, working and other parts of electrical equipment which would be damaged or rendered ineffective by corrosion are to be made of corrosion resistant materials. 21.5.6 Grounding of Permanent Equipment In general, the frames or cases of all permanently installed generators, motors, controllers, switchboards, panelboards, instruments and similar equipment, for which the arrangement and method of installation does not assure positive grounding are to be permanently grounded through separate conductors protected against damage. Where outlets, switches and similar fittings are of non-metallic construction, grounding of all exposed metal parts is to be insured. (See 21.35). 21.5.7 Lightning Protection A lightning protection system consisting of a copper spike, and a copper conductor of at least 8 mm2 (No. 8 AWG) is to be installed on each non-metallic mast. The spike is to project at least 150 mm (6 in.) above the uppermost part of the vessel, the conductor is to run clear of metal objects and as straight as practicable to the metallic steel structure of the vessel. (See 21.35 for non-metallic hulls). 21.7 Temperature Ratings In the following requirements an ambient temperature of 40C has been assumed for all locations. Where the ambient temperature is in excess of this value, the total temperature specified is not to be exceeded. Where equipment has been rated on ambient temperature less than that contemplated, consideration will be given to the use of such equipment provided the total temperature for which the equipment is rated will not be exceeded.
21.9 Generators 21.9.1 Capacity

Vessels using electricity for propulsion auxiliaries (eg., independent fuel pumps, oil pumps) and the safety of the vessel,

Section 21/2

are to be provided with at least two generators. These generators are not to be driven by the same engine. The capacity of the generator set or sets is to be sufficent to carry the necessary load essential for the propulsion and safety of the vessel, and minimum comfortable conditions of habitability with any one generator set in reserve. Vessels having only one generator are to be provided with a battery source to supply sufficient lighting for safety. Protection 21.9.2 Generators of less than 25 KW not arranged for parallel operation may be protected by fuses. All generators of 25 KW and over are to be protected by a trip-free air circuit breaker providing longtime over-current protection not exceeding 15% above either the full-load rating of continuous-rated machines, or the overload rating of special-rated machines. The shutting down of the prime mover is to cause the tripping of the ship service generator circuit breaker. 21.11 Storage Batteries Location 21.11.1 Storage batteries are to be located in well-ventilated areas as high above the bilges as possible and as far away as practicable from potential sources of ignition. Installation 21.11.2 Lead-acid storage batteries are to be installed in liquid-tight Alkaline trays lined with lead or other suitable materials. storage batteries are to be installed on suitable insulating supports, and when metal cell containers are used these are to be protected against conducting materials that can cause shortcircuiting between the containers and between the containers and metal structure. Batteries are to have not less than 250 mm (10 in.) vertical clearance and are to be chocked all around to prevent their movement due to the motion of the vessel. Charging 21.11.3 Means are to be provided for determining the charged condition of storage batteries and for charging them when necessary. Where voltage-dropping resistors are utilized, they are to be mounted in a well-ventilated non-combustible enclosure situated away from other combustible material. Battery-charging circuits are to have over-current and reverse-current protection, and a disconnect switch is to be provided before the battery charger. Connections 21.11.4 Connections to storage batteries are to be made with fitted connectors providing good mechanical and electrical unions. Spring clips or other temporary clamps are not to be used.

Section 21/3

21.13

Cables Construction 21.13.1 Cables are to have copper conductors constructed and sized in accordance with a recognized standard and are to be of the stranded type, except sizes not exceeding 1.5 mm2 (16 AWG) may have solid conductors. Installation 21.13.2 All wiring is to be run as high as possible above the bilges, and cable runs are to be made without splices and be as straight and accessible as practicable. Cables installed in machinery spaces are to have an insulation with a temperature rating of not less than 75C. They are to be effectively supported and secured, and protected against mechanical damage. Cables exposed to moisture are to be moisture-resisting jacketed (impervious-sheathed). All cable entrances in exposed locations and all penetrations through watertight decks and bulkheads are to be made watertight.

21.15

Distribution Boxes and Panels Construction 21.15.1 Distribution boxes and panels are to be of noncombustible material and are to be preferably of the dead-front type. They may be of metal or of nonconductive material. If of metal, they are to be grounded in accordance with 21.5.6. All terminal strips, fuse blocks, switches, and similar equipment are to be of noncombustible high-dielectric-strength insulating material. Installation 21.15.2 Distribution boxes and panels are to be installed in dry accessible, and well-ventilated areas. Not less than 610 mm (24 in.) clearance is to be provided in front of distribution boxes and panels. When located at the helm or other area adjacent to or part of an open cockpit or weather deck, they are to be protected by a watertight enclosure. 21.15.3 Instrumentation A voltmeter, ammeter, frequency meter, and voltage regulator are to be provided for each generator installed. Control equipment and measuring instruments are to be provided as necessary to insure satisfactory operation of the generator or generators. However, if the electrical installation is designed for single generator or non-parallel operation, the requirement for a frequency meter is not required (see 21.9). Where generators may be operated in parallel, a synchroscope with lamp, prime mover control, and wattmeter is also to be provided.

Section 21/4

21.17 Electric Protective Devices General 21.17.1 All conductors are to be protected in accordance with 21.17.2. Feeder and branch circuits for lighting, heating or ship's service power are to have each ungrounded conductor protected by a circuit Circuit breaker or fuse of suitable interrupting capacity. breakers are to be of the independent-arm or trip-free type. Circuit breakers may be equipped with time trips, instantaneous trips or trips consisting of both time over-current and instantaneous features. Over-current Protection Devices 21.17.2 Rating Fuse rating and ratings (or settings, if adjustable) a of time-delay trip elements of circuit breakers are not to exceed the rated current capacity of the conductor to be protected except If as otherwise permitted for motor branch-circuit protection. the standard ratings and settings of over-current devices do not correspond with the rating and setting allowed for conductors, the next higher standard rating setting may be used, but not exceeding 150% of the allowable current carrying capacity of the conductor. Except as otherwise permitted for motor branch-circuit protection, adjustable-trip circuit breakers of the time-delay or instantaneous type are to be set to operate at not more than 150% of the rated capacity of the conductor to be protected. Indication The rating or appropriate setting of the b overload protective device for each circuit is to be permanently indicated at the location of the protective device. 21.17.3 Protection Branch lighting circuits are to be protected by over-current protective devices rated or set at not more than 30 amperes. The connected load is not to exceed the rated current carrying capacity of the conductor or 80% of the over-current protective Where the over-current protective device rating or setting. device rating or setting exceeds 20 amperes, lighting fixtures are to be of the heavy duty type and switches are to be rated for the load controlled. Heating Appliances 21.17.4 Isolated heaters or groups of heaters may be supplied by branch lighting circuits. Motor Running Protection 21.17.5 Running protection is to be provided for all motors except such protection is not to be provided for steering gear motors. The running protection is to be set between 100% and 125% of the motor rated current.

Section 21/5

21.19

Emergency Source of Power All vessels having only one generator are to be provided with a source of emergency electrical power sufficient to supply emergency lighting for at least 6 hours. The power source may be any one of the following: a An automatically connected or manually controlled standard battery; or An automatically or manually started generator; or Relay-controlled, battery-operated lanterns. Navigating Running Lights Mast head, port, starboard, and stern lights when required are to be controlled by a running light indicator panel. A fused-feeder disconnect switch is to be provided; the rating of the fuses is to be at least twice that of the largest branch fuse and greater than the maximum panel load.

b c 21.21

21.23

Distribution Cables 21.23.1 General All electric cables for power, lighting, communication, control, and electronic circuits are to have insulations suitable for a conductor temperature of not less than 75C. The rated operating temperature of the insulating material is to be at least 10C higher than the maximum ambient temperature likely to exist, or to be produced, in the space where the cable is installed. Electric cables are not to enter oil tanks. Cables are to be installed in such a manner that stresses on the cable are not transmitted to the conductors. Joints in wires and cables are to be made in flame-retarding wire appliances, except that consideration may be given to methods of splicing that retain the original mechanical and electrical properties of the cable. Terminal boxes are to be secured in place and the moisture-resistant jacket is to extend through the cable clamp. Enclosures for outlets, switches, and similar fittings are to be flame and moisture-resistant, and of adequate mechanical strength and rigidity to protect the contents and to prevent distortion under all likely conditions of service. 21.23.2 Cables Behind Paneling and in Dome Fixtures Cables may be installed behind paneling, provided all connections are accessible and the location of concealed connection boxes is indicated. Dome fixtures are to be installed so that they are vented, or they are to be fitted with fire-resistant material in such a manner as to protect the insulated wiring leading to the lamps and any exposed woodwork from excessive temperature.

Section 21/6

21.23.3 Cables behind Sheathing Cables may be installed behind sheathing, but they are not to be installed behind or imbedded in structural insulation; they are to pass through such insulation at right angles and are to be protected by a continuous pipe with a stuffing tube at one end. For deck penetrations this stuffing tube is to be at the upper end of the pipe and for bulkhead penetrations it is to be on the uninsulated side of the bulkhead. Cable Supports and Bends Cables are to be adequately a supported. Supports for cables are to be spaced not more than 610 mm (24 in.) apart in both horizontal and vertical Cables grouped in a single support are to be directions. limited to two banks except for turnouts. Cables running transversely to the underside of beams are to be supported in cable racks or the equivalent. Cables are not to be bent to a smaller radius than 6 diameters (8 diameters for armored cable). Deck and Bulkhead Penetrations Where cables pass b through watertight, firetight, or smoke-tight bulkheads or decks, the penetrations are to be made through the use of approved stuffing tubes, transit devices, or pourable materials which will maintain the watertight, firetight or smoke-tight integrity of the bulkheads or decks. Additionally, each stuffing tube, transit device, or pourable material is not to damage the cable physically or through chemical action or heat build-up. When cables pass through nonwatertight bulkheads where the bearing surface is less than 6.4 mm (0.25 in.), the holes are to be fitted with bushings having rounded edges and a bearing surface for the cable of at least 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) in length. Where cables pass through deck beams, or similar structural parts, all burrs are to be removed in way of the holes and care is to be taken to eliminate any sharp edges. Grounding of Cable Metallic Covering Each armored c cable and each mineral-insulated metal-sheathed cable is to have the metallic covering electrically and mechanically continuous and grounded to the metal hull at each end of the run except that final subcircuits may be grounded at the supply end only. All cables liable to damage, Mechanical Properties d such as in locations in way of hatches, open decks subject to seas, and where passing through decks, are to be protected by substantial metal shields, structural shapes, pipe or other equivalent means. All such coverings are to be of sufficient strength to provide effective protection to the cables, and if metallic, are to be electrically continuous and grounded to the metal hull. Horizontal pipes or the equivalent used for cable protection are to be provided with drainage holes and where they are carried through decks or bulkheads, arrangements are to be made to insure the integrity of the water or gas tightness of the structure. Section 21/1

21.25

Splicing of Electrical Cables Location Electric cables are to be installed in continuous a lengths between terminations; however, approved splices will be permitted when necessary to extend existing circuits for a vessel undergoing repair or alteration. Splicing procedure and location of splices are to be submitted for approval. b Installation All splices are to be made after the cable is in place and are to be accessible for inspection. The conductor splice is to be made using a pressure type butt connector by use of a one-cycle compression tool.

21.27

Permanent Watertight Fixtures Permanent watertight fixtures are to be corrosion-resistant and are to be used where exposed to the weather or splashing water. Lighting fixtures of this type are to be rendered watertight by means of glass globes protected by substantial guards. Watertight lighting fixtures are not required for any interior locations except for refrigerated compartments or where exposed to splashing water.

21.29

Bridge Control of Propulsion Machinery 21.29.1 General The following are applicable for vessels over 20 m (65 ft). 21.29.2 Control Capability Under all sailing conditions, including maneuvering, the speed, direction of thrust and, if applicable, the pitch of the propeller are to be fully controllable from the navigating bridge. This control is to be performed by a single control device for each independent propeller, with automatic performance of all associated services, including, where necessary, means of preventing overload of the propulsion machinery. 21.29.3 Emergency Stopping The propulsion machinery is to be provided with an emergency stopping device on the navigating bridge which is independent from the bridge control system. 21.29.4 Order of Control Station Command Where multiple control stations are fitted, remote control of the propulsion machinery is to be possible only from one station at a time; at one control station interconnected control units are permitted. There is to be at each station an indicator showing which station is in control of the propulsion machinery. The transfer of control between navigating bridge and machinery spaces is to be possible only in the machinery space.

Section 21/8

21.29.5 Local Control It is to be possible to control essential machinery and the propelling machinery locally in the case of failure in any part of the automatic or remote control systems. 21.29.6 Bridge Control Indicators Indicators for the following are to be fitted on the navigating bridge. a Propeller speed and direction where fixed pitch propellers are fitted. b Propeller speed and pitch position where controllable pitch propeller are fitted. c An alarm is to be provided to indicate low starting air pressure and is to be set at a level which still permits main engine starting operation. 21.31 Trials 21.31.1 Ship's Service All auxiliary apparatus is to be tried under working Each generator is to be run for a time conditions. sufficient to show satisfactory operations. When two or more generators arranged for parallel operation are installed, parallel operation with all possible combinations is to be demonstrated. Each auxiliary motor necessary to the operation of the vessel is to be run for a time sufficient to show satisfactory performance. All main switches and circuit breakers are to be operated but The operation of the not necessarily at full load. lighting system, heaters, etc., is to be demonstrated satisfactorily. The entire installation is to operate to the satisfaction of the Surveyors. 21.33 Aluminum Hull Vessels 21.33.1 General In general, electrical systems are to be isolated from the hull at all times or a suitable cathodic protection Floating ground systems arrangement is to be provided. between the engine and related machinery components may be In addition to power supply installed where required. systems, attention for maintaining electrical isolation is to be given to communication devices, instrumentation and shore-power systems where used. 21.33.2 DC Systems Batteries generally are not to be grounded to propulsion Where it is engines or related machinery components. necessary for batteries to be grounded to the hull, the negative poles are to be connected to the hull. Batl -,,r-; , =s for engine starting may be grounded to the engine. Section 21/9

21.33.3 AC Systems AC power supplies are to be isolated from the hull at all times. A high resistance continuity tester (such as a 90 volt DC battery, NE2 neon through 100K ohms) is to be carried on board in order that the electrical installation may be checked at the time of installation and at regular intervals to insure isolation of AC circuits. 21.33.4 Shore Power The shore electrical power is to enter the vessel through a 1:1 isolation transformer. Additional precautions to prevent electrolysis of the hull when docking are recommended. 21.33.5 Impressed Current Systems Where impressed current cathodic protection a General systems are proposed, complete details, including types of anodes, voltages, arrangements and schematic of the wiring system, are to be submitted for review. Cables for cathodic protection systems b Arrangements are not to be run through oil tanks. Where passing through cofferdams, pump-room and similar hazardous spaces, cables are to be encased in extra-heavy pipe, and are to be shielded from damage in cargo spaces and other areas where they may be exposed to mechanical damage. If piping used is not aluminum, it is to be isolated from the hull. Impressed current cathodic protection systems are to be equipped with alarm devices to indicate inadequate or excessive current, and reversed polarity. 21.35 Non-metallic (FRP) Hull. Vessels 21.35.1 Equipment Grounding All electrical enclosures, fittings, and similar equipment are to be permanently grounded to the generator frame and engine bedplate with equipment grounding conductors that are at least as large as the conductors supplying the equipment. All generator frames are to be connected with equipment grounding conductors at least as large as the generator conductors. On systems using grounded neutrals, the neutral is not to be used as an equipment ground. 21.35.2 Lightning Protection A lightning protection system consisting of a copper spike, a copper conductor of at least 8 mm2 (No. 8 AWG), and a grounding plate of riot less than 450 cm' (1 ft2) is to be installed. The spike is to project at least 150 mm (6 in.) above the uppermost part of the vessel, the conductor is to run clear of metal objects and as straight as practicable, and the grounding plate is to be located so that it is immersed under all conditions of heel. Metallic rudders may be used as grounding plates.

Section 21/10

SECTION 22 Fire Extinguishing Systems 22.1 Fire Pumps Number of Pumps 22.1.1 Two power-driven fire pumps are to be installed, one of which may be attached to the propulsion unit. Where vessels are less than 20 m (65 ft) in length, one power-driven, which may be an attached unit, and one hand-operated fire pump are to be provided. Sanitary, bilge and general-service pumps may be accepted as fire pumps. 22.1.2 Capacity The capacity of each fire-pump is to be in accordance with the following. Vessel Length Below 20 m (65 ft) 20 m (65 ft) or greater but below 30.5 m (100 ft) 30.5 (100 ft) or greater Minimum Capacity 5.5 m 3/hr (25 gpm) 11.0 m3/hr (50 gpm) 14.3 m 3/hr (66.6 gpm)

If a fixed fire extinguishing system in excess of that required by 22.5 is installed in the machinery spaces, a fire main may not be required for vessels below 20 m (65 ft) and a reduced pump capacity will be considered for larger vessels. Power-driven fire pumps are to have sufficient pressure to supply the effective stream required by 22.31 Hand-operated fire pumps are to have a minimum capacity of 1.1m /hr (5gpm). 22.3 Hoses, Nozzles, and Hydrants Hoses are not to have a diameter greater than 38 mm (1.5 in.). Hoses for vessels under 20 m (65 ft) in length may be of a domestic service type of good commercial grade having a diameter of not less than 16 mm (5/8 in.). Nozzle sizes are to be in accordance with the "Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels". Fire hydrants are to be of sufficient number and so located that any part of the vessel may be reached with an effective stream of water from a single length of hose not exceeding 15 m (50 ft). All hoses attached to hydrants serving machinery spaces of vessels over 20 m (65 ft) are in addition to

Section 22/1

be fitted with nozzles suitable for spraying water on oil or with dual-purpose nozzles. 22.5 Fixed Systems For all vessels, fixed fire extinguishing systems are to be fitted for spaces containing any of the following: oil fired furnace b fuel oil units used for the preparation of oil fuel for delivery to an oil-fired boiler or for the preparation for delivery of heated oil to an internal combustion engine. internal combustion machinery when the aggregate total power output is not less than 375 KW (500 HP) and the vessel is not less than 500 gross tons.

In general fixed fire-extinguishing systems are to comply with the Rules for Building and Classing Steel Vessels. 22.7 Axe One fire axe is to be provided on each vessel 20 m (65 ft) and over. 22.9 Portable Extinguishers Portable extinguishers are to be provided in the quantities and locations indicated in Tables 22.1 and 22.2.

TABLE 22.1 Classification of Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers


Classification Type A B C Size II II II Soda-Acid and Water (U.S. gallons) 9.5 (2.5) Foam liters (U.S. gallons) 9.5 (2.5) 9.5 (2.5) -4.7 (1.25) Carbon Dioxide
kg

Dry Chemical kg(Lb) (lb)

Salon 1211 kg (lb)

-6.7 (15) 6,7 (15) 1.8(4)

..... -4.5 (10 ) 4.5 (10) 0.9(2) 4.5(10)1

--

1.1(2.5)

Note: 1 - For outside use only.

Section 22/2

TABLE 22.2 Portable and Semiportable Extinguishers Space Safety Areas Communicating corridors Classification A-II or B-II Quantity and Location 1 in each main corridor not more than 46m (150 ft) apart. (May be located in stairways.) 1 in vicinity of exit. 1 in each sleeping accommodations space, Where occupied by more than 4 persons.) 1 for each 230 m2 (2500 ft') or fraction thereof for hazards involved. 1 or each 230 m2 (2500 ft ) or fraction thereof located in vicinity of exits, either inside or outside of spaces. 1 for each engine. See Note 1. 1 for each 2 motors or generators. See Note 2.

Radio room Accommodations Sleeping accommodation

C-II A-II or B-I

Service Spaces Galleys

B-II or C-II

Storerooms

A-II or B-II

Machinery Spaces Internal combustion or gas turbineengines Electric motors or generators of open type Notes:

B-II

C-II

1 When installation is on weather deck or open to atmosphere at all times, one B-II for every three engines is allowable. Small electrical appliances, such as fans, etc., are not to be 2 counted or used as basis for determining number of extinguishers required.

Section 22/3

SECTION 24 SURVEYS AFTER CONSTRUCTION 24.1 Conditions for Surveys after Construction 24.1.1 Damage to hull, machinery or equipment, which affects or may affect Classification, is to be submitted by the Owners or their representatives for examination by the Surveyor at first opportunity. All repairs, found necessary by the Surveyor, are to be carried out to his satisfaction. Nothing contained in this section or in a rule or regulation of any government or other administration, or the issuance of any report or certificate pursuant to this section or such a rule or regulation, is to be deemed to enlarge upon the representations expressed in subsections 1.1 through 1.9 hereof and the issuance and use of any such reports or certificates are to in all respects be governed by subsections 1.1 through 1.9 hereof. 24.1.2 Notification and Availability of Survey The Surveyors are to have access to classed vessels at all reasonable times. The Owners or their representatives are to notify the Surveyors on all occasions when a vessel can be examined while out of water in drydock or on a slipway. The Surveyors are to undertake all surveys on classed vessels upon request, with adequate notification, of the Owners or their representatives and are to report thereon to the Committee. Should the Surveyors find occasion during any survey to recommend repairs or further examination, notification is to be given immediately to the Owners or their representatives in order that appropriate action may be The Surveyors are to avail themselves of every convenient taken. opportunity for carrying out periodical surveys in conjunction with surveys of damages and repairs in order to avoid duplication of work. Drydocking Survey 24.1.3 Interval: A Drydocking Survey is to be carried out two times in a any 5 year period, with an interval not exceeding 3 years between drydocking surveys. For vessels operating in salt water for less than six months each year, the maximum interval is not to exceed three years. For vessels operating solely in fresh water, the maximum interval is not to exceed five years. Consideration may be given to special circumstances which may justify an extension of the interval. An underwater inspection by a diver may be required for such extensions. An approved Underwater Inspection in Lieu of Drydocking Survey b underwater inspection by diver equivalent to a Drydocking Survey will be considered at alternate Drydocking Survey due dates.

Section 2411

24.1.4 Annual Classification Surveys Annual Class Surveys of Hull and Machinery are to be made within three months either way of each annual anniversary date of the crediting of the previous Special Periodical Survey of Hull or Machinery or original construction date. Special Annual Survey - When "Annual Survey" is part of a vessel's Hull Classification notation, all the requirements of Hull Special Periodical Survey, except for tank testing, are required each year for the first three years of each four-year cycle. At the fourth year, a complete Special Periodical Survey, including tank testing, is required. 24.1.5 Intermediate Survey Intermediate Surveys are to be carried out within six months either way of the midpoint between date of build and Special Periodical Survey-Hull No. 1, and midway between each subsequent Special Periodical Survey of Hull. 24.1.6 Special Periodical Surveys a Special Periodical Surveys of Hull and Machinery are to be completed within three months either way of a date four years after the date of build or after the crediting date of the previous Special Periodical Survey, except as noted below. Alternatively, a year of grace for completion of the Special Periodical Survey may be granted upon satisfactory completion of the Year of Grace Survey as noted in 24.1.8. The interval between Special Periodical Surveys may be reduced by the Committee. If a Special Periodical Survey is not completed at one time, it will be credited as of the completion date of the survey but no later than five years from date of build or from the date recorded for the previous Special Periodical Survey. Special consideration may be given to Special Survey requirements in the case of vessels of unusual design, in lay-up or in unusual circumstances. Where the Special Periodical Survey is commenced more than three months prior to the due date, the entire survey is normally to be completed within 15 months if such work is to be credited to the Special Periodical Survey. b Main and auxiliary machinery of all types are to undergo Special Periodical Survey at intervals similar to those for Special Periodical Surveys on the hull, in order that both may be recorded at approximately the same time. In cases where damage has involved extensive repairs and examination, the survey thereon, where approved by the Committee, may be accepted as equivalent to a Special Periodical Survey. 24.1.7 a Continuous Surveys

At the request of the Owner, and upon approval of the proposed arrangements, a system of Continuous Surveys may be undertaken whereby the Special Periodical Survey requirements are carried out in regular rotation to complete all the requirements of the particular Special Periodical Survey within a five-year period. If the Continuous Survey is completed beyond the five-year period, the completion date will be recorded to agree with the original due date of the cycle. Each part (item) surveyed becomes due

Section 24[2

again for survey approximately five years from the date of its For Continuous Surveys, a suitable notation will be survey. entered in the Record and the date of completion of the cycle published. If any defects are found during the survey, they are to be dealt with to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. In addition to the foregoing, at a survey approximately 2-1/2 years after entering service and after each subsequent Continuous Hull Survey has been credited; vessels will require equivalent of an Intermediate Survey as indicated in Section 24.1.5. At a survey approximately four years after each Special Continuous Survey of Hull has been credited, thickness gaugings as required for the forthcoming Special Periodical Survey, that are accessible, are to be taken.

24.1.8 Year of Grace To be eligible for the year of grace to complete the Special a Periodical Survey within one year after the due date, the vessel is to be presented for survey within three months either way of The requirements for the Special Periodical Survey due date. surveys to qualify for a period of grace will normally include those thickness gaugings required for the forthcoming Special Periodical Survey, that are accessible, and may also require drydocking. If the survey is satisfactory, the completion of the Special b Periodical Survey may be deferred for a period not exceeding twelve months, provided the whole Special Periodical Survey is satisfactorily completed within five years from date of build or from the date recorded for the previous Special Periodical Survey. Tailshaft Surveys 24.1.9 Unprotected carbon steel tailshafts Water Lubricated Bearings: a are to be surveyed at least once every three years for singlescrew vessels and four years for vessels fitted with multiple screws. In the case of vessels with tailshafts protected by a continuous metallic liner or continuous cladding or fiberglass reinforced plastic coating between liners installed according to approved procedure which effectively prevents seawater from contacting the steel shaft or which have shafts of corrosion-resistant materials; the survey may be extended to five years, provided that in addition to the propeller hub details given in Section 19, the design includes other features that would further reduce stress concentrations in the propeller assembly. b Oil-lubricated bearings: Tailshafts with effectively sealed oillubricated bearings may be surveyed on five-year intervals provided that the propeller and tailshaft assembly, in addition to complying with requirements in Section 19, includes special features for reducing stress concentrations. An extension of one year may be considered, when requested by the Owner, on the basis of a satisfactory service record and an external examination of the inboard and outboard seal assemblies together with a bearing wear down check at the end of the above five-year interval.

Section 2413

Consideration will be given to any special circumstances which might modify the requirements of a) and b) in particular cases. Boiler Surveys 24.1.10 Waste-heat or fired auxiliary boilers intended for working pressures above 3.4 bar (3.5 kgf/cm2, 50 psi), are to be surveyed at intervals not exceeding 2-1/2 years; however where requested by the Owner and at the discretion of the Surveyor after an external examination of the boilers and review of operating and feedwater records, an extension of the auxiliary or waste-heat boiler surveys of up to six months may be granted. Lay -up and Reactivation 24.1.11 The Bureau is to be notified by the Owner that a vessel has been a laid-up. This status will be noted in the Record, and surveys falling due during lay-up may then be held in abeyance until the Lay-up procedures and arrangements for vessel reactivates. maintenance of conditions during lay-up may be submitted to the Bureau for review and verification by survey. In the case of vessels which have been laid up for an extended b period (i.e., six months or more) the requirements for surveys on reactivation are to be specially considered in each case, due regard being given to the status of surveys at the time of the commencement of the lay-up period, the length of the period and the conditions under which the vessel has been maintained during that period. Where the lay-up preparations and procedures have been submitted c to the Bureau for review and verified by Annual Lay-up Surveys, consideration may be given to deducting part or all of the time in lay-up from the progression of survey intervals. For vessels returning to active service, regardless of whether the d Bureau has been informed previously that the vessel has been in lay-up, a Reactivation Survey is required. Incomplete Surveys 24.1.12 When a survey is not completed, the Surveyor is to report immediately upon the work done in order that Owners and the Committee may be advised of the parts still to be surveyed. Alterations 24.1.13 No alterations which affect or may affect classification are to be made to the hull or machinery of a classed vessel, unless plans of the proposed alterations are submitted and approved by an ABS Technical Office before the work of alterations is commenced; and such work, when approved, is carried out to the satisfaction of the Surveyor. Nothing contained in this section or in a rule or regulations of any government or other administration, or the issuance of any report or certificate pursuant to this section or such a rule or regulation, is to be deemed to enlarge upon the representations expressed in subsections 1.1 through 1.9 hereof and the issuance and use of any such reports or certificates are to in all respects be governed by subsections 1.1 through 1.9 hereof.

Section 2414

24.1.14 Welding and Replacement of Materials a Ordinary and Higher Strength Structural Steels: Welding or other fabrication performed on structural steels is to be in accordance with the requirements of Section 15. Special Materials: b Welding or other fabrication performed on other steels of special characteristics or repairs or renewals of such steel or adjacent to such steel is to be accomplished with procedures approved for the special materials involved. The procedures are to take into account the information provided under paragraph 3.1 and be in accordance with the requirements of Section 15. c Substitution and Alterations: Substitutions of steel differing from that originally installed or alteration of original structural configuration is not to be made without approval by an ABS Technical Office. d Welding is not to be performed on aluminum alloys of the hull structure nor repairs or renewals commenced on such plating or adjacent to such plating without thorough and careful reference to Substitution of the recommendations contained in Section 15. aluminum alloys differing from those originally installed is not to be undertaken without approval. 24.2 Drydocking Surveys At each Drydocking Survey the keel, stem, stern frame, rudder, propeller, and outside of side and bottom plating are to be cleaned as necessary, examined and placed in satisfactory condition together with bilge keels, thrusters, exposed parts of the stern bearing and seal assembly, sea chests, rudder pintles and gudgeons together with their respective securing arrangements. For those vessels constructed of aluminum underwater plating in close proximity to dissimilar metal is to be examined both internally and externally as far as practicable. All non-metallic expansion pieces in the sea-water cooling systems are to be examined externally. Non-metallic expansion pieces in the main seawater cooling system are to be examined both externally and internally when vessel is examined on drydock. The stern bearing clearance or weardown and rudder bearing clearances are to be ascertained and reported on. Please refer also to 24.7,1a for Special Survey underwater items.

24.3 Annual Surveys - Hull At each Annual Survey the hull is to be generally examined, so far as can be seen, and placed in satisfactory condition as necessary. In addition the following items are to be examined, placed in satisfactory condition and reported upon: a Protection of Openings Coamings including deck connections, stiffeners, stays, pads, chocks and brackets. Hatches fitted with portable covers, wood or steel, portable beams, carriers and securing devices, steel pontoons, tarpaulins, cleat battens, wedges.

Section 2415

Hatches fitted with mechanically operated steel covers including cover plating, stiffeners, cross joints, gaskets, cleats and dogs. Exposed steel hatch covers are to be examined to confirm structural integrity and capability of maintaining weathertightness. Where significant wastage of hatch covers is noted, thickness gauging is to be carried out and renewals made as necessary. Proper operation and functioning of hatch cover and securing arrangements to be confirmed. Protection of other openings Hatchways, manholes, and scuttles in weather and superstructure decks. Machinery casings, fiddley covers, companionways and deckhouses protecting openings in weather or enclosed superstructure decks. Portlights together with deadcovers, Ventilators, air pipes together with flame screens, scuppers and discharges serving spaces on or below the weather deck. Watertight bulkheads, bulkhead penetrations, end bulkheads of enclosed superstructures, and the operation of any doors in same. Weathertight doors and closing appliances for all of the above including stiffening, dogs, hinges and gaskets. Proper operation of weathertight doors and closing appliances to be confirmed. Freeing ports together with bars, shutters and hinges. Protection of the crew: guard rails, lifelines, gangways, and deck houses accommodating crew and guests. Anchoring and mooring equipment. Structural areas of the hull particularly susceptible to corrosion, including spaces used for salt-water ballast, as accessible. For those vessels constructed of aluminum particular attention to be given to those areas adjacent to dissimilar metals which are in close proximity. Thickness gauging may be required. For those vessels constructed of reinforced plastic the deck-tohull connection, and superstructure and deckhouse connections to the deck are to be examined.

b 1 2 3 4

5 6

c d e

24.4

Intermediate Surveys 24.4.1 Salt-Water Ballast Spaces a Ballast Spaces Without Full Corrosion Control Where tanks or other spaces used for salt-water ballast are not fully and effectively coated for corrosion control, they are to be selectively examined at each Intermediate Survey. At least three such unprotected spaces should be internally examined, including one peak tank if in this category, thickness gauged if required, and dealt with as deemed necessary by the attending Surveyor. Where significant corrosion is found, the remainder of the

Section 2416

unprotected spaces used for salt-water ballast are to be internally examined. At each Intermediate Survey, after Special Periodical Survey No. 2, all spaces used for salt-water ballast which do not have full and effective corrosion control are to be internally examined and dealt with as above. Ballast Spaces With Full Corrosion Control Where tanks or other spaces used for salt-water are represented as fully protected, the continued effectiveness of such corrosion control arrangements is to be verified at each Intermediate Survey.

24.5 Special Periodical Surveys - Hull 24.5.1 Special Periodical Survey No. 1 Special Periodical Survey No. 1 is to include compliance Survey requirements, and the Surveyors are to satisfy examination in position, that all means of protection to good condition and are readily accessible. Effect also to the following requirements: a c d e f g with all Annual themselves, by openings are in is to be given

h i

The vessel is to be placed in drydock or upon a slipway and all items of 24.2 examined. The vessel is to be gauged in accordance with Table 24.1. The rudder is to be examined. The condition of the carrier and steadiment bearings and the effectiveness of the stuffing boxes are to be ascertained. The holds, tanks, voids, peaks, bilges and drain wells, engine and boiler spaces, are to be cleaned out and the surfaces of the framing and plating are to be examined. All decks and watertight bulkheads are to be examined. The cement or other composition on the inner surface of the bottom plating is to be carefully examined and sounded to ascertain if it is adhering satisfactorily to the plating. Where a double bottom is fitted, the tanks and cofferdams are to be thoroughly cleaned out and examined internally; sufficient ceiling is to be lifted from the double bottom to enable the Surveyor to satisfy himself as to the condition of the tank-top plating, and if necessary, all ceiling to be removed for cleaning and coating the top plating. All ballast tanks are to be cleaned and examined internally. Requirements for tanks which are used exclusively for permanent ballast and which are fitted with an effective means for corrosion control or for lube oil tanks will be specially considered. Independent oil tanks in machinery spaces are to be externally examined and, if considered necessary, tested under liquid head. Where double-bottom and other tanks are used primarily for heavy oil fuel or exclusively for light oils, the gas freeing and internal cleaning and examination may be waived, except for the fore-and-aft peak tanks, provided that, upon a general external examination of the tanks, the Surveyor finds their condition to be satisfactory. Double-bottom, deep ballast, peak, and other tanks are to be tested with a head of liquid to the highest point that liquid will rise under service conditions. Alternate means of testing may be

Section 2417

approved, provided the Surveyor is satisfied with the internal and external condition of the tanks and associated structure. The testing of double bottoms and other spaces not designed for the carriage of liquids may be omitted, provided an internal examination is carried out together with an examination of the tanktop and, in the opinion of the Surveyor, testing may be waived. The Surveyor is to see that a thick steel plate is securely fixed below each sounding pipe for the sounding rod to strike upon, in dry places and in those tanks which are accessible for internal examination. The decks are to be examined and deck compositions are to be examined and sounded, but need not be disturbed if found to be adhering satisfactorily to the plating. The hawse pipes are to be examined. Anchors and chain cables are to be ranged, examined and the required complement and condition verified. When spaces are insulated in connection with refrigeration, the limbers and hatches are to be lifted and enough lining is to be removed from all spaces to enable the Surveyor to satisfy himself as to the general condition of the plating and framing in way of the insulation. Exposed hatch covers not fitted with tarpaulins are to be hose tested or otherwise proven weathertight. In any part of the vessel where wastage is evident or suspect, the Surveyor may require thickness gauging and repair of the affected parts. See Table 24.1. In addition, the following requirements 1 through 4 apply to those vessels constructed of reinforced plastic: 1. The framing and holds, hull laminate of the 'tween deck, deep tanks, peaks, bilges and drain wells, and machinery spaces are to be cleaned and examined. Linings, ceiling, tanks, and portable ballast are to be removed as considered necessary by the attending Surveyor. Where there is evidence of cracking, distortion, wetness, or 2. delamination, destructive or nondestructive testing and removal and repair of the defect is subject to the discretion of the attending Surveyor. 3. Engine foundations and their attachment to the hull are to be examined. 4. The hull, fastenings, and backing reinforcements in way of hull fittings and attachments are to be examined. Fastenings are to be withdrawn as considered necessary by the attending Surveyor.

Special Periodical Survey No. 2 24.5.2 Special Periodical Survey No. 2 is to include compliance with all requirements for Special Periodical Survey No. 1 and with those which follow: a The vessel is to be gauged in accordance with Table 24.1.

Section 24[8

Plating, in way of deck house or superstructure portlights is to be examined. In this and any other part of the structure where wastage is evident or suspect, the Surveyor may require thickness gauging in order to obtain the actual thickness of material. The anchor cables are to be ranged and examined together with anchors, chain locker, and holdfasts. Chain cables are to be renewed in cases where it is found that the links have been so far worn that their mean diameter is 12% below the original required nominal size. Where structural alterations to the vessel have had the effect of so increasing the equipment requirements as to bring the vessel into a higher numeral, the original chain cables may be used until their mean diameter has been reduced 12% below the nominal diameter of the larger cable required by the higher numeral.

24.5.3 Special Periodical Survey No. 3 Special Periodical Survey No. 3 is to include compliance with all requirements for Special Periodical Survey No. 2. The vessel is to be gauged in accordance with Table 24.1. 24.5.4 Special Periodical Surveys No. 4 and 5 These surveys are to be at least as comprehensive as Special Periodical Survey No. 3. The vessel is to be gauged in accordance with Table 24.1. 24.5.5 Special Periodical Survey No. 6 This survey is to be at least as comprehensive as Special Periodical Survey No. 4. The vessel is to be gauged in accordance with Table 24.1. 24.5.6 Special Periodical Surveys Subsequent to No. 6 These surveys are to be at least as comprehensive as Special Periodical Survey No. 6. The vessel is to be gauged in accordance with Table 24.1. 24.6 Annual Surveys - Machinery Parts to be Examined At each Annual Survey the machinery and electrical installation are to be generally examined, so far as can be seen, and placed in satisfactory condition as necessary. The survey should include the following. a b Machinery and boiler spaces with particular attention to the main propulsion system and auxiliary machinery. Main propulsion gear-tooth contract is to be examined at the time of the first Annual Survey after vessel enters service, or after replacement gears have been placed in service. Examination for conventional gear units 1120 kW (1520 mph, 1500 hp) and below and for all epicyclic gear units will be subject to special consideration. All accessible parts of the steering arrangements together with an operational test of the main and auxiliary steering gear performed while the vessel is not underway, including their associated equipment and control systems. Anchor windlass.

Section 2419

e f g h i

Testing of all means of communications between the navigating bridge, the machinery control positions, and the steering gear space, as well as the alternative position, if fitted. Bilge pumping system and bilge wells including operation of pumps, remote reach rods and level alarms, where fitted. Boilers, pressure vessels, and their appurtenances externally, including safety devices, foundations, controls, relieving gear, high-pressure and steam escape piping, insulation and gauges. Electrical machinery, the emergency sources of electrical power, the switchgear, and other electrical equipment. Fire-extinguishing apparatus required for Classification as outlined in Section 22. Testing of remote, centralized or automatic control systems, if fitted, necessary for the safe operation of the vessel. Testing of fire and high water level alarms, if fitted, in machinery spaces.

24.7 Special Periodical Surveys - Machinery Parts to be Examined 24.7.1 At each Special Periodical Survey effect is to be given to the following requirements. a All openings to the sea, including sanitary and other overboard discharges, together with the valves connected therewith, are to be examined internally and externally while the vessel is in dry dock; and the fastenings to the shell plating are to be renewed For those vessels when considered necessary by the Surveyor. constructed of aluminum insulating material in joints of shell connections between dissimilar metals is to be examined and renewed if necessary. Pumps and pumping arrangements, including valves, piping and strainers are to be examined. The Surveyor is to be satisfied with the operation of the bilge system, including an internal examination of the emergency bilge suction valve. Other systems are to be tested as considered necessary. Shafts (except the propeller shaft), thrust bearings, and lineshaft bearings are to be opened for examination. The foundations of main and auxiliary machinery are to be examined. Heat exchangers and other unfired pressure vessels with design pressures over 6.9 bar (7 kgf/cm2, 100 psi) are to be examined, opened out or thickness gauged and pressure tested as considered necessary, and associated relief valves proven operable. Evaporators that operate with a vacuum on the shell need not be opened, but may be accepted on basis of satisfactory external examination and operational test or review of operating records. Examination of the steering machinery is to be carried out, including an operational test and checking of relief-valve settings. Further, a hydrostatic check of the steering system to the relief valve setting is to be conducted using the installed The machinery may be required to be opened for power units. further examination as considered necessary by the Surveyor.

c d e

Section 24110

Reduction gearing is to be opened and examined as considered necessary by the Surveyor in order to confirm the condition of the gears, pinions, shafts, bearings and lubrication system. Alternative means of ascertaining the condition of epicyclic gearing will be specially considered. An examination of the fire extinguishing apparatus required for Classification as outlined in Section 22 is to be made in order that the Surveyor may satisfy himself as to its efficient state. Examination of anchor windlass including operational check and test of the brakes. Internal-combustion Engines

24.7.2 a

In addition to the foregoing applicable requirements, cylinders, cylinder heads, valves and valve gear, fuel pumps, scavenging pumps, and superchargers, pistons, crossheads, connecting rods, crankshafts, clutch, reversing gear, and compressors, intercoolers, and such other parts of the main and auxiliary machinery as are considered necessary are to be opened out for examination. Tie rods are to be re-tensioned as necessary, engine entablature bolting checked for tightness, and crankshaft deflections of low-speed-type engines measured. Parts which have been examined within the previous twelve months need not be Special examined again, except in special circumstances. consideration as to the intervals for requiring Special Surveys may be given for main engines with bores 300 mm (11.8 in.) or under provided the engine is maintained under a manufacturer's The records of the program, scheduled maintenance program. including lubrication servicing, are to be made available to the Surveyor. Periodical overhauls, required by the manufacturer's scheduled maintenance program, are to be witnessed by the Surveyor and will be accepted for completion of the cycle. Air reservoirs are to be examined and their relief valves proven operable. If air reservoirs cannot be examined internally they are to be gauged by nondestructive means or hydrostatically tested. Essential components of the engine fuel oil system including fuel oil service pumps, separators, and heaters are to be examined. Electrical Main Propulsion Apparatus

24.7.3 a

b c

The windings of generators and motors are to be thoroughly examined and found or made dry and clean; particular attention is to be paid to the ends of all windings of stators and rotors. After the windings have been cleaned and found dry, they are to be varnished, if necessary, with a standard insulating varnish applied preferably by spraying. All air ducts in stator coils and the ventilating holes in rotors and retaining rings of alternators are to be carefully examined and found or made clear and clean. All cable runs are to be examined and found or placed in good condition as to supports, etc., and the ground connections of protective coverings or sheath found substantial and effective. Particular attention is also to be paid to high-potential bus

Section 24111

insulators, which are to be free from dust or oil in order to prevent creepage to ground. The insulation resistance of each propulsion unit is to be measured and found equal to the requirements noted above for auxiliary generators and motors. In order to further evaluate these insulation-resistance readings, it is recommended that a separate log be kept of insulation-resistance measurements taken frequently at regularly scheduled intervals. Humidity, ambient temperature, and condition of the machine are also to be noted. Any large and abrupt decrease in insulation resistance, when compared with those recorded in the log, is to be further investigated and corrected. Alternately, a log of insulation resistance values is to be made at the beginning of the survey and insulation resistance is to be measured again at the end of the survey; a comparison is to be made between the measured value and the log made at the beginning of the survey. Any large or abrupt decrease in insulation resistance is to be further investigated and corrected. Auxiliary Apparatus

24.7.4 a b c d

Fittings and connections on main switchboards and distribution panels are to be examined, and care is to be taken to see that no circuits are overfused. Cables are to be examined as far as practicable without undue disturbance of fixtures. All generators are to be run under load, either separately or in parallel; switches and circuit breakers are to be tested. All equipment and circuits are to be inspected for possible development of physical changes or deterioration. The insulation resistance of the circuits is to be measured between conductors and between conductors and ground and these values compared with Any large and abrupt decrease in those previously measured. insulation resistance to be further investigated and either restored to normal or renewed as indicated by the conditions found. Where electrical auxiliaries are used for vital purposes, the generators and motors are to be examined and their prime movers The insulation resistance of each opened for inspection. generator and motor is to be measured with all circuits of different voltages above ground being tested separately. This test is to be made with direct current potential to ground as follows: 500 volts DC for units 550 volts AC (phase to phase) or lower and also for DC fields

The direct current potential is to be applied for at least 30 seconds and the minimum insulation resistance is to be of the order of one-half to one megohm. Examination During Overhaul 24.7.5 On all occasions of overhaul or adjustment, facilities are to be provided for the Surveyor to examine the parts opened; in the event of

Section 24112

defects being discovered, such other parts as may be considered necessary are to be opened and examined. 24.7.6 Examination at Shorter Intervals If it be found desirable, upon inspection, that any part of the machinery should be examined at a shorter intervals than specified above, it will be necessary for Owners to comply with the Committee's requirements in this respect. 24.7.7 Preventative Maintenance Techniques Vessels which have an approved program of preventative maintenance may be given special consideration as to the details and intervals for examination of machinery. 24.8 Tailshaft Surveys 24.8.1 Tapered Tailshaft Survey Details The survey for shafts with water-lubricated bearings consists of removing the propeller and drawing in and examining the shaft in its entirety, and during each survey, the shaft is to be examined by a surface crack-detection method (such as magnetic particle or dye penetrant) all around the shaft from the after edge of the liner for one-third of the length of the taper, including forward end of keyway (if fitted). The survey for shafts with oil-lubricated bearings may be effected as described above. Alternatively, at the discretion of the Surveyor, and on the basis of satisfactory service record, lubricating oil analysis records, bearing wear-down, and the condition of the inboard and outboard seal assemblies, the survey may consist of removing the propeller to expose the forward end of the taper, and examination by a surface crack-detection method (such as magnetic particle or dye penetrant) all around the shaft of the forward portion of the taper section, including end of keyway (if fitted). Flanged Tailshaft Survey Details 24.8.2 The survey for shafts with water-lubricated bearings where the propeller is fitted to the shaft by means of a coupling flange, is to consist of withdrawing the shaft in its entirety. The survey for shafts of oil-lubricated bearings where the propeller is fitted to the shaft by means of a coupling flange, including for controllable-pitch propellers, may be effected as described above. Alternatively, at the discretion of the Surveyor the survey may consist of the verification of a satisfactory oil analysis, stern bearing weardown, shaft seal effectiveness, and for CP propellers a blade seal leak and pitching function test. Whenever the coupling bolts of any type of flange-connected shaft are removed or flange radius made accessible in connection with overhaul or repairs, the coupling bolts or flange radius are to be examined by means of a surface crack detection method. Controllable-pitch propellers are to be surveyed along with the tailshaft. The propeller is to be function tested, examined for leaks, and opened out as deemed necessary by the attending Surveyor.

Section 24113

24.8.3

Allowable Bearing Weardown

Where a Water-lubricated Bearings Other than Rubber: machinery is located amidships, the after bearing is to be rebushed when it has worn down to 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) clearance in the case of shafts 229 mm (9 in.) or less in diameter, 7.95 mm (0.3125 in.) clearance where the diameter is above 229 (9 in.) but not more than 305 mm (12 in.), and 9.53 mm (0.375 in.) clearance where the shaft exceeds 305 mm (12 in.) in diameter. In cases where machinery is located aft the maximum clearance is to be one grade less than the foregoing. Water- lubricated Rubber Bearings: Water- lubricated rubber b bearings are to be rebushed when any water groove is half of the original depth, or whenever the clearance exceeds the limits as given above for wood bearings, whichever occurs first. c Oil- lubricated Bearings: Oil-lubricated bearings are to be rebushed when the weardown exceeds the manufacturer's recommendations. 24.9 Boiler Surveys Parts to be examined a b c d At each survey the boilers, superheaters, and economizers are to be examined internally (water-steam side) and externally (fire side). Boiler mountings and safety valves are to be examined at each survey and opened as considered necessary by the Surveyor. The proper operation of the safety valves is to be confirmed at each survey. When considered necessary by the Surveyor, the boilers and superheaters are to be subjected to hydrostatic pressure test.

Section 24114

uoT q 'DaS c i/V Z

TABLE 241 TABLE OF MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR THICKNESS GAUGING

Special Periodical Survey No. 1

Special Periodical Survey No. 2

Special Periodical Survey No. 3

Special Periodical Survey No. 4 and Subsequent

1) Areas considered suspect by the Surveyor, throughout the vessel.

1) Areas considered suspect by the Surveyor, throughout the vessel.

1) Areas considered suspect by the Surveyor, throughout the vessel. 2) Two girth belts of shell and deck within the midship half-length together with internals In way as deemed necessary by the Surveyor.

1) Areas considered suspect by the Surveyor, throughout the vessel, 2) Three girth belts of shell and deck within the midship hall-length, together with internals In way. 3) Two wind-and-water strokes, port and starboard, for the midship half-length. 4) AN exposed main deck and superstructure deck plating. 5) Flat keel plating fun length, plus extensive bottom plating.