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ANSYS Fluid Analysis Guide

ANSYS Fluid Analysis Guide

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ANSYS Release 9.0

ANSYS, Inc. Southpointe 275 Technology Drive Canonsburg, PA 15317 ansysinfo@ansys.com http://www.ansys.com (T) 724-746-3304 (F) 724-514-9494

Copyright 2004 SAS IP, Inc. All rights reserved. Unauthorized use, distribution or duplication is prohibited. ANSYS, DesignSpace, CFX, DesignModeler, DesignXplorer, ANSYS Workbench environment, AI*Environment, CADOE and any and all ANSYS, Inc. product names referenced on any media, manual or the like, are registered trademarks or trademarks of subsidiaries of ANSYS, Inc. located in the United States or other countries. ICEM CFD is a trademark licensed by ANSYS, Inc. All other trademarks and registered trademarks are property of their respective owners. ANSYS, Inc. is a UL registered ISO 9001: 2000 Company. ANSYS Inc. products may contain U.S. Patent No. 6,055,541. Microsoft, Windows, Windows 2000 and Windows XP are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Inventor and Mechanical Desktop are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation. Unigraphics, Solid Edge and Parasolid are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation (EDS). ACIS and ACIS Geometric Modeler are registered trademarks of Spatial Technology, Inc. FLEXlm License Manager is a trademark of Macrovision Corporation. This ANSYS, Inc. software product and program documentation is ANSYS Confidential Information and are furnished by ANSYS, Inc. under an ANSYS software license agreement that contains provisions concerning non-disclosure, copying, length and nature of use, warranties, disclaimers and remedies, and other provisions. The Program and Documentation may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of that license agreement. See the ANSYS, Inc. online documentation or the ANSYS, Inc. documentation CD for the complete Legal Notice. If this is a copy of a document published by and reproduced with the permission of ANSYS, Inc., it might not reflect the organization or physical appearance of the original. ANSYS, Inc. is not liable for any errors or omissions introduced by the copying process. Such errors are the responsibility of the party providing the copy.

Table of Contents

I. CFD 1. Overview of FLOTRAN CFD Analyses .................................................................................................. 11 1.1. What Is FLOTRAN CFD Analysis? .................................................................................................... 11 1.2. Types of FLOTRAN Analyses .......................................................................................................... 11 1.2.1. Laminar Flow Analysis .................................................................................................... 11 1.2.2. Turbulent Flow Analysis ................................................................................................. 12 1.2.3. Thermal Analysis ............................................................................................................ 12 1.2.4. Compressible Flow Analysis ........................................................................................... 12 1.2.5. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow Analysis ................................................................................ 12 1.2.6. Multiple Species Transport Analysis ................................................................................ 12 1.2.7. Free Surface Analysis ...................................................................................................... 12 1.3. About GUI Paths and Command Syntax ......................................................................................... 12 2. The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis ......................................................................................................... 21 2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements ...................................................................................... 21 2.1.1. Other Element Features .................................................................................................. 21 2.2. Considerations and Restrictions for Using the FLOTRAN Elements ................................................. 21 2.2.1. Limitations on FLOTRAN Element Use ............................................................................. 22 2.3. Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis ................................................................................................... 23 2.3.1. Determining the Problem Domain .................................................................................. 24 2.3.2. Determining the Flow Regime ........................................................................................ 24 2.3.3. Creating the Finite Element Mesh ................................................................................... 24 2.3.4. Applying Boundary Conditions ....................................................................................... 25 2.3.5. Setting FLOTRAN Analysis Parameters ............................................................................ 25 2.3.6. Solving the Problem ....................................................................................................... 25 2.3.7. Examining the Results .................................................................................................... 25 2.4. Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create ............................................................................................... 25 2.4.1. The Results File .............................................................................................................. 26 2.4.2. The Print File (Jobname.PFL) ........................................................................................... 26 2.4.3. The Nodal Residuals File ................................................................................................. 26 2.4.4. The Restart File .............................................................................................................. 27 2.4.5. The Domain File ............................................................................................................. 27 2.4.6. Restarting a FLOTRAN Analysis ....................................................................................... 27 2.5. Convergence and Stability Tools ................................................................................................... 28 2.5.1. Relaxation Factors .......................................................................................................... 28 2.5.2. Inertial Relaxation .......................................................................................................... 28 2.5.3. Modified Inertial Relaxation ............................................................................................ 29 2.5.4. Artificial Viscosity ........................................................................................................... 29 2.5.5. DOF Capping ................................................................................................................. 29 2.5.6. The Quadrature Order .................................................................................................. 210 2.6. What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis ............................................................................ 210 2.6.1. Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use ................................................................ 210 2.6.2. Convergence Monitors ................................................................................................. 211 2.6.3. Stopping a FLOTRAN Analysis ....................................................................................... 213 2.6.4. Pressure Results ........................................................................................................... 213 2.7. Evaluating a FLOTRAN Analysis ................................................................................................... 214 2.8. Verifying Results ......................................................................................................................... 214 3. FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow ..................................................................... 31 3.1. Characteristics of Fluid Flow Analysis ............................................................................................ 31 3.2. Activating the Turbulence Model .................................................................................................. 32

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ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide 3.2.1. The Role of the Reynolds Number ................................................................................... 32 3.2.2. Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent ............................................................... 33 3.2.3. Turbulence Ratio and Inlet Parameters ........................................................................... 33 3.2.4. Turbulence Models ........................................................................................................ 33 3.2.4.1. Standard k-epsilon Model (default) ........................................................................ 34 3.2.4.2. Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) ............................................................. 36 3.2.4.3. Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) ...................................................... 36 3.2.4.4. k-epsilon Model Due to Shih (NKE) ......................................................................... 37 3.2.4.5. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) ........................................................................... 37 3.2.4.6. Shih, Zhu, Lumley Model (SZL) ............................................................................... 38 3.2.4.7. k-omega Turbulence Model ................................................................................... 38 3.2.4.8. Shear Stress Transport Model (SST) ........................................................................ 39 3.3. Meshing Requirements ................................................................................................................. 39 3.4. Flow Boundary Conditions .......................................................................................................... 311 3.5. Strategies for Difficult Problems .................................................................................................. 314 3.6. Example of a Laminar and Turbulent FLOTRAN Analysis ............................................................... 316 4. FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses ................................................................................................................ 41 4.1. Thermal Analysis Overview ........................................................................................................... 41 4.2. Meshing Requirements ................................................................................................................. 41 4.3. Property Specifications and Control .............................................................................................. 41 4.4. Thermal Loads and Boundary Conditions ...................................................................................... 41 4.4.1. Applying Loads .............................................................................................................. 42 4.4.1.1. Applying Loads Using Commands ......................................................................... 42 4.4.1.2. Applying Loads Using the GUI ............................................................................... 43 4.4.1.3. Solutions ............................................................................................................... 43 4.5. Solution Strategies ....................................................................................................................... 44 4.5.1. Constant Fluid Properties ............................................................................................... 44 4.5.2. Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties ................................................. 44 4.5.3. Free Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties ..................................................... 45 4.5.4. Conjugate Heat Transfer ................................................................................................. 45 4.6. Heat Balance ................................................................................................................................ 47 4.7. Surface-to-Surface Radiation Analysis Using the Radiosity Method ................................................ 48 4.7.1. Procedure ...................................................................................................................... 48 4.7.2. Heat Balances ................................................................................................................ 48 4.8. Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis ................................................... 48 4.8.1. The Example Described .................................................................................................. 49 4.8.2. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ............................................... 410 4.8.3. Doing the Buoyancy Driven Flow Analysis (Command Method) ..................................... 416 4.9. Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method) ............................................ 417 4.10. Where to Find Other FLOTRAN Analysis Examples ...................................................................... 418 5. FLOTRAN Transient Analyses .............................................................................................................. 51 5.1. Time Integration Method .............................................................................................................. 51 5.2. Time Step Specification and Convergence ..................................................................................... 51 5.3. Terminating and Getting Output from a Transient Analysis ............................................................ 53 5.4. Applying Transient Boundary Conditions ...................................................................................... 53 6. Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses .......................................................................................................... 61 6.1. Overview ...................................................................................................................................... 61 6.2. VFRC Loads ................................................................................................................................... 61 6.2.1. Initial VFRC Loads ........................................................................................................... 61 6.2.2. Boundary VFRC Loads .................................................................................................... 62 6.3. Input Settings ............................................................................................................................... 63 6.3.1. Ambient Conditions ....................................................................................................... 63

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ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide 6.3.2. VFRC Tolerances ............................................................................................................ 64 6.3.3. VOF Time Steps .............................................................................................................. 64 6.4. Postprocessing ............................................................................................................................. 65 6.5. VOF Analysis of a Dam .................................................................................................................. 65 6.5.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................. 65 6.5.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ...................................................... 65 6.6. VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction ....................................................................... 66 6.6.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................. 66 6.6.2. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) ...................................................... 67 6.7. VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet ......................................................................................... 610 6.7.1. The Problem Described ................................................................................................ 610 6.7.2. Results ......................................................................................................................... 610 6.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) .................................................... 612 6.7.4. Where to Find Other Examples ..................................................................................... 613 7. Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains ............................................ 71 7.1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 71 7.2. Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................................... 73 7.3. Mesh Updating ............................................................................................................................. 75 7.4. Remeshing ................................................................................................................................... 76 7.5. Postprocessing ............................................................................................................................. 77 7.6. ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror .................................................................................. 78 7.6.1. The Problem Described .................................................................................................. 78 7.6.2. Boundary Conditions ..................................................................................................... 78 7.6.3. Forces and Moments ...................................................................................................... 79 7.6.4. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) .................................................... 712 7.7. ALE/VOF Analysis of a Vessel with a Moving Wall ......................................................................... 715 7.7.1. The Problem Described ................................................................................................ 715 7.7.2. Results ......................................................................................................................... 716 7.7.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) .................................................... 716 7.8. ALE Analysis of a Moving Cylinder ............................................................................................... 718 7.8.1. The Problem Described ................................................................................................ 718 7.8.2. Results ......................................................................................................................... 719 7.8.3. Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) .................................................... 719 8. FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses ....................................................................................................... 81 8.1. Requirements for Compressible Analysis ....................................................................................... 81 8.2. Property Calculations .................................................................................................................... 81 8.3. Boundary Conditions .................................................................................................................... 82 8.4. Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh ................................................................................................. 82 8.5. Solution Strategies ....................................................................................................................... 83 8.5.1. Inertial Relaxation .......................................................................................................... 84 8.6. Example of a Compressible Flow Analysis ...................................................................................... 84 8.6.1. The Example Described .................................................................................................. 84 8.6.1.1. Fluid Properties ..................................................................................................... 84 8.6.1.2. Approach and Assumptions ................................................................................... 84 8.7. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ....................................................... 85 8.8. Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method) .......................................... 811 9. Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN ........................................................................................... 91 9.1. Guidelines for Specifying Properties .............................................................................................. 91 9.2. Fluid Property Types ..................................................................................................................... 91 9.2.1. Property Types for Specific Heat ..................................................................................... 92 9.2.2. Property Types for Density and Thermal Conductivity ..................................................... 92 9.2.3. Property Types for Viscosity ............................................................................................ 93

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ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide 9.2.4. Property Types for Surface Tension Coefficient ............................................................... 93 9.2.5. Property Types for Wall Static Contact Angle .................................................................. 93 9.2.6. General Guidelines for Setting Property Types ................................................................ 93 9.2.6.1. Using a Fluid Property Table .................................................................................. 93 9.2.6.2. Specifying Property Types ..................................................................................... 94 9.2.7. Density .......................................................................................................................... 95 9.2.8. Viscosity ........................................................................................................................ 96 9.2.9. Specific Heat .................................................................................................................. 97 9.2.10. Thermal Conductivity ................................................................................................... 98 9.2.11. Surface Tension Coefficient .......................................................................................... 98 9.2.12. Wall Static Contact Angle ............................................................................................. 99 9.3. Initializing and Varying Properties ................................................................................................. 99 9.3.1. Activating Variable Properties ....................................................................................... 910 9.4. Modifying the Fluid Property Database ....................................................................................... 910 9.5. Using Reference Properties ......................................................................................................... 912 9.6. Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities ..................................................................... 913 9.6.1. Activating the Power Law Model .................................................................................. 913 9.6.2. Activating the Carreau Model ....................................................................................... 914 9.6.3. Activating the Bingham Model ..................................................................................... 914 9.7. Using User-Programmable Subroutines ....................................................................................... 914 10. FLOTRAN Special Features .............................................................................................................. 101 10.1. Coordinate Systems .................................................................................................................. 101 10.2. Rotating Frames of Reference .................................................................................................... 102 10.3. Swirl ......................................................................................................................................... 103 10.4. Distributed Resistance/Source ................................................................................................... 104 11. FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation ............................................................................. 111 11.1. Which Solver Should You Use? .................................................................................................. 111 11.2. Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm ................................................................................................... 111 11.3. Semi-Direct Solvers ................................................................................................................... 112 11.3.1. Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) Solver .................................... 113 11.3.2. Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) Solver ................................................................... 115 11.4. Sparse Direct Method ................................................................................................................ 115 12. Coupling Algorithms ....................................................................................................................... 121 12.1. Overview .................................................................................................................................. 121 12.2. Algorithm Settings .................................................................................................................... 121 12.2.1. Advection Scheme ..................................................................................................... 121 12.2.2. Solver ........................................................................................................................ 122 12.2.3. Relaxation Factors ...................................................................................................... 122 12.3. Performance ............................................................................................................................. 122 13. Multiple Species Transport .............................................................................................................. 131 13.1. Overview of Multiple Species Transport ..................................................................................... 131 13.2. Mixture Types ........................................................................................................................... 131 13.2.1. Dilute Mixture Analysis ............................................................................................... 131 13.2.2. Composite Mixture Analysis ........................................................................................ 131 13.2.3. Composite Gas Analysis .............................................................................................. 132 13.3. Doing a Multiple Species Analysis .............................................................................................. 132 13.3.1. Establish the Species .................................................................................................. 132 13.3.2. Choose an Algebraic Species ...................................................................................... 133 13.3.3. Adjust Output Format ................................................................................................ 133 13.3.4. Set Properties ............................................................................................................. 133 13.3.5. Specify Boundary Conditions ...................................................................................... 134 13.3.6. Set Relaxation and Solution Parameters ...................................................................... 134

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ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide 13.4. Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species ................................................................. 13.5. Example Analysis Mixing Three Gases ........................................................................................ 14. Advection Discretization Options ................................................................................................... 14.1. Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 14.2. Using SUPG and COLG .............................................................................................................. 14.3. Strategies for Difficult Solutions ................................................................................................ II. Acoustics 15. Acoustics .......................................................................................................................................... 151 15.1. What Is Acoustics? .................................................................................................................... 151 15.1.1. Types of Acoustic Analysis .......................................................................................... 151 15.2. Solving Acoustics Problems ...................................................................................................... 151 15.3. Building the Model ................................................................................................................... 151 15.3.1. Harmonic Acoustic Analysis Guidelines ....................................................................... 152 15.3.1.1. FLUID29 and FLUID30 ........................................................................................ 152 15.3.1.2. FLUID129 and FLUID130 .................................................................................... 152 15.4. Meshing the Model ................................................................................................................... 154 15.4.1. Step 1: Mesh the Interior Fluid Domain ....................................................................... 154 15.4.2. Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements .......................................................... 154 15.4.3. Step 3: Specify the Fluid-Structure Interface ................................................................ 155 15.5. Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution .............................................................................. 156 15.5.1. Step 1: Enter the SOLUTION Processor ........................................................................ 156 15.5.2. Step 2: Define the Analysis Type ................................................................................. 156 15.5.3. Step 3: Define Analysis Options ................................................................................... 156 15.5.4. Step 4: Apply Loads on the Model ............................................................................... 157 15.5.4.1. Applying Loads Using the GUI ............................................................................ 158 15.5.4.2. Applying Loads Using Commands ...................................................................... 158 15.5.4.3. Load Types ........................................................................................................ 159 15.5.5. Step 5: Specify Load Step Options ............................................................................... 159 15.5.5.1. Dynamics Options ........................................................................................... 1510 15.5.5.2. General Options ............................................................................................... 1510 15.5.5.3. Output Controls ............................................................................................... 1510 15.5.6. Step 6: Back Up Your Database ................................................................................. 1510 15.5.7. Step 7: Apply Additional Load Steps (Optional) ......................................................... 1511 15.5.8. Step 8: Finish the Solution ........................................................................................ 1511 15.6. Reviewing Results ................................................................................................................... 1511 15.7. Fluid-Structure Interaction ...................................................................................................... 1511 15.8. Sample Applications ............................................................................................................... 1512 15.9. Example 1: Fluid-Structure Coupled Acoustic Analysis (Command Method) .............................. 1512 15.10. Example 2: Room Acoustic Analysis (Command Method) ....................................................... 1513 III. Thin Film 16. Thin Film Analysis ........................................................................................................................... 16.1. Elements for Modeling Thin Films .............................................................................................. 16.2. Squeeze Film Analysis ............................................................................................................... 16.2.1. Static Analysis Overview ............................................................................................. 16.2.2. Harmonic Response Analysis Overview ....................................................................... 16.2.3. Flow Regime Considerations ...................................................................................... 16.2.4. Modeling and Meshing Considerations ....................................................................... 16.2.5. Analysis Settings and Options ..................................................................................... 16.2.6. Loads and Solution .....................................................................................................

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide 16.2.7. Review Results ........................................................................................................... 166 16.2.8. Example Problem ....................................................................................................... 166 16.3. Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis ................................................................ 1610 16.3.1. Modal Projection Method Overview .......................................................................... 1610 16.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique .................................................................................................................................. 1611 16.3.2.1. Modeling and Meshing .................................................................................... 1612 16.3.2.2. Perform Modal Analysis ................................................................................... 1612 16.3.2.3. Extracting Eigenvectors ................................................................................... 1612 16.3.2.4. Performing a Harmonic Response Analysis and Extracting Damping Parameters ................................................................................................................................ 1612 16.3.3. Example Problem Using the Modal Projection Method .............................................. 1613 16.3.4. Damping Extraction for Large Signal Cases ................................................................ 1618 16.4. Slide Film Damping ................................................................................................................. 1618 16.4.1. Slide Film Damping Example .................................................................................... 1620 Index ................................................................................................................................................. Index1

List of Figures

2.1. Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature ........................................................................ 212 3.1. Internal Flow ...................................................................................................................................... 31 3.2. External Flow ...................................................................................................................................... 31 3.3. Structured Mesh ............................................................................................................................... 310 3.4. Unstructured Mesh ........................................................................................................................... 310 4.1. Diagram of the Square Cavity .............................................................................................................. 49 4.2. Plot of the Temperature Solution ...................................................................................................... 413 4.3. Plot of Streamline Contours .............................................................................................................. 414 4.4. Plot of Velocity Vectors ..................................................................................................................... 415 4.5. Plot of Flow Trace ............................................................................................................................. 416 6.1. Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.001 ms .............................................................................. 611 6.2. Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.012 ms .............................................................................. 611 7.1. Torsional Mirror at t = 0 Seconds ......................................................................................................... 71 7.2. Torsional Mirror at t = 2.5 Seconds ...................................................................................................... 72 7.3. Torsional Mirror at t = 7.5 Seconds ...................................................................................................... 72 7.4. Boundary Conditions for Moving Walls ................................................................................................ 73 7.5. Torsional Mirror Problem Description .................................................................................................. 78 7.6. Torsional Mirror Problem - Boundary Conditions ............................................................................... 710 7.7. Square Vessel with a Moving Wall ...................................................................................................... 715 7.8. Left Wall Displacement and Velocity .................................................................................................. 716 7.9. Moving Cylinder ............................................................................................................................... 718 7.10. Elements at 0 Seconds .................................................................................................................... 719 7.11. Elements at 22 Seconds ................................................................................................................... 719 7.12. Elements at 44 Seconds ................................................................................................................... 719 8.1. Three Types of Meshing ...................................................................................................................... 83 10.1. Direction of Positive Swirl Velocity VZ for Axisymmetric Models ....................................................... 101 10.2. Rotating Flow Problem ................................................................................................................... 103 10.3. Problem Schematic with Rotating Coordinate ................................................................................. 103 11.1. Typical Debug Files ......................................................................................................................... 113 13.1. Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis .......................................................................... 135 15.1. Example of a 2-D Acoustic Model (Fluid Within a Structure) .............................................................. 152 15.2. Example of Absorption Element Application .................................................................................... 153 x

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide 15.3. Submerged Cylindrical Shell ............................................................................................................ 153 15.4. Mesh the Fluid Domain ................................................................................................................... 154 15.5. Add the Absorption Element on the Boundary ................................................................................. 155 15.6. Specify Fluid-Structure Interface ...................................................................................................... 156 16.1. Moving Plate above a Fixed Wall ..................................................................................................... 162 16.2. Perforated Plate Structure ............................................................................................................... 162 16.3. Pressure Distribution on a Plate at a Low Driving Frequency ............................................................ 163 16.4. Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Coefficients vs. Frequency .............................................................. 163 16.5. Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138 Element .................... 165 16.6. Pressure Distribution (Real Component) .......................................................................................... 167 16.7. Pressure Distribution (Imaginary Component) ................................................................................. 168 16.8. Modal Projection Technique for Damping Characterization ............................................................ 1610 16.9. Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate ............................................... 1611 16.10. Fluidic Cross-Talk between Transverse and Rotational Motion ...................................................... 1613 16.11. Time-Transient Response from Voltage Pulse ............................................................................... 1617 16.12. Slide Film Damping at Low and High Frequencies ........................................................................ 1619 16.13. Viscous Slide Film Element FLUID139 ........................................................................................... 1620 16.14. Comb Drive Resonator ................................................................................................................ 1621 16.15. Displacement of Central Mass ...................................................................................................... 1621 16.16. Real and Imaginary Current ......................................................................................................... 1622

List of Tables

2.1. 2-D Solid Elements .............................................................................................................................. 21 3.1. Boundary Conditions at Intersections ................................................................................................ 313 4.1. Command Family and GUI Path Used to Apply Loads .......................................................................... 42 4.2. Load Commands for a FLOTRAN Thermal Analysis ............................................................................... 42 5.1. Specifying Values for Time Steps ......................................................................................................... 52 5.2. Saving Analysis Results for Processing ................................................................................................. 53 7.1. Interface Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................................ 74 7.2. Element Qualities ............................................................................................................................... 76 7.3. Remeshing Limitations ....................................................................................................................... 77 7.4. Quality Requirements ....................................................................................................................... 718 9.1. Units for Thermal Quantities ............................................................................................................... 91 9.2. Energy Units for Incompressible Analyses with Viscous Heating ........................................................... 92 9.3. Units for the AIR Property Type ........................................................................................................... 92 9.4. Property types for Value ...................................................................................................................... 94 9.5. Property Database Format ................................................................................................................ 911 10.1. Coordinate System Specification ..................................................................................................... 101 12.1. Advection Scheme Defaults ............................................................................................................ 121 12.2. SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results ..................................................................................... 122 15.1. Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis ......................................................................................... 157 15.2. Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis ......................................................................... 158 15.3. Load Step Options for a Harmonic Acoustic Analysis ...................................................................... 1510 16.1. Thin Film Fluid Elements ................................................................................................................. 161 16.2. Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements ....................................................................................... 165 16.3. Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes .......................................................................... 167 16.4. Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies ........................................................... 1614

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Part I. CFD

1.1. What Is FLOTRAN CFD Analysis?

The ANSYS FLOTRAN derived product and the FLOTRAN CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) option to the other ANSYS products offer you comprehensive tools for analyzing 2-D and 3-D fluid flow fields. Using either product and the FLOTRAN CFD elements FLUID141 and FLUID142, you can achieve solutions for the following: Lift and drag on an airfoil The flow in supersonic nozzles Complex, 3-D flow patterns in a pipe bend

In addition, you can use the features of ANSYS and ANSYS FLOTRAN to perform tasks including: Calculating the gas pressure and temperature distributions in an engine exhaust manifold Studying the thermal stratification and breakup in piping systems Using flow mixing studies to evaluate potential for thermal shock Doing natural convection analyses to evaluate the thermal performance of chips in electronic enclosures Conducting heat exchanger studies involving different fluids separated by solid regions

You can perform these types of FLOTRAN analyses: Laminar or turbulent Thermal or adiabatic Free surface Compressible or incompressible Newtonian or Non-Newtonian Multiple species transport

These types of analyses are not mutually exclusive. For example, a laminar analysis can be thermal or adiabatic. A turbulent analysis can be compressible or incompressible. To solve any analysis involving the flow of fluid, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

In these analyses, the velocity field is very ordered and smooth, as it is in highly viscous, slow-moving flows. The flow of some oils also can be laminar.

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

Turbulent flow analyses deal with problems where velocities are high enough and the viscosity is low enough to cause turbulent fluctuations. The two-equation turbulence model in ANSYS enables you to account for the effect of the turbulent velocity fluctuations on the mean flow. Laminar and turbulent flows are considered to be incompressible if density is constant or if the fluid expends little energy in compressing the flow. The temperature equation for incompressible flow neglects kinetic energy changes and viscous dissipation.

Often, the solution for the temperature distribution throughout the flow field is of interest. If fluid properties do not vary with temperature, you can converge the flow field without solving the temperature equation. In a conjugate heat transfer problem, the temperature equation is solved in a domain with both fluid and non-fluid (that is, solid material) regions. In a natural convection problem, the flow results mainly or solely from density gradients brought about by temperature variations. Most natural convection problems, unlike forced convection problems, have no externally applied flow sources.

For high velocity gas flows, changes in density due to strong pressure gradients significantly influence the nature of the flow field. ANSYS uses a different solution algorithm for compressible flow.

A linear relationship between the stress and rate-of-strain cannot describe many fluid flows adequately. For such non-Newtonian flows, the ANSYS program provides three viscosity models and a user-programmable subroutine.

This type of analysis is useful in studying the dispersion of dilute contaminants or pollutants in the bulk fluid flow. In addition, you can use multiple species transport analysis for heat exchanger studies where two or more fluids (separated by walls) may be involved.

Free surface analyses deal with problems involving a unconstrained gas-liquid surface. You can use this type of analysis to solve two dimensional planar and axisymmetric problems such as flow over a dam and tank sloshing.

Throughout this document, you will see references to ANSYS commands and their equivalent GUI paths. Such references use only the command name, because you do not always need to specify all of a command's arguments, and specific combinations of command arguments perform different functions. For complete syntax descriptions of ANSYS commands, consult the ANSYS Commands Reference. The GUI paths shown are as complete as possible. In many cases, choosing the GUI path as shown will perform the function you want. In other cases, choosing the GUI path given in this document takes you to a menu or dialog box; from there, you must choose additional options that are appropriate for the specific task being performed.

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Section 1.3: About GUI Paths and Command Syntax For the thermal related analyses described in this guide, specify the material you will be simulating using an intuitive material model interface. This interface uses a hierarchical tree structure of material categories, which is intended to assist you in choosing the appropriate model for your analysis. See Section 1.2.4.4: Material Model Interface in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for details on the material model interface.

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2.1. Characteristics of the FLOTRAN Elements

The ANSYS FLOTRAN elements, FLUID141 and FLUID142, solve for 2-D and 3-D flow, pressure, and temperature distributions in a single phase viscous fluid. For these elements, the ANSYS program calculates velocity components, pressure, and temperature from the conservation of three properties: mass, momentum, and energy.

Element FLUID141 Dimens. Shape or Characteristic 2-D DOFs Quadrilateral, four nodes or triangle, three Fluid velocity, pressure, temperature, turbunodes lent kinetic energy, turbulent energy dissipation, multiple species mass fractions for up to six fluids Hexahedral, eight nodes or tetrahedral, four nodes or wedge, six nodes or pyramid, five nodes; tetrahedral and hexahedral elements can be combined by pyramids Fluid velocity, pressure, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent energy dissipation, multiple species mass fractions for up to six fluids

FLUID142

3-D

Other features of the FLOTRAN elements include: A two-equation turbulence model for simulating turbulent flows. Derived results, such as Mach number, pressure coefficient, total pressure, shear stress, y plus at walls, and stream function for fluid analyses and heat flux and heat transfer (film) coefficient for thermal analyses. Fluid boundary conditions, including velocities, pressures, and the turbulence quantities kinetic energy and kinetic energy dissipation rate. You may supply specific values of the turbulence quantities at the inlet, but the FLOTRAN default boundary conditions suffice if the entrance is not close to the regions of primary interest. Thermal boundary conditions, including temperature, heat flux, volumetric heat sources, and heat transfer (film) coefficient.

You can solve problems in Cartesian, cylindrical, polar, and axisymmetric coordinate systems. If a problem is axisymmetric, activating a swirl option allows you to calculate a velocity component normal to the axisymmetric plane.

The FLOTRAN elements have some limitations: You cannot change the problem domain during a single analysis. Certain features of the ANSYS program do not work with the FLOTRAN elements. You cannot use certain commands or menu paths with the FLOTRAN elements. If you use the ANSYS GUI, only the features and options called for in the FLOTRAN SetUp portion of the menus and dialog boxes will appear.

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When you are using the FLOTRAN elements, you should avoid using certain ANSYS features and commands, or if you do choose to use them, be aware that they have slightly different uses with the FLOTRAN elements. This does not mean that every command not listed here will work with FLOTRAN elements. ANSYS informs you if you try to issue a command that is invalid. When using the FLOTRAN elements, keep the following points in mind: You cannot combine the FLOTRAN elements with other elements. The nodal coordinate system must be identical to the global coordinate system. The /CLEAR command does not destroy an existing FLOTRAN results file (Jobname.RFL), thus preventing you from inadvertently destroying a results file that took much time and effort to create. Existing Jobname.RFL file names will become Jobname.RFO file names if the number of nodes in the model has changed since the Jobname.RFL file creation. You should remove unwanted results files at the system level. In FLOTRAN, the CP command enforces periodic boundary conditions by coupling all degrees of freedom between two nodes. You should not use the CP command to couple more than two nodes or to couple a subset of the degrees of freedom. You should only use this command to couple all degrees of freedom of one node on a periodic boundary face to one other node on another periodic boundary face. You cannot couple nodes on the same element, and you may have difficulty coupling nodes on adjacent elements. The ADAPT macro does not work with FLOTRAN. You cannot use the ANTYPE command to invoke a transient analysis with the FLOTRAN element. (See Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses.) FLOTRAN analyses do not support automatic time stepping. For more information, see Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses. If you specify nodal heat generation loads via commands BFCUM, BFDELE, or BFUNIF, ANSYS uses load values specified with the BFE command instead. The commands CE, CECMOD, CEDELE, and CEINTF do not work with FLOTRAN. The CNVTOL command does not set convergence tolerances with FLOTRAN as it does for other analyses. For information about FLOTRAN convergence, see Section 2.6.1: Deciding How Many Global Iterations to Use. The symmetry and antisymmetry conditions that the DSYM command specifies are not appropriate for FLOTRAN. Chapter 3, FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow explains how to specify flow symmetry boundary conditions for FLOTRAN. FLOTRAN does not support angular acceleration vectors for rotating coordinate systems. In a FLOTRAN analysis, the command FLDATA4,TIME (rather than the DELTIM command) specifies a time step for a load step. For FLOTRAN, you cannot use the DESOL command or the PRESOL command to modify HEAT, FLOW, or FLUX nodal results. FLOTRAN does not permit extrapolation of integration point results to nodes (via the ERESX command). FLOTRAN does not allow you to generate elements through reflections. Although not recommended, FLOTRAN will execute properly if you generate reflected elements using a different element type and you subsequently switch to the FLOTRAN element type.

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Section 2.3: Overview of a FLOTRAN Analysis In FLOTRAN analyses, you cannot ramp loads via the KBC command. The FLOTRAN command FLDATA4,TIME,BC, however, is analogous to the ANSYS command KBC, except that the default for FLOTRAN is a step change. Load case operations, such as those performed by the LCCALC, LCDEF, LCFACT, and LCFILE commands, are not allowed in a FLOTRAN analysis. Do not use the LSWRITE or LSSOLVE command in a FLOTRAN analysis. Use the SOLVE command to start a FLOTRAN solution. The convergence tool invoked with the NCNV command does not apply to the FLOTRAN segregated solver. Do not use the NEQIT command, which defines the number of equilibrium iterations for a nonlinear solution, in a FLOTRAN analysis. FLOTRAN requires the nodal and global Cartesian coordinate systems to be the same. Therefore, you cannot use the rotational fields on the N, NMODIF, and NROTAT commands. In a FLOTRAN analysis, the commands FLDATA2,ITER, FLDATA4,TIME, and FLDATA4A,STEP control items written to the results files (Jobname.RFL and Jobname.PFL FLOTRAN does not permit user programmable elements, such as those specified via the NSVR command. In a FLOTRAN analysis, the commands FLDATA2,ITER and FLDATA4,TIME control items written to the database. The PRNLD command does not apply to FLOTRAN, because it does not store boundary conditions as printable element nodal loads. Node reaction solutions, such as those produced by the PRRSOL command, are not available for FLOTRAN. The partial and predefined solution option (called by the PSOLVE command) does not apply to the FLOTRAN segregated solver. The TIME command, which associates boundary conditions with a particular time value, does not apply to FLOTRAN. FLOTRAN analyses use the FLDATA1,SOLU command instead of the TIMINT command to specify transient load steps. FLOTRAN analyses use the FLDATA4,TIME command instead of the TRNOPT command to specify transient analysis options. The RESCONTROL command does not apply to FLOTRAN. Some of the functionality of RESCONTROL is provided with the FLDATA32,REST command. For FLOTRAN, you cannot use the DK command to define DOF constraints at keypoints.

A typical FLOTRAN analysis consists of seven main steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Determine the problem domain. Determine the flow regime. Create the finite element mesh. Apply boundary conditions. Set FLOTRAN analysis parameters. Solve the problem.

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You need to determine the proper domain for each problem you analyze. Locate the boundaries of the problem where conditions are known. If you do not know precise conditions and must make assumptions about them, do not locate boundaries too close to the regions of greatest interest or near regions that have steep gradients in the solution variables. Sometimes, you may not realize that steep gradients occur too near the outlet or in some other region until you see the analysis results. Should this happen, you can re-analyze the problem with a different problem domain. For specific recommendations on determining problem domain, see the sections discussing the various flow phenomena.

You need to estimate the character of the flow. The character is a function of the fluid properties, geometry, and the approximate magnitude of the velocity field. Fluid flow problems that FLOTRAN solves will include gases and liquids, the properties of which can vary significantly with temperature. The flow of gases is restricted to ideal gases. You must determine whether the effect of temperature on fluid density, viscosity, and thermal conductivity is important. In many cases, you can get adequate results with constant properties. To assess whether you need the FLOTRAN turbulence model, use an estimate of the Reynolds number, which measures the relative strengths of the inertial and viscous forces. (See Chapter 3, FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow for more information.) To determine whether you need to use the compressible option, estimate the Mach number. (See Chapter 8, FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses) The Mach number at any point in the flow field is the ratio of the fluid speed and the speed of sound. At Mach numbers above approximately 0.3, consider using the compressible solution algorithm. At Mach numbers above approximately 0.7, you can expect significant differences between incompressible and compressible results. You may want to compare results from each algorithm for a representative problem.

You will need to make assumptions about where the gradients are expected to be the highest, and you must adjust the mesh accordingly. For example, if you are using the turbulence model, then the region near the walls must have a much denser mesh than would be needed for a laminar problem. If it is too coarse, the original mesh may not capture significant effects brought about through steep gradients in the solution. Conversely, elements may have very large aspect ratios with the long sides along directions with very low gradients. For the most accurate results, use mapped meshing. It more effectively maintains a consistent mesh pattern along the boundary. You can do this by issuing the command MSHKEY,1 (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> entity> Mapped). In some cases, you may wish to use hexahedral elements to capture detail in high-gradient regions and tetrahedral elements in less critical regions. As described in Section 7.3.9: Creating Transitional Pyramid Elements in the ANSYS Modeling and Meshing Guide you can instruct ANSYS to automatically create pyramid elements at the interface.

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Section 2.4: Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create For flow analysis, especially turbulent, you should not use pyramid elements in the region near the walls because it may lead to inaccuracies in the solution. Wedge elements can be useful when a complex area can be easily meshed with triangles that are then extruded. For a quick solution, you can use wedge elements in the region near the walls. However, for accurate results, you should use hexahedral elements in those regions. Wedge elements are considered to be degenerate hexahedral elements. When using the ANSYS MeshTool (Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool) to sweep triangles into wedges, you must select Hex elements.

You can apply boundary conditions before or after you mesh the domain. Consider every model boundary. If a condition is not specified for a dependent variable, a zero gradient of that value normal to the surface is assumed. You can change boundary conditions between restarts. If you need to change a boundary condition or accidentally omit it, you do not need to restart your analysis unless the change causes instabilities in the analysis solution.

In order to use options such as the turbulence model or solution of the temperature equation, you must activate them. Specific items to be set, such as fluid properties, are a function of the type of flow problem at hand. Other sections in this document recommend parameter settings for various types of flow.

You can monitor solution convergence and stability of the analysis by observing the rate of change of the solution and the behavior of relevant dependent variables. These variables include velocity, pressure, temperature, and (if necessary) turbulence quantities such as kinetic energy (degree of freedom ENKE), kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS), and effective viscosity (EVIS). An analysis typically requires multiple restarts.

You can postprocess output quantities and examine the results in the output files. Use your engineering judgment when examining the results to evaluate the plausibility and consistency of the overall analysis approach, how specific properties are used, and the conditions imposed.

You perform most fluid flow analyses in ANSYS by stopping the analysis job and then restarting it multiple times. Often, analysts change parameters such as relaxation factors or turn options (such as solution of the temperature equation) on or off between restarts. Each time you continue a job, the ANSYS program appends data to all of the files that its FLOTRAN element creates. The following list explains all files that a FLOTRAN element creates. A discussion of the residual file appears at the end of this section. The results file, Jobname.RFL, contains nodal results. The print file, Jobname.PFL, contains input convergence monitors, and inlet/outlet summaries. The wall file, Jobname.RSW, contains wall shear stress and Y-plus information.

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis The residual file, Jobname.RDF, contains the nodal residuals. The debug file, Jobname.DBG, contains information about algebraic solver performance. The results backup file, Jobname.RFO, contains a copy of the results file data. The restart file, Jobname.CFD, contains FLOTRAN data structures. The domain file, (jobname.pv_0000n) for use by ICEM CFD's PV3 postprocessing visualization tool.

The results of a FLOTRAN analysis are not stored in the ANSYS database automatically. At the end of every solution, the ANSYS program adds a set of results to the results file, Jobname.RFL. You have some control over the content of the results file and how often ANSYS updates it. The defaults given in the description of the FLDATA5,OUTP command in the ANSYS Commands Reference reflect FLOTRAN's determination of what the results file should store based on the options you choose. The ANSYS program is flexible about how many sets of results you can store for a steady-state FLOTRAN analysis. Keeping sets of results from earlier executions has advantages: you can compare changes that occurred between sets of results, and you can continue an analysis from its earlier stages using different options or relaxation parameters. The ANSYS program stores a set of results when you begin an analysis (before the first iteration), then stores results again when one of the termination criteria is reached. Between those events, you can append the results to the Jobname.RFL file. Storing intermediate sets of results enables you to continue the analysis from an earlier stage with different options and features activated, for example to enhance stability. We recommend that you use ANSYS' overwrite frequency option because it allows you to periodically store and update a temporary set of results. Using this option ensures that a useful set of results will exist should you need to restart an analysis after a power failure or other system interruption. The next regularly scheduled output of results overwrites the temporary results set. You can accomplish the same thing by instructing ANSYS to append data to the results file more often; however, this method inflates the size of the results file. To set the overwrite frequency, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,Value GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl To set the append frequency, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,APPE,Value GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

The Jobname.PFL file contains a complete record of all FLOTRAN input parameters, including properties and solution options. This information is recorded each time a SOLVE is issued so as to provide a complete account of the analysis history. In addition, all convergence monitors are recorded for all active values. A results summary, showing maximum and minimum values of each property and degree of freedom, is provided at a user-determined frequency. Average values are also recorded. The mass flow boundaries are identified and a mass balance is calculated. Finally, all heat transfer information is summarized for all heat transfer and heat sources.

The nodal residuals file, Jobname.RDF, shows you how well the current solution is converged. At every stage in the solution procedure, the flow, property, and temperature fields are used to calculate coefficient matrices 26

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Section 2.4: Files the FLOTRAN Elements Create and forcing functions for each DOF. If a solution is converged completely, these matrices and forcing functions will produce the same velocity field used to generate them and the residuals of the matrix equation will be very small. You must request at least one global iteration to obtain a nodal residual file. If a solution oscillates, however, the magnitude of the residuals shows where the maximum errors are. (The main diagonal entries of the matrix normalize the residuals.) This normalization enables you to compare directly the value of the DOF and the value of its residual. To calculate residuals for every active degree of freedom and output them to the residuals file, do either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTP,RESI,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN SetUp> Additional Out> Residual File To read the residuals file, either issue the FLREAD command (Main Menu> General Postproc> FLOTRAN 2.1A). The residuals are postprocessed with the label associated with the DOF (for instance, TEMP or PRES for the temperature or pressure residuals).

By default, FLOTRAN calculates data structures at the beginning of a restart of an analysis. These calculations may take considerable time for large models. To avoid recalculation, you can opt to have FLOTRAN store the data structures in the Jobname.CFD file. FLOTRAN creates this file from information in the ANSYS database (but the file is not required for restarts). To write to or read from the Jobname.CFD file, use either of the following methods before the restart: Command(s): FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File You can toggle the RFIL state on (TRUE) or off (FALSE). If is on, ANSYS reads the restart file when FLOTRAN begins to execute. If no restart file exists, one will be created. If you are restarting an analysis with updated boundary conditions, you must overwrite an existing .CFD file in order to use the new conditions. To overwrite the file, use either of the following methods: Command(s): FLDATA32,REST,WFIL,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> CFD Restart File This will cause FLOTRAN to create a new restart file during the next load step, and automatically sets the RFIL state to False. After the restart that has created the new file completes, issue the FLDATA32,REST,RFIL,TRUE command so that subsequent restarts use the new Jobname.CFD restart file.

Domain files are used by ICEM CFD's PV3 postprocessor visualization tool. In addition to nodal results these files contain information to define the finite element model, including node locations, element topology, element connectivity, and family information concerning predefined ANSYS components. They also contain load step, substep, cumulative iteration, and time point values.

You can restart the FLOTRAN analysis from any set of results in the Jobname.RFL file or from a different .RFL file. You can base the restart on the set number (Label = NSET), the global iteration number (Label = ITER), the load step/subset numbers (Label = LSTP), or the transient analysis time (Label = TIME). You determine the restart criteria by doing either of the following:

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Chapter 2: The Basics of FLOTRAN Analysis Issue the command FLDATA32,REST,Label,Value. Specify one of the labels listed above in place of Label. The Value argument causes values associated with the other criteria to be zeroed. Once invoked, the behavior is turned off in the database by setting all the criteria to zero. If you are restarting from a different results file, you also need to specify the filename, extension, and directory of that file. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Restart Options> Restart/Iteration (or Restart/Load step, Restart/Set, etc.)

If you specify invalid criteria, ANSYS notifies you and (if the program is operating in batch mode) terminates the analysis. When you restart an analysis, ANSYS copies the original results file to the file Jobname.RSO and places the restart point, all previous results sets, and all subsequent results sets in the new Jobname.RFL file. If the Value input on the FLDATA32,REST command is negative, creation of the Jobname.RSO file is blocked. FLOTRAN uses the absolute value of the number specified for Value. If a results file name is entered in the Fname field of the FLDATA32,REST command, FLOTRAN interpolates those results onto the current mesh in the database, regardless of whether or not the mesh has changed. This causes the convergence monitors to start again from zero. This restart is different than a restart without a file name specification. However, the results quickly converge to the original solution.

The ANSYS program offers several tools to help with convergence and solution stability. The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference explains how they are implemented.

The relaxation factor is the fraction of the change between the old solution and the newly calculated solution that is added to the old solution, giving the results for the new global iteration. The relaxation factors for every component must be between 0.0 (resulting in no update to the degree of freedom or property) and 1.0 inclusive. You set relaxation factors via either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation Note See the description of the FLDATA25,RELX command in the ANSYS Commands Reference for lists of degree of freedom and property component names.

Inertial relaxation of the equation set for a DOF provides diagonal dominance to make a solution stable. Hypothetically, when a solution is converged in the absence of round off-error, the inertial relaxation applied does not affect the value of the answer. However, in real situations, some round off-error always occurs, so the inertial relaxation may affect your solution. You can apply inertial relaxation to the momentum equations (MOME), turbulence equations (TURB), the pressure equation (PRES), and the temperature equation (TEMP). To do so, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms 28

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Section 2.5: Convergence and Stability Tools The inertial relaxation factor is in the denominator of the term added, so smaller values have a greater effect. Typical useful values range between 1.0 (mild) and 1.0 x 10-7 (severe).

Modified inertial relaxation adds a local positive value to the diagonal term to guarantee a positive diagonal. You can apply modified inertial relaxation to the momentum equations (MOME), turbulence equations (TURB), and the temperature equation (TEMP). To do so, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization A larger modified inertial relaxation factor gives a more robust scheme, but it may yield a slower convergence. The recommended range is 0.1 to 1.0. You should consider inertial relaxation and modified inertial relaxation to be mutually exclusive.

Artificial viscosity smooths the velocity solution in regions of steep gradients. It has proven useful in aiding convergence of compressible problems and in smoothing velocity solutions in incompressible problems with distributed resistances. For incompressible analyses, you should keep the artificial viscosity within an order of magnitude of the effective viscosity. To apply artificial viscosity, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,VISC,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms

DOF capping allows you to prevent variables from going out of boundaries you specify. You can limit the velocities, pressure, and temperature degrees of freedom (VY, VY, VZ, PRES, TEMP). To do this, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA31,CAPP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping Velocity capping eliminates the effects of velocity spikes on properties, which may occur in the early stages of convergence. Capping is especially suited to compressible analyses, where velocity spikes can cause kinetic energy terms great enough to produce negative static temperatures. When a degree of freedom is capped, ANSYS prints a message along with the convergence monitor printout. The pressure value calculated by the solution of the pressure equation is capped, not the relaxed value. Therefore, if you introduce pressure capping upon restarting an analysis, pressure values may still be outside the caps. Capping applies to relative values of pressure and absolute values of temperature. You should cap the total temperature when performing compressible thermal analyses. It will help ensure negative properties do not enter the calculations. Caution: When velocities are capped, conservation of mass may not be enforced.

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You have control over the quadrature order. In axisymmetric problems, the quadrature order automatically is set to 2 upon solution. This is because quadrature orders of 2 produce more accurate results for problems with irregularly shaped elements. The quadrature order is also automatically set to 2 upon solution for 3-D problems using cylindrical coordinates. If you notice anomalous results near a region of skewed hexahedral elements, reset the quadrature order to 2. There might be a problem with the results when the included angles of the hexahedra exceed 120 degrees. You can change the quadrature order for momentum diffusion or source, pressure diffusion or source, thermal diffusion or source, turbulent diffusion or source, using either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA30,QUAD,Label,Value (Label is the element integral to change quadrature for, and Value is the number of integration points). GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> CFD Quad Orders For more information on quadrature order, refer to the description of the FLDATA30,QUAD command in the ANSYS Commands Reference.

This section describes what happens in a FLOTRAN analysis and how to evaluate how the analysis is proceeding.

A FLOTRAN analysis is nonlinear and uses a sequential solution, so the first thing you must do is decide how many global iterations should be executed. A global iteration is the solution, in sequence, of all relevant governing equations followed by any fluid property updates that are needed. In a transient simulation, a time step loop exists around the global iteration loop. During a global iteration, the ANSYS Multiphysics program or ANSYS FLOTRAN obtains approximate solutions to the momentum equation and uses them as forcing functions to solve a pressure equation based on conservation of mass. ANSYS uses the resulting pressures to update the velocities so that the velocity field conserves mass. If you request it, the ANSYS program solves the temperature equation and updates temperature dependent properties. Finally, if you have activated the turbulence model, the equations are solved and the program uses the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate to calculate the effective viscosity and thermal conductivity. Effective viscosity and thermal conductivity replace, respectively, the laminar viscosity and thermal conductivity to model the effect of turbulence on the mean flow. To specify how many global iterations a FLOTRAN analysis should execute, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,Value (Value is the number of iterations.) GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl

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As a FLOTRAN simulation proceeds, ANSYS calculates convergence monitors for each degree of freedom every global iteration. Convergence monitors are computed for velocities (VY, VY, VZ), pressure (PRES), temperature (TEMP), turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE), kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS), and any active species transport equations (SP01-SP06). The convergence monitors are a normalized measure of the solution's rate of change from iteration to iteration. Denoting by the general field variable, , any DOF, the convergence monitor is defined as follows:

k k 1 i i k i N N

ConvMon = i=1

i =1

The convergence monitor represents the sum of changes of the variable calculated from the results between the current kth iteration and the previous (k-1)th iteration, divided by the sum of the current values. The summation is performed over all n nodes, using the absolute values of the differences. Available in both batch and interactive sessions, the Graphical Solution Tracking (GST) feature displays the computed convergence monitors while the solution is in process. Be default, GST is ON for interactive sessions and OFF for batch runs. To turn GST on or off, use either of the following: Command(s): /GST GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Output Ctrls> Grph Solu Track Figure 2.1: Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature shows two typical GST displays:

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(a) Steady-state simulation, (b) Transient simulation In Figure 2.1: Convergence Monitors Displayed by the GST Feature (b), a plot of a transient FLOTRAN solution, each "spike" on the plot indicates the beginning of a new time step.

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Section 2.6: What to Watch For During a FLOTRAN Analysis After perhaps some initial fluctuations, convergence monitors will decrease as the analysis approaches convergence. How small the numbers become depends on several factors, such as: Complexity of the geometry Adequacy of the finite element mesh in regions with steep gradients The severity of the turbulence levels, indicated by the flow Reynolds number Development of the flow near outlet boundaries

Points to remember when using graphical solution tracking include: The GST feature is available for FLOTRAN analyses and also for structural, thermal, and electromagnetic analyses containing nonlinearities. For information about using GST to track convergence in non-FLOTRAN analyses, see the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide, the ANSYS Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Analysis Guide, and the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide. GST can display up to ten curves at the same time. (Your model can include more than ten DOFs, but only the first ten will be displayed.) When the GST begins its plotting, ANSYS displays a dialog box with a STOP button. You can stop the solution at any time by clicking on this button. To restart it, issue SOLVE or choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. The time label which is positioned above the graph reveals the time at the last iteration.

You can choose a target value for terminating a FLOTRAN analysis, based on the convergence monitors for each degree of freedom falling below a certain value. To specify these values, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA3,TERM,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl See the ANSYS Commands Reference for the default values. Termination checks do not include inactive degrees of freedom or degrees of freedom set to a negative value. The analysis must satisfy convergence criteria for all active degrees of freedom, or complete the specified number of global iterations requested. FLOTRAN terminates on the first condition satisfied. For information on terminating transient analyses, see Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses. To stop a FLOTRAN batch or background job in progress, place a file named Jobname.ABT in the subdirectory from which the ANSYS job has been executed. The first line of this file should contain the word "terminate," and should be left-justified. On Windows systems, you should also add a blank line at the end of the Jobname.ABT file. FLOTRAN looks for the Jobname.ABT file during every global iteration. If it finds the file and reads the word "terminate," it will finish that global iteration and terminate normally, writing the results to the Jobname.RFL file and extending the Jobname.PFL file.

For locked tetrahedral elements (those at a corner where two walls meet) there is a slight pressure anomaly. ANSYS takes those elements out of the solution domain because all the nodes have boundary conditions. The solution is correct in the domain. Use hexahedral elements to avoid this pressure anomaly.

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The two basic questions an analyst must answer are: 1. 2. When is the analysis completed? Has it been done correctly?

These questions are interrelated, since convergence may not be achieved it you have not set up and executed the analysis correctly. If you have set the input parameters and boundary conditions correctly, the analysis is complete when the convergence monitors for all variables stop decreasing and the average, maximum, and minimum values of the solution variables no longer increase or decrease. There is no guarantee, however, that you will achieve a single exact answer because nature does not guarantee that a single exact answer exists. Oscillatory problems (for example, vortex shedding behind a cylinder) may not yield stationary results from a steady-state or a transient solution algorithm. You may wish to continue executing the analysis to verify whether a solution has a stable or a fluctuating nature. The ANSYS program stores the average, minimum, and maximum values of the solution variables in the file Jobname.PFL. This file also records the FLOTRAN input plus the convergence monitors which have been calculated. The results summary includes all the DOF, as well as laminar and effective properties. You determine how often ANSYS issues the results summary by using one of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived The Value argument is the number of global iterations that pass before ANSYS issues the next results summary. You may also want to map your results onto a path through your model. See Section 5.3.5: Mapping Results onto a Path in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for more information on reviewing results along a path.

You, the analyst, are responsible for verifying results. If your FLOTRAN analysis produces unexpected results, take the actions listed below. You can accomplish many of these actions at the beginning of the analysis. ANSYS creates a Jobname.PFL file and checks inputs even if the number of iterations executed is zero. 1. Check the mass balance printed as part of the results summary. Internal checks will determine if any mass flow can potentially cross a model boundary. Boundary conditions admitting mass flow are: Specified velocity boundaries Specified pressure boundaries Unspecified boundaries (These can result if you inadvertently omit a boundary condition.)

The ANSYS program tabulates the number of inlets/outlets, which should correspond to expectations. 2. 3. 4. 5. Check boundary conditions within ANSYS to ensure that they are accurate. Check that you specified the properties correctly and that they can vary with temperature and pressure if necessary. The results summary in the Jobname.PFL file is a convenient place to check this. Check that the length units used to build the model are consistent with those used in specifying properties. In some cases, you need to verify that equations associated with the options chosen are solved correctly (for instance, the pressure equation in compressible flow).

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Section 2.8: Verifying Results 6. If the unexpected result of your analysis is divergence, the finite element mesh may not have sufficient resolution, or significant gradients may exist near outlets. To resolve this, you may need to use convergence aids such as relaxation. Later sections in this document discuss various relaxation techniques. If you get a diverged solution for a particular variable, you can re-initialize that variable to a single value and continue. To do so, use one of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA29,MODV GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Mod Res/Quad Ord> Modify Results

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3.1. Characteristics of Fluid Flow Analysis

A laminar or turbulent flow analysis calculates the flow and pressure distribution in a 2-D or 3-D geometry. Flow problems require you to specify density and viscosity. Problems may be internal or external in nature. For internal flows, wall or symmetry planes bound the flow (for example, flow in a pipe), except for the inlet and outlet boundaries. (Figure 3.1: Internal Flow shows an example). The boundaries of external problems generally are either far-field velocity or pressure boundary conditions. The flow surrounding an airfoil is an external flow (See Figure 3.2: External Flow).

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow The distinction between incompressible and compressible flow lies in both the equation of state and the solution algorithm. In an incompressible flow, density variations can drive the flow only through gravitational acceleration. Temperature changes cause variations of density. In a compressible flow, the density changes caused by pressure variations significantly affect the momentum and temperature equations.

In any event, the incompressible algorithm can measure flow of an ideal gas, complete with small density changes due to pressure. See Chapter 8, FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses for more information.

The distinction between laminar and turbulent flow lies in the ratio of the inertial transport to the viscous transport. As this ratio increases, instabilities develop and velocity fluctuations begin to occur. A turbulent model accounts for the effect of these fluctuations on the mean flow by using an increased viscosity, the effective viscosity, in the governing equations. The effective viscosity is the sum of the laminar viscosity (which is a property of the fluid) and turbulent viscosity (which is calculated from a turbulence model). e = + t Generally, the more turbulent the flow field, the higher the effective viscosity.

The dimensionless Reynolds number measures the ratio of inertial and viscous forces to help determine whether or not the turbulence model should be activated. The Reynolds number is defined in terms of the properties of the fluid, a characteristic velocity, and a characteristic dimension: RE =

VLc

The density (mass/length3) and absolute viscosity (mass/length-time) are properties of the fluid. For internal flow problems, the characteristic dimension is the hydraulic diameter, defined as: 4 (Cross-Sectional Flow Area) Lc =Dh = Wetted Perimeter For example, the hydraulic diameter of a pipe is simply the diameter. As a general guideline for internal flow problems such as flow in pipes, the turbulence model should usually be activated if the Reynolds number is in excess of about 2300. For an external flow problem, such as the flow over an airfoil, the characteristic length is a parameter such as the length of the airfoil (wing cross section for a 2-D analysis). For flow over a flat plate, the dimension is the length along the plate from the leading edge, with the transition to turbulence occurring at a Reynolds number of approximately 500,000. For more information, see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.

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Determining if an analysis is laminar or turbulent is your responsibility. What happens if turbulence is not activated when it should be, or vice versa? What are the indications and the consequences? If turbulence is needed but not activated, the analysis probably will diverge. If this occurs, the momentum and pressure convergence parameters will approach 1.0 and the values of velocities and pressure will become very large. You should start over with the turbulence model activated. In some cases, convergence occurs even without the turbulence model. This can happen if no geometrical features such as bends disturb the flow. Physically, some flows retain laminar characteristics unless they are slightly disturbed in some fashion. Conversely, although the turbulence models are not low Reynolds number models and do not "automatically" resort to laminar behavior at low Reynolds numbers, in such cases the turbulence models predict low values of effective viscosity. If the final average effective viscosity is less than five times greater than the laminar value, you should rerun the case without the turbulence model and evaluate the differences. You can postprocess the effective viscosity with the label EVIS. It is also tabulated in the results summary output provided in the Jobname.PFL file. Therefore, you can observe the average behavior of effective viscosity as the solution proceeds. You also can postprocess it to see its variation throughout the flow field.

Be aware that when an analysis begins, the effective viscosity initializes as a multiple of the laminar value. This initialization occurs whether a turbulence model is or is not active. The default value of this multiple (also called the turbulence ratio) is 1000; a reasonable value for most turbulent analyses. The algorithm calculates lower or higher values as conditions dictate. However, the accuracy of the initial estimate affects how long the program takes to compute the final value. To set the turbulence ratio, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param The two-equation turbulence models require boundary conditions for the turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE) and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS) at an inlet. If known values are available at the inlet, you can specify ENKE and ENDS, Otherwise, you must specify an inlet intensity (ININ), which is the ratio of the fluctuating velocity to the inlet velocity, and an inlet scale factor (INSF), which is the ratio of a length scale inlet region to the hydraulic diameter of the inlet. ININ and INSF default to 0.01. To set the inlet intensity and inlet scale factor, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,ININ,Value FLDATA24,TURB,INSF,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

FLOTRAN offers several turbulence models: 1. 2. 3. 4. Standard k- Model Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) k- Model due to Shih (NKE)

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow 5. 6. 7. 8. Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) Shih, Zhu, Lumley Model (SZL) k- Turbulence Model Shear Stress Transport Turbulence Model (SST)

Turbulence modeling is activated by either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options To select a model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Normally, the Standard k- Model is the first model to apply. It usually provides a realistic picture of the flow. It is fine for the analysis of turbulent flow in pipes and channels. However, it over predicts the amount of turbulence in a number of situations. For example, the flow in a converging nozzle undergoes significant normal strain and the Standard k- Model over predicts the amount of turbulence. The resulting kinetic energy is over predicted, and the resulting effective viscosity prevents simulation of shock waves in some cases. In general, the RNG, NKE, GIR, and SZL turbulence models produce significantly more realistic and reliable results in regions of large strain. This is particularly important for cases where the flow is strongly accelerated or decelerated (e.g. a converging nozzle) or where there is significant separation or recirculation (e.g. a duct that goes through a 180 degree change of direction). Other situations where the Standard k- Model encounters difficulties include flows with stagnation points. The RNG, NKE, GIR, and SZL turbulence models control the excess turbulence by applying adjustments to C and the source term of the dissipation equation. The adjustments are made in accordance with the local rate of strain. The k- turbulence model has the advantage near the walls to accurately predict the turbulence length scale in the presence of an adverse pressure gradient. The k- model is much more sensitive to the free-stream turbulence levels than the k- model. The Shear Stress Transport model (SST) combines the k- model near the wall and the k- model away from the wall to overcome the deficiencies of both models. See the ANSYS Commands Reference and the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more information on the models.

The Standard k- Model, the Zero Equation Turbulence Model, and the k- Model are the simplest models. The other models are all extensions of the Standard k- Model and the k- Model. The Standard k- Model is the default model. To select the Standard k- Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,1 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD are Standard k- Model constants that are defined as follows: C - Value is the k- turbulence model constant

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t = C

k 2

which is used in the update of the turbulent viscosity. C1 - Value is the k- turbulence model C1 constant. It is the multiplier of the shear rate generation term of the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation. C2 - Value is the k- turbulence model C2 constant. It is the multiplier of the dissipation source term in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation. SCTK - Value is the Schmidt number for the turbulent kinetic energy. The diffusion term in the turbulent kinetic energy equation is divided by this factor. SCTD - Value is the Schmidt number for the kinetic energy dissipation rate. The diffusion term in the dissipation rate equation is divided by this factor. To set the Standard k- Model constants C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model The following five wall parameters control turbulence wall modeling. The wall parameters apply for all turbulence models except the Zero Equation Turbulence Model. KAPP - Value is the law of the wall constant. It is the slope of the plot of normalized shear velocity (u+) versus the nondimensionalized distance from the wall (y+). See ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details. EWLL - Value is the law of the wall constant. It is related to the y intercept value for a plot of normalized shear velocity (u+) versus the nondimensionalized distance from the wall (y+). See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for more details. WALL - Value is the choice of wall conductivity model. The default model is the Van Driest model (Value = VAND), used most often for high Prandtl number fluids. The second choice is the Spalding model (Value = SPAL), applicable to low Prandtl number fluids. The third choice is the Equilibrium model (Value = EQLB). The equilibrium model is also automatically invoked for the wall viscosity by this command. VAND - Value is the constant in the Van Driest wall conductivity model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for details. TRAN - Value is the magnitude of y+ marking the outer boundary of the laminar sublayer. Used only for the Equilibrium Wall model. To set the wall parameters KAPP, EWILL, WALL, VAND and TRAN, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Wall Parameters The following three buoyancy terms control buoyancy modeling. The buoyancy terms apply for all turbulence models except the Zero Equation Turbulence Model.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow BUC3 - Value is the k- buoyancy model constant. A value of zero means that there is no contribution to the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation. The default value of one is appropriate for stable thermally stratified flows. A value of zero is appropriate for unstable thermally stratified flows. BUC4 - Value is the k- multiplier applied to the buoyancy term of the turbulent kinetic energy equation. A value of 1.0 is appropriate for the calculation of stable thermally stratified flows. The default value is zero. BETA - Value is , the coefficient of thermal expansion

1 T

This term is used in the buoyancy terms of the k- model. To set the buoyancy terms BUC3, BUC4, and BETA, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Buoyancy Terms See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The Zero Equation Turbulence Model (ZeroEq) is the simplest and fastest turbulence model. It applies to problems with fairly simple geometry and flow characteristics. The model does not give accurate results if there is significant separation or recirculation. To select the Zero Equation Turbulence Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model The Zero Equation Turbulence Model contains an automatic calculation of the length scale or you can specify the length scale. Generally, the turbulence ratio can be set to 2.0 when you are using the Zero Equation Turbulence Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The Re-Normalized Group Turbulence Model (RNG) is effective where the geometry has a strong curvature (e.g., a duct that goes through a 180 degree change in direction. If you have tried the SZL Model and the results are unsatisfactory, it is generally recommended that you try the RNG Model. To select the RNG Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,3 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model To set the constants for the RNG Model, you use either the FLDATA24A,RNGT command or the foregoing GUI. The RNG Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Seven constants are assigned values. The C, C1, C2, SCTK, and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following two constants are added:

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Section 3.2: Activating the Turbulence Model BETA -Value is the RNG model constant, ETAI -Value is the asymptotic value of the strain rate parameter eta. Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The k- Model due to Shih (NKE) features a variable C term which helps to reduce the excess normal strain terms in the Standard k- Model. The NKE model also employs a different dissipation source term than the Standard k- Model. The NKE and GIR models are recommended for rotating flows. To select the NKE Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,4 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model To set the constants for the NKE Model, you use either the FLDATA24B,NKET command or the foregoing GUI. The NKE Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Four constants are assigned values. The C2, SCTK, and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following constant is added: C1MX - Value is the maximum allowed value of the C1 constant in the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate equation. Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The Nonlinear Model of Girimaji (GIR) is suggested for cases with secondary vortices in the flow. The GIR and NKE models are recommended for rotating flows. To select the GIR Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,5 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model To set the constants for the GIR Model, you use either the FLDATA24C,GIRT command or the foregoing GUI. The GIR Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Seven constants are assigned values. The SCTK, and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following five constants are added:

0 G0 - Value is the C1 constant.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow G3 - Value is the C3 constant. G4 - Value is the C4 constant. Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The SZL Model is simpler than the NKE and GIR models. It produces the lowest level of turbulence. The SZL model is numerically efficient, but in some cases the resulting low effective viscosity has an adverse effect on stability. Generally, if the SZL model does not give satisfactory results, it is recommended that you try the RNG model. If conditions of large strain exist in the flow field, you may want to try the SZL Model after trying the RNG, NKE or GIR models. If the SZL Model gives significantly different results, it is recommended that you refine the mesh in the regions where the turbulence field is strongly altered. To select the SZL Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,6 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model To set the constants for the SZL Model, you use either the FLDATA24D,SZLT command or the foregoing GUI. The SZL Model is an extension of the Standard k- Model. Five constants are assigned values. The SCTK, and SCTD constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following three constants are added: SZL1 - Value is the numerator constant used in the calculation of C. It is the Aszl1 constant. SZL2 - Value is the denominator constant used in the calculation of C. It is the Aszl2 constant. SZL3 - Value is the strain rate multiplier. It is the Aszl3 constant. Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The k- model is one of the simplest turbulence models. It provides better modeling of the turbulent boundary layer than the standard k- model, but is more sensitive to the free-stream turbulence levels. To select the k- Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,7 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model To set the constants for the k- Model, use either the FLDATA24E,SKWT command or the foregoing GUI. The k- Model solves for the equation rather than the equation in the standard k- Model. Four constants are assigned values. The SCTK constant is an assigned value that is separate from the Standard k- Model. The following three constants are added: SCTW - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate. BETA - Value is the BETA factor. 38

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Section 3.3: Meshing Requirements GAMA - Value is the GAMMA factor. Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The SST Model combines advantages of both the Standard k- Model and the k- Model. It automatically switches to the k- Model in the near region and the Standard k- Model away from the walls. To select the SST Model, you use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,MODL,8 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Turbulence> Turbulence Model To set the constants for the SST Model, use the FLDATA24F,SST1, FLDATA24G,SST1 and FLDATA24H,SST2 commands, or the foregoing GUI. Similar to the k- Model, the SST Model solves for the equation rather than the equation in the Standard k- Model. Nine constants are assigned values. The SCTK1 and the SCTK2 constants are assigned values that are separate from the Standard k- Model. The following seven constants are added. CLMT - Value is the turbulent production clip factor. SCTW1 - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate in the k- regime. SCTW2 - Value is the Schmidt number for the specific dissipation rate in the k- regime. BETA1 - Value is the BETA factor in the k- regime. BETA2 - Value is the BETA factor in the k- regime. GAMA1 - Value is the GAMMA factor in the k- regime. GAMA2 - Value is the GAMMA factor in the k- regime. Inlet parameters and wall parameters are the same as the Standard k- Model. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information.

The meshing requirements for turbulence are more restrictive than those for laminar flow. The most important areas obviously are those with the higher gradients, in particular the regions near walls. Structured meshes, as contrasted with free meshes, can provide more consistent representation at the walls. Figure 3.3: Structured Mesh and Figure 3.4: Unstructured Mesh compare the structured and unstructured meshes for a region near the wall.

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Section 3.4: Flow Boundary Conditions You can evaluate the adequacy of the mesh near the walls. Applying the turbulence model near walls involves the "Log Law of the Wall," the relationship between a nondimensionalized distance from the wall Y+, and the log of a nondimensionalized velocity in a region near the wall. This law calculates a near wall viscosity that is consistent with experimentally determined velocity profiles near the wall. Values of Y+ are relevant only for wall nodes and are available for postprocessing (YPLU). Optimum values of Y+ are between approximately 30 and 1000. If the pressure is decreasing in the direction of flow, values up to 5000 are acceptable. FLOTRAN handles the case where Y+ is less than 30 for the near wall node by assuming that the near wall node is in the laminar sublayer or the overlap region. In the former case, the near wall viscosity is simply the laminar value. If Y+ is very small, perhaps below 1, more elements than necessary are being used to resolve the flow distribution field. If Y+ is greater than 5000, decrease the mesh spacing near the wall. Caution: Use enough elements to resolve the flow field in the regions of interest. You should use at least four elements to span the cross sections of long thin channels. Use more than four elements where thin channels connect to larger regions.

Each boundary of the problem domain requires treatment. You specify some combination of DOF (VX, VY, VZ and PRES) at the boundary types listed below. (If suitable values are available, you can specify turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE) and turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate (ENDS) at an inlet.) The derivative of all dependent variables normal to the surface is zero if you apply no conditions at the boundary surface. To set DOF constraints at nodes, use either of the following: Command(s): D GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type You can set boundary conditions on the solid model using any of the following: Command(s): DA and DL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Areas Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Areas Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Lines Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> boundary condition type> On Lines This enables you to redo the analysis with a different mesh, without reapplying boundary conditions on a nodal basis. These commands or GUI paths allow you to specify the condition on the endpoints of a line or the edge of an area. Take care to ensure that the proper conditions are applied at intersecting boundaries. You have control over whether or not boundary conditions are applied at the ends of lines or at the edges of areas. A nonzero velocity component at the end of a line or at the edge of an area will not replace an existing zero velocity condition at the associated nodes. Where a wall intersects an inlet, the wall condition will automatically prevail. If you apply new (and different) boundary conditions to a solid model of a finite element mesh, you should delete existing nodal boundary conditions before transferring the new loads. Specified Flow: You specify all velocity components at the boundary. Use this method to specify a flow at an inlet. Knowledge of the mass flow at the inlet requires you to know the density.

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow Specified Pressure: Typically, you apply a relative pressure (usually zero) as an outlet boundary condition. In the absence of gravity and a rotating reference frame, the absolute pressure is the sum of the FLOTRAN (relative) pressure and the reference pressure. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for a more complete discussion of pressure. A problem may also be pressure driven, in which case one of the pressure boundaries is an inlet. Note If significant gradients are calculated near a boundary, a mass imbalance can occur. This is due to the implied condition of fully developed flow for a constant pressure boundary. If the flow has not fully developed, FLOTRAN is forced to adjust it across the last row of elements to satisfy the boundary condition. Occasionally, this adjustment may cause a mass imbalance. To prevent this from occurring, you can add a development length to the exit. This addition does not actually need to match the physical flow geometry. You can subtract the pressure drop in this "chimney" to obtain the desired pressure drop. The pressure drop in the "chimney" will vary over its full cross section. You will have to choose a representative value of the pressure drop to match the desired outlet conditions. You will not know this pressure drop, of course, until after you examine the results from the chimney. You can opt to apply an exit pressure profile, based on these results, to the original geometry. You can calculate the required length of the chimney (L) using the characteristic diameter (D) from the development length formula: Laminar flow: L/D ~ 0.06 Re Turbulent flow: L/D ~ 4.4 Re1/6 Typically, a chimney 20 to 25 diameters long will be sufficient. Although the mesh in this region may be coarse, you should avoid drastic changes in element size by using a size ratio in the chimney. The important feature is the chimney length, not the number of nodes in it. Symmetry Boundary: The velocity component normal to the boundary is specified as zero. Leave all other degrees of freedom unspecified. Generalized Symmetry Boundary Conditions: You can also apply generalized symmetry boundary conditions. Velocity components are set tangential to the symmetry surface if the ALE formulation is not activated. They are set equal to the mesh velocity if the ALE formulation is activated. To apply generalized symmetry boundary conditions, use one of the following commands or the GUI equivalent: D,NODE,ENDS,-1 DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2 DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2 With one exception, if any velocity component is specified at the same boundary, the generalized symmetry boundary conditions are overwritten. In a 2-D swirl problem, specification of a velocity component VZ does not overwrite generalized symmetry conditions. Stationary Wall: This is also referred to as a no-slip condition. All the velocity components are set to zero. Moving Wall: Specify the velocity component tangent to the wall and set all other velocity components to zero. As a flag to indicate this is a moving wall, set the turbulent kinetic energy to -1 on a moving wall. This specification is as a flag only; it does not affect the performance of the wall turbulence model. If you are using the GUI, indicate a moving wall when specifying the velocities. Unspecified Boundary: In this case, neither the relative pressure nor the velocities are known. The most common application for this is at downstream boundaries in compressible supersonic flow.

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Section 3.4: Flow Boundary Conditions Periodic Boundary: Conditions are unknown but identical at two boundaries. You select the nodes at one boundary and then issue the macro PERI,DX, DY, DZ, where DX, DY, and DZ are the offsets of the second boundary from the first. The offsets are input in the established FLOTRAN coordinate system. The meshes at the two boundaries must be identical. Intersections: At the intersection of surfaces where two different boundary conditions are applied, either the boundary conditions are merged or one takes precedence over the other. The following table provides guidance on what boundary conditions are applied at the intersection.

Intersecting Boundary 1 Inflow: VX, VY, VZ values specified Inflow: VX, VY, VZ values specified Inflow: VX, VY, VZ values specified Symmetry: VX or VY or VZ = 0 Symmetry: VX or VY or VZ = 0 Wall: VX, VY, VZ = 0 Generalized Symmetry Intersecting Boundary 2 Wall: VX, VY, VZ = 0 Symmetry: VX or VY or VZ = 0 Outflow: P=0 Outflow: P=0 Wall: X, VY, VZ = 0 Outflow: P=0 Outflow: P=0 Action Overwrite inflow with wall

Note Inflow, symmetry , and wall boundary conditions all overwrite generalized symmetry conditions. Inlet Values: If you activate the turbulence model, boundary conditions are required. The ANSYS program supplies default values based on the inlet velocity and a scale factor. Given an inlet velocity magnitude V, the inlet kinetic energy is specified as: 3 kinlet = [(ININ)V]2 2 The default value of the factor ININ is 0.01, corresponding to a level of turbulence of 1 percent at the inlet. The inlet value of the kinetic energy dissipation rate is calculated from:

inlet =

3 Ck 2

(INSF)L

The INSF value is a user-controlled scale factor. To specify the factors ININ and INSF, use either of the following methods: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,ININ,Value and FLDATA24,TURB,INSF,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param You can set specific values of the turbulent kinetic energy (ENKE) or the dissipation rate (ENDS) using either the FLDATA24 command or the menu paths in Section 3.2.2: Determining Whether an Analysis Is Turbulent. Occasionally, you may wish to activate the turbulence model for the case, but deactivate it for certain regions. To deactivate the turbulence model in regions, set the kinetic energy (ENKE) to zero and the dissipation rate (ENDS) to 1.0. It is never valid to set the dissipation rate to zero, and FLOTRAN prohibits it. ENDS will be set to 1.0, if ENKE is set to zero. Wall Roughness: The FLOTRAN default condition is smooth walls. To specify wall roughness values, you must use the equilibrium wall turbulence model. You activate it using the FLDATA24,TURB,WALL,EQLB command. To apply a uniform wall roughness in length units to all walls, you can use the FLDATA24,TURB,KS,Value command. In addition to being the actual roughness, the KS parameter determines the regime of roughness (smooth, transitional, or fully rough). The default value of 0.0 implies a smooth wall. You can also apply an empirical dimensionless factor (CKS) between 0.5 and 1.0 that specifies the degree of nonuniformity of the surface. The default value of 0.5 means that the roughness signified by KS is uniformly distributed. Higher values increase the roughness losses without changing the flow regime implied by the value of KS. You can use the FLDATA24,TURB,CKS,Value command to specify this factor. The following two methods are available if you have surfaces that require different roughness values. The first method utilizes real constants for all the wall elements. You apply suitable KS and CKS values to the near wall elements as real constants. A different real constant set will exist for each set of wall roughnesses. Note that roughness constants applied to elements that are not near wall will be ignored. Also, any KS and CKS values specified by the FLDATA24,TURB command will be ignored. The second method is for cases where most of the surfaces have the same roughness condition and only a few are different. First, set the values appropriate for most of the surfaces with the FLDATA24,TURB command. Then use real constants to apply roughnesses to the walls that have different conditions. The real constants will overwrite the FLDATA24,TURB values. Note that if the same value of CKS is applied to all the surfaces (as is typical), it can be controlled with the FLDATA24,TURB command and the real constant can be omitted.

The most common problems are divergence or oscillation of the pressure and/or velocity field. The following strategies have proven helpful in getting difficult turbulent problems to converge. 1. Activate the turbulence option if you have not done so. Turbulence modeling is activated by either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options 2. Use a mapped mesh if a free mesh has given poor results. Resolve the boundary layer so that the value of Y+ is less than 5000. To set the Y+ output option, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA5,OUTPUT,YPLU,Value 314

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Section 3.5: Strategies for Difficult Problems GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Additional Out> RFL Out Derived 3. Set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor to 1.0. Values as low as 1.0-2 may help. (For incompressible flow problems, you may not need to vary this factor.) To set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA26,STAB,TURB,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms 4. Use pressure and momentum relaxation factors less than 0.5. If values as low as 0.2 do not help, going lower probably will not help either. To set the pressure and momentum relaxation factors, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,PRES,Value FLDATA25,RELX,VX (or VY, VZ),Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation 5. Begin the problem with a higher turbulence ratio (meaning a higher initial effective viscosity). Do not set values for this parameter, which takes effect only at problem startup, above 1.0 x 107. The ratio set controls the initial effective viscosity no matter when you activate the turbulence model. To set the turbulence ratio, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param 6. After initializing with the correct properties, solve the problem with a higher viscosity and the turbulence model turned off. When the flow field is partially converged, the turbulence model is activated. You may need to reduce the relaxation factor of the effective viscosity to 0.1 or 0.0 for some global iterations to allow partial convergence of the turbulence equations. Refer to the foregoing strategies for command information. Difficulties can involve large changes in properties due to large fluctuations in pressure or temperature. Preventing property variations early in the analysis (until the large fluctuations calm down) can stabilize the analysis significantly. You also can invoke velocity capping to prevent large values of velocities or pressures. This is particularly useful in compressible analyses, where velocity spikes can cause negative static temperatures. To implement velocity capping, use either of the following methods: Command(s): FLDATA31,CAPP,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Results Capping If you use the FLDATA31 command, Label represents a capping parameter such as VELO (velocity), or TEMP (temperature). Value is either the capping flag (T or F) or the capping parameter value. Pressure capping applies to relative values of pressure. Temperature capping applies to absolute values of temperature. 8. Problems involving pyramid, wedge or in particular tetrahedral element shapes may require tighter convergence of the pressure equation. Values as low as 1.E-18 may be required (FLDATA21,CONV,PRES,1.E18). You should reduce the convergence criterion until, from one global iteration to the next, the number of iterations required to solve the equation varies by less than 10 percent (as per the Jobname.DBG file).

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Chapter 3: FLOTRAN Laminar and Turbulent Incompressible Flow 9. The solution of the pressure equation may affect the mass balance. The mass balance may be incorrect (as per the Jobname.PFL file) if large aspect ratio elements are near significant flow area changes. Mass imbalances may also occur if inlet or outlet regions are too coarsely meshed or if the flow tends to exit at an angle at outlets.

10. If FLOTRAN displays a message stating that the coefficient matrix has a negative diagonal and the solution is probably divergent, try turning on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation or turbulence equation. Set the Value between 0.1 and 1.0. To achieve a faster convergence rate, use the smallest Value possible. To set the turbulence inertial relaxation factor, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization 11. If you notice anomalous results for 3-D problems, you should increasing the quadrature order to 2. 12. Specifying the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach for momentum may help convergence. Specifying the SUPG approach for temperature may also yield more accurate energy solutions and hence more accurate energy balances. For more information on the SUPG approach, see Chapter 14, Advection Discretization Options.

Access the CFD Tutorial to perform an example analysis of laminar and turbulent flow in a 2D duct. Before you begin the laminar/turbulent example, note the following: The example problem is only one of many possible FLOTRAN analyses. It does not illustrate every technique you might use in a FLOTRAN analysis, and is intended only to show the kinds of tasks a FLOTRAN analysis typically requires. You can use many techniques in a FLOTRAN analysis that are not shown in this problem. For example, you can integrate pressure and shear stress on an airfoil to determine the lift and drag forces (see the description of the INTSRF command in Section 5.3.3: Integrating Surface Results in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). The values you enter in this example are specific values for this example only. The characteristics of the individual problem you are solving dictate what values you should specify for a particular FLOTRAN analysis.

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4.1. Thermal Analysis Overview

In a thermal analysis, you solve the temperature equation to determine temperature. Even if the temperature itself is not important, the variation of fluid properties with temperature may be important enough to warrant a thermal analysis. In addition to calculating a temperature field, a thermal analysis provides heat fluxes at problem boundaries and heat transfer coefficients based on an assumed bulk or ambient temperature. You activate solution of the temperature equation via one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options FLOTRAN automatically includes viscous heating for compressible flows. For information on activating viscous heating for incompressible flows, see Section 4.5.2: Forced Convection, Temperature Dependent Properties and the description of the FLDATA1 command in the ANSYS Commands Reference.

The ANSYS program has no formal criteria for evaluating the finite element mesh. However, thermal gradients are often extremely high near thermal boundaries, especially heat flux boundaries. Therefore, the mesh should usually be denser near thermal boundaries.

In addition to density and viscosity, thermal flow problems require the specification of thermal conductivity and specific heat. You must determine whether or not fluid properties should vary with temperature. To set properties for non-fluid regions, use one of these methods: Command(s): MP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity> Isotropic Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Specific Heat Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props

The ANSYS program supports six types of thermal boundary conditions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Constant temperatures Constant heat fluxes Applied heat transfer (film) coefficients with associated ambient temperatures Ambient radiation with associated surface emissivities and ambient temperatures Surface-to-surface radiation with associated emissivities and enclosure number. Adiabatic boundaries (the default condition)

In addition, constant volumetric heat sources may be located in both fluid and non-fluid regions.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses The applicable commands are summarized below. You can apply your boundary conditions via TABLE type array parameters (see Section 2.3.4.2.1: Applying Loads Using TABLE Type Array Parameters in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). You can also apply your boundary conditions using function boundary conditions (see Section 2.6.15: Applying Loads Using Function Boundary Conditions in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide). You can define a TABLE type array parameter to apply your boundary conditions in a FLOTRAN analysis. Attempting to use tabular boundary conditions in a FLOTRAN analysis will create erroneous results.

The table below lists the loads you can apply in a thermal FLOTRAN analysis.

Table 4.1 Command Family and GUI Path Used to Apply Loads

Load Type Temperature (TEMP) Convection (CONV), Heat Flux (HFLU), Radiation (RAD), Surface-to-surface radiation (RDSF) Category Constraints Surface Loads Cmd Family D SF GUI Path Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Temperature Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Convection Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Heat Flux Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Ambient Rad Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Surface Rad Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Heat Generat

BF

The table below lists all the commands in detail you can use to apply loads in a FLOTRAN thermal analysis.

Load Type Temperature Solid Model or FE Entity Apply D SFL SFA SF SFE SFE BFL BFA BFV BF Delete DDELE SFLDELE SFADELE SFDELE SFEDELE SFEDELE BFLDELE BFADELE BFVDELE BFDELE List DLIST SFALIST SFLIST SFELIST SFELIST BFLLIST BFALIST BFVLIST BFLIST Operate SFTRAN SFSCALE SFSCALE BFTRAN BFTRAN BFTRAN Apply Settings SFGRAD -

Finite Element Nodes Lines Areas Nodes Elements Lines Areas Volumes

Convection, Heat Solid Model Flux, Ambient Radi- Solid Model ation, or Surface-toFinite Element surface Radiation Finite Element Heat Generation Rates Solid Model Solid Model Solid Model

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Finite Element Elements BFE BFEDELE BFELIST BFSCALE -

Note You must use tabular boundary conditions if you are applying tapered heat flux or convection loads.

You access all operations except List through a series of cascading menus. From the Solution Menu, you choose the operation (Apply, Delete, etc.), then the load type (temperature, heat flux, etc.), and then the object (node, line, or area) to which you are applying the load. For example, to apply a temperature load to lines, follow this GUI path: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Lines To list loads, follow this GUI path: Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type

4.4.1.3. Solutions

The following list describes what is known and what is calculated as a function of the type of boundary specified. For temperature boundary conditions, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient are calculated. For heat flux boundary conditions, temperature and heat transfer coefficient are calculated. For ambient radiation boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated. For surface-to-surface radiation boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated. For heat transfer boundary conditions, temperature and heat flux are calculated. For adiabatic boundary conditions, temperature is calculated.

When you apply a heat transfer (film) coefficient, you also specify an associated ambient temperature. The ANSYS program uses this along with the surface temperature to calculate the heat flux at that boundary. You specify heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at external model boundaries. You cannot specify them at general internal surfaces. You can specify heat flux and heat transfer coefficients at internal boundary faces (such as fluid/solid interface surfaces), but FLOTRAN will issue a warning because they are probably incorrect. In a standard FLOTRAN analysis the heat transfer at a fluid/solid boundary is a desired result, not a boundary condition. If you wish to apply a heat flux or a heat transfer coefficient, you should apply it at the external solid material boundary, or at the edge of the fluid region without modeling the solid material in the analysis. If you specify a film coefficient or a heat flux at an internal fluid/solid interface, FLOTRAN interprets it to be a line/area heat source or sink. You can prescribe temperatures anywhere. In cases where you must calculate the heat transfer coefficient at a surface, ANSYS uses the surface temperature along with the bulk temperature you specify using either of the following methods: Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,BULK,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions If the analysis is compressible, boundary condition temperatures are in terms of total temperature, and the temperature equation is formulated and solved in terms of total temperature.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses The FLOTRAN ambient radiation load simulates radiation heat transfer to space at a constant temperature. You specify the constant temperature with the SF command. You specify the Stefan-Boltzmann constant with the STEF command (defaults to 0.119E-10 Btu/hr/in2/ R4). The form factor is 1.0 by assumption. Since radiation can pass through a fluid region and impact on a solid, you can apply the ambient radiation load on a fluid/solid interface, as well as on external model boundaries. In this case, you should apply the surface load to either the fluid or solid element faces, or the solid model entity defining the interface. If you apply the load to more than one face, FLOTRAN applies the boundary conditions on only one face and issues a message that it skipped duplicate boundary conditions.

The most efficient way to solve thermal-flow problems depends on the degree to which the fluid properties depend on the temperature.

In this case, the flow solution does not depend at all on the temperature field and can be converged without activating the temperature equation solution. Once the flow solution is complete, the temperature equation become linear. You can then solve it in one global iteration after you set the relaxation factor for temperature to 1 using either method shown below: Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/DOF Relaxation Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap/Prop Relaxation This is often best accomplished with a semi-direct solution algorithm. See Chapter 11, FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation for more information. The flow equations need not be solved during the solution of the temperature equation. Executing two global iterations should result in a very small change, if any, in the answer during the second calculation. This will be reflected in a large decrease in the convergence monitors for temperature in the second iteration.

The flow pattern will be a mild function of the temperature field. You can choose to solve the temperature equation every global iteration or converge the flow field calculations before activating solution of the temperature equation. In the latter case, you will still need to solve the flow and temperature equations together to refine the flow field with the property variations. If difficulties with the temperature equation are encountered early in the solution, it is then best to start over and partially converge the flow solution before allowing the properties to vary with temperature. For incompressible flows, viscous heating is generally not important for cases with low Prandtl numbers or low to moderate velocities. However, you should turn on viscous heating whenever the Prandtl number is greater than 2 or the velocities are high (e.g., greater than 100 m/s in air). FLOTRAN automatically includes viscous heating for compressible flows. To include viscous heating for incompressible flows, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,IVSH,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

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Section 4.5: Solution Strategies For information on the energy units required for thermal quantities when an incompressible analysis includes viscous heating, refer to Section 9.2: Fluid Property Types.

In this case, the driving force for the flow is the density change brought about by temperature variations. You must turn on both options. You also must do the following: Specify acceleration due to gravity, using one of the following: Command(s): ACEL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity Activate the variable density option using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA13,VARY,Label,TRUE (Label = fluid property) GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid properties

Buoyancy property types, which use a constant pressure to evaluate the density from the ideal gas law are provided for AIR. (See Chapter 9, Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN.) Pressure fluctuations are thus prevented from causing instabilities in density calculations. Natural convection cases converge slowly, and may be more stable if the TDMA algorithm is used for pressure and temperature. The number of sweeps used may be set to Number of Nodes/10, but should be at least 100.

When the thermal properties of the non-fluid material are several orders of magnitude different from those of the fluid, this is called an ill-conditioned conjugate heat transfer problem. In this situation, the TDMA method probably will not yield useful results, no matter how many sweeps you specify. You access the TDMA method using either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,1 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD The Conjugate Residual method offers more functionality and requires little more memory than the Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA) method. To access it, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,2 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD You can control several parameters, such as convergence criteria and the number of search vectors used, to enhance performance. (See the discussion of FLDATA18 in the ANSYS Commands Reference for more information about these parameters.) However, the conjugate residual method, although fairly fast, is not suited for difficult problems. A more robust choice for solving ill-conditioned heat transfer problems is the Preconditioned Conjugate Residual method, which requires much more memory than either the TDMA or Conjugate Residual methods. The PCR method allows you to control the number of search vectors used, up to a maximum of 30. To use it, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD Note For nodes connected only to solid nodes, the value stored in the Jobname.RFL file under the density (DENS) label is the product of the density and specific heat.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses You can evaluate performance of the Conjugate Residual and Preconditioned Conjugate Residual methods by looking at the Jobname.DBG file (described in Chapter 11, FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation). The most robust, but most memory-intensive, method for solving conjugate heat transfer problems is the Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual method. You can access it via either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,4 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> Temp Solver CFD The Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) solution method is the default choice for temperature. Although the same user controls exist for the PGMR method as for the PCCR solver, the default values are different. For PGMR, the least restrictive convergence criterion allowed is 1.E-10. If you try to use a less restrictive convergence criterion, FLOTRAN will change it to 1.E-10. A convergence criterion as low as 1.E-20 may be necessary for some problems. In addition, you should use at least 12 search vectors, and FLOTRAN ensures this. For the PGMR solver, 12 search vectors is the default and the allowable range is 12 to 20. FLOTRAN non-fluid elements support both temperature dependence and orthotropic variation. That is, KXX, KYY, and KZZ can assume different values and temperature variations. FLOTRAN considers conductivity as an element quantity, evaluated at the quadrature points in the element. However, in fluid elements, FLOTRAN considers thermal conductivity to be a nodal quantity. To specify the variable and orthotropic conductivities, you use the following commands or GUI paths: Command(s): MP or MPDATA GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> CFD> Conductivity> Orthotropic Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Load Step Opts> Other> Change Mat Props Note Thermal analysis problems having variable thermal conductivity are nonlinear and require multiple iterations to solve. Variable solid thermal conductivities are not relaxed. For a conjugate heat transfer problem, it is wise to obtain an initial temperature solution before solving the coupled energy/momentum equations. To achieve the temperature solution, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,F GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,T GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,TEMP,1.0 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> DOF Relaxation Command(s): FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,1 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,TEMP,3 GUI: Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> TEMP Solver CFD In the above steps, an initial temperature solution is obtained from a solution of the heat conduction equation. FLOTRAN can calculate film coefficients at walls in conjugate heat transfer problems. Two algorithms are available for this purpose: the conductivity matrix algorithm and the temperature field algorithm. The conductivity matrix algorithm uses the thermal conductivity matrix to calculate heat fluxes and film coefficients. It is the default. Generally, it produces satisfactory results for well shaped elements. However, if the elements are not well shaped, it can produce non-smooth results. You should then switch to the temperature field algorithm. It calculates film coefficients directly from thermal gradients. To set the algorithm, use the following: Command(s): FLDATA37,ALGR,HFLM,Value

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Section 4.6: Heat Balance GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Ctr

Using information in the Jobname.PFL file, you can calculate a heat balance for your problem. For any flow problem with the thermal option activated, the energy flow into and out of the problem domain at the inlets/outlets is calculated and tabulated. Also calculated for the flow boundaries is the heat conduction across the boundary faces. The difference between the energy flow into the system and out of the system at the flow boundaries should equal the total energy added through sources and sinks. The accuracy of the energy balance depends on the approach used to discretize the advection term in the energy equation. In general, the Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach provides a more accurate energy balance than the Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU) approach. If you desire an exact energy balance, use the Collocated Galerkin (COLG) approach. For steady-state incompressible flows, it provides an exact energy balance, even with a coarse mesh. However, SUPG or COLG may suffer from oscillatory thermal solution near walls with a coarse mesh. Use the FLDATA40,WADV command to minimize such spatial oscillation. Energy flowing into or out of the system at mass flow boundaries is equal to the product of the mass flow, the specific heat, and the temperature. A temperature offset specified by the TOFFST command does not enter this calculation. Positive numbers mean heat flows into the system. Energy sources include volumetric heat sources in either fluids or solids. Specified wall temperatures and specified film coefficient boundaries are either sources or sinks, depending on the temperature gradient. Heat fluxes are sources or sinks depending on the sign. Heat transfer to/from wall faces refers to boundaries of fluid regions which are not inlets or outlets. Heat transfer at wall faces refers to fluid boundaries, regardless of whether or not the boundary is a no-fluid element or simply a no-slip condition. Positive numbers mean heat flows into the fluid. Volumetric heat generation can be applied to solid regions or fluid regions. Be careful, when calculating the energy balance to avoid accounting for heat generation in solids twice. For example, suppose a conjugate heat transfer problem featured a volumetric heat source in a solid region which is cooled by a fluid flow. The difference between the energy flow in and out should equal heat transfer to wall faces. This number should also match the volumetric heat generation in the solid. For all cases, the difference between the energy flowing into the system at flow boundaries and flowing out at the boundaries should equal heat transfer to wall faces plus fluid volumetric heat sources plus the heat conduction effects normal to the flow direction at the flow boundaries. Essentially, FLOTRAN performs a heat balance on the fluid region only. Heat fluxes and film coefficients are solution outputs for the external fluid boundaries only. Heat fluxes applied on external boundaries are not part of the solution output. The effects of viscous dissipation on a heat balance are not explicitly tabulated. The associated heat generation is manifested in terms of an increased temperature, which in turn affects the energy departure at the outlet and the heat transfer at wall faces if applicable. With adiabatic walls, for example, the temperature of the fluid will increase from viscous dissipation, even though no heat sources will be apparent.

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Surface-to-surface radiation analysis in FLOTRAN can be used for solving generalized radiation problems involving two or more radiating surfaces in single or multiple open or closed enclosures. The method is supported for both 3-D and 2-D FLOTRAN elements FLUID141 and FLUID142. The thermal solution option has to be on for radiation analysis. You can switch radiation analysis off using the FLDATA1, SOLU, RDSF command. The command defaults to on. Surface-to-surface radiation analysis in 2-D is supported for planar and axisymmetric geometry about YR and XR coordinate systems. Radiation analysis is not supported for 3-D/2-D compressible flow thermal analysis and for R- and R--Z coordinate system in 2-D and 3-D analysis respectively. Elements supported for the radiosity method include: FLOTRAN FLUID141 FLUID142

4.7.1. Procedure

The Radiosity Solution method consists of four steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Define the radiating surfaces. Define Solution options. Define View Factor options. Calculate and query view factors.

See Section 4.7: Using the Radiosity Solver Method in the ANSYS Thermal Analysis Guide for a detailed explanation of these steps.

Jobname.PFL file provides information of the net positive and negative radiation heat transfer from both solid and fluid surfaces. See Section 4.9: Example of Radiation Analysis Using FLOTRAN (Command Method)

This chapter describes a laminar, thermal, steady-state fluid flow problem and two ways to solve it: by choosing items on the ANSYS GUI menus or by issuing a series of ANSYS commands. Before you begin reading about the example, note the following: The example problem described is only one of many possible FLOTRAN analyses. It does not illustrate every technique you might use in a FLOTRAN analysis, and is intended only to show the kinds of tasks a FLOTRAN analysis typically requires. The values you enter in this example via commands or dialog boxes are specific values for this example only. The characteristics of the individual problem you are solving dictate what values you should specify for a particular FLOTRAN analysis.

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This example evaluates buoyancy-driven flow in a square cavity with differentially heated vertical sides. It is a laminar steady-state analysis that uses the FLUID141 2-D element. The physics modeled in this problem govern a number of practical problems, including solar energy collection, the ventilation of rooms, and so on.

Density variations resulting from the temperature difference across the cavity drive the laminar flow. The Rayleigh number for this flow is 1.01E+05, and is defined as follows: Ra = g TL3 2Cp/k The symbols in this equation are: g = gravitational acceleration = 1/T T = THOT - TCOLD L = cavity length = density Cp = specific heat k = thermal conductivity = viscosity Other example analysis conditions are: Cavity: dimensions 0.03m x 0.03m; gravitational acceleration 9.81 m/s2 Operating conditions: nominal temperature 193K; reference pressure 1.0135E+05 Pa Fluid: Air in SI units Loads: no slip walls (Vx = Vy = 0); left wall of cavity maintained at THOT = 320K; right wall of cavity maintained at TCOLD = 280K

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To do the example buoyancy-driven flow analysis using the menus, perform the steps discussed in the next few sections.

When you have entered the ANSYS program, do these tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose menu path Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears. Enter the text "Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity." Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears. Click the button for FLOTRAN CFD to "On." Click on OK. You have just instructed the ANSYS program to do a FLOTRAN analysis.

Next, you need to specify which elements your analysis will use. The example uses only one element, FLUID141. To define it: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box appears. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. In the two scrollable lists, highlight (click on) FLOTRAN CFD and "2D FLOTRAN 141." Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box. Click on Close.

Next, create the areas you need. Our example requires an area representing the square cavity. To create it, perform these tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Rectangle> By Dimensions. The Create Rectangle by Dimensions dialog box appears. Enter the X coordinates from 0.0 to 0.03. Enter the Y coordinates from 0.0 to 0.03. Click on OK. The square area you have just created will appear in the Graphics Window.

This step meshes the square cavity area so that you can apply temperature loads to it. Follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. 410 Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> MeshTool. Under the Size Controls section of the MeshTool, click Lines,Set. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. Click Pick All. The Element Size on Picked Lines dialog box appears. Set the number of element divisions to 25.

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Section 4.8: Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Click on OK. In the MeshTool, select Areas from the Mesh drop down menu. Then click Quad and Free. Then click MESH. The Mesh Areas picking menu appears. Click on Pick All to generate the mesh. Click on Close on the MeshTool. Click SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

In this step and Step 6, you apply boundary conditions to your model, starting with the exterior nodes. Do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Select Nodes and Exterior. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes. The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears. On the picking menu, click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears. Set the VX velocity component and VY velocity component fields to 0. Click on OK.

Now you need to apply temperature loads on the left and right edges of the model. To do so: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Nodes. The Apply TEMP on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on Box. Doing this enables you to select the nodes to which you are applying loads by drawing a box around them. Press and drag your left mouse button to draw a box around the nodes on the left edge of the meshed area. Click on OK. In the Apply TEMP on Nodes dialog box, enter 320 as the temperature value. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Thermal> Temperature> On Nodes. The Apply TEMP on Nodes picking menu appears. On the menu, click on Box. Doing this enables you to select the nodes to which you are applying loads by drawing a box around them. Press and drag your left mouse button to draw a box around the nodes on the right edge of the meshed area.

10. Click on OK. 11. In the Apply TEMP on Nodes dialog box, enter 280 as the temperature value. 12. Click on OK.

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses 13. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Select> Everything. This step is important; it ensures that ANSYS includes all nodes and elements in the analysis. 14. Click on the SAVE_DB button on the Toolbar.

In this step and the next few steps, you set up conditions for the FLOTRAN analysis. You first specify what type of FLOTRAN analysis you are doing and what values will control FLOTRAN execution. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options. The FLOTRAN Solution Options dialog box appears. Set the "Adiabatic or thermal?" field to Thermal. Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings dialog box appears. Set the Global Iterations (EXEC) field to 200. Set the .RFL File Overwrite Freq field to 50. Set the Output summary frequency (SUMF) field to 50. Click on OK.

To set the fluid properties for the example analysis, do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties. The Fluid Properties dialog box appears. Set the "Density," "Viscosity," "Conductivity," and "Specific heat" fields to AIR-SI. Set the "Allow density variations?" field to Yes. Click on Apply. The CFD Flow Properties dialog box appears. Read the information about how coefficients will be calculated, then click on OK.

To set the flow environment parameters, follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity. The Gravity Specification dialog box appears. Set the "Accel in Y direction" field to 9.81. Click on OK.

Set controls for the FLOTRAN solver before you initiate the solution process. Follow these steps: 1. 2. 412 Choose menu path Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES Solver CFD. The PRES Solver CFD dialog box appears. Choose TDMA.

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Section 4.8: Examples of a Laminar, Thermal, Steady-State FLOTRAN Analysis 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Click on OK. The TDMA Pressure dialog box appears. Make sure that the value of the "No. of TDMA sweeps for pressure" field is 100. If so, click on OK. Click on the SAVE_DB button in the Toolbar. Choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. Wait for the solution to finish, then review the information in the ANSYS Output Window. Click Close in the Solution is done window.

Perform these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Read Results> Last Set. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. In the "Item to be Contoured" list, click on (highlight) DOF Solution. In the scrollable list, scroll down and choose TEMP. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows you the following contour plot:

1. 2. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Nodal Solu. The Contour Nodal Solution Data dialog box appears. Click on (highlight) "Other quantities." In the scrollable list, select "Strm func2D STRM" (stream function).

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Chapter 4: FLOTRAN Thermal Analyses 4. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows you the following contour plot:

For better viewing of the analysis results for the example, switch to vector plotting as described below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Device Options. The Device Options dialog box appears. Set Vector mode (wireframe) to "On." Click on OK. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Result> Vector Plot> Predefined. The Vector Plot of Predefined Vectors dialog box appears. Verify that the items "DOF solution" and "Velocity" are highlighted. If so, click on OK. The display in the Graphics Window now looks similar to the one below.

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In the example analysis, the dimensions of the problem are small (.03 x .03). Therefore, before plotting particle trace points, you should change the working plane to give a better view from which to choose those points. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose menu path Utility Menu> WorkPlane> WP Settings. The WP Settings dialog box appears. Set Snap Increment to 0.0005. Set Spacing to 0.0001. Set Tolerance to 0.00005. Click on OK. Choose menu path Utility Menu> Plot> Elements. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Defi Trace Pt. Using your mouse, pick five or six points anywhere within the upper half of the problem domain. Click on OK in the picking menu.

10. Choose menu path Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow Trace. The Plot Flow Trace dialog box appears. 11. In the scrollable list, click on (highlight) "Temperature TEMP". 12. Click on OK. The Graphics Window shows a plot that resembles the plot shown below. Your plot may look different, depending on the location of the points you picked. If a warning message appears telling you that the maximum number of loops has been exceeded, review it and click Close. For the purposes of this problem, the particle trace is stuck in a loop by definition, so you can ignore this message.

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1. 2. 3. Choose menu path Main Menu> General PostProc> Plot Results> Flow Trace> Plot Flow Trace. The Plot Flow Trace dialog box appears. In the scrollable list, choose "VSUM." Click on OK. The plot shown in the Graphics Window is now contoured by velocity magnitude. How your plot looks will depend on the location of the points you picked. If you receive another warning message about the maximum number of loops being exceeded, click Close. If you wish, you can use animation to enhance your analysis of particle flow. Choose menu path Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Particle Flow. When the Animate Flow Trace dialog box appears, enter the desired animation data and click OK. (To animate particle flow, you must have at least one trace point defined. To complete the sample analysis, simply take the defaults and click on OK.) When you are done viewing the animation, click Stop and then Close in the Animation Controller. If additional warning messages appear, close them. To exit ANSYS, click Quit on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and then click on OK.

4.

5. 6.

See Section 5.10, Doing the Sample Analysis (Command Method), for an example problem.

To do the example buoyancy-driven flow analysis, you issue these ANSYS commands:

/TITLE,Buoyancy driven flow in a square cavity /PREP7 ET,1,FLUID141 ! Set 2-D fluid element type

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RECTNG,,0.03,,0.03 ! Create square area LPLOT LESIZE,ALL, , ,25,1,0 ! Define line divisions and mesh area AMESH,1 EPLOT NSEL,S,EXT ! Apply velocity b.c. on exterior nodes D,ALL,,,,,,VX,VY NSEL,S,NODE,,1 ! Apply thermal b.c. on left edge NSEL,A,NODE,,52 NSEL,A,NODE,,77,100 D,ALL,TEMP,320 NSEL,S,NODE,,2 ! Apply thermal b.c. on right edge NSEL,A,NODE,,27,51 D,ALL,TEMP,280 NSEL,ALL ESEL,ALL FLDATA1,SOLU,TEMP,1 ! Set solution option to thermal FLDATA2,ITER,EXEC,200 ! Set FLOTRAN execution controls FLDATA2,ITER,OVER,50 FLDATA5,OUTP,SUMF,50 !* FLDATA13,VARY,DENS,1 ! Set fluid properties FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,AIR-SI FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,AIR-SI FLDATA7,PROT,COND,AIR-SI FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,-1 FLDATA7,PROT,SPHT,AIR-SI !* ACEL,0,9.81,0 ! Set flow environment gravity FLDATA18,METH,PRES,1 ! Set FLOTRAN solver controls FLDATA19,TDMA,PRES,100 FINISH /SOLU SOLVE ! Solve model FINISH /POST1 SET,LAST PLNSOL,TEMP ! Plot temperature solution PLNSOL,STRM ! Plot streamline contours /DEVICE,VECTOR,1 !* PLVECT,V, , , ,VECT,ELEM ! Plot velocity vectors wpstyle,0.0005,0.0001,-1,1,0.00005,0,2,,5 EPLOT TRPOIN,P ! The P argument enables graphical picking ! of trace points via the GUI PLTRAC,FLUID,TEMP ! Plot particle traces contoured by PLTRAC,FLUID,V,SUM ! temperature and velocity magnitude FINISH

The following is an example of a laminar, thermal, steady-state FLOTRAN analysis with surface-to-surface radiation using the radiosity solution method (command method). In this example a buoyancy-driven flow in a square cavity with differentially heated vertical walls is considered. All walls of the cavity are radiating surfaces with an emissivity of 0.9. The final temperature distribution in the cavity effected by the presence of the radiating walls in the fluid domain. To do the surface-to-surface radiation problem, you issue these ANSYS commands:

/prep7 et, 1, 141 ! 2-D Fluid element rectng, , .027744, , .027744 ! Create square cavity esize, , 20 ! Set number of elements amesh, all ! Mesh area nsel, s, ext ! Select external nodes d, all,,,,,,vx,vy ! Set all external wall velocities to zero allsel lsel, s, loc, x, 0.0

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nsll, s, 1 d, all, temp, 500 ! Set wall temperature at x = 0.0 to 500 K lsel, s, loc, x, .027744 nsll, s, 1 d, all, temp, 200 ! Set wall temperature at x = 0.027744 to 200 K nsel, all esel, all fldata1, solu, temp, 1 ! Set solution option to thermal fldata2, iter, exec, 200 ! Set FLOTRAN execution control fldata2, iter, over, 50 fldata5, outp, sumf, 50 ! fldata13, vary, dens, 1 ! Set fluid properties fldata7, prot, dens, air-si fldata7, prot, visc, air-si fldata7, prot, cond, air-si fldata8, nomi, cond, -1 fldata7, prot, spht, air-si ! acel, 0, 9.81, 0 ! Set flow environment gravity fldata18, meth, pres, 1 fldata19, tdma, pres, 100 fldata18, meth, temp, 6 stef,5.67e-8 ! Set Stefan-Boltzmann constant toff,0 ! Set temperature offset to zero radopt,.5,0.0001 ! Set radiosity solver options finish /solu allsel nsel,s,ext ! Select all external nodes sf, all, rdsf, 0.9, -1 ! Apply radiation on external faces facing inwards allsel solve ! Solve finish /post1 set last plnsol, temp ! Plot temperature solution plnsol, strm ! Plot streamline contours

Another example of a FLOTRAN analysis is the CFD Tutorial. Also, the ANSYS Verification Manual contains several additional examples of FLOTRAN analyses. The ANSYS Verification Manual examples include: VM46 - Flow Between Rotating Concentric Cylinders VM121 - Laminar Flow Through a Pipe with Uniform Heat Flux VM178 - Plane Poiseuille Flow VM209 - Multiple Species Flow Entering A Circular Pipe VM219 - Non-Newtonian Pressure Driven Sector Flow

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You activate the transient algorithm by setting the solution option, using one of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options You must make decisions regarding the time step, the method of converging the analysis during a time step, the length of execution of the job and the frequency of output. What you specify via one of the following methods determines the transient execution and output: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME and FLDATA4A,STEP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl The final section of this chapter explains how to apply transient boundary conditions for FLOTRAN.

There are two methods available for the time integration: Backward (the default) and Newmark. The Newmark method is more accurate than the Backward method. To specify the Newmark method, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,METH,NEWM GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth When using the Newmark method, you can introduce numerical damping to stabilize the solution. Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,DELT,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Time Integration Meth The Newmark parameter must be 0.5. It defaults to 0.5. The recommended range is 0.5 to 0.6. Higher values are more stable because there is more damping. Lower values result in more accurate results with 0.5 corresponding to second order accuracy. For more information on the Newmark method, see Section 17.2: Transient Analysis in the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference. There are two mass types that you can set for the transient analysis: lumped (the default) and consistent. The consistent type is more dissipative than the lumped type. To specify the consistent type, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA38,MASS,Label,CONS MSMASS,SPNUM,CONS GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Mass Type Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Transient Contrl> Mass Type Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

Because the algorithm is implicit in nature, no stability restrictions exist on the time step size. You specify a time step or elect to have FLOTRAN calculate a time step. To do so, use either of the following: Command(s): FLDATA4A,TIME,STEP,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl The graphical user interface will require you to set the time step if you choose the User Defined option.

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses The table below shows the values you can specify. A brief description of the FLOTRAN calculation follows the table.

Value to Specify Any value > 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 User Specified Time Step Advection Limit Pressure Wave Limit Smaller of Pressure wave and Advection Conduction Limit Meaning

The advection limit prevents a particle of fluid from passing completely through a finite element during a time step. The pressure wave limit means the time step is chosen small enough to prevent a pressure wave from passing all the way through a finite element during a single time step. This option is active only if you choose the compressible solution algorithm. The choice of -3 (again valid only for compressible analyses) means that the more restrictive (that is, smaller) time step criterion will be imposed. The conduction limit is calculated to prevent the conductive diffusion of a parcel of energy completely through an element during a time step. The limit applies only to problems that include conduction, and is valid for problems with both fluid and non-fluid elements. FLOTRAN must execute global iterations to converge within a time step. The time step terminates when either of the following happens: The convergence criteria are met. The maximum number of global iterations allowed per time step executes.

You set the maximum number of global iterations per time step using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA4A,TIME,GLOB,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl The convergence criteria are values below which the convergence monitors for each active degree of freedom must drop to cause the time step to terminate. You specify these values using the following commands or menu paths: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl As soon as all the convergence criteria are met, the time step terminates. The time step terminates on the number of global iterations allowed if the convergence monitor criteria are not met. If the problem is adiabatic, only the pressure equation monitor is checked. Both the pressure and temperature equation monitors must be reduced below the convergence criteria values if the temperature equation also is solved.

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Section 5.4: Applying Transient Boundary Conditions As soon as the convergence monitor criteria are met, the time step terminates. The time step terminates on the number of global iterations allowed if the convergence monitor criteria are not met.

You can either specify an end time for a transient FLOTRAN analysis or have it end after a specified number of time steps. To specify an end time, use either method shown below. Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl To specify a number of time steps, either use one of the menu paths listed above or issue the following command: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,Value The event that occurs first (end time or reaching the time step threshold) terminates the analysis. You determine how often ANSYS saves the analysis results for processing and how often it writes information to the Jobname.PFL file. You do this by choosing from the following commands or menu paths: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,Label,Value and FLDATA4A,STEP,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl The table below shows you how the values you specify affect analysis output:

Name, Label, Value STEP,APPE,n TIME,APPE,x STEP,SUMF,n TIME,SUMF,x STEP,OVER,n TIME,OVER,x Meaning of Value Output results to Jobname.RFL every n time steps Output results to Jobname.RFL every x seconds Add output summary to Jobname.PFL every n time steps Add output summary to Jobname.PFL every x seconds Overwrite the temporary results set every n time steps Overwrite the temporary results set every x seconds

If you wish to control the output based on time, you must first defeat the default controls which set APPE and SUMF to ten steps.

When any boundary conditions are changed, FLOTRAN assumes either a step change (default) or a ramp change. The ramp is chosen by setting the BC label in the TIME item to 1 via one in the following: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,BC,1 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control The ramp will occur for the next execution over the period of time for execution specified by the user. This is the difference between the current time (i.e., the beginning in the execution) and the end time as specified by the following: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Execution Control

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Chapter 5: FLOTRAN Transient Analyses The ramp is between the old boundary conditions and the new boundary conditions. A boundary condition is considered old as soon as FLOTRAN has gone through the calculational loop. This means that to use a ramped condition at the beginning of an analysis, a zero iteration execution (which may be accomplished with the FLOCHECK command) should be done with the initial condition (applied as a boundary condition) and then the boundary condition value(s) are changed to those at the end in the ramp. Note that the ramp is calculated with the value of TEND as specified above, NOT the actual ending time in the case. For this reason, it is recommended that the user terminate the case with the TIME controls rather than the STEP controls. Ensure that the case will not terminate prematurely due to an insufficient number of time steps. If the case terminates before the time specified by TEND, upon restart the boundary conditions will be immediately changed from where they were when the run terminated to what the current boundary condition setting is. If you use the STEP controls in the GUI to set the number of time steps, you need to set TEND in that same dialog box. Otherwise, TEND defaults to 1.0 x 106 and the ramp is almost nonexistent. Transient boundary conditions on velocity DOF (VX, VY, and VZ) must not be ramped from zero to a nonzero value. A very small velocity must be used instead of zero so that FLOTRAN recognizes the face as an inlet or outlet rather than a wall. At any time, you can change the applied boundary conditions to the "old" state with one of the following: Command(s): FLOCHECK,2 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Flocheck FLOCHECK,2 has no effect on the Jobname.RFL file. Caution: FLOTRAN has no record of boundary conditions at earlier times. That is, if you want to restart from an earlier point in time and simulate a ramped boundary condition it is necessary to apply the boundary condition appropriate for the beginning of the ramp, make it an old condition via the FLOCHECK command, and then apply the condition at the end of the ramp.

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6.1. Overview

In a Volume of Fluid (VOF) analysis, FLOTRAN uses an advection algorithm for the volume fraction (VFRC) to track the evolution of the free surface. The VFRC value for each element varies from zero to one, where zero denotes an empty or void element and one denotes a full or fluid element. The values between zero and one indicate that the corresponding elements are the partially full or surface elements (henceforth called partial elements), and the free surface can thus be determined by the distribution of the VFRC field. For the dynamic behavior at the interface between a gas and liquid, FLOTRAN uses a continuum surface force (CSF) method to model the surface tension. Surface tension is an inherent characteristic of material interfaces. It is a localized surface force acting on the interface. FLOTRAN reformulates this surface force into an equivalent volumetric force in the momentum equation. This force consists of two components: a normal component to the interface due to local curvature and a tangential component to the interface due to local variations of the surface tension coefficient. Currently, VOF capability is available only for quadrilateral elements for two dimensional planar or axisymmetric analyses. For a VOF analysis, boundary conditions are required for boundary nodes that belong to at least one non-empty (partial or full) element. To activate a VOF analysis in FLOTRAN and model the surface tension effect, use the following commands or GUI menu paths: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,VOF,Value FLDATA1,SOLU,SFTS,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options In FLOTRAN, the VOF algorithm first computes the motion of the polygon of fluid in a Lagrangian sense and then utilizes the computational geometry of the intersection of two polygons to determine the VFRC fluxes. This method is referred to as the Computational Lagrangian-Eulerian Advection Remap (CLEAR) method. See the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference for information on the theoretical background. This CLEAR-VOF method tracks the free surface explicitly in time, and it is therefore necessary to activate the transient solution option for a VOF analysis. Refer to Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses for information on the selection of the transient parameters, such as the time step, converging method, execution length and the output frequency. For accuracy, you should use the Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) approach described in Chapter 14, Advection Discretization Options. If you encounter a convergence difficulty, the time increment may be reduced, and the modified inertial relaxation (MIR) scheme may also be activated for robustness. Caution: You should avoid using quadrilateral elements with only one node on the inflow or outflow boundary.

When performing a VOF analysis, you need to apply both initial and boundary VFRC loads. In most cases, default values are appropriate.

You impose initial conditions for the velocity and other degrees of freedom in the usual manner. For the initial VFRC field, you can define each element as initially full, partially full or empty. Take care when initially setting partial elements. Each partial element must be adjacent to at least one full element and one empty element.

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

Chapter 6: Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses During the analysis, if a partial element does not have any full elements as neighbors, it will be reset to empty. You should also include at least one layer of empty elements above the free surface to allow the surface to evolve in time. To set the initial volume fraction field, use one of the following: Command(s): ICE,ELEM,VFRC,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Init Loads> On Elements Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Init Loads> On Elements By default, the volume fraction is zero. Therefore, if there is fluid initially inside the problem domain, you must set the VFRC field accordingly. To set the initial volume fraction for a given geometry, use one of the following: Command(s): ICVFRC,GEOM,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Volume Fract> Init Loads> By Geom Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Frac> Init Loads> By Geom ICVFRC automatically calculates the volume fraction value for all selected elements that are either inside the given geometry or intersect with it. The volume fraction is: One for elements completely within the geometry A fraction equal to the element area within the geometry for elements intersected by the boundary of the geometry

Currently, there are two valid geometries: circle (CIRC) and ellipse (ELPT). For a circle or ellipse, VAL1 and VAL2 are the x and y coordinates of the center, respectively. For a circle, VAL3 is the radius and VAL4 is not used. For an ellipse, VAL3 and VAL4 are the x and y semiaxes, respectively. To display the initial volume fraction loads, use the following: Command(s): /PICE,VFRC,,KEY GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Symbols The /PBF and /PSF commands override the /PICE command.

You impose boundary conditions for the velocity and other degrees of freedom in the usual manner. Although boundary conditions outside the fluid region have no physical meaning initially, these conditions will become active if the fluid touches these boundaries. Accordingly, you should apply all appropriate boundary conditions on all boundaries potentially touched by the fluid. FLOTRAN treats unspecified boundaries with natural conditions. Boundary conditions for VFRC loads consist of the boundary VFRC value and the wetting status. FLOTRAN only allows zero (empty) and one (full) values for the boundary VFRC values. By default, boundary VFRC values are set to one (full). FLOTRAN uses the boundary VFRC values to determine the normal surface direction in the VOF reconstruction stage, when the boundary is adjacent to the surface elements. The wetting status specifies whether the fluid can be advected into the problem domain. A zero value indicates a non-wetting boundary, whereas a unity value indicates a wetting boundary. By default, wetting status is set to zero (non-wetting boundary). On a wetting boundary, fluid advection into the problem domain takes place. The corresponding boundary VFRC value must be set to unity to be meaningful. On a non-wetting boundary, advection of the fluid or void elements into the problem domain does not take place. The boundary VFRC value only acts passively to help determine the normal surface direction. To set boundary VFRC loads, use one of the following: 62

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Section 6.3: Input Settings Command(s): SFL,LINE,VFRC,VALI,VALJ,VAL2I,VAL2J SFE,ELEM,LKEY,VFRC,KVAL,VAL1,VAL2,VAL3,VAL4 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Lines Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Elements Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Lines Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Volume Fract> Bound Loads> On Elements For the SFL command, VALI specifies the boundary VFRC value and (defaults to 1) VAL2I specifies the wetting status (defaults to non-wetting). If Lab = VFRC, a VAL2I setting of 1 indicates a wetted boundary. For the SFE command, VAL1 specifies the boundary VFRC value (defaults to 1) when KVAL = 0 or 1, and VAL1 specifies the boundary wetting status (defaults to non-wetting) when KVAL = 2. If Lab = VFRC and KVAL = 2, a VAL1 setting of 1 indicates a wetted boundary. At a wetted boundary, the fluid upstream keeps the associated elements full.

When performing a VOF analysis, you may set the environmental conditions regarding the ambient conditions, the VFRC tolerances, and the time stepping strategy. When studying surface tension effects, you need set the proper values for the surface tension coefficient and the wall static contact angle. Refer to Chapter 9, Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN for information on these property types.

Set the ambient nodal values outside the fluid region for the following variables: VX - U velocity VY - V velocity VZ - W velocity TEMP - Temperature ENKE - Turbulent Kinetic Energy ENDS - Turbulent Dissipation Rate using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA36,AMBV, Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Ambient Condit'n Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Ambient Condit'n When a boundary node with Dirichlet Condition lies outside the fluid region, the assigned ambient values on this node are ignored. The prescribed Dirichlet Condition will become active once its associate element becomes partially full or full. Except for pressure, the ambient values are only set for postprocessing purposes. Pressure acts as an actual boundary condition. Unlike other FLOTRAN analyses, the pressure field for a VOF analysis will include both the dynamic pressure and the static pressure and the static pressure will be in balance with the gravitational acceleration terms. For example, in a VOF analysis, the pressure contours for a parallel uniform flow with gravity will consist of parallel lines with a gradient balancing gravity, whereas they remain constant for other FLOTRAN analyses. In a VOF analysis, an outlet can have specified pressures or it can have natural conditions. When outlet pressures are specified, the values will differ from those in other FLOTRAN analyses by the offsets of the static pressure (or elevation head). For natural boundary conditions the outlet pressures will adjust automatically. In that case, if a steady state solution exists, the outlet pressures will converge to the correct values.

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Ideally, a VFRC value of one signifies a full or fluid element and a value of zero signifies an empty or void element. In reality, however, exact values of one and zero are difficult to maintain in the VOF advection algorithm due to various types of error accumulations. Hence, FLOTRAN introduces small cutoff values to determine the full and empty elements. An element is considered full if its VFRC value is greater than or equal to 1 - VOFU, where VOFU is the upper tolerance for the VOF advection algorithm. An element is considered empty if its VFRC value is less than or equal to VOFL, where VOFL is the lower tolerance for the VOF advection algorithm. By default, VOFL and VOFU are both set to 10-5. In the FLOTRAN solution routines, a nearly empty element adjacent to a nearly full element may introduce an abrupt change in the locally rescaled meshes. This can make the stiffness matrix more ill-conditioned and can adversely affect the quality of the desired solution. To avoid this, FLOTRAN introduces another tolerance to not assemble the finite element equations for those elements with VFRC values less than or equal to LAML for laminar flows and TRBL for turbulent flows, where LAML and TRBL are the lower tolerances for laminar and turbulent flows, respectively. Similarly, elements with VFRC values greater than or equal to 1 - LAMU for laminar flows and 1 - TRBU for turbulent flows are considered full when assembling the finite element equations. You can set any of these tolerance values. By default, LAML and LAMU are set to 10-2 and TRBL and TRBU are set to 10-1. To set any of the tolerance values, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA35,VFTOL,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> VFRC Tolerance Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> VFRC Tolerance

Because the CLEAR-VOF is explicit in time, it must use a time step for the VOF advection algorithm that corresponds to a CFL number less than one. On the other hand, selecting the time step based on the VOF constraint may be too restrictive sometimes because the FLOTRAN transient solution algorithm is implicit in time, and there is no stability restriction on the time step size. Accordingly, FLOTRAN allows multiple VOF advection steps per solution step. The VOF advection time step is set equal to the solution time step divided by a factor that you specify. If the VOF advection time step is still too large, FLOTRAN will automatically reduce the VOF time step by half. This automatic reduction in the VOF time step continues until the local imbalance of the VFRC field during the VOF advection computations is less than the VOFL tolerance. A good input parameter guess makes the calculation more efficient by removing some checks on the time step. To set the number of VOF advection time steps per solution time step, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA4,TIME,NTVF,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Time Stepping Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> VOF Environment> Time Stepping For a VOF analysis, the density is constant. Therefore, mass conservation is equivalent to the conservation of the total fluid volume (or area in two dimensions). Ideally, the difference between the volume coming into the problem domain and going out of the domain should be equal to the increase or decrease of the total volume inside the domain. In an actual finite element analysis, however, continuity satisfaction is expressed in a Galerkin weak form. Therefore, in general, each element has a small mass imbalance. The local mass imbalance is usually of the order of the discretization error, and this error is a major source of the global VFRC imbalance introduced in a VOF analysis. Even though this imbalance may be very small compared to the total volume, it can accumulate exponentially as the number of time steps increases. Hence, FLOTRAN performs a global adjustment of the VFRC field at each VOF time step. It proportionally increases or decreases the VFRC values of the partial elements to guarantee the global VFRC balance. It prints the final VFRC imbalance in the Jobname.PFL file.

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6.4. Postprocessing

The volume fraction is stored as a non-summable miscellaneous record in the element data section of the results file. If you want to view the volume fraction, issue the command: Command(s): PLESOL,NMISC,1 Since the volume fraction is essentially an element based quantity, it is discontinuous across elements. If you wish to see a smooth and continuous volume fraction, you should first store the results in an element table, using one of the following: Command(s): ETABLE,VFRC,NMISC,1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Define Table You can then plot the results with an averaging operation, using one of the following: Command(s): PLETAB,VFRC,1 GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Element Table> Plot Elem Table However, instead of using the foregoing commands, you can use one of the following: Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT GUI: Main Menu> General Postproc> Plot Results> Contour Plot> Element Solu The PLVFRC macro issues the ETABLE and PLETAB commands. When CONT = 0, PLVFRC uses contour levels of 0.5 and 1.0 to indicate the free surface and fluid regions. When CONT = 1, it uses the current contour settings. You can also animate your results. To obtain an animation over a time sequence by interpolation between time steps, use the PLVFRC command macro along with one of the following: Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT ANTIME,NFRAM, DELAY, NCYCL, AUTOCNTRKY, RSLTDAT, MIN, MAX GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Time To produce an animation based on the time steps without interpolation, use the PLVFRC command macro along with one of the following: Command(s): PLVFRC,CONT ANDATA,DELAY,NCYCL, RSCLDAT, MIN, MAX, INCR, FRCLST, AUTOCNTRKY GUI: Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Animate> Over Results Note that if CONT = 0, the animation is based on two contour levels of 0.5 and 1.0. If CONT = 1, the animation is based on AUTOCNTRKY setting.

6.5.1. The Problem Described

In this example, two vertical walls confine a rectangular column of stationary water. When the right wall is removed, the water flows out onto a rigid horizontal plane. The ICE command sets the initial volume fraction field.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/BATCH,LIST /title, broken dam problem by the VOF solution. /com /com -----------------------------------------------------------------/com ** Reference: "Part IV: An Experimental Study of the Collapse of

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/com ** Liquid Columns on a Rigid Horizontal Plane" /com ** By Martin and Moyce, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. /com ** (London,A244, pp. 312-324, 1952. /com ** "Volume of Fluid (VOF) Method for the Dynamics of /com ** Free Boundaries" By C.W. Hirt and B.D. Nichols, /com ** J. Comput. Physics, Vol. 39, pp. 201-225, 1981. /com ** /prep7 !!!!! Define some dimensions and gravity LX = 5.0 ! X length LY = 2.5 ! Y length DELX = 0.2 ! X spacing DELY = 0.05 ! Y spacing grav = 9.81 ! Gravity et,1,141 !!!! meshing rect,0,LX,0,LY lsel,s,,,2,4,2 lesize,all,DELY lsel,s,,,1,3,2 lesize,all,DELX amesh,all nsel,s,loc,y,0.0 nsel,a,loc,x,0.0 d,all,vx,0.0 d,all,vy,0.0 nsel,s,loc,x,0.0,1.0 nsel,r,loc,y,0.0,2.0 esln,s,1 ice,all,vfrc,1.0 alls ic,all,vx,0 ic,all,vy,0 save fini /solu !!!! FLOTRAN input acel,0.0,grav,0 FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0e3 FLDA,NOMI,VISC,1.0d-3 FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,T FLDA,SOLU,TRAN,T FLDA,SOLU,turb,F flda,solu,vof,t flda,time,glob,5 flda,time,numb,70 flda,time,step,0.01 flda,time,appe,0.1 flda,advm,mome,supg flda,relx,vx,0.5 flda,relx,vy,0.5 flda,relx,pres,1.0 solve fini exit,nosa ! Wall boundary conditions

6.6.1. The Problem Described

In this example, water flows in an open channel with a semicircular obstruction on the bottom. The computation uses the standard k- turbulence model since the turbulence model is not very important for the prediction of the free-surface shape. The solution domain extends five cylinder diameters upstream and five diameters

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Section 6.6: VOF Analysis of Open Channel with an Obstruction downstream of the obstruction. The fluid starts to fill the domain at the beginning of the simulation. The SFE and SFL commands set a wetting boundary on the left inlet.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/BATCH,LIST /title, initial development of flow over a bump. /com /com -----------------------------------------------------------------/com ** Initial development of flow over a semicircular bump /com ** Reference: "Critical Free-Surface Flow Over a Semi-Circular /com ** Obstruction" By L.K. Forbes, J. Eng. Math., /com ** vol. 22, pp. 3-13, 1998. /com ** "Computation of free-surface flows using the /com ** finite-volume method and moving grids", /com ** By S. Muzaferija and M. Peric, Numerical Heat /com ** Transfer, Part B, 32:369-384, 1997. /com -----------------------------------------------------------------! ! ! Property and parameter input rho = 1.0e0 ! Density grav = 9.81 ! Gravity mu = 1.0e-6 ! Viscosity ! R = 0.03 ! Bump radius L = 2*R H = 0.075 ! Inlet height H0 = R ! Height above the Inlet outlen = 5.0*R ! Outlet length inlen = 5.0*R ! Inlet length ny1 = 8 ! Number of elements in line 1 ny2 = 2 ! Number of elements in line 2 ny3 = 4 ! Number of elements in line 3 ry2 = 1.0 ! Ratio of element size in line 2 ry3 = 1.0 ! Ratio of element size in line 3 nx1 = 15 ! Number of elements in line 13 nx2 = 15 ! Number of elements in line 21 nx3 = 20 ! Number of elements in line 17 rx1 = 0.5 ! Ratio of element size in line 13 rx2 = 1.0 ! Ratio of element size in line 25 rx3 = 1.5 ! Ratio of element size in line 17 nr1 = 10 ! Number of elements in radial direction near bump !! /prep7 et,1,141 k,1,-inlen,0.0 ! KP 1 - 4 are at the inlet k,2,-inlen,L k,3,-inlen,H k,4,-inlen,H+H0 ! l,1,2 ! Lines 1-3 are the inlet line l,2,3 l,3,4 ! k,5,-L,0.0 ! KP 5 - 8 are before the bump k,6,-L,L k,7,-L,H k,8,-L,H+H0 ! l,5,6 ! Lines 4-6 before the bump l,6,7 l,7,8 ! k,9,L,0.0 ! KP 9 - 12 are after the bump k,10,L,L k,11,L,H

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k,12,L,H+H0 ! l,9,10 l,10,11 l,11,12 ! k,13,outlen,0.0 k,14,outlen,L k,15,outlen,H k,16,outlen,H+H0 ! l,13,14 l,14,15 l,15,16 ! l,1,5

l,2,6 l,3,7 l,4,8 ! l,9,13 ! Lines 17-20 are horizontal lines near outlet l,10,14 l,11,15 l,12,16 ! l,6,10 ! Lines 21-23 are horizontal lines near the bump l,7,11 l,8,12 ! k,17,R,0.0 ! KP 17 to 23 are for the semicircular bump k,18,0.0,0.0 circle,18,R,,17,180,4 lcomb,25,26,0 ! l,19,9 ! Lines 26, 28-30 in radial direction near bump l,20,10 l,22,6 l,23,5 ! ! Select lines and establish line divisions ! lsel,s,,,1,4,3 lesize,all,,,ny1 ! lsel,s,,,2,11,3 lesize,all,,,ny2,ry2 ! lsel,s,,,3,12,3 lesize,all,,,ny3,ry3 ! lsel,s,,,13,16 lesize,all,,,nx1,rx1 ! lsel,s,,,21,23 lesize,all,,,nx2,1.0/rx2 lsel,s,,,25 lesize,all,,,nx2,rx2 ! lsel,s,,,17,20 lesize,all,,,nx3,rx3 ! lsel,s,,,27 lesize,all,,,ny1 ! lsel,s,,,26 lsel,a,,,28,30 lesize,all,,,nr1 ! ! define the y-direction mesh lsel,s,,,24

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lsel,a,,,7 lsel,a,,,10 lesize,all,,,nx2,1.5 ! alls ! Create areas.... a,1,5,6,2 ! Inlet a,2,6,7,3 a,3,7,8,4 a,9,13,14,10 ! Outlet a,10,14,15,11 a,11,15,16,12 a,6,10,11,7 ! Bump a,7,11,12,8 a,19,9,10,20 a,20,10,6,22 a,5,23,22,6 alls amesh,all ! ! Inlet boundary condition lsel,s,,,1,2 nsll,,1 d,all,vx,0.32 d,all,vy,0.0 ! nsel,s,loc,x,-inlen nsel,r,loc,y,0.0 d,all,vx,0.001 ! ! boundary volume fraction (SFL and SFE commands) sfl,1,vfrc,1,,1 sfl,2,vfrc,1,,1 !! !!!! The walls lsel,s,,,13 lsel,a,,,17 lsel,a,,,24,25 lsel,a,,,27 lsel,a,,,26 lsel,a,,,30 nsll,,1 d,all,vx,0 d,all,vy,0 alls /solu !!!! FLOTRAN Input acel,0.0,grav,0.0 FLDA,SOLU,VOF,ON FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,ON FLDA,SOLU,TRAN,ON FLDA,SOLU,TURB,ON FLDA,TIME,GLOB,3 FLDA,TIME,NUMB,50 FLDA,TIME,STEP,1e-2 FLDA,TIME,APPE,0.1 FLDA,TIME,PRES,1.0E-6 FLDA,ADVM,MOME,SUPG flda,relx,vx,0.5 flda,relx,vy,0.5 flda,relx,pres,1.0 flda,prot,dens,constant ! Constant density flda,prot,visc,constant ! Constant viscosity flda,nomi,dens,rho ! Density set earlier flda,nomi,visc,mu ! Viscosity set earlier solve fini exit,nosa

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6.7.1. The Problem Described

This example examines the interesting phenomenon of a liquid droplet oscillating in an dynamically inactive gas. For small amplitudes, the angular frequency, , is given by the following formula from A. Prosperetti, ("Free Oscillations of Drops and Bubbles: The Initial-Value Problem," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 100, p. 333, 1980):

2 = [8 - (5 / Re) 2 ]

3 RF

where is the density, is the surface tension coefficient, and RF is the radius of the drop at its equilibrium state. Here, Re is the Reynolds number given by:

Re =

R F

where is the dynamic viscosity of the liquid. When the oscillation is fully damped by the viscosity, the droplet takes a spherical shape and the droplet pressure is given by:

Ptheory =

2 RF

The droplet analyzed here is initially elliptical with major and minor semiaxes of 24.69 mm and 18 mm, respectively. This corresponds to a final radius of RF of 20 mm. The time increment, t, is set to 2 x 10-4 ms. The material properties of the droplet are: = 10 9 mg/(m)3 = 10 6 mg/(m)(ms) = 0.073 mg/(ms)2

6.7.2. Results

Figure 6.1: Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.001 ms and Figure 6.2: Instantaneous Pressure Distributions at 0.012 ms show the instantaneous pressure distributions at 0.001 ms and 0.012 ms, respectively. Rather than a pressure jump across the interface, the pressure is observed to vary smoothly in a thin transition region near the interface. Initially, the maximum pressure occurs at the top and bottom portion of the droplet due to a high local curvature. The resulting pressure gradient forces the fluid inward and redirects it to the sides. As the droplet moves, the pressure starts to rise at the sides due to the increasing local curvature. This slows down the movement of the droplet and eventually forces the fluid back inward from the sides. The pressure distribution controls the droplet oscillation by balancing the kinetic energy and the potential energy due to the surface tension. The simulation produces a free surface profile every 5 time steps. The frequency is 42.6 kHz (two cycles occur in 0.047 ms). This agrees quite well with the 43.0 kHz predicted by the Prosperetti formula. The oscillation amplitude 610

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Section 6.7: VOF Analysis of an Oscillating Droplet decreases with time and damps out at 0.2 ms due to viscosity. Averaging the pressure values on interior nodes attached to only full elements gives the numerical droplet pressure. The difference between the numerical and the analytical pressure is approximately 1%. There are some noises in the velocity field near the interface due to the so-called parasitic currents inherent in the CSF formulation.

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The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/title, oscillating axisymmetric drop problem by the VOF/CSF solution. /nopr LX = 30 ! x length in micrometer (um) LY = 30 ! y length in micrometer (um) RadF = 20 ! radius of the final sphere in micrometer (um) aRad = 18 ! x radius in micrometer (um) bRad = RadF**3/aRad**2 ! y radius in micrometer (um) DELX = 0.1*RadF ! x spacing in micrometer (um) DELY = 0.1*RadF ! y spacing in micrometer (um) DELT = 2.0e-4 ! time increment in millisecond (ms) APPT = DELT*5 ! append time in millisecond (ms) NDT = 1000 ! total number of time steps Sigm = 0.073 ! SFTS coefficient in unit of (mg)/(ms)^2 rho = 1.0e-9 ! density in unit of (mg)/(um)^3 mu = 1.0e-6 ! viscosity in unit of (mg)/(um)(ms) pexact=2*Sigm/RadF ! theoretical pressure in equilibrium /prep7 et,1,141,,,1 ! RY geometry rect,0,LX,-LY,LY lsel,s,,,2,4,2 lesize,all,DELY lsel,s,,,1,3,2 lesize,all,DELX amesh,all nsel,s,loc,x,0 d,all,vx,0.0 alls icvf,elpt,0.0,0.0,aRad,bRad ic,all,vx,0 ic,all,vy,0 save fini /solu flda,solu,tran,t flda,solu,vof,t flda,solu,sfts,t flda,nomi,sfts,sigm flda,nomi,dens,rho flda,nomi,visc,mu flda,time,glob,10 flda,time,numb,NDT flda,time,step,DELT flda,advm,mome,supg flda,mir,mome,1.0 flda,relx,pres,1.0 flda,time,appe,APPT solve fini /post1 set,last PLVFRC,0 ANDATA,0.1, ,2,1,51,1,0.0,1 set,last *GET,VFAdvU,FLDA,VFTO,VOFU VFAdvU=1.0-VFAdvU alls *get,elmmax,elem,0,count *get,elmi,elem,0,num,min *get,vfval,elem,elmi,nmis,1 *IF,vfval,LE,VFAdvU,then esel,u,,,elmi ! symmetry condition

! ! ! !

Get the number of elements Get the lowest elem number in the set Get the VFRC for the element Remove elmi from the active set

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*ENDIF *do,ilop,2,elmmax *get,elmn,elem,elmi,nxth *get,vfval,elem,elmn,nmis,1 *IF,vfval,LE,VFAdvU,then esel,u,,,elmn *ELSE elmi=elmn *ENDIF *enddo nsle,s,all nsel,u,ext ! ! ! ! Loop over selected elements Get the next higher elem number in the set Get the VFRC for the element Remove elmn from the active set

! !

select all node attached to elements unselect ext. nodes of prev. selected nodes

pavg=0.0 prms=0.0 *get,nodmax,node,0,count ! *do,ilop,1,nodmax ! *get,nodi,node,0,num,min ! *get,pval,node,nodi,pres ! pavg=pavg+pval ! prms=prms+(pval-pexact)**2 ! nsel,u,,,nodi ! *enddo pavg=pavg/nodmax prms=sqrt(prms/nodmax)/pexact

Get the number of selected nodes Loop over the number of nodes Get the lowest node number in the set Get the y pressure sum pressure rms Remove node from the active set

/go *vwrite (9x,'DelX/Rad ', 3x, 'PRES / Pexact ',3x,'Prms ') *vwrite,DELX/RadF,pavg/pexact,prms (3(4x,1pe12.5)) fini exit,nosa

For more examples on the VOF analysis of free surface problems with surface tension, refer to G. Wang, (Finite Element Simulations of Gas-Liquid Flows with Surface Tension, International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, November 5-10, 2000, Orlando, Florida).

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7.1. Introduction

Fluid flow problems often involve moving interfaces. The interfaces can be moving internal walls (for example, a solid moving through a fluid), external walls, or free surfaces. In such problems, the fluid domain changes with time and the finite element mesh must move to satisfy the boundary conditions at the moving interfaces. You can use the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) formulation to solve problems of this type. Figure 7.1: Torsional Mirror at t = 0 Seconds illustrates a typical fluid flow problem requiring the ALE formulation. It involves a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device with a viscous fluid between two rigid plates. Initially, the plates are parallel and the fluid is at rest.

The top plate begins to oscillate about its centerline setting the fluid in motion. The ALE formulation allows the fluid domain to change with time and the finite element mesh to move to satisfy the boundary conditions at the moving plate. Figure 7.2: Torsional Mirror at t = 2.5 Seconds and Figure 7.3: Torsional Mirror at t = 7.5 Seconds show the finite element mesh at later times.

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To perform a transient analysis employing the ALE formulation, you must activate the ALE formulation and the transient solution algorithm. To activate the ALE formulation, you use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,ALE,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Setup> Solution Options To activate the transient algorithm, you use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options For more information on transient analyses and the transient algorithm, see Chapter 5, FLOTRAN Transient Analyses. To do an ALE analysis, you need to use one of the following elements:

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Section 7.2: Boundary Conditions FLUID141, KEYOPT(3) = 0 (Cartesian coordinates), 1 (axisymmetric about Y-axis), or 2 (axisymmetic about X-axis). FLUID142, KEYOPT(3) = 0 (Cartesian coordinates). You cannot use a cylindrical coordinate system (KEYOPT(3) = 3) with ALE. You will need to activate KEYOPT(4) to specify boundary motions (displacement DOFs). To define the element type, use one of the following: Command(s): ET,ITYPE,Ename,KOP1,KOP2,KOP3,KOP4,KOP5,KOP6 KEYOPT,ITYPE,KNUM,VALUE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete Currently, free surfaces are not a part of the ALE formulation. However, you can use the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in conjunction with the ALE formulation to simulate flows involving free surfaces and moving walls. (Refer to Chapter 6, Volume of Fluid (VOF) Analyses.)

Generally, either slip or stick boundary conditions apply for moving internal or external walls (See Figure 7.4: Boundary Conditions for Moving Walls.)

!
#"$"%

&'("

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+ -, ./0 *

Table 7.1: Interface Boundary Conditions shows the required displacement and velocity specifications for slip and stick boundary conditions.

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Boundary Condition Displacement Slip[1] Stick[1]

Specify normal compon- Specify all displacement components for fluid nodes. ent of displacement for That is, specify the following: fluid nodes. 2-D 3-D That is, specify the following: Dn = d n Dn = d n

Dn = d n

D = d

or Dx; Dy

D = d 1

1

D = d 2 2

or Dx; Dy; Dz

Velocity

Inviscid Flow

Viscous Flow

Specify normal compon- Specify all velocity components for fluid nodes. ent of velocity for fluid That is, specify the following: nodes. 2-D 3-D That is, specify the following: Vn = n Vn = n

Vn = n

V =

or Vx; Vy

V = 1 1 V = 2 2

or Vx; Vy; Vz

1.

The time derivative of the normal displacement must be equal to the normal velocity, dDn/dt = Vn.

Slip or stick boundary conditions can apply for displacement. For velocity, slip boundary conditions apply for inviscid flow and stick boundary conditions apply for viscous flow. In all cases, the time derivative of the normal displacement must be equal to the normal velocity. In FLOTRAN, only stick boundary conditions are currently valid. To set displacement or velocity boundary conditions at nodes, you can use either of the following: Command(s): D GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Nodes Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Nodes To set boundary conditions on the solid model, you can use any of the following: Command(s): DL and DA GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Lines Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Lines 74

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Section 7.3: Mesh Updating Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Areas

Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement (or Velocity)> On Areas If a node is part of a distributed resistance or a fan model or part of a solid region composed of FLUID141 or FLUID142 elements, homogenous displacement boundary conditions are automatically applied (that is, D,ALL,UX,0.0 and D,ALL,UY,0.0 for 2-D and D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY,0.0, and D,ALL,UZ,0.0 for 3-D). You can specify partial displacement boundary conditions to make external nodes move along a global axis. For example, D,ALL,UX,0.0 will make a set of nodes slide along the y-axis in a 2-D model. Currently, normal and tangential components of displacement can not be specified for an external boundary. You can also specify generalized symmetry boundary conditions. If the ALE formulation is activated, velocity components are then set equal to the mesh velocity. To do so, use one of the following commands or the GUI equivalent: D,NODE,ENDS,-1 DL,LINE,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2 DA,AREA,ENDS,-1,Value2

The ALE formulation uses the displacement boundary conditions applied by the D, DL, and DA commands to update the finite element mesh. It determines the displacement at the beginning of each time step relative to the previous time step. For each time step, an elasticity based morphing algorithm updates the mesh. The algorithm ensures that boundary layers are retained (that is, nodes in a fine mesh area move less than nodes in a coarse mesh area). A transient analysis cannot proceed if morphing fails. If morphing is independent of the fluid flow solution, you can step through the morphing algorithm before doing a fluid flow analysis to determine whether morphing will fail. To do so, issue the following command sequence:

/solu . . . fldata,solu,turb,f fldata,solu,temp,f fldata,solu,spec,f fldata,solu,ale,t fldata,solu,flow,f solve

You can not check for morphing failure in advance if the time step size depends on the fluid flow variables or the problem involves a free surface. Mesh morphing is currently available for the following element shapes: Pure quadrilaterals, pure triangles, or a combination for FLUID141 Pure hexahedrals, pure tetrahedrals, pure pyramids, pure wedges, or any combination for FLUID142

Sometimes mesh morphing produces poor quality elements (for example, when a fluid domain is extremely squeezed by a moving wall). The birth and death feature can then be useful. To implement this feature, you assign a birth/death tolerance to the candidate elements using the real constant BDTOL. A node is automatically deactivated if the distance from it to the center of any element face on the wall becomes less than the assigned BDTOL. A element is deactivated if all of its nodes are deactivated. Conversely, a node is reactivated if the distance

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Chapter 7: Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) Formulation for Moving Domains from it to the center of the closest element face on the wall becomes greater than or equal to the assigned BDTOL. A element is reactivated if all of its nodes are reactivated.

7.4. Remeshing

Large fluid domain changes can produce poor quality elements and mesh morphing failure. To avoid element failure, you must remesh. To accomplish remeshing, issue one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA39,REMESH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Remesh Ctrl FLDATA39,REMESH will automatically remesh the fluid elements and linearly interpolate the nodal solution from the old mesh to the new mesh. Use it to specify one of the following three ways of remeshing: Remesh all defined fluid elements if the quality of the worst defined element falls below any specified quality requirement listed in Table 7.2: Element Qualities. Whole domain remeshing is suitable when the moving boundary affects all of the fluid elements (all the fluid elements may become distorted during solution). Remesh defined fluid elements that have a quality below any specified quality requirement. Partial domain remeshing is suitable when the distorted elements are locally distributed and the location of the distorted elements is not known before solution or it changes during solution. Remesh all grouped fluid elements with a specified component name if the quality of the worst selected element falls below any specified quality requirement. Selected component remeshing is suitable when the distorted elements are locally distributed, but the location of the distorted elements is known before solution and it does not change during solution. There are three maximum allowable element qualities that you need to specify for remeshing: aspect ratio, change of element size, and change of element aspect ratio.

Element Quality Generalized Aspect Ratio (AR) Change of Element Size (VOCH) Change of Aspect Ratio (ARCH) Triangles AR = ((lavg)2 / A) / 2.3 VOCH = exp | log (A(t) / A(0)) | ARCH = exp | log (AR(t) / AR(0)) | Tetrahedrons AR = ((lavg)3 / V) / 8.48 VOCH = exp | log (V(t) / V(0)) |

where: lavg = average length of the element edges A = element area V = element volume A(t) and V(t) = element area and volume at time t A(0) and V(0) = element area and volume at time 0 You may also specify the following remeshing inputs: Elements Excluded

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Section 7.5: Postprocessing You can exclude all elements connected to boundary nodes from remeshing. For a fluid-structure interaction analysis, you can exclude the elements connected to fluid-solid interfaces. Element Size The element remeshing size defaults to 0. The element size at the nearest boundary is then used for remeshing. Area Expansion or Contraction You can size internal elements so that they are approximately the size of the boundary elements times an expansion or contraction factor. Checkpoints You can specify element quality checkpoints in three ways: every time step, every Nth time step, or at a single time point. The fluid elements will automatically remesh if any quality requirement is not met at a checkpoint. After each remesh, new databases and results files are written with the extensions .rfl0n and .dbn, where n is the remesh file number (Jobname.rfl01, Jobname.rfl02, ... and Jobname.db01, Jobname.db02,...). Use the ANMRES command to create an animation across the results files. Note The original database file is Jobname.db0. The Jobname.db01, Jobname.db02, ... files have elements that are detached from the solid model. You can use the FLOTRAN remeshing capability in a pure fluid flow analysis or a fluid-solid interaction analysis. For information on fluid-solid interaction analyses, see Chapter 3, Fluid-Solid Interaction Solver and Chapter 4, ANSYS Multi-field (TM) Solver in the ANSYS Coupled-Field Analysis Guide. Some important remeshing limitations are listed in the following table.

Limitation Elements Area/Volume Changes Domains Description Remeshing supports models meshed with triangular or tetrahedral elements. It only works for element groups with one element type and one real constant. Remeshing will not work for extreme area or volume changes. 2-D problems can have multiple domains; 3-D problems require a single domain. Do not allow two separate domains without distance (e.g., when solving a FSI problem with a beam or shell element, at least one side elements connected to the beam or shell elements must be excluded from remeshing). Remeshing can treat nodal loads on the boundary, but it cannot treat body loads applied to interior nodes. Fluid-solid interaction is the only valid element based load. Nodes on the boundary cannot be remeshed. Therefore, remeshing will not work if morphing failed on surface nodes.

7.5. Postprocessing

For postprocessing, you can use the following contour and vector command sequence for the reference domain or the current deformed domain:

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set,load step,substep /dscal,,1.0 plns,pres,,0 plve,v,,,,,,,1 ! ! ! ! sets the set number for processing sets the scaling for display display pressure contours on deformed domain display velocity vectors on the deformed domain

set,load step,substep /dscal,,1.0 pldi,2 ! ! ! ! sets the set number for processing sets the scaling for display display the deformed mesh overlayed with undeformed edges

To produce an animated sequence of the results, issue the ANTIME macro with the above commands. Note The displacements of non-structural elements are mesh (or grid) displacements to avoid mesh distortion but have no physical meaning except at the interface between the fluid and the structure.

7.6.1. The Problem Described

This is an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) analysis of a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) device. The device consists of a viscous fluid between two rigid plates. Initially, the plates are parallel and the fluid is at rest. The top plate begins to oscillate about its centerline setting the fluid in motion. The top plate oscillates with a very small angular amplitude. You must determine the torque on the moving plate in order to develop a reduced order model for this device.

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/ /

This section derives formulas for the displacement and velocity boundary conditions. The angle of rotation is: = osint Differentiating, the angular velocity is: = ocost

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Section 7.6: ALE Analysis of a Simplified Torsional Mirror The position of any point on the plate is given by: x(t) = xo + Rcos y(t) = yo + Rsin where: R = xr x o and xr is the x coordinate on the plate at time equals zero. Therefore, the displacements of the plate are given by: UX(t) = x(t) x(o) = x x UY(t) = y(t) y(o) = y y

r o

Substituting the expressions for x and y gives: UX = R(cos 1) UY = Rsin Note As approaches 0, UX approaches 0 and UY approaches R. Differentiating displacements gives the following velocity equations: UX = UX = R sin VY = UY = R cos Note As approaches 0, VX approaches R o2 and VY approaches R o. Therefore, VX approaches 0 faster than VY. The command listing in Section 7.6.4: Building and Solving the Model (Command Method) uses the above expressions for UX, UY, VX, and VY in the boundary condition tables.

This section derives formulas for the forces and moments acting on the torsional mirror.

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12314

56 65

12314

& '(*) " " #$+ ,-! " #$% !./! 0

! " #$% .7 6 12312.7 5 0

!./! 0

Assuming the flow is 2-D and neglecting inertia terms, the Navier-Stokes equation reduces to the Reynolds equation for incompressible flow:

3 p h = 6 ( hU) + 12 V x x x

where: h = h (x,t) is the gap height and U and V are the velocity components of the moving plate. Assuming that the angular displacement of the mirror is small gives: U 0 V R R x Substituting these values in the Reynolds equation and assuming that U variations with x are small gives:

3 p h x = 12 V = 12 x

Integrating gives:

p = 6

h3

x2

dx +

h3 dx + C 2

C1

where C1 and C2 are constants to be determined. Substituting ho for h for small angular displacements and completing the integration gives:

p =

6 x 3 3 h3 o

C x + 1 + C2 h3 o

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3 C L 2 L po = + 1 + C2 2 2 h3 h3 o o

po = -

3 C 2 L 1 2 - 3 3 ho ho

L 2 + C2

Solving these two equations for C1 and C2 gives: C2 = po C1 = 2 (L/2)2 Substituting the C1 and C2 values into the pressure equation gives:

2 3 2 L p = po + x x 3 2 h3 h o o ( p - po ) = 2

2 2 L x x - 2 h3 o

Thus, the force and moment on the torsional mirror are given by:

L/2

Fp =

- L/2 L/2

(p - p o ) dx = 0 1 L5 60 h3 o

Mp =

- L/2

( p - po ) xdx = -

U ( x,y,t ) =

1 p y ( y - h) 2 x

U h p = = 2 y y = h 2 x ho

2 L 3x 2 - 2

L/2

Fs =

- L/2

U dx = 0 y y = h

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L/2

Ms =

- L/2

U xdx = 0 y y = h

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced with an exclamation point (!) is a comment. Please refer to Figure 7.5: Torsional Mirror Problem Description.

/BATCH,LIST /tit,Torque Mirror Problem /nopr LX = 1.0 NDX = 40 H = 0.01 NDY = 10 POUT = 0.0 RHO = 1.0000 MU = 1.00 nts = 40 time = 10. delta = time/nts appf = delta *AFUN,RAD AMAX = (2*H/LX)/8 OMEGA = 2*3.14159/time X0 = LX/2 Y0 = H H0 = H

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Plate Length in X direction Number of X divisions Gap in Y-direction Number of Y divisions Outlet relative pressure Fluid density Fluid viscosity number of time steps total simulation time time step size append results every time step angles are in radians adjust angular amplitude << 1 complete 1 cycle in given time pivot point x-coord pivot point y-coord

! use function builder/tables (refer to Section 2.6.15: Applying Loads Using Function Boundary Conditions in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide) ! for displacements/velocities of oscillating plate

*DIM,UXTAB,TABLE,6,4,1 UXTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX, 0.0, 0.0 UXTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17 ! Radius = XR - X0 UXTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 ! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t) UXTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 ,-1 ! Radius*cos(Angle) UXTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-3 , 2 ,-1 ! Radius*cos(Angle)-Radius *DIM,UYTAB,TABLE,6,3,1 UYTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX, 0.0, 0.0 UYTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17 ! Radius = XR - X0 UYTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 ! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t) UYTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,99 , 9, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 ,-1 ! Radius*sin(Angle) *DIM,VXTAB,TABLE,6,5,1 VXTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX,OMEGA*AMAX, 0.0 VXTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0,-1.0 , 27 , 1 , 17 ! -Radius = -(XR-X0) VXTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 ! Angle=amax*sin(omega*t) VXTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10,OMEGA, 1, 3 , 19 ! Angle speed= ! amax*omega*cos(omega*t) VXTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,-4 , 9, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 , -1 ! -Radius*sin(angle) VXTAB(0,5,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-4 , 3 , -3 !-Radius*sin(angle)*angle speed *DIM,VYTAB,TABLE,6,5,1 VYTAB(0,0,1) = 0.0,-999, 1, X0 ,AMAX,OMEGA*AMAX, 0.0 VYTAB(0,1,1) = 1.0,-1 , 0, 1.0 , 27 , 2 , 17 !Radius = XR - X0 VYTAB(0,2,1) = 0.0,-2 , 9,OMEGA, 1 , 3 , 18 !Angle=amax*sin(omega*t) VYTAB(0,3,1) = 0.0,-3 , 10,OMEGA, 1, 3 , 19 !Angle speed= !amax*omega*cos(omega*t) VYTAB(0,4,1) = 0.0,-4 , 10, 1.0 ,-2 , 3 , -1 !Radius*cos(angle) VYTAB(0,5,1) = 0.0,99 , 0, 1.0 ,-4 , 3 , -3 !Radius*cos(angle)*angle speed /PREP7 $smrt,off et,1,141 keyopt,1,4,1

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esha,2 rect,,LX,,H lesize,1,,,NDX, lesize,3,,,NDX, lesize,2,,,NDY,-10 lesize,4,,,NDY,-10 alls amesh,all lsel,s,,,3 nsll,s,1 d,all,VX,%VXTAB% d,all,VY,%VYTAB% d,all,enke,-1 d,all,ux,%UXTAB% d,all,uy,%UYTAB% lsel,s,,,2 lsel,a,,,4 nsll,s,1 d,all,pres,POUT lsel,s,,,1 nsll,s,1 d,all,vx, d,all,vy, d,all,ux,0.0 d,all,uy,0.0 alls fini /SOLU FLDA,NOMI,DENS,RHO FLDA,NOMI,VISC,MU FLDA,OUTP,TAUW,T flda,quad,momd,2 flda,quad,moma,2 flda,quad,moms,2 flda,quad,prsd,2 flda,quad,prss,2 flda,solu,tran,t flda,time,step,delta flda,time,numb,nts flda,time,tend,time flda,time,glob,25 flda,time,appe,appf flda,solu,ale,t save SOLVE fini ! Quad elements

! ! ! ! !

Nominal density Nominal viscosity Output wall shear stress increased quadrature for deformed elements

! Turn ALE on

!do the comparison with analytical solution here /post1 !moving wall *dim,RES1,,NDX+1,15 *do,j,1,nts,1 ! loop over the time steps rsys,0 csys,0 set,1,j ! get the results of step j *get,curtime,active,0,set,time ! get the time of this substep theta = amax*sin(omega*curtime) ! get the plate angle thetad = amax*omega*cos(omega*curtime) ! get plate angular speed nsel,s,loc,y,H ! select moving wall nodes *do,i,1,NDX+1 ! loop over these nodes *get,XMAX,node,,mxloc,x n = node(XMAX,H,0) RES1(i,1) = n ! Node number RES1(i,2) = NX(n) ! X-coordinate RES1(i,3) = NY(n) ! Y-coordinate RES1(i,4) = UX(n) ! UX Rn = NX(n)-X0

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RES1(i,10) = Rn*(cos(theta)-1.0) ! UX exact RES1(i,5) = UY(n) ! UY RES1(i,11) = Rn*sin(theta) ! UY exact RES1(i,6) = VX(n) ! VX RES1(i,12) = -Rn*sin(theta)*thetad ! VX exact RES1(i,7) = VY(n) ! VY RES1(i,13) = Rn*cos(theta)*thetad ! VY exact RES1(i,8) = PRES(n) ! Pressure c1 = 2.0*MU*thetad/H0**3 c2 = NX(n) - X0 RES1(i,14) = c1*(c2**3 - c2*(LX/2)**2) ! Exact Pressure *get,RES1(i,9),node,n,TAUW ! Shear stress c0 = NX(n) - X0 c1 = H0 + theta*c0 c2 = 3*c0**2 - (LX/2)**2 RES1(i,15) = ABS(c1*mu*thetad*c2/H0**3) ! Exact shear stress nsel,u,,,n *enddo /com Compare disps/velocities/pressures/shears on moving wall(X,H,0) /com *status,curtime *status,theta *vwrite (4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'UX (FLOTRAN)',5x,'UX (Exact)') *vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,4),RES1(1,10) (3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5)) /com *vwrite (4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'UY (FLOTRAN)',5x,'UY (Exact)') *vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,5),RES1(1,11) (3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5)) /com *vwrite (4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'VX (FLOTRAN)',5x,'VX (Exact)') *vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,6),RES1(1,12) (3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5)) /com *vwrite (4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'VY (FLOTRAN)',5x,'VY (Exact)') *vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,7),RES1(1,13) (3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5)) /com *vwrite (4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'PRE (FLOTRAN)',5x,'PRE (Exact)') *vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,8),RES1(1,14) (3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5)) /com *vwrite (4x,'NODE',7x,'X COOR',12x,'Y COOR',9x,'TAU (FLOTRAN)',5x,'TAU (Exact)') *vwrite,RES1(1,1),RES1(1,2),RES1(1,3),RES1(1,9),RES1(1,15) (3x,f5.0,4(1pe17.5)) /com nsel,s,loc,y,H ! select nodes on moving plate local,11,0,X0,Y0,0 ! setup local coord system for moment calcs rsys,11 /com compute pressure force/moments on the wall intsrf,pres *get,forcex,intsrf,0,item,fx *get,forcey,intsrf,0,item,fy *get,forcez,intsrf,0,item,fz *get,momx,intsrf,0,item,mx *get,momy,intsrf,0,item,my *get,momz,intsrf,0,item,mz *status,forcex *status,forcey ! should be zero *status,forcez *status,momx *status,momy *status,momz ! Flotran Moment = -0.0166*mu*thetad*LX**5/H0**3 ! Exact *status,moment /com compute shear force/moments on the wall should be zero

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intsrf,tauw *get,forcex,intsrf,0,item,fx *get,forcey,intsrf,0,item,fy *get,forcez,intsrf,0,item,fz *get,momx,intsrf,0,item,mx *get,momy,intsrf,0,item,my *get,momz,intsrf,0,item,mz *status,forcex *status,forcey *status,forcez *status,momx *status,momy *status,momz *enddo fini /exit,nosa

! should be zero

! should be zero

7.7.1. The Problem Described

This problem involves a moving wall and a free surface. A square vessel is half filled with liquid and at t = 0 the left wall begins to move to the right. The wall stops moving after a short time and the fluid comes to rest gradually. The total analysis time is 2 seconds. The left wall comes to rest at 0.125 * (time) = 0.125*(2 seconds) = 0.25 seconds. The left wall displacement and velocity are input as tabular boundary conditions (see Figure 7.8: Left Wall Displacement and Velocity). The simulation uses the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method in conjunction with the ALE formulation.

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7.7.2. Results

The initial fluid volume is 1/2 H times LX. Since H and LX are both equal to 1, the initial fluid volume is 0.500000000. The calculated final fluid volume is 0.499999673.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/BATCH,LIST /title,ALE-VOF combination - container with moving wall & free surface /nopr LX = 1.0 ! Initial width in X direction NDX = 10 ! Number of X divisions H = 1.0 ! Height of container NDY = 10 ! Number of Y divisions RHO = 1.0000 ! Fluid density MU = 1.00 ! Fluid viscosity LXF = 0.750 ! Final X-Length time = 2. ! Total simulation time nts = 200 ! Total number of time steps delta = time/nts ! Time step size appf = delta ! Results append frequency VEL = (LX-LXF)/(0.125*time) ! left wall moves for 12.5% of ! simulation time with velocity VEL *dim,timutab,table,3,,,time ! left wall displacement history timutab(1,0)=0,0.125*time,time timutab(1,1)=0,(LX-LXF),(LX-LXF) *dim,timvtab,table,4,,,time ! left wall fluid velocity history timvtab(1,0)=0,0.125*time,0.125*time+0.000001,time timvtab(1,1)=VEL,VEL,1.e-12,1.e-12

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/PREP7 $smrt,off et,1,141 keyopt,1,4,1 esha,2 rect,,LX,,H lesize,1,,,NDX,-10 lesize,3,,,NDX,-10 lesize,2,,,NDY, lesize,4,,,NDY, alls amesh,all lsel,s,,,4 nsll,s,1 d,all,VX,%timvtab% d,all,VY, d,all,enke,-1 d,all,ux,%timutab% d,all,uy,0.0 lsel,s,,,1 nsll,s,1 d,all,vx d,all,vy lsel,s,,,3 nsll,s,1 d,all,vx d,all,vy lsel,s,,,2 nsll,s,1 d,all,vx, d,all,vy, d,all,ux,0.0 d,all,uy,0.0 alls nsel,s,loc,y,0,0.5*H esln,s,1 ice,all,vfrc,1.0 allsel fini /SOLU FLDA,NOMI,DENS,RHO FLDA,NOMI,VISC,MU acel,,9.8 flda,step,sumf,1 flda,solu,tran,t flda,time,step,delta flda,time,numb,nts flda,time,tend,time flda,time,glob,25 flda,time,appe,appf flda,solu,ale,t flda,solu,vof,t save SOLVE fini ! select lower half elements ! apply vof initial conditions

! bottom wall

! top

wall

! Ale on ! Vof on

!do the comparison here for final fluid volume /post1 set,last fvol = 0. ! initialize volume to zero *do,i,1,NDX*NDY ! loop over elements n1 = nelem(i,1) ! 4 nodes of this element n2 = nelem(i,2) n3 = nelem(i,3) n4 = nelem(i,4)

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x1 = nx(n1)+ux(n1) ! current coords of the 4 nodes y1 = ny(n1)+uy(n1) x2 = nx(n2)+ux(n2) y2 = ny(n2)+uy(n2) x3 = nx(n3)+ux(n3) y3 = ny(n3)+uy(n3) x4 = nx(n4)+ux(n4) y4 = ny(n4)+uy(n4) evol1 = x1*y2+y1*x3+y3*x2 ! compute volume of triangle 123 evol1 = evol1-y2*x3-y1*x2-x1*y3 evol1 = abs(0.5*evol1) ! first triangle volume evol2 = x1*y4+y1*x3+y3*x4 ! compute volume of triangle 143 evol2 = evol2-y4*x3-y1*x4-x1*y3 evol2 = abs(0.5*evol2) ! second triangle volume *get,frac,elem,i,nmisc,1 ! get VOF of this quad fvol = fvol + (evol1+evol2)*frac!increment the total fluid volume *enddo *status,fvol ! print the final fluid volume target = 0.5*H*LX *status,target ! print the expected fluid volume /com fini /exit,nosa

7.8.1. The Problem Described

This problem involves a cylinder passing through a channel with a constant velocity VX = 1.0. FLUID141 triangle elements model the fluid. The simulation uses the ALE formulation and remeshing. FLDATA39,REMESH,Label,Value specifies the quality requirements shown in the following table.

Element Quality Aspect Ratio (AR) Change of Element Size (VOCH) Change of Aspect Ratio (ARCH) FLDATA39,REMESH,Label,Value Command FLDATA39,REMESH,ARMA,5.0 FLDATA39,REMESH,VOCH,3.0 FLDATA39,REMESH,ARCH,3.0

FLDATA39,REMESH,ELEM,ALL sets the remeshing to all defined fluid elements if the quality of the worst defined element falls below any quality requirement. The total analysis time is 44 seconds.

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7.8.2. Results

The ten results files are file.rfl01 through file.rfl10. They were created when one of the remeshing criteria were met. The following figures display the remeshed elements at 0, 22, and 44 seconds.

The following command stream shows all the relevant parameters and solution strategy. All text prefaced with an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/batch,list /verify,dv-1101c /title, dv-1101c, Flotran Remeshing: Cylinder pass through a channel /COM,**************************************************** /COM,* Cylinder pass through a channel (pure fluid flow) /COM,* Verify partial domain re-meshing /COM,**************************************************** r1 = 2.5 l1 = 5.0 l2= 20.0 l3=60.0 h = 10.0 rx0= l1+(l2-l1)/2.0

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ry0 = h/2.0 nl1 = 5 nl3 = 10 nr=8 nc=8 /PREP7

*DEL,_FNCNAME *DEL,_FNCMTID *DEL,_FNC_C1 *SET,_FNCNAME,'DIS' *DIM,_FNC_C1,,1 *SET,_FNC_C1(1),1.0 ! /INPUT,force.func *DIM,%_FNCNAME%,TABLE,6,3,1 ! ! Begin of equation: a*{TIME} *SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,0,1), 0.0, -999 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(2,0,1), 0.0 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(3,0,1), %_FNC_C1(1)% *SET,%_FNCNAME%(4,0,1), 0.0 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(5,0,1), 0.0 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(6,0,1), 0.0 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,1,1), 1.0, -1, 0, 1, 17, 3, 1 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,2,1), 0.0, 99, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0 *SET,%_FNCNAME%(0,3,1), 0 ! End of equation: a*{TIME} !--> RECTNG,0,l1,0,h, RECTNG,l1,l2,0,h, RECTNG,l2,l3,0,h, aglue,all CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,45,r1,135 CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,135,r1,225 CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,225,r1,315 CYl4,rx0,ry0,0,315,r1,405 asel,s,,,2 asel,a,,,3 asel,a,,,6 asel,a,,,7 allsel,below,area aglue,all allsel FLST,3,4,5,ORDE,3 FITEM,3,2 FITEM,3,8 FITEM,3,-10 ASBA, 4,P51X aplot et,1,141 KEYOPT,1,4,1 type,1 mat,1 asel,s,,,1 esize,.5 mshape,1,2d mshkey,0 amesh,all et,2,141 KEYOPT,2,4,1 type,2 mat,1 asel,s,,,3 esize,.5 mshape,1,2d mshkey,0 amesh,all

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et,3,141 KEYOPT,3,4,1 type,3 mat,1 asel,s,,,5 esize,2.0 mshape,1,2d mshkey,0 amesh,all nsel,s,loc,x,0 D,ALL,VX,0.0, D,ALL,VY, 0.0 D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY, 0.0 nsel,s,loc,x,l3 D,ALL,pres,0.0 D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY, 0.0 nsel,s,loc,y,0 D,ALL,vy,0.0 D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY, 0.0 nsel,s,loc,y,h D,ALL,vy,0.0 D,ALL,UX,0.0, D,ALL,UY,0.0, lsel,s,,,5 lsel,a,,,23 lsel,a,,,25 lsel,a,,,27 nsll,s,1 d,all,UX,%DIS% d,all,UY,0.0 d,all,VX,1.0 d,all,VY,0.0 allsel cdwrite,db,fluid,cdb, fini ! Flotran Setup /solu FLDATA30,QUAD,MOMD,2, FLDATA30,QUAD,MOMS,2, FLDATA30,QUAD,PRSD,2, FLDATA30,QUAD,PRSS,2, FLDATA30,QUAD,THRD,0, FLDATA30,QUAD,THRS,0, FLDATA30,QUAD,TRBD,0, FLDATA30,QUAD,TRBS,2, /solu FLDATA4,TIME,NUMB,100000, FLDATA4,TIME,TEND,44.0, FLDA,SOLU,ALE,T FLDATA1,SOLU,FLOW,1 FLDATA1,SOLU,TRAN,1 !FLDATA1,SOLU,TURB,1 FLDATA2,TIME,GLOB,5 FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CONSTANT FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.0 FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CONSTANT FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.0 !FLDA,BULK,BETA,1.0e5 FLDA,TIME,STEP, 2.0 ! !!! Newmark method ! FLDATA,OUTP,TAUW,T FLDATA,TIME,METH,NEWM FLDATA,TIME,DELT,0.5 ! ! ALE solution

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!! Set ANSYS-STRUCTURE commands SAVE /COM /COM Re-meshing Commands /COM FLDATA,REMESH,ELEM,ALL ! FLDATA,REMESH,ARMA,10.0 ! FLDATA,REMESH,VOCH,5.0 ! FLDATA,REMESH,ARCH,5.0 ! SOLVE SAVE finish

all defined element re-meshing maximum aspect ratio maximum volume change maximum aspect ratio change

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8.1. Requirements for Compressible Analysis

As is true with turbulence, activating the compressible algorithm is at your discretion. You should activate turbulence for virtually all compressible analyses, (although in principle the Reynolds number can be in the laminar range for high Mach numbers). Differences in results (pressure, density, velocity distributions) between the incompressible and compressible algorithms can exist at Mach numbers as low as 0.3, and are quite pronounced when the Mach number is as high as 0.7. The speed of sound is a function of the equation of state of the fluid and its absolute temperature. For a constant density fluid, the speed of sound is infinite. For an ideal gas, regardless of whether the incompressible or compressible solution algorithm is used, the relationship is:

C=

RT

In the preceding equation: R is the Universal Gas Constant is the ratio of specific heats (Cp/Cv) T is the absolute temperature

For 2-D compressible analyses, meshes using quadrilateral elements are highly recommended. Hexagonal elements are recommended for 3-D cases. For more information, see Section 8.4: Structured vs. Unstructured Mesh.

The compressible algorithm takes into account the kinetic energy changes of the fluid as it accelerates. The formulation is in terms of the total temperature. In an adiabatic analysis, the total temperature remains constant throughout the problem domain. You specify the temperature using either of the following methods: Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,TTOT,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions The conservation of energy is then a balance between thermal storage (static temperature) and kinetic energy. The total (stagnation) temperature is the temperature of the fluid after it has been brought isentropically to a zero velocity. Typically, you choose the conditions at the inlet. Knowledge of the static temperature and the velocity magnitude |V| at the inlet enables you to calculate the total temperature via the following equation,

To = Tstatic +

V2 2Cp

This relationship is sometimes useful when cast in terms of the Mach number (M):

To = T (1 +

1 2 M ) 2

You must specify the specific heat and the ratio of specific heats . (To enter this ratio, use one of the following:)

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses Command(s): FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP, GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions The ANSYS program uses the resulting static temperature and the absolute pressure to calculate the density from the equation of state. Note Unlike incompressible analyses, where freezing the density calculation for the early global iterations can be an advantage, compressible analyses automatically involve the variable density option. Another difference between these types of analysis is that for compressible analyses, initial properties are calculated from the calculated static temperature, not from the nominal temperature.

Typically, you will know the Mach number or the velocity or the mass flow along with the static temperature for the inlet. Knowing the velocity or Mach number enables you, using the above equations, to calculate of the appropriate total temperature. If you know only the mass flow rate, you can approximate the pressure at the inlet by the reference pressure and use it with the equation of state to approximate the inlet density and thus the velocity. For subsonic problems, the boundary condition strategy is similar to that used for incompressible flow problems, that is, velocity or pressure at the inlet and pressure at the outlet. For supersonic problems, however, the nature of the equations changes and the effects of downstream boundary conditions cannot propagate upstream. It is common in such cases to apply both pressure and velocity to upstream locations. Leave the downstream boundary unspecified. Free stream conditions are often applied as far field boundary conditions for external flow problems. Often specification of pressure at these boundaries helps. However, as the solution develops, phenomena such as shock waves propagate to these boundaries. In this case, you should remove the boundary conditions. Failure to do so could adversely affect the resultant mass balance. Also, if the boundary is too close to the region of interest (e.g. the airfoil the flow is moving past), the velocity solution near the boundary will tend to be greater than the free stream velocity. In such cases, a better choice for the velocity boundary conditions is the symmetry condition (only specify the velocity normal to the boundary as zero). If the problem is thermal, ANSYS takes all of the applied boundary conditions to be total temperature, not static temperature. Conversely, if a problem is adiabatic, thermal boundary conditions are ignored. If you use a thermal incompressible solution as a starting point for a thermal compressible problem, you must change the boundary conditions so that they are specified in terms of total temperature.

As noted at the beginning of this chapter, for 2-D compressible flow problems, quadrilateral mesh is the best to use. Consider Figure 8.1: Three Types of Meshing:

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(a) Quadrilateral mesh, (b) Triangular mesh with a random pattern, (c) Triangular mesh with a symmetrical pattern In 2-D compressible analyses, mesh (a), the quadrilateral mesh, produces the most accurate results. Mesh (b) yields 2-D, not 1-D results, and mesh (c) yields 1-D results. Similarly, in a 3-D compressible analysis, a hexagonal mesh (the equivalent of quadrilateral mesh in 2-D) produces the best results. A tetrahedral mesh with a random pattern (the 3-D equivalent of mesh (b)) yields only 3-D results, not 1-D. And a tetrahedral symmetric mesh, the 3-D equivalent of mesh (c), gives you 1-D results.

You must solve compressible analyses as pseudo-transient or transient problems. This is due to the non-elliptic nature of supersonic problems. The pseudo-transient approach is quite adequate when the time-history of the developing transient is not of interest. In that approach, you apply inertial relaxation to the pressure equation (see Section 8.5.1: Inertial Relaxation). For an ideal gas, the density is always calculated from an equation of state involving the absolute pressure and the absolute temperature. Because of this, you must prevent negative values of absolute pressure and absolute static temperature from being encountered during the iterative process, as these would lead to a negative density. One way to do this is to use a converged incompressible solution as a starting point. Another way is to use capping to specify a minimum FLOTRAN (relative) pressure. For example, to keep the absolute pressure at a minimum of 1 psi, you would cap the relative pressure at -13.7 psi for a reference pressure of 14.7 psi. Capping is not a stability control and by itself it will not control the solution progression. It only helps prevent negative properties. Artificial viscosity helps to prevent negative temperatures. You set it at the beginning of the analysis, and must reduce it slowly for subsequent continuations of the analysis. You will probably encounter divergence if you increase the viscosity between runs. The magnitude of the artificial viscosity required can vary greatly. The smaller the starting value, the fewer the global iterations required. But if it is not large enough, you may encounter negative static temperatures. You can use the laminar and effective viscosities to gauge a good starting value. It is typically a couple orders of magnitude higher than the effective viscosity, which in turn is initialized as a

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses multiple of the laminar value. Generally, a value 3 or 4 orders of magnitude higher than the laminar viscosity is a good approximate starting point. In a compressible problem, the final answer would be a function of the artificial viscosity if it were not removed. Therefore, after stability has been achieved, gradually remove the artificial viscosity during repeated analysis continuations.

Inertial relaxation helps to stabilize a solution by increasing the magnitude of the main diagonal of the matrix equation along with a corresponding increase in the forcing function. Values used are generally between 1.0 x 10-3 (less relaxation) and 1.0 x 10-6 (more relaxation) for pressure. The smaller values provide more diagonal dominance and thus equation stability. The cost of this is slower convergence since it de-emphasizes the influence of the cross-coupling terms present in the equations. Unlike artificial viscosity, the inertial relaxation does not affect the answer if the problem is converged and thus does not have to be removed. It is best to reduce the magnitude to the range of 1 x 10-4 later in the analysis. You can measure the effectiveness of the relaxation by observing the performance of the parameter RTR in the Jobname.DBG file. All the techniques discussed so far involve the steady state algorithm. It is common for supersonic problems, even if they are posed as steady state to be solved with the transient algorithm. An initial velocity field can be imposed as a first guess. The inertial relaxation acts similarly to the transient algorithm and its use is considered redundant in transient analyses. Do note that problems involving moving shocks may lead to inaccurate solutions when using the transient algorithm. With the current set of governing partial differential equations and the discretization techniques used, the transient algorithm has demonstrated solutions that are qualitatively correct but may yield quantitatively inaccurate results.

8.6.1. The Example Described

This example evaluates compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle. The nozzle is axisymmetric with inlet, throat, and outlet radii of 2.432 cm, 0.5 cm and 0.80 cm, respectively. The nozzle inlet pressure is given as 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2.

The analysis uses density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and specific heat properties for air in units of cm-g-sec.

The compressible flow analysis is a turbulent analysis that uses the FLUID141 2-D Fluid-Thermal element. The analysis assumes atmospheric pressure conditions at the outlet. It assumes a stagnation temperature of 550 K. Inlet and outlet pressure boundary conditions are set to 6.13769e+6 dynes/cm2 and 0, respectively. The VY velocity component is set to 0 along the axis of symmetry and the VX and VY velocity components are set to 0 along the outer surface.

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Section 8.7: Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method) The analysis starts with 20 iterations at an artificial viscosity of 10. It then continues for 20 iterations at artificial viscosity values of 1, .1, .01, .001, .0001, and .00001 to give a total of 140 iterations. The analysis then continues for another 160 iterations at an artificial viscosity of 0. After 300 iterations of slowly reducing the viscosity to 0, the analysis continues for 100 iterations with increased momentum and pressure inertial relaxation factors. Finally, the analysis converges to a final solution with the momentum and pressure inertial relaxation factors increased to higher values for 400 iterations.

You perform the following steps to analyze the converging diverging nozzle using the GUI Method.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose Utility Menu> File> Change Title. The Change Title dialog box appears. Enter the text "Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle." Click on OK. Choose Main Menu> Preferences. The Preferences for GUI Filtering dialog box appears. Click the button for FLOTRAN CFD to "On." Click on OK.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Element Type> Add/Edit/Delete. The Element Types dialog box appears. Click on Add. The Library of Element Types dialog box appears. In the two scrollable lists, highlight (click on) "FLOTRAN CFD" and "2D FLOTRAN 141." Click on OK. ANSYS returns you to the Element Types dialog box. Click on Close.

1. 2. 3. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Keypoints> In Active CS. The Create Keypoints in Active Coordinate System dialog box appears. In the "Keypoint number (NPT)" field enter 1 and in the "Location in active CS (X and Y)" fields enter 0 and 2.432, respectively. Click on Apply. Repeat the previous substep for the following sets of keypoint numbers and (X, Y) locations: 2 (0, 0), 3 (1, 2.432), 4 (1, 0), 5 (2, 2.232), 6 (2, 0), 7 (5, 0), 8 (5, 0.7), 9 (6, 0), 10 (6, 0.5), 11 (14, 0), 12 (14, 0.8). After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

4.

1. 2. 3. Choose Utility Menu> PlotCtrls> Numbering. The Plot Numbering Controls dialog box appears. Click the button for "Line Numbers (LINE)" to "On" and click OK. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines in Active Coord picking menu appears.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Pick the keypoint numbers 2 and 4 and click on Apply. Repeat steps 3 and 4 for the following sets of keypoint numbers: 3 and 4; 1 and 3; 1 and 2; and 5 and 8. After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2 Lines. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu appears. Pick line number 3 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears. Pick keypoint number 3 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears.

10. Pick keypoint number 5 and click on OK. 11. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines in Active Coord picking menu appears. 12. Pick the keypoint numbers 10 and 12 and click on OK. 13. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> Tan to 2 Lines. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu appears. 14. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears. 15. Pick keypoint number 8 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears. 16. Pick line number 7 and click on Apply. The Line Tangent to 2 Lines picking menu reappears. 17. Pick keypoint number 10 and click on OK. 18. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Lines> Lines> In Active Coord. The Lines in Active Coord picking menu appears. 19. Pick the keypoint numbers 4 and 6 and click on Apply. 20. Enter the following sets of keypoint number by repeating steps 18 and 19: 6 and 7; 7 and 9; and 9 and 11. After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK.

1. 2. 3. 4. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Areas> Arbitrary> Through KPs. The Create Area thru KPs picking menu appears. Pick the keypoint numbers (2, 4, 3, 1) and click on Apply. Repeat the previous substep for the following sets of keypoint numbers: (4, 6, 5, 3), (6, 7, 8, 5), (7, 9, 10, 8), and (9, 11, 12, 10). After entering each set, click on Apply. After entering the last set, click on OK. Click on SAVE_DB on the ANSYS Toolbar.

1. 2. Choose Utility Menu> Parameters> Scalar Parameters. The Scalar Parameters dialog box appears. Type in the parameter values shown below. (Press ENTER after entering each value.) ntran = 24 rtran = 10 na = 10 nb = 10 nc = 25 nd = 10 86

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Section 8.7: Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method) ne = 100 re = -1.5 3. Click on Close to close the dialog box.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls> Lines> Picked Lines. The Element Size on Picked Lines picking menu appears. Pick line number 4 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ntran, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter rtran. Click on Apply. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for line number 2. Pick line number 13 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ntran, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter 1/rtran. Click on Apply. Repeat steps 5 and 6 for line numbers 14, 15, and 16. Pick line number 1 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter na, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter 1. Click on Apply.

10. Repeat steps 8 and 9 for line number 3. 11. Pick line number 6 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 12. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nb, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter 1. Click on Apply. 13. Repeat steps 11 and 12 for line number 9. 14. Pick line number 5 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 15. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nc, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter 1. Click on Apply. 16. Repeat steps 14 and 15 for line number 10. 17. Pick line number 8 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 18. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter nd, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter 1. Click Apply. 19. Repeat steps 17 and 18 for line number 11. 20. Pick line number 7 and click on Apply. The Element Sizes on Picked Lines dialog box appears. 21. In the "No. of element divisions (NDIV)" field, enter ne, and in the "Spacing ratio (SPACE)" field enter re. Click on Apply. 22. Repeat steps 20 and 21 for line number 12 but this time click OK. 23. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh> Areas> Mapped> 3 or 4 sided. A picking menu appears. 24. Click on Pick All. The meshed model appears.

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1. 2. 3. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Numbering Ctrls> Compress Numbers. The Compress Numbers dialog box appears. Select Nodes as the "Item to be compressed" and click on Apply. Select Elements as the "Item to be compressed" and click on OK.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on OK. A Select Lines picking menu appears. Choose Utility Menu> Plot>Lines. Pick lines 1, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and click on OK. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes. The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears. Click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears. In the "Velocity component (VY)" field, enter 0, and click on OK.

10. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 11. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on the Sele All button. Click on OK. The Select Lines picking menu appears. 12. Pick line number 4 and click on OK. 13. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 14. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK. 15. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Pressure DOF> On Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. 16. Click on Pick All. The Pressure Constraint on Nodes dialog box appears. 17. In the "Pressure value (PRES)" field, enter 6.13769e+6, and click on OK. 18. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 19. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," then click on the Sele All button. Click on OK. The Select Lines picking menu appears. 20. Pick line numbers 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 and click on OK. 21. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. 22. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK. 23. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Velocity> On Nodes. The Apply V on Nodes picking menu appears. 24. Click on Pick All. The Velocity Constraints on Nodes dialog box appears. 25. In the "Velocity component (VX)" field and in the "Velocity component (VY)" enter 0, and click on OK. 26. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears.

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Section 8.7: Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (GUI Method) 27. Choose "Lines" and "By Num/Pick," click on the Sele All button, and then click on OK. The Select Lines picking menu appears. 28. Pick line number 16 and click on OK. 29. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Entities. The Select Entities dialog box appears. 30. Choose "Nodes" and "Attached to," click on Lines, all, and then click on OK. 31. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Pressure DOF> On Nodes. The Apply PRES on Nodes picking menu appears. 32. Click on Pick All. The Pressure Constraint on Nodes dialog box appears. 33. In the "Pressure value (PRES)" field, enter 0, and click on OK.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose Utility Menu> Select> Everything. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties. The Fluid Properties dialog box appears. Set the "Density (DENS)," "Viscosity (VISC)," "Conductivity (COND)," and "Specific heat (SPHT)" fields to AIR-CM. Set the "Allow density variations?" field to yes. Click on Apply. The CFD Flow Properties dialog box appears. Read the information about how coefficients will be calculated, and click on OK.

1. 2. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions. The Reference Conditions dialog box appears. Set the "Reference pressure (REFE)" field to 1.01325e+6 and the "Nominal temperature (NOMI)" and "Stagnation (total) temperature (TTOT)" fields to 550, and then click on OK.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options. The FLOTRAN Solution Options dialog box appears. Set the "Laminar or turbulent (TURB)" field to Turbulent and the "Incompress or compress (COMP)" field to Compressible. Click OK. Choose Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Contr> PRES Solver CFD. The PRES Solver CFD dialog box appears. Choose Precond conj res. Click on OK. The Semi Direct Solver Options for Pressure dialog box appears. In the "Convergence criterion" field, enter 1.e-12, and click on OK.

1. 2. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation. The Property Relaxation dialog box appears. Set the "Density relaxation" field to 1.0 and click on OK.

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Chapter 8: FLOTRAN Compressible Analyses 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization. The Modified Inertial Relaxation (MIR) dialog box appears. Set the MIR values for the momentum and turbulence equations to 0.2 Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 1.0, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e-4, and the "Artificial viscosity" field to 10, and then click on OK. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings dialog box appears. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 20 and click on OK. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

10. After 20 iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears. 11. Set the "Artificial viscosity" field to 1 and click on OK. 12. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. 13. Repeat the previous 3 substeps and continue to reduce the "Artificial viscosity" to .1, .01, .001, .0001, and .00001. 14. After 140 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears. 15. Set the "Artificial viscosity" field to 0 and click on OK. 16. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings dialog box appears. 17. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 160 and click on OK. 18. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. 19. After 300 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears. 20. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 10, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e-2, and then click on OK. 21. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings dialog box appears. 22. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 100 and click on OK. 23. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. 24. After 400 total iterations finish, the Solution is done message appears. Close it. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Stability Parms. The Stability Parameters dialog box appears. 25. Set the "Momentum inertia" field to 1e+15, the "Pressure inertia" field to 1.e+15, and then click on OK. 26. Choose Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Execution Ctrl. The Steady State Control Settings dialog box appears. 27. Set the "Global iterations (EXEC) field to 400 and click on OK. 28. Choose Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN. When the Solution is done message appears, close it.

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Section 8.8: Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method) 29. Click QUIT on the ANSYS Toolbar. Choose an exit option and click OK.

You issue the following ANSYS commands to perform a compressible flow analysis of the converging diverging nozzle. Text preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/title, Compressible Flow in a Converging Diverging Nozzle /prep7 ! ! Assign Element Type ! et,1,141 ! ! Create the Model Geometry ! /pnum,line,1 k,1,0,2.432 k,2,0,0 k,3,1,2.432 k,4,1,0 k,5,2,2.232 k,6,2,0 k,7,5,0 k,8,5,.7 k,9,6,0 k,10,6,.5 k,11,14,0 k,12,14,.8 l,2,4 l,3,4 l,1,3 l,1,2 l,5,8 l2tan,3,5 l,10,12 l2tan,5,7 l,4,6 l,6,7 l,7,9 l,9,11 a,2,4,3,1 a,4,6,5,3 a,6,7,8,5 a,7,9,10,8 a,9,11,12,10 ! ! !Mesh the Model and Compress Numbers ! ntran=24 rtran=10 na=10 nb=10 nc=25 nd=10 ne=100 re=-1.5 lesize,4,,,ntran,rtran lesize,2,,,ntran,rtran lesize,13,,,ntran,1/rtran lesize,14,,,ntran,1/rtran lesize,15,,,ntran,1/rtran lesize,16,,,ntran,1/rtran lesize,1,,,na lesize,3,,,na lesize,6,,,nb lesize,9,,,nb lesize,5,,,nc lesize,10,,,nc lesize,8,,,nd

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lesize,11,,,nd lesize,7,,,ne,re lesize,12,,,ne,re amesh,all numcmp,node numcmp,elem ! ! Apply Boundary Conditions ! lsel,s,,,1 lsel,a,,,9,12,1 nsll,,1 d,all,vy,0 lsel,all lsel,s,,,4 nsll,,1 d,all,pres,6.13769e+6 lsel,all lsel,s,,,3 lsel,a,,,5,8,1 nsll,,1 d,all,vx,0 d,all,vy,0 lsel,all lsel,s,,,16 nsll,,1 d,all,pres,0 ! ! Set Fluid Properties ! alls /solu flda,prot,dens,air-cm flda,prot,visc,air-cm flda,prot,cond,air-cm flda,prot,spht,air-cm flda,vary,dens,t ! ! Set Flow Environment Parameters ! flda,pres,refe,1.01325e+6 flda,temp,ttot,550 flda,temp,nomi,550 ! ! Set Solution Options and CFD Solver Controls ! flda,solu,turb,t flda,solu,comp,t flda,meth,pres,3 flda,conv,pres,1e-12 ! ! Solve ! flda,relx,dens,1 flda,mir,mome,0.2 flda,mir,turb,0.2 flda,stab,mome,1 flda,stab,pres,1e-4 flda,stab,visc,10 flda,iter,exec,20 solve flda,stab,visc,1 solve flda,stab,visc,.1 solve flda,stab,visc,.01 solve flda,stab,visc,.001 solve flda,stab,visc,.0001 solve flda,stab,visc,.00001

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Section 8.8: Doing the Example Compressible Flow Analysis (Command Method)

solve flda,stab,visc,0 flda,iter,exec,160 solve flda,stab,mome,10 flda,stab,pres,1e-2 flda,iter,exec,100 solve flda,stab,mome,1e+15 flda,stab,pres,1e+15 flda,iter,exec,400 solve

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9.1. Guidelines for Specifying Properties

Every flow analysis requires the fluid properties density and viscosity. Thermal analyses, in addition, require the fluid's thermal conductivity as well as specific heat. Volume of Fluid (VOF) analyses, in addition, might require the fluid properties surface tension coefficient and wall static contact angle. You specify fluid properties using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties The command shown above simply sets the fluid property type. After choosing the property type, you may have to set values. To specify non-fluid properties (density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity), use one of the following: Command(s): MP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Density Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Specific Heat Main Menu> Preprocessor> Material Props> Material Models> Thermal> Conductivity> Isotropic Main Menu> Solution> Other> Change Mat Props> Polynomial Non-fluid thermal conductivities can vary with temperature. Orthotropic variation of non-fluid thermal conductivity also is supported. For further information, see the descriptions of the MP and MPDATA commands, and related commands. ANSYS provides no default values for density or viscosity properties. This prevents default properties from putting the analysis into an unexpected flow regime. A value of -1 will appear in the user interface for properties that must be set. If you submit an analysis without setting these properties, an error message results and you will be reminded that you must specify properties.

A "fluid property type" defines how the particular fluid property will vary with temperature (and pressure, in the case of density for a gas). You choose the fluid property type separately for density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, surface tension coefficient, and wall static contact angle. You must use a consistent set of units for all the data that you enter. All thermal quantities must have the same energy unit as shown in the following table:

Thermal Quantity Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Heat Flux Units energy/length-temperature-time energy/mass-temperature energy/length2-time

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Thermal Quantity Volumetric Heat Source Heat Transfer Coefficient Units energy/length3-time energy/length2-temperature-time

Except for incompressible flow analyses including viscous heating, you can use any energy unit as long as you use the same unit for all thermal quantities. The metric and English property types defined below use joules and BTUs, respectively, as the energy unit for thermal conductivity and specific heat. For an incompressible analysis including viscous heating, you must use the energy unit for the system as shown in the following table:

Table 9.2 Energy Units for Incompressible Analyses with Viscous Heating

System SI (meter-kg-sec) CGS (cm-g-sec) mm-g-sec British (ft-slug-sec) PSI Energy Unit[1] Joule Erg Centi-erg lbf-ft lbf-in

1.

For specific heat, you can choose among the following property types: CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), user-programmable subroutine (USER), and the variations of AIR shown below in Table 9.3: Units for the AIR Property Type.

For density and thermal conductivity, the property types you can choose are CONSTANT, CMIX, TABLE, GAS, LIQUID, user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), and the variations of AIR shown below. (To learn how to add more, see Section 9.4: Modifying the Fluid Property Database.) A user-programmable subroutine (USER) also is available. For density only, you have one other property type option: CGAS.

PROT AIR AIR-SI AIR-CM AIR-MM AIR-FT AIR-IN Units meter-kg-sec meter-kg-sec cm-g-sec mm-g-sec ft-slug-sec in-(lbf-s2/in)-sec Pressure Units Pascals Pascals dynes/cm2 Pascals lbf/ft2 psi Density Units kg/m

3

ANSYS automatically supplies for you, in the property database, the relevant input for the AIR property types.

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For viscosity, you can choose the property types CMIX, TABLE, CONSTANT, LIQUID, GAS, Power Law (POWL), Bingham (BING), Carreau (CARR), user-defined through a file (floprp.ans), and a user-programmable subroutine (USER or USRV). The AIR and GAS property types assume that the fluid is an ideal gas with constant specific heat. The viscosity and thermal conductivity variations with temperature are assumed to follow Sutherland's laws for gases, the form of which is shown below. A LIQUID assumes up to a second order polynomial for the variation of density with temperature, a constant value for specific heat, and Sutherland's laws for a liquid for viscosity and thermal conductivity. Viscosity as a function of the velocity gradient is represented by the non-Newtonian viscosity types: Power Law, Bingham, and Carreau. Refer to Section 9.6: Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities for more information.

For surface tension coefficient, you can choose among the following property types: CONSTANT, LIQUID, and user-programmable subroutine (USER).

For wall static contact angle, CONSTANT is the only valid property type.

You must use a consistent set of units (the gravitational constant gc must be unity.) Of course, the proper length unit must be assumed when building the finite element model. Additional choices are available for air as per the table shown below. Units for density are simply mass/volume; the table omits them. Set the property type using the following: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties For Label, you specify one of the following: DENS (density), VISC (viscosity), COND (thermal conductivity), SPHT (specific heat), or SFTS (surface tension coefficient). For Value, you specify any of the property types listed in Table 9.4: Property types for Value, or you can specify a table of fluid properties. To specify a table, enclose the table name in percent signs (%) (for example, FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,%Table%).

If working interactively, you define a new table prior to using the table to apply loads. You can define a table interactively via the Utility Menu> Parameters> Array Parameters> Define/Edit menu path, or in batch mode via the *DIM command. If working interactively, you will be asked to define the table through a series of dialog boxes. If working in batch mode, you need to define the table before issuing any of the loading commands. For more information on defining tables, see the discussion of table array parameters in the ANSYS APDL Programmer's Guide. When you define the table, you can define the following primary variables:

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN Temperature (TEMP) Pressure (PRESSURE) Time (TIME) X-coordinate (X) Y-coordinate (Y) Z-coordinate (Z) Velocity (VELOCITY) Reference X-coordinate (Xr) (ALE formulation only) Reference Y-coordinate (Yr) (ALE formulation only) Reference Z-coordinate (Zr) (ALE formulation only)

The valid labels used by the *DIM command are shown in parentheses. If you need to specify a variable other than one of the primary variables listed, you can do so by defining an independent variable. To specify an independent variable, define an additional table for the independent variable. That table must have the same name as the independent variable and can be a function of either a primary variable or another independent variable.

The following table describes the property types that you can specify.

Property Type Constant properties Gas properties Liquid properties GAS LIQUID Argument CONSTANT

Table of property values and corresponding temperature values (which you enter using the TABLE MPDATAand MPTEMP commands) Air properties in units of meter-kg-sec AIR or AIR-SI Air properties in units of meter-kg-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure for the AIR_B or AIR-SI_B evaluation of density Air properties in units of cm-g-sec AIR-CM Air properties in units of cm-g-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure for the evalu- AIR-CM_B ation of density Air properties in units of mm-g-sec Air properties in units of mm-g-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure for the evaluation of density Air properties in units of fl-slug-sec Air properties in unites of fl-slug-sec, with pressure set to the reference pressure for the evaluation of density Air properties in units of in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec (results in units of psi for pressure) AIR-MM AIR-MM_B AIR-FT AIR-FT_B AIR-IN

Air properties in units of in-(lbf-s**2/in)-sec (results in units of psi for pressure), with pressure AIR-IN_B set to the reference pressure for the evaluation of density Power Law non-Newtonian viscosity type POWL

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Property Type Carreau non-Newtonian viscosity type Bingham non-Newtonian viscosity type Property is mass fraction average of the species component User-programmable via subroutines:UserVisLaw for viscosityUserSpht for specific heatUserDens for densityUserCond for conductivityUserSfts for surface tension A variation of ideal gas law based on species mass fractions. Available for density only. Argument CARR BING CMIX USER CGAS

Once you choose property types, you do not need to specify any coefficients for the properties. If the characters _B are added to these property types (as in the AIR types listed above), the pressure in the ideal gas law calculation is at a constant density corresponding to atmospheric pressure. The length and time units of conductivity and specific heat must be consistent with the rest of the properties. The energy units in these quantities are unrestricted. If using property types CONSTANT, GAS, or LIQUID, you must specify property coefficients. To do so, either issue the commands shown below or choose one of the following menu paths: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,Label,Value FLDATA9,COF1,Label,Value FLDATA10,COF2,Label,Value FLDATA11,COF3,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties If you use the commands, you enter the property in the Label field of each command and enter the value itself in each command's Value field. The format of the equations for GAS and LIQUID input is oriented towards calculating constants based on chosen data points. All cases take COF1 to be the absolute temperature at which the chosen property has the value set by NOMI. (Section 9.5: Using Reference Properties discusses the use of relative temperatures and an offset temperature to calculate absolute temperatures.) This is not used in the COF1 specification; COF1 should always be an absolute temperature. Once values are inserted into the relationships below for NOMI and COF1, the values of COF2 and COF3, if necessary, follow from knowledge of one or two additional data points, respectively. When calculating COF2 and COF3 for GAS and LIQUID property types, you must use absolute temperatures and pressures in these relationships. If COF1 is set to zero, the property will become constant at the value set by NOMI. For GAS and LIQUID property types, the specific heat is constant and therefore the parameters COF1, COF2 and COF3 are not needed. For viscosity types Power Law, Bingham, and Carreau, NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 have different interpretations. This is discussed in the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference and in Section 9.2.8: Viscosity.

9.2.7. Density

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the density to 1.205 via: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,DENS,1.205 If the property type is GAS, the ideal gas law is used for the density. You specify density for this choice as: Density = NOMI * (P/COF2) / (T/COF1) If the choice is LIQUID, then a second order polynomial as a function of temperature is used for density.

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Chapter 9: Specifying Fluid Properties for FLOTRAN Density = NOMI + COF2*(T - COF1) + COF3*(T - COF1)2 If the property type is CMIX, then: Density = Yi i

i =1 N

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species, and i is the density of the ith species. If the property is CGAS, then: Density =

P RT ( Yi /Mi )

i N

In the CGAS equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species, Mi is the molecular weight of the ith species, R is the universal gas constant, and P is the absolute pressure. If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents). If the choice is USER, the density is computed in the user-programmable subroutine UserDens. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

9.2.8. Viscosity

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the viscosity to 1.205 via: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,1.205 If the choice is GAS, Sutherland's law for gases is used for viscosity. You can enter the parameters NOMI, COF1, and COF2. The ideal gas constant R is defined as (COF2/NOMI*COF1) Viscosity ("Property"): Property/NOMI = (T/COF1)1.5 * (COF1 + COF2)/(T + COF2) As an example of using this relationship, suppose that there are two data points available for the calculation of viscosity as a function of temperature: Viscosity = 4.18 x 10-5 at T = 760 Viscosity = 5.76 x 10-5 at T = 1010 Consider the first data point as the nominal value. This means that NOMI = 4.18 x 10-5 and COF1 = 760. Using these in the Sutherland relationship yields: Property/4.18 x 10-5 = (T/760)1.5 (760 + COF2)/(T + COF2) 96

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Section 9.2: Fluid Property Types Use the remaining data point to calculate COF2 by setting "Property" to 5.76 x 10-5 and T = 1010. Thus, the constants are calculated from the data points. If the choice is LIQUID, then Sutherland's liquid law is used for the viscosity. Viscosity ("Property"): Property/NOMI = EXP{COF2*(1/T - 1/COF1) + COF3(1/T - 1/COF1)2} If the choice is POWL, then the non-Newtonian Power Law model is used for the viscosity:

(COF3-1) NOMI*COF2*D Viscosity = (COF3-1) NOMI*COF2*COF1

,D>COF1 ,D COF1

If the choice is BING, then the non-Newtonian Bingham model is used for the viscosity: COF1 NOMI+ D Viscosity = COF2 ,D ,D< COF1 COF2 NOMI COF1 COV2 -NOMI

If the choice is CARR, the non-Newtonian Carreau model is used for the viscosity:

COF3-1 2 Viscosity =COF1+(NOMI- COF1)*(1+(COF2*D) ) 2

i=1 N

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species, and i is the viscosity of the ith species. If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents). If the choice is USRV or USER, then the viscosity is computed in the user programmable subroutine UserVisLaw. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the specific heat to 1.205 via: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,SPHT,1.205 If the choice is USER, specify specific heat via user-programmable subroutine UserSpht. For specific heat, NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in the user-programmable subroutine UserSpht. If the property type is CMIX, then:

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i=1 N

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species, and Cp

i

If the property type is TABLE, the specific heat is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents).

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the thermal conductivity to 1.205 via: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,COND,1.205 If the choice is GAS, Sutherland's law for gases is used for conductivity. You can enter the parameters NOMI, COF1, and COF2. The ideal gas constant R is defined as (COF2/NOMI*COF1) Thermal Conductivity ("Property"): Property/NOMI = (T/COF1)1.5 * (COF1 + COF2)/(T + COF2) If the choice is LIQUID, then Sutherland's liquid law is used for conductivity. Thermal Conductivity ("Property"): Property/NOMI = EXP{COF2*(1/T - 1/COF1) + COF3(1/T - 1/COF1)2} If the property type is CMIX, then: Conductivity = Y i K i

i =1 N

In the equation shown above, N is the defined number of species, Yi is the mass fraction of the ith species, and Ki is the conductivity of the ith species. If the property type is TABLE, the density is interpolated linearly between the data points provided via the MPTEMP or MPDATA commands (or their GUI equivalents). If the choice is USER, then the thermal conductivity is computed in the user programmable subroutine UserCond. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

If the property type choice is CONSTANT, then set the constant value of the property using the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, you set the surface tension coefficient to 73.0 via:

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Section 9.3: Initializing and Varying Properties Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,SFTS,73.0 If the choice is LIQUID, then a second order polynomial as a function of temperature is used for surface tension coefficient. Surface tension coefficient = NOMI + COF2*(T - COF1) + COF3*(T - COF1)2 If the choice is USER, the surface tension coefficient is computed in the user-programmable subroutine UserSfts. The four coefficients NOMI, COF1, COF2, and COF3 are available in this routine.

To set the constant value use the FLDATA8,NOMI command or the equivalent menu path. For example, set the wall static contact angle to 120.0 degrees via: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,WSCA,120.0 The wall static contact angle defaults to 90 degrees. Angles less than 90 degrees describe an adhesive wall condition and angles between 90 and 180 degrees describe a nonadhesive wall condition. In reality, the angle is not only a material property of the fluid, but also depends on the local fluid and wall conditions. FLOTRAN treats it as a single input constant for simplicity.

When an analysis begins, ANSYS calculates properties based on the specified property type and the appropriate constants. To set the initial temperature, choose one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions You can choose to treat this temperature as an absolute or a relative temperature. If it is a relative temperature, the difference between the relative and the absolute temperature is the offset from absolute zero set by one of the following: Command(s): TOFFST,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Either way, FLOTRAN initializes the absolute nominal temperature as the sum of the values set by the FLDATA,TEMP,NOMI and TOFFST commands or their equivalent menu paths. Unless otherwise specified through boundary or initial condition commands, the initial relative pressure is zero. In the absence of gravity and rotation the absolute pressure is the sum of the reference and relative pressures. Therefore, the initial absolute pressure is the reference pressure. For specific heat, density, surface tension coefficient, and thermal conductivity, the ANSYS program uses initial values of absolute nominal temperature and absolute pressure to calculate the initial properties. However, for non-Newtonian viscosity, you specify initial properties using either the command FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value (Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties). If you specify a value less than or equal to zero, the NOMI coefficient described in the previous section is used to initialize the viscosity.

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Once the analysis begins, the properties will vary only between global iterations as the temperature and pressure change if the property variations are activated. This is accomplished with the FLDATA13,VARY,Label,Value command with the labels SPHT, DENS, VISC, SFTS, and COND. Allowable Values are TRUE and FALSE (T or F). The VARY setting has no effect if the property type are set to CONSTANT or COF1 is zero for a GAS or LIQUID.

Choices other than CGAS, CMIX, TABLE, USER, GAS, LIQUID, CONSTANT or AIR for density, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and specific heat imply that all the properties will be obtained from the information in the floprp.ans file (a text file), where the data for AIR resides. This file is provided with ANSYS, and you should make a local copy if you plan additions to it. You can make the copy at the system level with a text editor. The procedure for making additions requires you to: 1. 2. Choose a property name. Specify functional form and constants. id Integer equation identifier (two digit number) n Number of coefficients Ci Equation coefficients You can access the following forms through the property database by specifying the appropriate ID. The variable "y" refers to the value of the property of interest, T is the absolute temperature, and P is the absolute pressure. Polynomial ID: 01 y = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + ... + CnTn-1 Inverse Polynomial ID: 02

C C C y = C1 + 2 + 3 + + n T T2 Tn 1

Exponential Polynomial ID: 03 In(y) = C1 + C2T + C3T2 + ... + CnTn-1 Exponential Inverse Polynomial ID: 04

C C C In( y ) = C1 + 2 + 3 + + n T T2 Tn 1

Power Law ID: 05 y = C1TC2 Ideal Gas Law ID: 11

y=

P C1T

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y=

C1T 2 T + C2

y=

C1 + C2PC3 C4 + C5PC6

y = C1C3D(C4 1) ,

D > C2

y = C1C3C2(C4 1) , D C2

where D= I2 , I2 is the second invariant of the strain rate tensor.

C C2 y = C1 + 2 , D D C3 C1 y = C3 , D< C2 C3 C1

C4 1 2

User-programmable subroutine: 19 y = y (C1, C2, C3, C4) Because you can use the subroutine to describe property variations, you can use the four coefficients in any way within the subroutine. The format of the property database file floprp.ans is provided in the table below:

Line 1 2 nLines nLines [I6] Proplab, tProp, nProp (PropCF(i)=1,nProp) [A4, 1x, 2I6, 5E12.5/6E 12.5] Description Fluid Name [A8] and optional comments

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Line Description Fluid Name=Fluid property type nLines=Number of properties to be read Proplab=Property label (one of the following): SPHT - Specific heat DENS - Density VISC - Viscosity COND - Conductivity GAMM - Gamma tProp - Equation identifier for property nProp - Number of coefficients for property PropCF - Coefficients for property calculation

The following properties are part of the flow environment: The ratio of specific heats, Cp/Cv, known as gamma, is a reference property that applies only to compressible problems. Currently it is a constant. Specify this property using one of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA17,GAMM,COMP,VALUE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions File: Edit the file floprp.ans and set the value of GAMM. The pressures FLOTRAN calculates are relative pressures. A reference pressure is added to the relative pressure to calculate the absolute pressure. Rotational and gravitational terms also are added as needed. For more information, see Chapter 10, FLOTRAN Special Features. To specify the reference pressure, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA15,PRES,REFE,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions You can use a relative temperature (for example, degrees Fahrenheit rather than degrees Rankine). In this case, an offset temperature is set so that property calculations include absolute temperatures. This is necessary, for instance, for calculating densities from the ideal gas law. ANSYS automatically adds the offset temperature to all of the boundary condition temperatures applied. To set the offset temperature, use one of the following Command(s): TOFFST,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions The nominal temperature is that at which the properties initialize. It may be a relative temperature if you use the TOFFST command or an equivalent menu path. If the viscosity is not stored in the results file (the default condition) and is now allowed to vary, ANSYS recalculates it when the analysis continues at the nominal temperature. To specify the nominal temperature, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA14,TEMP,NOMI,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions 912

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Section 9.6: Using the ANSYS Non-Newtonian Flow Capabilities Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Ref Conditions You can specify gravitational accelerations using one of the following: Command(s): ACEL,ACELX,ACELY,ACELZ GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Gravity

The sign convention of the gravitational acceleration denotes as positive the direction of the reaction force.

The ANSYS program enables you to specify viscosity for non-Newtonian fluid flows. (You can use this capability only with FLUID141 and FLUID142 elements.) You can choose among four types of models: The Power Law model, useful for modeling polymers, blood, rubber solutions, etc. The Carreau model, which removes some of the deficiencies associated with the Power Law model. Use this model when fluid has intermediate values of shear rate but remains bounded for zero/infinite shear rates. The Bingham model, useful for modeling slurries and pastes. A user-programmable subroutine UserVisLaw, which gives you greater flexibility in choosing viscosity models.

Typically, you select one of these models after you have built and meshed the model for your problem and after you have applied the boundary conditions.

To activate the Power Law viscosity model, issue the command or use one of the menu paths shown below: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,POWL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Choosing any of the above automatically issues other commands which set output and storage controls and the property variation flag. For details, see the descriptions of the FLDATA commands in the ANSYS Commands Reference. To specify the four coefficients associated with the Power Law model, choose either of the menu paths shown above (and specify the appropriate coefficients), or issue the following commands: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies nominal viscosity) FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the cutoff shear rate) FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the consistency coefficient) FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power) The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference describes these coefficients. Once you have specified the coefficients, you can issue the SOLVE command or choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

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To activate the Carreau viscosity model, issue the command or use one of the menu paths shown below: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,CARR GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Choosing one of the above automatically issues commands which set output and storage controls and the property variation flag. For more information about the FLDATA commands, see the ANSYS Commands Reference. You need to specify the four coefficients associated with the Carreau model, using either of the menu paths shown above or the following commands: Command(s): FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies the zero shear viscosity) FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the infinite shear viscosity) FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the time constant) FLDATA11,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies the power) The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference describes these coefficients. Once you have specified them, you can issue the SOLVE command or choose menu path Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

To activate the Bingham viscosity model, issue the command or choose one of the menu paths shown below: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,BING GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Choosing one of the items shown above automatically issues commands that set output and storage controls and the property variation flag. To set the coefficients associated with the Bingham model, either use one of the menu paths shown above or issue the following commands: FLDATA8,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic viscosity) FLDATA9,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies the plastic/yield stress) FLDATA10,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies the Newtonian viscosity) The ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference describes these coefficients. You can also specify an initial viscosity to accelerate convergence. Typically, you can set this to be the Newtonian viscosity (that is, COF2) via one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,VISC,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

User-programmable subroutines are available for specific heat, density, viscosity, surface tension coefficient, and thermal conductivity of fluid regions. Since the procedures are quite similar, only one property will be described in depth here.

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Section 9.7: Using User-Programmable Subroutines If you wish to use the user-programmable viscosity subroutine, USERVISLAW, you will need to customize it for the particular model you are analyzing. You compile the subroutine, link it with the ANSYS libraries, and make an executable copy available. Then, you can resume the model to be analyzed and activate the viscosity model you have defined. To do so, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,VISC,USRV (or USER) GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties At this point, you may want to specify that properties are updated every iteration and that you want viscosity output to go to the results file. To do so, issue the following commands or use the following menu paths: Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,UFRQ,1 and FLDATA5,OUTP,VISC,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Next, you need to specify the four coefficients associated with the user-defined viscosity model. To do so, use either of the menu paths shown above or issue the following commands: Command(s): FLDATA7,NOMI,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 1) FLDATA6,COF1,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 2) FLDATA9,COF2,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 3) FLDATA10,COF3,VISC,Value (specifies coefficient 4) These coefficients are available within the UserVisLaw subroutine. By default, this subroutine produces a Power Law viscosity model using the coefficients you define. To see a copy of the subroutine, see the Guide to ANSYS User Programmable Features. You can also specify an initial viscosity to accelerate convergence, via one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA12,PROP,IVISC,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Once you have specified the coefficients, and, optionally, an initial viscosity, you can solve your model by issuing the SOLVE command or choosing Main Menu> Solution> Run FLOTRAN.

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You set the coordinate system via one of the following: Command(s): KEYOPT GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> FLOTRAN Coor Sys The table below shows you how to select various coordinate systems and describes the velocities represented by DOFs VX, VY, and VZ in these systems. The default value of the KEYOPT is zero, which selects Cartesian coordinates.

Coordinate System Cartesian 2-D - Axisymmetric about Y axis 2-D - Axisymmetric about X axis 2-D - Polar Coordinates 3-D - Cylindrical Coordinates KEYOPT(3) 0 1 2 3 3 VX X radial axial radial radial VY Y axial radial theta theta VZ Z swirl swirl N/A axial

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features For axisymmetric problems, the sign convention for the swirl (VZ) component conforms to positive rotation about the axis of symmetry, as defined by the right hand rule. Thus, for a model that is axisymmetric about the Y axis, a nonnegative swirl velocity VZ is considered to be pointing "into the page." Similarly, for a model that is axisymmetric about the X axis, a nonnegative swirl velocity VZ is considered to be pointing "out of the page." This should be accounted for when you apply boundary conditions in rotating coordinates. Note Based on the definition of directions for the cylindrical coordinate system, gravity is only appropriate for the Z direction when KEYOPT(3) is set to 3.

You can choose to solve your problem in a rotating reference frame. In this case, the velocities are calculated and specified with respect to a coordinate system which is rotating at constant angular velocity. Such an approach is useful for pump blade passage analysis. Figure 10.2: Rotating Flow Problem shows a schematic of a rotating problem which requires moving coordinate systems. Figure 10.3: Problem Schematic with Rotating Coordinate shows the problem schematic in the rotating coordinate system. The pressures specified by boundary conditions are in terms of the static pressure observable by the stationary analyst, not in terms of the rotating coordinate system. The transformations necessary to solve the equations in the rotating coordinate frame are done internally. You can set rotational speeds using any of the following: Command(s): CGOMGA GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords For all but 3-D Cartesian coordinate systems, you must specify the axis of rotation as being about the Z axis. For 2-D axisymmetric systems, the ANSYS program automatically interprets the specified Z-axis rotation as actually acting about the correct axis of symmetry (that is, about either the X or Y axis). For 3-D Cartesian geometries, the rotational axis need not be in the same direction as one of the principal axes of the global coordinate system, and may be offset from the origin of the global coordinate system. To specify offsets for the axis of rotation, use one of the following: Command(s): CGLOC GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Flow Environment> Rotating Coords

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10.3. Swirl

Swirl applies only to axisymmetric problems and refers to motion perpendicular to the X-Y plane. To activate swirl, choose one of the following:

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Chapter 10: FLOTRAN Special Features Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,SWIRL,TRUE GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Either a moving wall (for instance, a rotating shaft) or a component of swirl at an inlet can cause the motion in the swirl direction (with velocity component VZ). In a swirl problem, there are no changes in the "theta" direction since it is axisymmetric. The swirl component is calculated through solution of the momentum equation in the swirl direction. With no pressure gradient in the swirl direction, nothing contributes to the swirl velocity directly from the velocity update step in the segregated solution algorithm. It is thus sometimes useful to accelerate the convergence of swirl problems by solving the momentum in the swirl direction equation with a relaxation factor of 1.0 for a few global iterations.

Distributed resistances are macroscopic representations of geometric features not directly concerned with the region of interest and considered too detailed for exact representation. A typical example is pipe flow which encounters a screen. You apply distributed resistance on an element basis through the use of real constants. See the ANSYS Elements Reference for the formulation and the list and meaning of the real constants. Since the distributed resistance parameters will describe the known behavior of the flow in the region, the use of the turbulence model is redundant. You should deactivate it in the distributed resistance region by setting ENKE to 0.0 and ENDS to 1.0. To do so, choose one of the following: Command(s): D GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Turbulence> On Nodes The distributed resistances referred to above are used to describe losses to the system. You can model momentum sources in similar fashion. Such sources can be used to represent fans or pumps in a system. Typical characterization of these components is a "Head-Capacity Curve," representing the pressure rise as a function of flow for a constant speed pump. The fan or pump model is not intended to describe the details of the flow in the pump region, but rather to approximate its effects on the rest of the system. You can use any coordinate system or FLOTRAN element shape, but Cartesian coordinate systems with hex shaped elements in three dimensions and quadrilateral elements in two dimensions tend to give more stable results. The fan model input takes the form of element real constants, and is described in detail in the ANSYS Elements Reference. The ANSYS program supports two types of fan model. A "Type Four" fan model acts only along a specific coordinate direction, while a "Type Five" model enables the user to align the fan or pump in an arbitrary direction. Coefficients are assigned for each coordinate direction. The equation for the fan model is in terms of a pressure gradient applied in the direction of flow. You therefore must know over what length the fan model is to be applied in order to achieve the correct total pressure rise. The relationship defining the momentum source for an arbitrary direction "s" is as follows:

dP = C1 + C2 V + C3 V 2 ds

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Section 10.4: Distributed Resistance/Source In the above equation, V is the velocity through the fan. If the given data is in terms of volumetric flow, you must know the area of the actual pump. The actual velocity at the outlet of the pump as well as the volumetric flow rate should be preserved. Consistent units must be used, that is, the gravitational conversion constant must be 1.0. If, for example, the pressure drop is in psi, the velocity units are in/sec. Generally, you determine the fan or pump coefficients by taking three pairs of pressure-velocity points on the "fan curve" and solving for the coefficients. If the flow is to be in the negative direction, the signs of all the coefficients change. The type 5 model is used for pumps not aligned with one of the coordinate directions. Given V as the velocity in the S arbitrary direction and the pump constants C1, C2, and C3; the directional coefficients can be calculated. If x is the angle between the arbitrary direction S and the x coordinate direction, the directional constants are:

Similarly, if y and z are defined as the angles between the fan direction and the y and z coordinate direction respectively:

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In the sequential solution algorithm, you have three options for solving equations sets for degrees of freedom: 1. A fast, approximate solver This solver, the Tri-Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA), performs a user-specified number of iterations through the problem domain. 2. "Exact" solvers The "exact" methods are semi-direct conjugate direction methods that iterate to a specified convergence criterion. These methods are: The Conjugate Residual (CR), Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR), Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR), and Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) methods for non-symmetric matrix equations. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method for the incompressible pressure equation.

3.

Sparse Direct solver This solver uses Gaussian elimination to factorize the matrix and then uses backward/forward substitution to solve for the unknowns.

You choose the method for each DOF via one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA18,METH,Label,Value (Label = DOF) GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> PRES Solver CFD Valid choices are: 1 (TDMA), 2 (conjugate residual), 3 (preconditioned conjugate residual or gradient), 4 (preconditioned generalized minimum residual), 5 (sparse direct), or 6 (preconditioned BiCGStab). A choice of 0 indicates that the equation set is not to be solved. The preconditioned conjugate gradient method automatically applies to the incompressible pressure equation for choices 2 or 3. The default solver (TDMA) for the velocities and the turbulence equations is adequate for virtually every problem encountered. The number of sweeps (iterations) for the velocity is 1. Do not change this value. Experience has shown that the default number of 10 sweeps for the turbulence equations is most efficient although you can increase this number to see if better convergence is attained for a particular application. In general, the solution of the pressure equation must be accurate and conjugate direction methods are used. However, the TDMA method can be successful for natural convection flows. The sections for the various types of analyses discuss where to use solvers other than the default choices.

You set the number of sweeps for the TDMA solver using one of the following:

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation Command(s): FLDATA19,TDMA,Label,Value (Label = DOF) GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver In the GUI, you do not have access to this command unless the TDMA method has been requested for that DOF. It is not available in the GUI at all for velocities.

You can gauge the performance of the semi-direct solvers by the behavior during the solution process of the inner product of the residuals, referred to as RTR (or ZTR for the incompressible pressure equation.) RTR should be reduced during the global iteration to a fraction, typically 1.0 x 10-7 of its initial value. The fraction is the convergence criterion for the semi-direct methods, set with one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA21,CONV,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver To set the maximum number of iterations allowed during a global iteration, choose one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA22,MAXI,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Data concerning how the semi-direct solvers are performing appears in the text file Jobname.DBG for every DOF for which they are used, generally PRES, TEMP, or both. The semi-direct algorithms may conclude in three different ways: convergence is achieved, the maximum number of iterations has been reached without convergence, or the solution has stalled. If the maximum number has been reached without convergence, more iterations may be required (for example, in a large or ill-conditioned problem). If so, increase the maximum number of iterations. The maximum number also may be reached if the convergence criterion has been set to a very small value (for example, less than 1.0 x 10-15), in which case the convergence criterion should be eased. It may also, however, mean that the solution is diverging. If so, large values of RTR or ZTR (perhaps above 1.0 x 1020) will appear in the debug file; but increasing the number of iterations will not help. Stall occurs when the new iteration makes no progress towards the solution but the convergence criterion has not been achieved. If the rate of change is small enough the solution process stops. Note You specify the rate of change which leads to termination of the solver by using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA23,DELT,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver The label refers to the DOF being solved. Stall can occur in the solution of the compressible pressure equation or in the solution of the temperature equation of some conjugate heat transfer problems. The value of RTR does not decrease significantly and at the last iteration the value of DelMax is less than the value you specified. This means that the solution is essentially not changing, and further computational effort is wasted.

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Section 11.3: Semi-Direct Solvers You can resolve a stall situation by increasing the number of search directions or using inertial relaxation. To increase search directions, either use one of the menu paths described above (with the FLDATA23,DELT command), or issue the following command: Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value The default value is 2, appropriate for well conditioned problems. The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. Values of 20 may be required, but be aware that each search direction specified requires N compute storage locations in memory. (N is the number of finite element nodes in the problem). The computer storage required for large values of SRCH could exceed the computational resources available, in which case inertial relaxation should be used. Figure 11.1: Typical Debug Files shows typical debug files.

The PGMR method uses fill-in when constructing the L and U decomposition matrices. The PGMR method is a version of the generalized minimum residual method that uses an LU preconditioning to transform the system of equations into a set easier to solve. As with the PCCR method, the coefficient matrix is decomposed into an approximate LU product. In the PCCR method, the sparsity pattern of the original matrix is preserved in the L and U matrices. Accordingly, when you are using the Preconditioned Generalized Minimum Residual (PGMR) solver, you need to specify the amount of fill-in. You must also specify the number of search vectors. The fill-in value represents the number of extra elements allowed in each row of the L and U decomposition matrices. An extra element is defined as being in addition to the number of nonzero elements in the row of the original matrix. There are two PGMR algorithms available for FLOTRAN. The choice is automatically made by the program. The difference lies in the "fill-in". It is only required and only available for the PRES and TEMP degrees of freedom.

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Chapter 11: FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation To specify the amount of fill-in, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA20A,PGMR,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver The allowable range for fill-in is 1 to 10. The default value is 6. A single fill-in value is input for all applicable DOF. For some problems, it is unnecessary to obtain an exact solution to the energy equation every global iteration. To save some time, you can then employ the foregoing command with a Label of MODP. You use it to specify a number of global iterations performed using the TDMA method between global iterations performed using the PGMR method for the temperature DOF. The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. If large values of SRCH result in the required computer storage exceeding the computational resources, inertial relaxation should be used. To specify the number of search vectors, use either of these methods: Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver For the PGMR solver, the allowable range of search vectors is 12 to 20. The default value is 12. The PGMR method is not recommended for velocity DOF. The output associated with the solver is recorded in the Jobname.OUT file for non-FLOTRAN analyses. The FLOTRAN iterative solver output is recorded in the jobname.dbg file. The fact that the PGMR solver is being used is indicated in the Jobname.DBG file. The file shows if convergence is reached, the maximum number of iterations is reached without convergence, or the solution is stalled. The PGMR method output is in the same form as that provided in the jobname.out file for non-FLOTRAN analyses. The NORM referred to in the Jobname.OUT file is the square root of the convergence criterion specified in the FLOTRAN input. For example, a EQSLV command solver tolerance value of 1.E-5 corresponds to the FLOTRAN default convergence criterion value of 1.E-10. The PGMR method can fail for the following reasons: The problem is ill-conditioned. The problem is improperly formulated. The specified convergence criterion is too tight. An insufficient number of iterations is specified.

If the PGMR method stalls, it may be because the problem is ill-conditioned or improperly formulated. If the problem is ill-conditioned, you can control several parameters to enhance performance. You can increase the amount of fill-in or the number of search vectors. You can also use inertial relaxation. If the problem is improperly formulated, there may be an input error or the boundary conditions may be applied incorrectly. You need to check the input parameters and boundary conditions to ensure that they are accurate. FLOTRAN does not allow a convergence criterion less restrictive than the default value. You can enter a higher value, but FLOTRAN issues a warning message and changes it to the default value. If the maximum number of iterations has been reached without convergence, it may mean more iterations are required. This could be the case if you see that the Norm has been lowered, but it is not quite to the target. If so, you can try increasing the maximum number of iterations. 114

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Section 11.4: Sparse Direct Method If the PGMR method converges and the results are questionable, reduce the convergence criterion below the default value of 1.E-10. A convergence criterion as low as 1.E-20 may be necessary for some problems.

The PBCGM method is a version of the generalized bi-conjugate gradient method that uses two sets of vectors constructed from both the coefficient matrix and its real transpose matrix by making them orthogonal to each other. At each iteration, a new vector is first generated orthogonal to some user-specified number of previous vectors (search directions) from the basis of the real transpose matrix. A minimization procedure is then used to stabilize the numerical procedure. Similar to PGMR, the PBCGM method uses fill-in when constructing the L and U decomposition matrices. This preconditioning procedure transforms the system of equations into a set easier to solve by decomposing the coefficient into an approximate LU product. Accordingly, when you are using the Preconditioned BiCGStab (PBCGM) solver, you need to specify the amount of fill-in. You must also specify the number of search vectors. The fill-in value represents the number of extra elements allowed in each row of the L and U decomposition matrices. An extra element is defined as being in addition to the number of nonzero elements in the row of the original matrix. There are two PBCGM algorithms available for FLOTRAN. The difference lies in the fill-in value. When it is specified to be zero, the algorithm is parallelized except the LU preconditioning part. For other fill-in values, the algorithm is not parallelized at all. To specify the amount of fill-in, use the following command or menu path: Command(s): FLDATA20B,PBCGM,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver The allowable range for fill-in is 0 to 10. The default value is 6. A single fill-in value is input for all applicable DOF. The number of search directions required may vary widely among problems. If large values of SRCH result in the required computer storage exceeding the computational resources, use inertial relaxation. In practice, you should usually use a value of 1 or 2 in order to save the memory storage. To specify the number of search vectors, use the following command or menu path: Command(s): FLDATA20,SRCH,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> CFD Solver Controls> desired DOF solver For the PBCGM solver, the allowable range of search vectors is 1 to 8. The default value is 2.

The Sparse Direct method is memory intensive and you should only use it if all other methods have failed. This method produces intermediate files during matrix factorization and it is difficult to predict the memory required. Ensure enough hard disk space exists for intermediate files. If you choose the Sparse Direct method for the VX, VY, or VZ DOFs, FLOTRAN will reset the method to Preconditioned Conjugate Residual (PCCR). The Sparse Direct method is not suitable for the velocity degrees of freedom.

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12.1. Overview

Chapter 11, FLOTRAN CFD Solvers and the Matrix Equation describes the linear solvers available to solve each individual equation. To obtain a final solution, you must usually account for the coupling between the individual equations. In FLOTRAN, this nonlinear coupling is handled in a segregated or decoupled manner. The coupling algorithms belong to a general class referred to as the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equations (SIMPLE). For more information on this general class of algorithms, see S.V. Patankar, D.B. Spalding, ("A calculation procedure for heat, mass and momentum transfer in 3-D parabolic flows," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol 15, pp. 1787-1806, 1972). To handle the coupling between the pressure and momentum equations, there are two segregated solution algorithms: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN. For many years, SIMPLEF was the sole pressure-velocity coupling algorithm. It was developed by R.J. Schnipke and J.G. Rice ("Application of a new finite element method to convection heat transfer," Fourth International Conference on Numerical Methods in Thermal Problems, Swansea, U.K., July 1985). The SIMPLEF algorithm has been improved by utilizing some ideas from the SIMPLEC algorithm developed by J.P. Van Doormaal and G.D. Raithby ("Enhancements of the SIMPLE method for predicting incompressible fluid flows," Numerical Heat Transfer, Vol. 7, pp. 147-163, 1984). To improve the rate of convergence, the SIMPLEN algorithm has been added to FLOTRAN. It was developed by G. Wang ("A fast and robust variant of the SIMPLE algorithm for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001). SIMPLEF is the default algorithm. To activate the SIMPLEN algorithm, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA37 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Algorithm Control

In general, FLOTRAN automatically set defaults suited for the two segregated algorithms. However, for some problems, you may need to reset the advection scheme, solver choice, or relaxation factors.

You can discretize the advection term using three approaches: Monotone Streamline Upwind (MSU), Streamline Upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), or Collocated Galerkin (COLG). Refer to Chapter 14, Advection Discretization Options for information on how to select a proper advection scheme. Refer to the following table for a list of the defaults.

Transport Equation Momentum Turbulence Pressure Energy Species SIMPLEF Algorithm SUPG SUPG MSU SUPG SUPG SIMPLEN Algorithm SUPG MSU MSU SUPG SUPG

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12.2.2. Solver

For the SIMPLEF algorithm, the TDMA solver is the default for the momentum and turbulence equations. None of the other solvers will improve the overall rate of convergence. Even when exact solutions are obtained on those individual equations, the overall rate of convergence will not improve. This is due to weak coupling between the pressure and momentum equations. For the SIMPLEN algorithm, the overall rate of convergence can be improved considerably when more exact solutions are obtained for each individual equation. Therefore, when SIMPLEN is activated, FLOTRAN automatically resets the solver option to the preconditioned BiCGStab method (PBCGM) for the momentum, turbulence and energy equations. Furthermore, it will reset the fill-in parameter for PBCGM to zero for computational efficiency.

Due to the nonlinear coupling between equations, in order to stabilize the overall solution procedure, relaxation is usually necessary to moderate changes from one global iteration to the next. Experience indicates that relaxation factors greater than 0.5 for the velocity and pressure degrees of freedom will generally cause instability and divergence for the SIMPLEF algorithm. On the other hand, the SIMPLEN algorithm provides more consistent coupling between the pressure and velocity degrees of freedom. For incompressible flow problems, SIMPLEN removes the need for relaxation for the pressure equation and allows a relaxation factor close to 1.0 for the momentum equations. For compressible flow problems, relaxation is usually needed for the pressure equation in order to obtain a convergent solution. The default for SIMPLEF is 0.5 for the pressure and velocity degrees of freedom. When SIMPLEN is activated, FLOTRAN automatically resets the relaxation factor to 1.0 for the incompressible pressure equation, 0.5 for the compressible pressure equation, and 0.8 for the momentum equations.

12.3. Performance

Table 12.2: SIMPLEF and SIMPLEN Performance Results presents results for laminar flow in a 2-D square cavity. The Reynolds number is 100 based on the length of the cavity side and the velocity at the top. The uniform grid consists of 322 = 1024 elements.

SIMPLEF RELX Iter. No. CPU (sec) 0.5 325 12.9 0.8 153 7.2 0.9 81 4.0 SIMPLEN 0.95 66 3.3 0.98 114 5.7 0.99 176 8.9

For the SIMPLEN algorithm , the total number of global iterations and the computational time decrease as the relaxation factor (RELX) increases from 0.8 to 0.95. As RELX increases above 0.95, the iteration number and computational time increase. The optimal RELX value is 0.95. At this value, the SIMPLEN convergence rate is about 4 times faster than SIMPLEF. The SIMPLEN computational time is about 1/4 of the SIMPLEF computational time. Results for a finer mesh of 1282 = 16,384 elements show an even better SIMPLEN performance. At an optimal RELX value of 0.99, the SIMPLEN computational time is about 1/40 of the SIMPLEF computational time. SIMPLEN significantly improves the rate of convergence if pressure-velocity coupling dominates the convergence. If other factors affect the overall rate of convergence, SIMPLEN will not increase the rate of convergence as significantly. However, for those problems, SIMPLEN will generally be more robust than SIMPLEF, and it will usually give a better convergence behavior. For more comparisons, see Wang G., "A fast and robust variant of the SIMPLE

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Section 12.3: Performance algorithm for finite-element simulations of incompressible flows," Computational Fluid and Solid Mechanics, vol. 2, pp. 1014-1016, Elsevier, 2001. Below is the command input listing used to perform this analysis. All text preceded by an exclamation point (!) is a comment.

/title, Lid driven cavity flow analysis using SIMPLEF/SIMPLEN algorithms NDL = 32 ! Number of line divisions MU = 0.010 ! Fluid viscosity RHO = 1.0 L = 1.0 sL = 1.0e-8 Vel = 1.000 niter = 10000 /PREP7 et,1,141 esha,2 rect,,L,,L lesi,all,,,NDL amesh,1 alls ! Apply Boundary Conditions nsel,s,ext d,all,vx d,all,vy nsel,r,loc,y,L-sL,L+sL d,all,vx,vel d,all,vy d,all,enke,-1 alls d,1,PRES fini save /SOLU flda,iter,exec,niter flda,nomi,visc,MU flda,nomi,dens,RHO flda,term,pres,1.e-6 solve fini /delete,,rfl /SOLU flda,algr,segr,simplen solve fini /delete,,rfl /SOLU flda,relx,vx,0.9 flda,relx,vy,0.9 solve fini /delete,,rfl /SOLU flda,relx,vx,0.95 flda,relx,vy,0.95 solve fini /delete,,rfl /SOLU flda,relx,vx,0.98 flda,relx,vy,0.98 solve fini /delete,,rfl

!top

! SIMPLEN algorithm

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/SOLU flda,relx,vx,0.99 flda,relx,vy,0.99 solve fini

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13.1. Overview of Multiple Species Transport

The multiple species transport capability enables you to track several different fluids at once, subject to the limitation that a single momentum equation is solved for the flow field. Transport equations are solved for each species. The properties used in the momentum equation can be those of a "main" fluid, a "bulk" fluid (dilute mixture analysis), or a combination of component fluids. Momentum effects such as advection and diffusion cause the fluid transport. The following restrictions apply to this type of analysis: Currently, no reactions are modeled among the species. Solid model boundary /initial conditions are not supported for species mass fractions. Also, you must postprocess multiple species results by issuing commands instead of via the GUI.

In terms of property variations, the strategies for solving multiple species problems parallel those for thermal problems. The key issue is determining how large a mass fraction of the overall flow field the species to be traced represents. You can choose among three mixture types for analysis: dilute mixture, composite mixture, and composite gas. For each mixture type, the properties may be a function of temperature.

In a dilute mixture analysis, small mass fractions of species fluids are tracked in a flow field, and the species properties do not significantly influence the flow field. The fluid properties are set and the bulk fluid analysis proceeds as in any other FLOTRAN analysis. You solve the transport equations for species using the bulk density and the velocities from the bulk fluid analysis. If the analysis problem is isothermal or the properties are assumed not to vary with temperature, you can converge the flow field completely before the species transport option is activated. The number of species to be solved is a feature of the element and is controlled via a key option on the element. The appropriate KEYOPT setting must be defined during the PREP7 phase of the analysis. Once the element type and number of species has been set, the multiple species input commands (e.g., MSSPEC) can be issued from either PREP7 or SOLUTION phases. However, the multiple species menus are accessible only from PREP7. To activate multiple species transport, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,SPEC,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

A composite mixture analysis calculates the properties used in the solution from a linear combination of the species, weighted by mass fraction as a function of space. The solution of the momentum equation depends on the species distribution, so the momentum and transport equations are strongly coupled. You initialize the species mass fractions using either the MSNOMF command (which has no GUI menu equivalent) or (typically for a transient analysis) one of the following: Command(s): IC,Label,Value

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Analysis Type> Analysis Options Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Initial Condit'n> Define The mass fractions specified must add up to 1.0. To activate the composite mixture option for an individual property, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,CMIX GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

In a composite gas analysis, at each node the fluid density is calculated as a function of the mass fractions and molecular weights of the gases:

P RT

N Y i i =1 Mi

In the equation above: R is the Universal Gas constant. You can set it using one of the following: Command(s): MSDATA GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species Mi is the molecular weight of the ith species. You set this weight using one of the following: Command(s): MSSPEC GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species N is the total number of species defined. P is pressure degree of freedom (PRES). T is the absolute temperature (TEMP).

To invoke the composite gas option for the bulk fluid, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,DENS,CGAS GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Fluid Properties

The procedure for a multiple species analysis has six steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Establish the number of species to model and assign species names. Designate an algebraic species. Adjust output format if desired. Set properties. Specify boundary conditions and nominal mass fractions. Set relaxation and solution parameters for the solution of the transport equations (if necessary).

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Section 13.3: Doing a Multiple Species Analysis Command(s): KEYOPT,1,1,n (n = number of species (at least 2, but no more than 6)) GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species To name each species, use the menu paths shown above or the following command: Command(s): MSSPEC FLOTRAN uses these names for assigning boundary conditions and in postprocessing listings and plots. The default names for species are SP01, SP02, and so on.

The transport equations solve for the mass fractions of each species. You must choose one as the algebraic species, using the value set by the ALGEB argument or one of the following: Command(s): MSDATA GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species The transport equation for the algebraic species is not solved, but its concentration as a function of space is calculated by ensuring that the mass fractions of all the species add up to 1.0 everywhere. Note The MSDATA command also sets the universal gas constant. Every issuance of the command sets both numbers.

You can set the format of the convergence monitors on the file Jobname.PFL to list columns of values for all the degrees of freedom for a single iteration. (This also affects the ANSYS output file.) To adjust output, use one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA6 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Additional Out> Print Controls

For a dilute mixture analysis, set the bulk property type as appropriate (CONSTANT, Liquid, etc.). If the bulk properties are to be a linear combination of the species properties, set the bulk property type to CMIX. For example, you would use the following command: Command(s): FLDATA7,PROT,Label,Type In the preceding command, Label can be DENS, VISC, COND, or SPHT, and Type is CMIX. If Label = DENSE, Type may be CGAS. Using CGAS requires you to enter a molecular weight for the gas via the MSSPEC command or its equivalent GUI path. You handle individual species property variations the same way, and with the same options as, the bulk fluid. The CONSTANT, LIQUID, and GAS fluid types are available. Specify them, along with coefficients, using one of the following: Command(s): MSPROP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport For all analyses, you must enter the mass diffusion coefficient data for each species. For a dilute mixture, the density is the only other relevant property because the bulk or main fluid properties govern the solution of the momentum equation. For the CMIX and CGAS options, you need to specify density and viscosity using MSPROP or an equivalent menu path. Also specify conductivity if the energy equation is to be solved. The form of the diffusion term is:

(Dmi Y i)

The value Dmi is the diffusion coefficient, and Yi is the mass fraction being solved. Sometimes, the available data is expressed as a Schmidt number. The following equality enables expression of the diffusion portion of transport in terms of laminar viscosity , the density , and the Schmidt number:

Dmi Y i =

Y i SCi

Note The input must be in terms of the mass diffusion coefficient, not the Schmidt number. The Schmidt number relating the diffusion coefficient to the density and viscosity differs from the turbulent Schmidt number discussed below. In addition, the flow field may be turbulent. Another representation of the diffusion term, this time including the effect of the turbulent viscosity , is:

+ t Y i SCi SCTi

The quantity SCTi is the turbulent Schmidt number, which you specify via one of the following: Command(s): MSSPEC GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species The normal default value of 1.0 is sufficient unless you want to regulate explicitly the effect of turbulence on the transport.

The default boundary condition is zero gradient of the mass fraction at the boundaries. You can specify the mass fraction at a boundary, such as the inlet, by entering the species name in the LAB field of one of the following: Command(s): D GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On Nodes Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid/CFD> Displacement> On Nodes Initialize the mass fractions for every species, including the algebraic species. The fractions must sum to 1.0.

Relaxation factors for the property calculations and the mass fraction update default to 0.5. To change the factors, use one of the following: Command(s): MSRELAX GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species You can set modified inertial relaxation factors for multiple species. To do so, use one of the following: Command(s): MSMIR,SPNUM,Value 134

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Section 13.4: Doing a Heat Exchanger Analysis Using Two Species GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species A larger modified inertial relaxation factor gives a more robust scheme, but it may yield a slower convergence. The recommended range is 0.1 to 1.0. You can change parameters for the algebraic solvers for the transport equation and choose a solver by using one of the following commands or menu paths: Command(s): MSSOLU, MSMETH GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species Activating mass fraction capping is recommended to prevent intermediate calculations from producing unrealistic results. Use either of the following for each species: Command(s): MSCAP GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species Finally, you activate the multiple species option using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA1,SOLU,Spec,T GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Solution Options

Although FLOTRAN permits only one fluid region to correspond to material number 1 (using the command MAT,1 or an equivalent GUI path), you can simulate multiple fluids within this restriction. To do so, you set all fluid property types to CMIX, then set the appropriate species mass fraction to 1.0 in a particular region. These settings enable all properties in that region to correspond to that of species with mass fraction 1.0. For such multiple fluid simulations, the mass fractions must remain constant throughout the analysis; that is, the analysis should not turn on the species solution. A typical heat exchanger analysis consists of two fluids flowing in opposite directions, separated by a wall as shown in Figure 13.1: Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis:

The sample command stream that follows shows you how to set up the model shown in Figure 13.1: Environment for a Typical Heat Exchanger Analysis, apply boundary conditions, set up appropriate properties, etc. It is important

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Chapter 13: Multiple Species Transport to note that, although two species are defined, the species transport has not been activated. In addition, all fluid properties must be declared variable so that the initial value (the same in regions 1 and 2) is reset based on the mass fraction.

/BATCH,LIST /tit,heat exchanger problem !two different fluids separated by a solid wall !cartesian geometry, pressure-driven flow !solve by 2 species LX = 10 ! Length in X direction NDX = 10 ! Number of X divisions LY1 = 2 ! fluid 1 width LY2 = 0.1 ! solid width LY3 = 1.0 ! fluid 2 width NDY1 = 10 NDY2 = 3 NDY3 = 10 YOFFSET = 0 !offset from X-axis /prep7 $smrt,off et,1,141 ! 2-D XY system !species keyopt,1,1,2 ! 2 species !axisymm !keyopt,1,3,2 !use for axisymm RY system only esha,2 !Quad elements rect,,LX,YOFFSET,YOFFSET+LY1 !fluid 1 area rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2 !solid area rect,,LX,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2,YOFFSET+LY1+LY2+LY3` !fluid 2 area nummrg,all numcmp,all lsel,s,,,3,9,3 lsel,a,,,1 lesi,all,,,NDX, lsel,s,,,2,4,2 lesi,all,,,NDY1,-5.0 lsel,s,,,5,7,2 lesi,all,,,NDY2,-5.0 lsel,s,,,8,10,2 lesi,all,,,NDY3,-5.0 allsel mat,1 !for fluids material must be 1 amesh,1 !mesh fluid 1 region amesh,3 !mesh fluid 2 region mat,2 !for solid set material to 2 amesh,2 !mesh solid region !inner region 1 !bc inlet lsel,s,,,4 nsll,s,1 d,all,pres,10 !inlet pressure & temp specified for d,all,temp,100 !bc outlet lsel,s,,,2 nsll,s,1 d,all,pres,0. !outlet pressure specified for fluid !symm lsel,s,,,1 nsll,s,1 d,all,vy,0 !symmetry surface for fluid 1 only !region 2 !bc inlet lsel,s,,,8 nsll,s,1 d,all,pres,10. !inlet pressure & temp specified for d,all,temp,400 !bc outlet lsel,s,,,10 nsll,s,1 d,all,pres,0. !outlet pressure specified for fluid !top wall

fluid 1

fluid 2

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lsel,s,,,9 nsll,s,1 d,all,vx,0 !wall boundary conditions d,all,vy,0 allsel !solid properties mp,dens,2,5. !specify solid region 3 properties mp,kxx,2,100 mp,c,2,13 /SOLU !ic for species nsel,s,loc,x,,lx !select nodes for fluid 1 nsel,s,loc,y,o,ly1 ic,all,sp01,1.0 !set mass fraction for fluid 1 ic,all,sp02,0.0 nsel,s,loc,x,,lx nsel,s,loc,y,ly1+ly2,ly1+ly2+ly3 !select nodes for fluid 2 ic,all,sp01,0.0 !set mass fraction for fluid 2 ic,all,sp02,1.0 allsel FLDA,ITER,EXEC,200 FLDA,PROT,DENS,CMIX ! Fluid density FLDA,PROT,VISC,CMIX ! Fluid viscosity FLDA,PROT,COND,CMIX ! Fluid conductivity FLDA,PROT,SPHT,CMIX ! Fluid specific heat flda,vary,dens,t !all properties MUST be variable flda,vary,visc,t flda,vary,cond,t flda,vary,spht,t FLDA,NOMI,DENS,1.0 ! initial density for all fluid region FLDA,NOMI,VISC,2.0 ! initial viscosity for all fluid region FLDA,NOMI,COND,3.0 ! initial conductivity for all fluid region FLDA,NOMI,SPHT,4.0 ! initial specific heat for all fluid region msprop,1,spht,constant,1 !sp heat for fluid 1 msprop,2,spht,constant,2 !sp heat for fluid 2 msprop,1,dens,constant,1 !density for fluid 1 msprop,2,dens,constant,2 !density for fluid 2 msprop,1,visc,constant,1.0 !viscosity for fluid 1 msprop,2,visc,constant,2.0 !viscosity for fluid 2 msprop,1,cond,constant,.1 !conductivity for fluid 1 msprop,2,cond,constant,.2 !conductivity for fluid 2 FLDA,CONV,PRES,1.0E-10 ! PCCR convergence criterion FLDA,TERM,PRES,1.E-09 FLDA,OUTP,SP01,T FLDA,OUTP,SP02,T save SOLVE !solve for flow only FLDA,SOLU,ENRG,T FLDA,SOLU,FLOW,F FLDA,METH,ENRG,3 FLDA,ITER,EXEC,50 FLDA,RELX,TEMP,1. SOLVE !solve for temperature only fini /exit,nosa

The following example analysis mixes three gases: oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), and hydrogen (H2). The mass fractions of the gases are set at each inlet along with the velocity. For the three inlets:

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Top: VX = 0 VY = -0.1 TEMP = 300 O2 = 1.0 N2 = 0.0 H2 = 0.0 Left: VX = 0.1 VY = 0 TEMP = 400 O2 = 0.0 N2 = 1.0 H2 = 0.0 Bottom: VX = 0 VY = 0.1 TEMP = 300 O2 = 0.0 N2 =0.0 H2 = 1.0

The command stream for the example (shown below) shows all the relevant properties and the solution strategy.

/batch,list /filename,spec /com ** Analysis Types Laminar and Turbulent, Incompressible /com 2-D - quadrilateral and triangular elements /com ** Features Thermal, Multiple Species Transport /com ** Options Dilute mixtures, composite property types (CGAS, CMIX) /com ** Variable laminar properties /com ** Turbulence /com ** Construction of geometry /prep7 !!!!!!! Define some dimensions - SI units are used lenin=.3 half=lenin/2. width=.1 hfwid=width/2. outlen=1.2 !!!!!!! Define inlet and outlet rectangles rect,-lenin,0,-hfwid,hfwid rect,.2,.3,.25,.25+lenin rect,.2,.3,-.25,-.25-lenin rect,.4,.4+outlen,-.15,.15 !!!!!!! Lines that border the mixing area l2tan,-3,-8 l2tan,-6,-15 l2tan,-13,-10 l2tan,-12,-1 !!!!!!! Parameters defined for meshing nlcurv=16 rlcurv=1 nscurv=9 rscurv=1 nispan=8 rispan=-1.5 nospan=13 rospan=-2 nilen=10 rilen=-2 nolen=24 rolen=4 !!!!!!! !flst,2,2,4,orde,2 !fitem,2,17 !fitem,2,20 lsel,s,,,17,20,3 lesize,all,,,nlcurv,rlcurv lsel,s,,,18,19 !fitem,2,18 !fitem,2,-19 lesize,19,,,nscurv,rscurv !flst,2,3,4,orde,3 !fitem,2,2 !fitem,2,5 !fitem,2,11 lsel,s,,,2,5,3

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lsel,a,,,11 lesize,all,,,nispan,1 !flst,2,3,4,orde,3 !fitem,2,4 !fitem,2,7 !fitem,2,9 lsel,s,,,4,7,3 lsel,a,,,9 lesize,all,,,nispan,rispan !flst,2,6,4,orde,6 !fitem,2,1 !fitem,2,3 !fitem,2,6 !fitem,2,8 !fitem,2,10 !fitem,2,12 lsel,s,,,1,3,2 lsel,a,,,6,12,2 lesize,all,,,nilen,rilen lsel,s,,,13,16 lesize,13,,,nolen,rolen lesize,15,,,nolen,1./rolen lesize,16,,,nospan,rospan lesize,14,,,nospan,rospan alls !!!!!!! Define the mixing area... !flst,2,8,3 !fitem,2,2 !fitem,2,12 !fitem,2,11 !fitem,2,13 !fitem,2,16 !fitem,2,6 !fitem,2,5 !fitem,2,3 a,2,12,11,13,16,6,5,3 alls /com ** CONSTRUCTION OF THE MESH !!!!!!! Put triangles in the mixing area (5) asel,s,,,5 et,1,141 mshape,1,2d amesh,5 !!!!!!! Put a mapped mesh in the rectangles (quads) asel,s,,,1,4 mshape,0,2d mshkey,1 amesh,all /com ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS !!!!!!! Wall boundary conditions lsel,s,,,1,3,2 lsel,a,,,6,12,2 lsel,a,,,13,17,2 lsel,a,,,18,20 nsll,,1 d,all,vx,0 d,all,vy,0 !!!!!!! Define velocities, temperature at top, bottom, left vtop=.1 vbot=.1 vlef=.1 lsel,s,,,7 nsll d,all,vx,0 d,all,vy,-vtop nsll,,1 d,all,temp,300 lsel,s,,,4 nsll d,all,vx,vlef d,all,vy,0 nsll,,1

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d,all,temp,400 lsel,s,,,9 nsll d,all,vx,0 d,all,vy,vbot nsll,,1 d,all,temp,300 lsel,s,,,14 nsll,,1 d,all,pres,0 flda,conv,iter,5 save finish alls /solu /com ** FLOTRAN INPUT flda,iter,exec,40 flda,temp,nomi,300 flda,prot,dens,air-si flda,vary,dens,true flda,prot,visc,air-si flda,vary,visc,true flda,prot,cond,air-si flda,vary,cond,true flda,prot,spht,air-si save solve finish /prep7 flda,prot,dens,cmix flda,prot,visc,cmix keyopt,1,1,3 !

! Solve 40 iterations with air at 300K ! Prepare for species transport ... ! Composite mixture for density ! Composite mixture for viscosity Specify that there are 3 species

flda,solu,spec,t ! Turn on solution for multiple species transport msdata,2 ! Specify species 2 (N2) as the algebraic species ! !!!!!!! Species Property Input msspec,1,o2,31.999 msprop,1,DENS,GAS,1.2998,300,1.01325E+5 msvary,1,dens,t msnomf,1,.3 msprop,1,VISC,CONSTANT,1.2067E-5 msprop,1,mdif,CONSTANT,2.149E-5 msprop,1,cond,CONSTANT,.02674 mscap,1,1 ! msspec,2,n2,28.018 msprop,2,DENS,GAS,1.1381,300,1.01325E+5 msvary,2,dens,t msnomf,2,.3 msprop,2,VISC,CONSTANT,1.786E-5 msprop,2,mdif,CONSTANT,1.601E-5 msprop,2,cond,CONSTANT,.02598 mscap,2,1 ! msspec,3,h2,2.016 msprop,3,DENS,GAS,0.0819,300,1.01325E+5 msvary,3,dens,t msnomf,3,.4 msprop,3,VISC,CONSTANT,8.94E-6 msprop,3,mdif,CONSTANT,4.964E-5 msprop,3,cond,CONSTANT,.1815 mscap,3,1 ! msrelx,1,1.0 msrelx,3,1.0 msmeth,1,3 mssolu,1,,,2,1.e-8 msmeth,3,3 mssolu,3,,,2,1.e-8 alls !!!!!!! Species boundary conditions

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lsel,s,,,7 nsll,,1 d,all,o2,1.0 d,all,n2,0.0 d,all,h2,0.0 lsel,s,,,4 nsll,,1 d,all,o2,0.0 d,all,n2,1.0 d,all,h2,0.0 lsel,s,,,9 nsll,,1 d,all,o2,0.0 d,all,n2,0.0 d,all,h2,1.0 alls !!!!!!! End of species boundary conditions flda,iter,exec,20 ! Ask for 20 global iterations flda,conv,outp,land ! Adjust convergence monitor output style save finish /solu solve ! 20 iterations with species activated ! !Prepare for energy solution flda,solu,temp,t ! Achieve a constant flow temperature solution flda,solu,flow,f ! Freeze the flow field flda,meth,temp,3 ! Activate PCCR solver flda,conv,temp,1.e-10 ! Convergence criterion for PCCR flda,iter,exec,5 ! Need only a few iterations for solution... flda,relx,temp,1.0 ! no relaxation on temperature save solve !! Prepare for coupled solution flda,iter,exec,35 flda,solu,flow,t solve flda,iter,exec,50 save solve ! Achieve a flow and thermal solution

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14.1. Introduction

When momentum, energy, species transport, turbulence or the compressible pressure equations are solved, the advection term plays a significant role in the solution. When the advection term dominates over other terms in the governing equations, it can lead to numerical instabilities. Accordingly, you must be careful with the discretization of this particular term. You can discretize the advection term using three approaches: monotone streamline upwind (MSU), streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG), or collocated Galerkin (COLG). For the momentum, energy, turbulence or compressible pressure equations, you specify the approach using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA33,ADVM,Label,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection For the species transport equation, you specify the approach using one of the following: Command(s): MSADV,SPNUM,MTHA GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Multiple Species MSU tends to be first order accurate while SUPG and COLG are second order accurate. MSU produces diagonally dominant matrices and is generally quite robust. SUPG and COLG provide less diagonal dominance, but are generally more accurate. COLG provides an exact energy balance for incompressible flows, even with a coarse mesh. Special techniques may be required to achieve convergence using SUPG or COLG. For more information on the approaches, consult the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.

For simple geometries and simple flows, the SUPG or COLG approach provides a convergent solution in a straight forward fashion. For laminar flow past obstacles, which generally produce regions of recirculation in the wake, you may need to turn on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation using one of the following: Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,MOME,Value GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> MIR Stabilization For turbulent problems, FLOTRAN will sometimes display a message stating that the coefficient matrix has a negative diagonal and the solution is probably divergent. You should then try turning on modified inertial relaxation in the momentum equation or turbulence equation. Command(s): FLDATA34,MIR,MOME,Value or FLDATA34,MIR,TURB,Value The modified inertial relaxation Value should be between 0.1 and 1.0. A larger Value leads to more relaxation. To achieve a faster convergence rate, use the smallest Value possible. For complex geometries with turbulence and complex flow fields, you can employ the following techniques to achieve a convergent solution with SUPG or COLG.

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Chapter 14: Advection Discretization Options Set the turbulence ratio to a high value of 1 x 106 and the effective viscosity relaxation factor to a low value of 0.1 using the following commands. These conditions provide the necessary diagonal dominance until the solution enters the radius of convergence. Command(s): FLDATA24,TURB,RATI,1.0E6 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence> Turbulence Param Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Model Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Turbulence Param Command(s): FLDATA25,RELX,EVIS,0.1 GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Relax/Stab/Cap> Prop Relaxation Achieve a convergent solution using MSU on all variables. Then, using the following command, perform a restart employing SUPG or COLG on the momentum variables only. After achieving a convergent solution, you can perform a restart again employing SUPG or COLG on the turbulence, pressure, temperature and species variables. Command(s): FLDATA33,ADVM,MOME,SUPG FLDATA33,ADVM,MOME,COLG GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection Main Menu> Solution> FLOTRAN Set Up> Advection Although the foregoing techniques might work on a coarse mesh, both may fail on a fine mesh. In this case, you may have to resort to a transient algorithm which has the necessary diagonal dominance due to the inertia term.

Although SUPG and COLG are more accurate than MSU, they may lead to spurious oscillations in the solution. This may lead to nonphysical solutions or convergence difficulties. You may encounter negative temperatures in the energy equation solution. In this case, you should refine the mesh in that region. You may also encounter negative turbulence values. Internally, FLOTRAN tries to reset these values to some realistic numbers, but this may lead to a situation where the solution stalls. In this situation, you should try using MSU on turbulence variables while retaining SUPG or COLG on momentum variables. The solution to the species transport equation must be bounded between 0 and 1.0, and oscillations in the SUPG or COLG solution may make this difficult to achieve even though capping has been turned on. If convergence is not achieved, you should then refine the mesh. A poor mesh, recirculating regions, or a strong swirl might cause the SUPG technique to have strong oscillations in an axisymmetric analysis. Temperatures (or species concentrations) could be higher or lower than any applied boundary conditions. The mesh should be refined or another advection discretization method should be used.

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15.1. What Is Acoustics?

Acoustics is the study of the generation, propagation, absorption, and reflection of sound pressure waves in a fluid medium. Applications for acoustics include the following: Sonar - the acoustic counterpart of radar Design of concert halls, where an even distribution of sound pressure is desired Noise minimization in machine shops Noise cancellation in automobiles Underwater acoustics Design of speakers, speaker housings, acoustic filters, mufflers, and many other similar devices. Geophysical exploration

An acoustic analysis, available in the ANSYS Multiphysics and ANSYS Mechanical programs only, usually involves modeling the fluid medium and the surrounding structure. Typical quantities of interest are the pressure distribution in the fluid at different frequencies, pressure gradient, particle velocity, the sound pressure level, as well as, scattering, diffraction, transmission, radiation, attenuation, and dispersion of acoustic waves. A coupled acoustic analysis takes the fluid-structure interaction into account. An uncoupled acoustic analysis models only the fluid and ignores any fluid-structure interaction. The ANSYS program assumes that the fluid is compressible, but allows only relatively small pressure changes with respect to the mean pressure. Also, the fluid is assumed to be non-flowing and inviscid (that is, viscosity causes no dissipative effects). Uniform mean density and mean pressure are assumed, with the pressure solution being the deviation from the mean pressure, not the absolute pressure.

You can solve many acoustics problems by performing a harmonic response analysis. The analysis calculates the pressure distribution in the fluid due to a harmonic (sinusoidally varying) load at the fluid-structure interface. By specifying a frequency range for the load, you can observe the pressure distribution at various frequencies. You can also perform modal and transient acoustic analyses. (See the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide for more information on these types of analyses.) The procedure for a harmonic acoustic analysis consists of three main steps: Build the model. Apply boundary conditions and loads and obtain the solution. Review the results.

In this step, you specify the jobname and analysis title and then use the PREP7 preprocessor to define the element types, element real constants, material properties, and the model geometry. These tasks, common to most analyses, are described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

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For a harmonic acoustic analysis, consider the following points: Element Types - Four ANSYS element types are specifically designed for acoustic analyses: FLUID29 and FLUID30 are used to model the fluid portion of 2-D and 3-D models respectively. FLUID129 and FLUID130, companion elements to FLUID29 and FLUID30, are used to model an infinite envelope around the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements. Use these element types to model the fluid portion, and then use a corresponding structural element (PLANE42, SOLID45, etc.) for the solid. Only FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements can be in contact with structural elements (either on the inside or outside of the structure); FLUID129 and FLUID130 can contact only the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements, and not the structural elements directly.

For acoustic elements that are in contact with the solid, be sure to use KEYOPT(2) = 0, the default setting that allows for fluid-structure interaction. This results in unsymmetric element matrices with UX, UY, UZ, and PRES as the degrees of freedom. For all other acoustic elements, set KEYOPT(2) = 1, which results in symmetric element matrices with the PRES degree of freedom. (See Figure 15.1: Example of a 2-D Acoustic Model (Fluid Within a Structure).) Symmetric matrices require much less storage and computer time, so use them wherever possible. For more information on fluid-structure interaction, see the ANSYS, Inc. Theory Reference.

These infinite acoustic elements absorb the pressure waves, simulating the outgoing effects of a domain that extends to infinity beyond the FLUID29 and FLUID30 elements. FLUID129 and FLUID130 provide a second-order absorbing boundary condition so that an outgoing pressure wave reaching the boundary of the model is absorbed with minimal reflections back into the fluid domain. FLUID129 is used to model the boundary of 2-D fluid regions and as such is a line element. FLUID130 is used to model the boundary of 3-D fluid regions and as such is a plane surface element. Material Properties - The acoustic elements require density (DENS) and speed of sound (SONC) as material properties (FLUID129 and FLUID130 require only SONC). If sound absorption at the fluid-structure interface exists, use the label MU to specify boundary admittance (absorption coefficient). Values of are usually determined from experimental measurements. For the structural elements, specify the Young's modulus (EX), density (DENS), and Poisson's ratio (PRXY or NUXY). Real Constants - When using FLUID129 and FLUID130, the boundary of the underlying finite element mesh must be circular (2-D and axisymmetric) or spherical (3-D), and the radius of the circular or spherical boundary of the 152

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Section 15.3: Building the Model finite domain must be specified as real constant RAD. (See Figure 15.2: Example of Absorption Element Application.) The center of the circle or sphere is also specified using real constants:

R,3,RAD,X0,Y0!REAL set 3 for FLUID129 R,3,RAD,X0,Y0,Z0!REAL set 3 for FLUID130

If the coordinates (X0, Y0) for the 2-D and axisymmetric cases or (X0, Y0, Z0) for the 3-D case of the center of the circle or sphere are not specified via real constants, ANSYS assumes the center to be the origin of the global coordinate system.

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A typical meshing procedure using the 2-D infinite acoustic elements follows. The procedure is the same with 3-D elements. If you have a structural component as well, the structural elements must lie next to the FLUID29 elements, and cannot lie next to the infinite fluid elements (FLUID129). This process automatically adds the FLUID129 elements on the boundary of the finite domain. Here an annular structural ring is meshed with PLANE42 structural elements. The layer of fluid elements in touch with PLANE42 elements is modeled using FLUID29 with UX and UY DOFs and with the fluid-structure interface turned on. The outer layers of fluid are modeled using FLUID29 without the UX and UY DOFs. The radius for placing FLUID129 is 0.31242 (see Section 15.4.2: Step 2: Generate the Infinite Acoustic Elements) with X0 = Y0 = 0. You define the FLUID129 elements using: Command(s): ESURF GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Inf Acoustic

Mesh the interior fluid domain that is bounded by a circular or spherical boundary (PLANE42) with FLUID29 elements.

Follow these steps: 1. Select the nodes on the circular or spherical boundary. Command(s): NSEL GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities

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Section 15.4: Meshing the Model 2. Specify FLUID129 as the infinite fluid element type associated with the FLUID29 element. Command(s): TYPE, REAL GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Mesh Attributes> Default Attribs Main Menu> Preprocessor> Real Constants> Add/Edit/Delete The infinite elements perform well for low as well as high frequency excitations. Numerical experiments have determined that the placement of the absorbing elements at a distance of approximately 0.2 beyond the region occupied by the structure or source of vibration can produce accurate solutions. Here = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure waves. c is the speed of sound (SONC) in the fluid and f is the dominant frequency of the pressure wave. For example, in the case of a submerged circular or spherical shell of diameter D, the radius of the enclosing boundary, RAD, should be at least (D/2) + 0.2 . Also, for acoustic analysis in general, the mesh must be fine enough to resolve the smallest dominant frequency. 3. Generate the absorption elements (FLUID129) on the boundary. Command(s): ESURF GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create> Elements> Inf Acoustic

Specify the fluid-structure interface: 1. Select all nodes on the interface. Command(s): NSEL GUI: Utility Menu> Select Entities Select the fluid elements attached to this set of nodes. Command(s): ESEL GUI: Utility Menu> Select> Entities Specify the selected nodes as fluid-structure interface nodes. Command(s): SF

2.

3.

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Chapter 15: Acoustics GUI: Main Menu> Preprocessor> Loads> Define Loads> Apply> Fluid-Struct Intr> On Nodes Note Be sure to reselect all nodes before solving your analysis.

In this step, you define the analysis type and options, apply loads, specify load step options, and initiate the finite element solution. The next few sections explain how to do these tasks.

Enter the SOLUTION processor by choosing GUI path Main Menu> Solution or by executing the /SOLU command.

Using either the GUI or a set of commands, define the analysis type and analysis options. To define the analysis type, use one of the following: Command(s): ANTYPE,HARMIC GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Type> New Analysis You must choose New Analysis because restarts are not valid in a harmonic response analysis. If you need to apply additional harmonic loads, do a new analysis each time (or use the "partial solution" procedure described in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide).

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Section 15.5: Applying Loads and Obtaining the Solution Command(s): HROPT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options Although full, reduced, or mode superposition methods are options, choose the full method because it alone can handle unsymmetric matrices. To define the solution listing format, use one of the following: Command(s): HROUT GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options This option determines how ANSYS lists the harmonic degree-of-freedom solution in the printed output (Jobname.OUT). To specify the equation solver to be used, use one of the following: Command(s): EQSLV GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Analysis Options You can choose the frontal solver (default), the sparse direct solver (SPARSE), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient (JCG) solver, or the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG) solver. The JCG solver is recommended for most models.

A harmonic analysis, by definition, assumes that any applied load varies harmonically (sinusoidally) with time. To completely specify a harmonic load in an acoustic analysis, two pieces of information are usually required: the amplitude and the forcing frequency. The amplitude is the maximum value of the load, which you specify using the commands shown in Table 15.2: Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis. The forcing frequency is the frequency of the harmonic load (in cycles/time). You specify it later as a load step option with the HARFRQ command (Main Menu> Solution> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps). Section 15.5.5: Step 5: Specify Load Step Options describes this task. Table 15.1: Loads Applicable in an Acoustic Analysis shows all possible loads for a harmonic acoustic analysis and the commands to define, list, and delete them. Notice that except for inertia loads, you can define loads either on the solid model (keypoints, lines, and areas) or on the finite element model (nodes and elements). For a general discussion of solid-model loads versus finite-element loads, see Chapter 2, Loading and Chapter 3, Solution in the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide.

Load Type Displacement (UX,UY,UZ), Pressure (PRES) Force (FX,FX,FZ), Moment (MX,MY,MZ), Flow loading Forces F Category Constraints Cmd Family D GUI Path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement or Potential Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> Force/Moment Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Force/Moment

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Load Type Pressure (PRES) Impedance (IMPD) Fluid-structure interaction flag (FSI) Gravity, Spinning, etc. Inertia Loads ACEL, OMEGA, DOMEGA, CGLOC, CGOMGA, DCGOMG, IRLF Category Surface Loads Cmd Family SF GUI Path Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> load type Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

load type

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Define Loads> Apply> load type Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply>

load type

You access all loading operations except List (see below) through a series of cascading menus. From the Solution menu, you choose the operation (apply, etc.), then the load type (displacement, force, etc.), and then the object (keypoint, etc.) to which you are applying the load. For example, to apply a displacement load to a line, follow this GUI path: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Displacement> On Lines To list loads, use this GUI path: Utility Menu> List> Loads> load type

Table 15.2: Commands for Applying Loads in Acoustic Analysis lists all the commands you can use to apply loads in an acoustic analysis.

Load Type Solid Model or FE Entity Apply Delete List Operate Apply Settings

DisplaceSolid ment, Pres- Model sure Solid Model Solid Model Finite Elem Force, Moment Solid Model Finite Elem Pressure, Impedance, Fluid- Structure Interaction Flag Solid Model Solid Model

DK DL DA D FK F SFL SFA

DTRAN DTRAN DTRAN DSCALE FTRAN FSCALE SFTRAN SFTRAN FCUM SFGRAD SFGRAD DCUM

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Finite Elem Finite Elem Load Type Solid Model or FE Nodes Elements Entity SF SFE Apply SFDELE SFEDELE Delete SFLIST SFELIST List SFSCALE SFSCALE Operate SFCUM , SFGRAD SFBEAM, SFCUM, SFFUN, SFGRAD Apply Settings

Inertia

Displacements (UX, UY, UZ) and pressures (PRES) These are DOF (degree-of-freedom) constraints. For example, you specify zero displacements at a rigid fluidstructure interface. You may also specify nonzero displacements, but remember that they are assumed to be harmonic. You usually specify zero pressures at free fluid boundaries (where the fluid is not enclosed, such as at an opening). Forces (FX, FY, FZ) and moments (MX, MY, MZ) Usually, you specify these loads on the solid portion of the model to "excite" the fluid. Flow Load This is a mass flow rate per unit time (for example, kg/sec/sec in SI units). It represents a pulsating mass flow rate at a node. Specify it using the FLOW force label: Command(s): F,,FLOW GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Define Loads> Apply> Structural> Force/Moment> On Nodes Pressure (PRES) You can specify surface loads on the solid portion instead of forces and moments. Impedance (IMPD) These are not really loads but indicate surfaces that absorb sound. Specify the degree of sound absorption as the material property MU (boundary admittance or absorption coefficient). Fluid-structure interaction flag (FSI) This denotes an interface surface between the fluid and structure part of the model. For problems with fluid-structure interaction on both sides of a structure (e.g., a submerged plate), mesh the structure with solid elements to provide two distinct fluid-interaction surfaces. For problems with fluid-structure interaction on only one side of a structure, mesh the structure with shell or solid elements.

You have the following options for a harmonic acoustic analysis:

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Option Dynamics Options Forcing frequency range General Options Number of harmonic solu- NSUBST tions Stepped or ramped loads KBC Output Controls Control of printed output OUTPR Database and results file output Extrapolation of results OUTRES ERESX Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> Solu Printout Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> DB/Results File Main Menu> Solution> Output Ctrls> Integration Pt Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps HARFRQ Main Menu> Solution> Load Step Opts> Time/Frequenc> Freq & Substeps Command GUI Path

The only valid option in this category is the forcing frequency range, which must be defined (in cycles/time) for a harmonic analysis. Within this range, you then specify the number of solutions to be calculated. (See "General Options.")

You can request any number of harmonic solutions (via the NSUBST command or its equivalent GUI path) to be calculated. The solutions (or substeps) will be evenly spaced within the previously specified frequency range. For example, if you specify 10 solutions in the range 30 to 40 Hz, the program will calculate the response at 31, 32, 33, ..., 39, and 40 Hz. No response is calculated at the lower end of the frequency range. The loads may be stepped or ramped (via KBC or its GUI counterpart). By default, they are ramped; that is, the load value increases gradually with each substep. By stepping the loads, you maintain the same load value for all substeps in the frequency range.

Use OUTPR or its GUI equivalent if you want to include any results data on the printed output file (Jobname.OUT). OUTRES and its GUI counterpart control the data on the results file (Jobname.RST). ERESX and its GUI path allow you to review element integration point results by copying them to the nodes instead of extrapolating them (default). Note By default, the program writes only the last substep of each load step to the results file. If you want all substeps (the solution at all frequencies) on the results file, be sure to set the FREQ field on OUTRES to ALL (or 1).

Save a backup copy of the database on a named file using Utility Menu> File> Save as or the SAVE command. Doing so enables you to retrieve your model should your computer abort during the solution. (To retrieve a model, reenter ANSYS and then issue the RESUME command or choose Utility Menu> File> Resume.) 1510

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If you wish to apply additional load steps, repeat steps 5 and 6.

Solve the analysis and then finish. Command(s): SOLVE GUI: Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current LS Command(s): FINISH GUI: Main Menu> Finish

The ANSYS program writes results from a harmonic acoustic analysis to the structural results file, Jobname.RST. Results consist of the following data, all of which vary harmonically at each forcing frequency for which the solution was calculated: Primary data Nodal pressures Nodal displacements

Derived data Nodal and element pressure gradients Nodal and element stresses Element forces Nodal reaction forces

The interaction of the fluid and the structure at a mesh interface causes the acoustic pressure to exert a force applied to the structure and the structural motions produce an effective "fluid load." The governing finite element matrix equations then become:

[Ms ] {U} + [K s ] {U} = {Fs } + [R] {P} [Mf ] {P} + [K f ] {P} = {Ff } o [R]T {U}

[R] is a "coupling" matrix that represents the effective surface area associated with each node on the fluidstructure interface (FSI). The coupling matrix [R] also takes into account the direction of the normal vector defined for each pair of coincident fluid and structural element faces that comprises the interface surface. The positive direction of the normal vector, as the ANSYS program uses it, is defined to be outward from the fluid mesh and in towards the structure. Both the structural and fluid load quantities that are produced at the fluid-structure interface are functions of unknown nodal degrees of freedom. Placing these unknown "load" quantities on the left hand side of the equations and combining the two equations into a single equation produces the following:

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Ms T oR

O U K s + Mf P O

R U Fs = Kf P Ff

Equation 3 implies that nodes on a fluid-structure interface have both displacement and pressure degrees of freedom.

The two example problems presented here illustrate the application of the acoustic elements. The first example shows the use of the acoustic absorption elements in modeling far-field problems. The second example is a nearfield problem showing the use of standing wave prediction in an enclosed space.

In this problem you will determine the first flexural mode (egg mode) frequency of an annular ring submerged in water which extends to infinity. You will perform a harmonic analysis using a frequency sweep between 34 and 38 Hz. The distance from the center of the ring to the infinite elements will at least be equal to (D/2) + 0.2 where D is the outer diameter of the ring and = c/f is the dominant wavelength of the pressure waves. Using 0.26035 for the outer radius of the ring, 1460 for the speed of sound (c), and 36 for the estimated dominant frequency (f), gives (D/2) + 0.2 = 0.26035 + (0.2)(1460)/36 = 8.37146. However, this is much greater than the distance required when using the acoustic infinite element and a distance of 2 times the outer radius of the ring will be used ( 2 x .26035 = .5207), as shown in the command listing.

/BATCH,LIST /VERIFY,EV129-1S /PREP7 /TITLE,AMA,EV129-1S,FLUID129,HARMONIC ANALYSIS ET,1,PLANE42 ! structural element ET,2,FLUID29 ! acoustic fluid element with ux & uy et,3,129 ! acoustic infinite line element r,3,0.5207,0,0 ET,4,FLUID29,,1,0 ! acoustic fluid element without ux & uy ! material properties MP,EX,1,2.068e11 MP,DENS,1,7929 MP,NUXY,1,0MP,DENS,2,1030 MP,SONC,2,1460 ! create inner and outer quarter circles CYL4,0,0,0.254,0,0.26035,90 CYL4,0,0,0.26035,0,0.5207,90 ! select, assign attribute to and mesh area 1 ASEL,S,AREA,,1 AATT,1,1,1,0 LESIZE,1,,,16,1 LESIZE,3,,,16,1 LESIZE,2,,,1,1 LESIZE,4,,,1,1 MSHKEY,1 MSHAPE,0,2D ! mapped quad mesh AMESH,1 ! select, assign attribute to and mesh area 2 ASEL,S,AREA,,2 AATT,2,1,2,0 LESIZE,5,,,16,1 LESIZE,7,,,16,1 LESIZE,6,,,5 LESIZE,8,,,5 MSHKEY,0 MSHAPE,0,2D ! mapped quad mesh AMESH,2

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! reflect quarter circle into semicircle about x-axis nsym,x,1000,all ! offset node number by 1000 esym,,1000,all ! reflect semicircle into full circle about y-axis nsym,y,2000,all ! offset node number by 2000 esym,,2000,all NUMMRG,ALL ! merge all quantities ! modify outer 2 layers of el29 into type 4 esel,s,type,,1 nsle,s esln,s,0 nsle,s esel,inve nsle,s emodif,all,type,4 esel,all nsel,all ! define el129 line element csys,1 nsel,s,loc,x,0.5207 type,3 real,3 mat,2 esurf esel,all nsel,all ! flag interface as fluid-structure interface nsel,s,loc,x,0.26035 esel,s,type,,2 sf,all,fsi,1 nsel,all esel,all FINISH ! enter solution module /SOLU ANTYPE,harmic ! select harmonic analysis hropt,full f,19,fx,1000. f,1019,fx,-1000. harfrq,34.,38. nsubst,100 kbc,1 SOLVE FINISH ! postprocess /post26 plcplx,0 nsol,2,1,u,x,d1ux store conjug,3,2 prod,4,2,3 sqrt,5,4 *get,uxmx,vari,5,extrem,tmax /COM ------------------------------------------------------------/COM Expected Result: /COM /COM The following "uxmx" should equal 35.24 Hz. /COM ------------------------------------------------------------*status,uxmx finish

This sample problem demonstrates the use of FLUID30 to predict the acoustic standing wave pattern of a typical enclosure representing a room. A sound-absorption material is located at the bottom surface of the enclosure and a vibrating structure with a cylindrical surface is located at the top right hand corner of the enclosure. This problem will determine the acoustic pressure wave pattern when the structure vibrates at an excitation frequency of 80 HZ.

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/batch,list /com, Harmonic Analysis - Room Acoustics /PREP7 /TITLE,Room Acoustic Analysis ANTYPE,HARM ET,1,30 ! Acoustic elements in contact with walls and vibrating surface ET,2,30,,1 ! Acoustic elements in interior (not in contact with walls) ! Set parameters for mesh generation XDIV=29 YDIV=19 ZDIV=1 CDIV=2 ! ! ! ! Number Number Number Number of of of of divisions divisions divisions divisions along along along along x-axis y-axis z-axis radius

! Dimensions of the room LEN=27 HGT=20 RAD=0.9 ! Mesh generation K,1 K,2,LEN K,3,LEN,HGT K,4,,HGT K,5,,,-1 K,6,LEN,,-1 K,7,LEN,HGT,-1 K,8,,HGT,-1 L,1,5,1 L,2,6,1 L,3,7,1 L,4,8,1 CIRC,3,RAD,7,2,90,2 ADRAG,5,6,,,,, 3 PIO4=ATAN(1) LENC=COS(PIO4) LENC=LENC*RAD HGTC=HGT-LENC LENC=LEN-LENC K,15,,HGTC K,16,,HGTC,-1 K,17,LENC K,18,LENC,,-1 L,1 ,17,XDIV L,10,15,XDIV L,11,4 ,XDIV L,17,10,YDIV L,15, 1,YDIV L,2 ,9 ,YDIV L,5 ,18,XDIV L,13,16,XDIV L,14,8 ,XDIV L,18,13,YDIV L,16,5 ,YDIV L,6 ,12,YDIV ESIZE,,CDIV V,1 ,17,10,15, 5,18,13,16 V,15,10,11,4 ,16,13,14,8 V,17,2 ,9 ,10,18,6 ,12,13 VMESH,ALL ! Material properties MP,DENS,1,2.35E-3 MP,SONC,1,1100.0 MP,MU,1,0.04 MP,DENS,2,2.35E-3 ! ! ! ! (Rho) density of air (lb/ft**3) (C) speed of sound in air (ft/sec) (Beta) absorption coefficient of the walls ('Beta' should be between 0 - 1)

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MP,SONC,2,1100.0 MP,MU,2,0.70

! (Beta) absorption coefficient of ! the absorbing material on the floor ! ('Beta' should be between 0 -1)

MP,DENS,3,2.35E-3 MP,SONC,3,1100.0 MP,MU,3,0.0 ! (Beta) zero absorption coefficient for interior elements NSEL,S,LOC,Y,0.0 NSEL,R,LOC,X,12,15 ESLN MAT,2 EMODIF,ALL ! Elements which have the absorbing material on the floor ! Boundary conditions ALLS NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.0 NSEL,A,LOC,Y,0.0 NSEL,A,LOC,X,LEN NSEL,A,LOC,Y,HGT D,ALL,UX,,,,,UY,UZ! Constrain all displacements to zero at the walls LOCAL,11,1,27,20 NSEL,A,LOC,X,RAD ESLN ESEL,INVE TYPE,2 MAT,3 EMODIF,ALL ! Interior elements are specified as Type=2 & material=3 ALLS ! Fluid-Structure Interface (FSI) NSEL,S,LOC,X,RAD ESLN SF,ALL,FSI NROTAT,ALL D,ALL,UX,.01 D,ALL,UY,,,,,UZ ! Select interface (FSI) surface nodes ! Select elements attached to interface surface ! Specify vibrating surface as Fluid-structure interface ! Radial vibration amplitude of Vibrating surface

! Impedance Surface (IMPD) CSYS,0 ALLS NSEL,S,LOC,X,0.0 NSEL,A,LOC,X,LEN NSEL,A,LOC,Y,0.0 NSEL,A,LOC,Y,HGT SF,ALL,IMPD,1 ! Specify the walls as Impedance Surface flag ! to activate absorption ALLS FINISH /SOLU ! Excitation Frequency for Harmonic Analysis HARF,80,80 SOLVE FINISH ! Frequency of excitation = 80 Hz

! Plot the Standing Wave Pattern (f = 80 Hz) /POST1 /SHOW,ENCL1,GRPH,1 SET,1,1 ! plot the real part of pressure response EPLOT /EDGE,1 /TITLE,-ROOM ACOUSTICS- * REAL PART OF PRESSURE PLNS,PRES SET,1,1,,1 ! plot the imag. part of pressure response /TITLE,-ROOM ACOUSTICS- * IMAG. PART OF PRESSURE PLNS,PRES FINISH

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A thin film is a small gap of fluid between moving surfaces. This thin layer of fluid can alter the structural response of the structure by adding stiffness and/or damping to the system. Movement normal to the gap produces a squeeze film effect. Movement tangential to the gap produces a slide film effect. Thin film effects are important in macrostructures, but they are particularly critical in microstructures where the damping and stiffening effects of thin layers of air can significantly affect the behavior of devices used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). Squeeze film effects are important in devices such as accelerometers and micromirrors. Slide film effects are important in devices such as comb drives. One method for assessing the effect of thin films is to use thin film fluid elements based on the Reynolds number (which is known from lubrication technology and rarified gas physics) to calculate the stiffening and damping effects. These effects can then be added to the overall system model. Separate element types are used to assess squeeze and slide film effects. The governing Reynolds equation limits the application of thin film analyses to structures with lateral dimensions much greater than the gap separation. In addition, the pressure change across the gap must be much smaller than the ambient (i.e., surrounding) pressure, and any viscous heating effects must be ignored. If these three conditions are not satisfied, then the effects of the thin film cannot be assessed using thin film elements. For those situations, the Navier Stokes equations must be solved using FLOTRAN to assess the effect of the fluid.

The ANSYS program has three elements for modeling thin film effects. FLUID136 and FLUID138 are used to model squeeze film effects. FLUID139 is used to model slide film effects.

Element FLUID136 FLUID138 FLUID139 Dimens. 3-D 3-D 1-D Shape or Characteristic Quadrilateral, 4 or 8-node Line, 2-node Line, 2-node DOF PRES PRES UX or UY or UZ

Squeeze film analysis simulates the effects of fluid in small gaps between fixed surfaces and structures moving perpendicular to the surfaces. Depending on the operating frequencies, the fluid can add stiffening and/or damping to the system. At low frequencies, the fluid can escape before it compresses. Therefore, the fluid only adds damping to the system. At high frequencies, the fluid compresses before it can escape. Therefore, the fluid adds both stiffening and damping to the system. A static analysis is used to determine the damping effects at low frequencies. A harmonic analysis is used to determine the stiffening and damping effects at high frequencies. The FLUID136 element is used to model the fluid domain between a fixed surface and a structure moving normally to that surface. The fluid domain is modeled by overlaying FLUID136 elements on the moving surface of the structure (i.e., lower surface of the structure adjacent to the fixed wall).

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The FLUID138 element is used to model the pressure drop through holes in a moving structure. Microstructures are commonly perforated to reduce the damping effects of the fluid layer. FLUID138 elements are used in conjunction with FLUID136 elements to obtain a consistent pressure distribution, including the effects of holes.

A squeeze film analysis can be performed on structures with known velocities or unknown velocities. If the velocity profile is known, you can apply it directly to the fluid elements. If the velocity profile is not known (or is too complicated), it can be determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure (model projection method). This section deals with directly applying the velocities. Section 16.3: Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis covers the modal projection method.

Use a static analysis to calculate the pressure distribution for low operating frequencies, where the compression of the fluid (and thus the stiffening effect) is negligible. The resulting pressure distribution can then be used to extract a damping coefficient that reflects the damping effect of the fluid. F C= vz

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Section 16.2: Squeeze Film Analysis F is the total pressure force at the fluid structure interface and vz is the normal velocity component of the moving structure. A typical pressure distribution on a rectangular plate is shown in Figure 16.3: Pressure Distribution on a Plate at a Low Driving Frequency.

Use a harmonic analysis to calculate the complex pressure distribution for high operating frequencies. The complex pressure distribution can be used to extract a damping coefficient and a stiffness coefficient. The phase shift between the pressure and the velocity is caused by compression of the fluid. The real pressure component contributes to the damping of the system. The imaginary pressure component contributes to the stiffening of the system. C= FRe vz K= FIm vz

FRe is the real component of the pressure force. FIm is the imaginary component of the pressure force. Omega () is the frequency (rad/sec). The damping and stiffness coefficients are frequency-dependent. Figure 16.4: Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Coefficients vs. Frequency illustrates the frequency dependency for a typical microsystem application.

The DMPEXT command is used to extract frequency-dependent damping parameters for use with the MDAMP, DMPRAT, ALPHAD, and BETAD command inputs.

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The Reynolds squeeze film approach assumes a continuous fluid flow regime. To ensure a continuous flow regime, the characteristic length (i.e., gap thickness) must be more than one hundred times larger than the mean free path of the fluid particles. L0 P0 Lm ( p0 ) = p0 Lm(po) is the mean free path of the fluid at the operating pressure P0, and L0 is the mean path at reference pressure P0. If the fluid is air at atmospheric pressure (1.01325*105), then by definition L0 is approximately 64*10-9 meters (64 m). So, for continuum theory to be directly applicable (without modification) to air at atmospheric pressure, the gap should be greater than 6.4 m (64*10-9 meters * 100). The applicability of the continuum theory is generally assessed using the Knudsen number, which is equal to the mean free fluid path divided by the gap. For continuum theory to be valid, the Knudsen number should be less than 0.01. L P L Kn = m = 0 0 d p0 d For high Knudsen numbers, the continuum theory is not valid. However, the dynamic viscosity can be adjusted to simulate the high Knudsen number flow regime. The default flow regime for FLUID136 and FLUID138 is continuum theory (KEYOPT(1) = 0). Set KEYOPT (1) = 1 to specify the high Knudsen number flow regime. The type of reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface is specified using accommodation factors. Squeeze film models assume diffuse reflection of the gas molecules at the wall interface (accommodation factor = 1). This assumption is valid for most metals, but is less accurate for micromachined surfaces, particularly those fabricated from silicon. Materials such as silicon cause specular reflection. Typical accommodation factors for silicon are between 0.80 and 0.90.

The methods used to model and mesh the fluid domain depend on the squeeze film analysis method. If the velocities are directly applied to the fluid elements, the fluid elements can be independent of the structure. If the velocities are determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure (modal projection method), the fluid elements cannot be independent of the structure. In the modal projection method, the FLUID136 elements must lie on the surface of the structural mesh. Use the ESURF command to overlay FLUID136 elements on the surface of an existing structural mesh. FLUID136 supports 4-node and 8-node options, along with degenerative triangles. The FLUID138 element is used to model the pressure drop in the channels (holes) in a structure as shown in Figure 16.2: Perforated Plate Structure. The element supports a circular hole configuration and a rectangular hole configuration (KEYOPT(3)). The element works in conjunction with FLUID136 to correctly compute the pressure distribution on the structure's surface and through the channels. To correctly model the FLUID138 element: 1. 2. Use a single FLUID138 element for each hole. Align the FLUID138 element at the center of the hole. The element should extend through the depth of the hole and have a length equal to the depth of the hole.

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Section 16.2: Squeeze Film Analysis 3. Assume the pressure at the center of the hole (flush with the plate surface in the thin film region) is at the same pressure as the nodes modeled at the periphery of the hole. Couple the nodes of the FLUID136 element at the whole periphery with the node of the FLUID138 element as shown in Figure 16.5: Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138 Element.

Figure 16.5 Coupling of Nodes at the Hole Periphery with the Center Node of a FLUID138 Element

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A thin film analysis using FLUID136 and FLUID138 is a linear solution for both a static and a harmonic response analysis. No special analysis options or load step options are required. See the ANSYS Basic Analysis Guide for general guidelines on solving a static analysis. For a harmonic response analysis, you must use the full method.

The fluid elements support pressure loads at the nodal PRES degrees of freedom and velocity body loads (FLUE) at the node or element as shown in Table 16.2: Load Options for Thin Film Fluid Elements. Pressure loads are applied using the D family of commands. The velocity load is applied using the BF family of commands. For the velocity load, a positive velocity load will cause a positive pressure. For a harmonic response analysis, a positive velocity load will cause a positive in-phase pressure load. See Section 2.6.8: Body Loads for details on applying body loads. Note Velocity body loads (FLUE) are the velocities of the moving wall in a direction normal to the wall. They are not in-plane velocities of the fluid.

Load Pressure Normal Velocity Type Nodal DOF Body Load ANSYS Label PRES FLUE

The recommended equation solvers for the fluid elements are the Sparse Direct Solver (SPARSE), the Jacobi Conjugate Gradient Solver (JCG) and the Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient Solver (ICCG).

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Results from a thin film fluid analysis are stored on the Jobname.RST file. The primary result from the fluid analysis is the nodal pressures. For a harmonic response analysis, the pressures are stored as complex values (Real and Imaginary components). Chapter 5, The General Postprocessor (POST1) discusses reading results into the database and viewing the nodal degree of freedom (pressure) results. Each fluid element computes and stores results for the mid-plane fluid velocity (PG) and effective viscosity. Use the element table to retrieve and view these results. To compute the damping and squeeze stiffness coefficients from the resulting pressure distribution on the surface of a structure, use the element table tools to compute the force on a per-element basis, then sum over all elements to compute the coefficients. The following command sequence demonstrates how to do this task. This example assumes parameters omega and velo exist (frequency and normal velocity (FLUE loading), respectively).

set,1,1 etable,presR,temp etable,earea,volu smult,forR,presR,earea ssum *get,Fre,ssum,,item,forR set,1,1,,1 etable,presI,temp smult,forI,presI,earea ssum *get,Fim,ssum,,item,forI K=abs(Fim*omega/velo) C=abs(Fre/velo) ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! store Real solution extract "Real" pressure extract element area compute "Real" force sum over all elements get the total "real" force store Imaginary solution extract "Imaginary" pressure compute "Imaginary" force sum over all elements get the total "imaginary" force

/com, ** Equivalent squeeze stiffness coefficient ** *stat,K /com, ** Equivalent damping coefficient ** *stat,C

A rectangular beam with perforated holes under transverse motion is modeled to compute the effective damping and squeeze stiffness coefficients. The thin film surface of the structure is modeled with FLUID136 elements. FLUID138 elements are used to model the hole regions. By altering the boundary condition of the free FLUID138 node, we can simulate different pressure boundary conditions of the hole region. The purpose of the analysis is to compute the equivalent squeeze stiffness and damping coefficient for an assumed uniform plate velocity. A harmonic response analysis is performed at 150 kHz. A previous modal analysis indicated that the pertinent eigenfrequency was 150 kHz. Since the analysis is linear, the magnitude of the velocity can be arbitrary for computing the coefficients. Three cases were considered: 1. 2. 3. Holes modeled with no resistance (pressure = 0 at hole location, no FLUID138 elements ). Holes modeled with finite resistance (FLUID138 elements modeled, pressure set to zero on fluid node at top of plate). Holes modeled with infinite resistance (no pressure specification at hole location, no FLUID138 elements).

Case 1 is typical for large diameter holes compared to the hole depth. Case 3 is typical for very high flow resistance, which happens in the case of narrow and long holes. Case 2 is the most accurate case where the fluid pressure drop is taken into account by the FLUID138 elements.

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Section 16.2: Squeeze Film Analysis Table 16.3: Beam Model Results Considering Perforated Holes lists the damping and squeeze coefficient results. Figure 16.6: Pressure Distribution (Real Component) and Figure 16.7: Pressure Distribution (Imaginary Component) illustrate the real and imaginary pressure distribution. The input file for case 2 is listed.

Frequency (kHz.) 150 150 150 Hole option Infinite resistance Finite resistance No resistance Damping Coefficient 2.016e-5 1.325e-5 1.165e-5 Squeeze stiffness coefficient 1.201 .5465 .4607

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The input file for this example is shown below for the finite-resistance Case 2

/batch,list /PREP7 /title, Damping and Squeeze film stiffness calculations for a rigid /com, plate with holes /com uMKS units ET, 1,136,1 ET, 2,138,1 s_l=100 s_l1=60 s_w=20 s_t=1 c_r=3 d_el=2 pamb=.1 visc=18.3e-12 velo=2000 freq=150000 pi=3.14159 omega=2*pi*freq pref=.1 mfp=64e-3 Knud=mfp/d_el mp,visc,1,visc mp,visc,2,visc r,1,d_el,,,pamb rmore,pref,mfp r,2,c_r,,,pamb rmore,pref,mfp ! Build the model rectng,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w pcirc,c_r ! Plate domain ! Hole domain ! 4-node option, High Knudsen Number ! Circular hole option, Hugh Knudsen Number ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Half Plate length (um) Plate hole location Plate width Plate thickness Hole radius Gap ambient pressure (MPa) viscosity kg/(um)(s) arbitrary velocity (um/s) Frequency (Hz.)

! Frequency (rad/sec) ! Reference pressure (MPa) ! mean free path (um) ! Knudsen number ! Dynamic viscosity gap ! Dynamic viscosity holes ! Real constants - gap

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agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3 agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3 ASBA, 1, all TYPE, 1 MAT, 1 smrtsize,4 AMESH, all

! Begin Hole generation *do,i,1,5 nsel,all *GET, numb, node, , num, max ! Create nodes for link elements N, numb+1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, N, numb+2,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, s_t TYPE,2 MAT, 2 REAL,2 NSEL, all E, numb+1, numb+2 ! Define 2-D link element ESEL, s, type,,1 NSLE,s,1 local,11,1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3 csys,11 NSEL,r, loc, x, c_r ! Select all nodes on the hole circumference NSEL,a, node, ,numb+1 *GET, next, node, , num, min CP, i, pres, numb+1, next nsel,u,node, ,numb+1 nsel,u,node, ,next CP, i, pres,all !Coupled DOF set for constant pressure csys,0 *enddo ! End hole generation nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l nsel,a,loc,x,s_l nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w nsel,a,loc,y,s_w nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9 d,all,pres nsel,all esel,s,type,,2 nsle,s,1 nsel,r,loc,z,s_t d,all,pres,0 dlist,all allsel bfe,all,flue,,velo fini finish /solu antyp,harm harfrq,freq solve finish /post1 esel,s,type,,1 set,1,1 etable,presR,pres etable,earea,volu smult,forR,presR,earea ssum *get,Fre,ssum,,item,forR set,1,1,,1 etable,presI,pres smult,forI,presI,earea ! Apply arbitrary velocity

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ssum *get,Fim,ssum,,item,forI K=abs(Fim*omega/velo) C=abs(Fre/velo) ! Compute equivalent stiffness ! Compute equivalent damping

/com, ******* Equivalent stiffness ************************ *stat,K /com, ******* Equivalent damping ************************** *stat,C finish

Modal projection techniques provide an efficient method for computing damping parameters for flexible bodies. The Modal Projection Technique is the process of calculating the squeeze stiffness and damping coefficients of the fluid using the eigenvectors of the structure. In the modal projection method, the velocity profiles are determined from the mode-frequency response of the structure.

For a structure undergoing flexible body dynamics, the displacement and velocity vary along the structure. For a thin-film fluid adjacent to the structure, there is a true dependency between the structural velocity and the fluid pressure. A modal analysis of a structure provides information on the fundamental eigenfrequencies and mode shapes (eigenvectors). For each mode, i, we can impress the distributed eigenvector values as velocity loads and compute the resulting pressure distribution and hence the fluid force acting on mode j. Therefore, we can compute a matrix of modal squeeze stiffness coefficients, Kij, and modal damping coefficients, Cij. The diagonal terms of these matrices are the coefficients of each mode, the off-diagonal terms represent the "cross-talk" coefficients between modes. Figure 16.8: Modal Projection Technique for Damping Characterization illustrates the modal projection technique.

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Section 16.3: Modal Projection Method for Squeeze Film Analysis From the modal squeeze and stiffness coefficients for the main diagonal terms (source mode = target mode), other useful damping parameters can be calculated. For example, the modal damping ratio, , and the modal squeeze to stiffness ratio, kri, can be computed by: i = Cii /(2imi ) kri = K ii / i2

Where mi is the modal mass and i the eigenfrequency. The damping ratio can be used to compute ALPHAD and BETAD parameters for Rayleigh damping (see ABEXTRACT command), or to specify constant and modal damping by means of the DMPRAT or MDAMP commands. The squeeze to stiffness ratio represents the relative stiffening of the mechanical system due to fluid compression and resonance shift. If the squeeze-to-stiffness ratio is small (e.g., <.02), then the squeeze stiffness affects the structural stiffness by less than 2%, which may be negligible. At higher frequencies, the ratio can be much larger, indicating a significant stiffening of the structure. The stiffness and damping coefficients may be strongly frequency-dependent. Figure 16.9: Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate shows a typical frequency dependency of the squeeze and damping forces on a flat plate, and the resulting stiffness and damping constant. The frequency where the forces intersect is known as the cut-off frequency. Below this frequency, structures may be accurately characterized by a constant damping coefficient, and stiffness effects can be ignored. Structures which operate far above the cut-off can be described by a constant stiffness coefficient, and damping effects can be ignored.

Figure 16.9 Damping and Squeeze Stiffness Parameters for a Rectangular Plate

16.3.2. Steps in Computing the Damping Parameter Using the Modal Projection Technique

The basic steps in performing the analysis are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Build a structural and thin-film fluid model and mesh. Perform a modal analysis on the structure. Extract the desired mode eigenvectors. Select the desired modes for damping parameter calculations. Perform a harmonic analysis on the thin-film elements. Compute the modal squeeze stiffness and damping parameters. Compute modal damping ratio and squeeze stiffness coefficient. Display the results.

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis Steps 4-7 have been automated using the DMPEXT command macro. Step 8 is available through the MDPLOT command macro.

Model preparation for the modal projection method for damping parameter extraction follows very closely to the method outlined in Section 16.2.4: Modeling and Meshing Considerations. Both the structural model and the thin-film fluid model need to be defined simultaneously. Group the fluid nodes on the structure surface into a node component named "FLUN". This component should only include nodes attached to FLUID136 elements. This component defines the nodes for which the eigenvector values will be extracted from the mode-frequency analysis.

A modal analysis of the structure is required to obtain the eigenvectors of the desired modes. The modal analysis should be set up with the following options: 1. 2. 3. Use the Block Lanczos method (MODOPT command). Extract the eigenmodes of interest (MODOPT command). Expand the eigenmodes of interest (MXPAND command).

The expanded eigenmodes will compute the necessary eigenvectors required for the modal projection technique. Note: The thin-film fluid elements may be left active in the model when performing the modal analysis. These elements will not contribute to the modal solution.

The eigenvectors from the modal analysis must be retrieved and stored in a format appropriate for use by the thin-film fluid elements for a subsequent harmonic fluid analysis. Use the RMFLVEC command in POST1 to retrieve the eigenvectors. The data is stored in the file Jobname.EFL.

The command macro DMPEXT performs a harmonic response analysis with the thin-film fluid elements using the eigenvector information for the desired mode(s). The macro also extracts damping parameter information for use in subsequent dynamic structural analysis. Damping parameters extracted include the modal damping coefficient, modal squeeze stiffness coefficient, damping ratio, and the squeeze-to-stiffness ratio. DMPEXT requires a "source" mode number and a "target" mode number. The source mode is the mode for which the eigenvectors are used to impart a velocity field on the fluid elements. The target mode is the mode which is acted on by the pressure solution (fluid forces). For transverse oscillations and a uniform gap, there is little mode interaction and hence only diagonal terms are required (source mode (i) = target mode (j)). For transverse motion with nonuniform gaps, or asymmetric plate motion, mode interaction effects (cross-talk) can be significant and should be computed (source mode .ne. target mode). Typical cross-talk scenarios are shown in Figure 16.10: Fluidic Cross-Talk between Transverse and Rotational Motion.

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Damping parameter extraction can be selected over a desired frequency range or at the eigenfrequencies of the structure. Damping results are computed and stored in an array parameter. Computed damping ratios may be used in subsequent dynamic structural analyses. A constant damping ratio can be applied using DMPRAT for a subsequent harmonic or mode-superposition transient analysis. Mode damping ratios may be applied using the MDAMP command for use in mode-superposition harmonic and transient analyses. Note: Subsequent structural analysis using these damping parameters do not require the thin-film fluid elements in the model. The command macro ABEXTRACT (like DMPEXT) extracts alpha and beta damping parameters for use in the ALPHAD and BETAD commands. These commands define Rayleigh damping and can be used in time-transient structural analysis to model damping effects. The damping parameters are computed from two modes defined by the user. The command macro MDPLOT may be used to display the frequency-dependent damping parameters.

A rectangular beam with perforated holes is modeled to compute the effective damping coefficient, stiffness coefficient, and damping ratio. The surface of the structure is modeled with FLUID136 elements to represent the thin film. The structure is modeled with SOLID45 elements. This example computes the Rayleigh damping coefficients ( and ) and modal damping ratios i for use in a transient dynamic analysis. The problem is defined as an extension to the earlier squeeze film example. After modeling the fluid domain, the structure of the beam is modeled and meshed with SOLID45 elements. A modal analysis is performed on the structure and the first two eigenvalues and eigenvectors are computed. RMFLVEC is used to extract the eigenvectors for use in the modal projection method to compute the thin-film damping parameters. The command

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Chapter 16: Thin Film Analysis macro ABEXTRACT is used to compute the Rayleigh parameters from the lowest two eigenmodes . Modal damping ratios are also provided by the ABEXTRACT macro for the two eigenmodes. Table 16.4: Modal Damping Parameters for First Two Eigenfrequencies lists the results from the damping parameter extraction. Computed Rayleigh parameters are: ALPHAD=65212, BETAD=1.829e-8. The input file for this example is shown below.

Frequency (Hz.) Modal Damping Coefficient 55294 157497 67419 83123 Modal Squeeze Stiffness Coefficient .2758e9 .3568e10 Damping Ratio Stiffness Ratio .9703e-1 .4200e-1 .2285e-2 .3644e-2

/batch,list /PREP7 /title, Damping Ratio and Rayleigh Damping Calculations for a Perforated Plate /com uMKS units ET, 1,136,1 ET, 2,138,1 ET,3,45 s_l=100 s_l1=60 s_w=20 s_t=1 c_r=3 d_el=2 pamb=.1 visc=18.3e-12 pref=.1 mfp=64e-3 Knud=mfp/d_el ! 4-node option, High Knudsen Number ! Circular hole option, Hugh Knudsen Number ! Structural element ! Half Plate length (um) ! Plate hole location ! Plate width ! Plate thickness ! Hole radius ! Gap ! ambient pressure (MPa) ! viscosity kg/(um)(s) ! Reference pressure (MPa) ! mean free path (um) ! Knudsen number

mp,visc,1,visc ! Dynamic viscosity gap mp,visc,2,visc ! Dynamic viscosity holes mp,ex,3,79e3 ! Gold mp,dens,3,19300e-18 mp,nuxy,3,.1

rectng,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w pcirc,c_r agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3 agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3 ASBA, 1, all TYPE, 1 MAT, 1 smrtsize,4 AMESH, all

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nsel,all *GET, numb, node, , num, max ! Create nodes for link elements N, numb+1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, N, numb+2,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3,, s_t TYPE,2 MAT, 2 REAL,2 NSEL, all E, numb+1, numb+2 ! Define 2-D link element ESEL, s, type,,1 NSLE,s,1 local,11,1,-s_l1+i*s_l1/3 csys,11 NSEL,r, loc, x, c_r ! Select all nodes on the hole circumference NSEL,a, node, ,numb+1 *GET, next, node, , num, min CP, i, pres, numb+1, next nsel,u,node, ,numb+1 nsel,u,node, ,next CP, i, pres,all !Coupled DOF set for constant pressure csys,0 *enddo ! End hole generation esize,,2 type,3 mat,3 real,3 vext,all,,,,,s_t

nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l nsel,a,loc,x,s_l nsel,a,loc,y,-s_w nsel,a,loc,y,s_w nsel,r,loc,z,-1e-9,1e-9 d,all,pres ! Fix pressure at outer plate boundary nsel,all esel,s,type,,2 nsle,s,1 nsel,r,loc,z,s_t d,all,pres,0 dlist,all esel,s,type,,1 nsle,s,1 nsel,u,cp,,1,5 cm,FLUN,node allsel nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l nsel,a,loc,x,s_l d,all,ux d,all,uy d,all,uz allsel fini /solu antype,modal modopt,lanb,2 eqslv,sparse mxpand,2 solve fini /post1 RMFLVEC

! Modal analysis ! Extract lowest two eigenmodes ! Expand lowest two eigenmodes

! Extract eigenvectors

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fini /solu abextract,1,2 finish

A transient dynamic analysis on the switch can be performed using the extracted damping parameters. The following input illustrates a coupled electrostatic-structural time-transient solution. The electrostatic field is assumed to be normal to the plate in the gap, and fringing effects are ignored. TRANS126 elements are used to model the coupled electrostatic-structural interaction with the switch. The EMTGEN command is used to generate the transducer elements. A step voltage pulse is applied over a short duration (65 micro-seconds) then released. Rayleigh damping parameters, when used, are applied to the global mass (ALPHAD parameter) and stiffness (BETAD parameter) matrices. We want to apply these only to the mass and stiffness matrix of the SOLID45 elements, and not the TRANS126 elements, because doing so may overdamp the system. The TRANS126 elements produce a damping matrix and a stiffness matrix only. Hence, we can use the ALPHAD parameter for the global mass matrix since there is no contribution from the TRANS126 elements. To isolate the SOLID45 elements for beta damping, we can apply the beta damping via a material damping option (MP,DAMP). Figure 16.11: Time-Transient Response from Voltage Pulse illustrates the displacement of a node near the center of the plate over time. The maximum amplitude of displacement (0.11 microns) is small enough to ignore large deflection damping effects.

/batch,list /PREP7 /title, Damped Transient Dynamic Response of an RF MEMS switch /com uMKS units /com, Small deflection assumption et,1,200,6 ET,3,45 s_l=100 s_l1=60 s_w=20 s_t=1 c_r=3 d_el=2 pamb=.1 visc=18.3e-12 pref=.1 mfp=64e-3 Knud=mfp/d_el mp,ex,3,79e3 mp,dens,3,19300e-18 mp,nuxy,3,.1 mp,damp,1,1.829e-8 ! Build the model rectng,-s_l,s_l,-s_w,s_w pcirc,c_r agen,3,2,,,-s_l1/3 agen,3,2,,,s_l1/3 ASBA, 1, all TYPE, 1 MAT, 1 smrtsize,4 AMESH, all esize,,2 type,3 mat,3 real,3 vext,all,,,,,s_t nsel,s,loc,x,-s_l nsel,a,loc,x,s_l

! Structural element Plate length (um) Plate hole location Plate width Plate thickness Hole radius Gap ! ambient pressure (MPa) ! viscosity kg/(um)(s) ! Reference pressure (MPa) ! mean free path (um) ! Knudsen number ! Gold ! ! ! ! ! !

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d,all,ux d,all,uy d,all,uz allsel aclear,all save nsel,s,loc,z cm,base,nodes emtgen,'base',,,'uz',-d_el ! generate Transducer elements allsel,all nsel,s,loc,z,-d_el d,all,uz,0 d,all,volt,0 cmsel,s,base d,all,volt,10 allsel,all fini /solu antyp,trans alphad,65211 ! alpha damping computed from Squeeze-film theory kbc,1 time,.000065 deltime,2.0e-6 outres,all,none outres,nsol,all solve time,.0002 cmsel,s,base d,all,volt,0 allsel,all solve fini n1=node(0,2,0) /post26 nsol,2,n1,uz prvar,2 plvar,2 finish

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If a structure does not undergo significant deformation, the gap between the structure and the fixed wall may be assumed to be constant (small signal case). If the structural deformation in the gap is significant, the change in the gap may effect the damping of the structure (large signal case). The gap is defined as a real constant in the thin-film fluid elements. Use SETFGAP to automatically define and/or update the gap real constants for the thin-film FLUID136 elements. The command can be used to: Create real constant table entries for every selected FLUID136 element (large signal case). Update an existing real constant table according to structural displacements for every FLUID136 element (large signal case).

This option allows you to check the dependence of the damping parameters over the deflection range of the structure.

Slide film damping occurs if two surfaces separated by a thin fluid film move tangentially with respect to each other, because energy is dissipated due to viscous flow. Typical applications are damping between the fingers of comb drives and horizontally-moving seismic masses. FLUID139 is used to model slide film damping. FLUID139 can model Couette and Stokes flow (Figure 16.12: Slide Film Damping at Low and High Frequencies). Couette flow assumes a constant velocity gradient across the fluid gap. Tangentially moving surfaces at low frequencies produce a nearly constant velocity gradient in the fluid, so Couette flow is applicable to low frequencies. Stokes flow assumes that the velocity gradient is not constant across the fluid gap. Tangentially moving surfaces at high frequencies do not produce a constant velocity gradient, so the Stokes flow is applicable to high frequencies. The transition from Couette to Stokes flow occurs near the cut-off frequency. fc = 2 d2 where is the fluid density, the dynamic viscosity and d the gap separation. Couette flow does not occur at high frequencies, because inertial effects are important and viscous friction is only able to accelerate a thin fluid layer near the moving surface. The penetration depth is given by = 2

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"!$#% % F<% #)+(/(% G/ )*H & '()*)+(-,

% /.0 ?=@BA E

C

89 :<;"

= - >!$#% % F<% #)+(/(% G/ )*H 1 )234(56,7% /.0 ?N K @ MP O = 5 Q

I

( I L ) + ( J L ) GU5Q ( ) - VWR ( )

RS T

I L

I L

FLUID139 models the effect of viscous flow in the thin film with a series of mass-damper elements, as shown in Figure 16.13: Viscous Slide Film Element FLUID139. Couette flow is modeled using a two-node option. Stokes flow is modeled using a 32-node option. In the 32-node option, the end nodes (node 1 and 32) are connected to the structural portion of the model with structural degrees of freedom, and the series of mass-damper elements are contained within "auxiliary" nodes (nodes 2-31). The gap separation distance (GAP) and the overlap area of the surfaces (AREA) are specified as real constants for FLUID139. If the overlap area changes during the analysis, the area change rate (DADU) must also be specified as a real constant. A changing overlap area is typical in lateral comb drives. dA (un ui ) A new = A initial + du AREA is the initial overlap area, DADU is the change in the overlap area with respect to the surface displacement, and un and ui are the location of the interface nodes (1 and 32). Note: For a constant surface area, DADU is the width of the overlap surface. FLUID139 may be used for a prestress static analysis in conjunction with a prestress harmonic analysis, as well as a full transient analysis. Prestress analysis is required if the plate area changes due to the structural displacement. A typical command sequence for a prestress harmonic analysis would include the following:

/solu antyp,static pstress,on . . solve fini

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/solu antyp,harmonic pstress,on . . solve finish

KEYOPT(3) specifies the continuous flow options. For a no-slip assumption at the wall, use the continuum theory (KEYOPT(3) = 0). For slip flow where the Knudsen number is much less or much greater than 1.0, use the first order slip flow condition (KEYOPT(3) = 1). For slip flow with a Knudsen number of approximately 1.0, use the extended slip flow option (KEYOPT(3) = 2).

@BA 6 0/78-?$)' ' 4 1 ,.-//04

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6 0/78-9$&' ' 1 :% ,5-//04 1 :% 4 @BA 6 0/78-9$&' ' =%> 1 :/<* 1 :/% ,.-//04

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Comb drive resonators are a common application for slide film damping. Figure 16.14: Comb Drive Resonator illustrates a typical comb drive assembly consisting of fixed and moving comb drives, springs, and a central mass.

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Details on the comb drive geometry are given in the input file listed below. The electrostatic behavior of the moving comb drives are represented by two TRANS126 transducer elements with prescribed Stroke vs. Capacitance data obtained from finite element runs. The structural behavior of the crab legs is modeled by a spring element. The inertial effects of the central mass are modeled with a mass element. Damping occurs between the comb teeth (lateral dimension), and between the comb teeth and the substrate (vertical dimension). Four FLUID139 elements are used to model the lateral and vertical damping (two per comb drive). The cut-off frequency is well below the frequency range for the analysis; therefore, Couette flow is assumed. Since the comb drive effective surface area changes with displacement, the DADU real constant is used (equal to the width of the plate area). A static prestress analysis is run using a DC bias voltage on the input and output fixed comb drives. A harmonic analysis sweep is then performed using a small AC voltage. The displacement (magnitude and phase angle) of the central mass is shown in Figure 16.15: Displacement of Central Mass. Figure 16.16: Real and Imaginary Current shows the current.

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! ! ! ! ! ! !

DRIVE COMB | | CRAB LEG SPRING --- CENTRAL MASS --- CRAB LEG SPRING | | PICK-UP COMB

! Reference: ! "Microelectromechanical Filters for Signal Processing", ! Lin, L., Howe, R.T., J. Microelectromechanical Systems, ! VOL 7, No. 3, Sept 1998 ! beam parameters (uMKS units) E = 190e3 d = 2.33e-15 hb = 2 wb = 2 Lb = 100 k = 5.699

!Young modulus ! density ! beam thickness ! beam width ! beam length ! mechanical stiffness

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! comb parameter n= 9 np=n*2 x0= 10 L0= 26 L=20 gi= L0-x0 w= 4 h= hb gp=3 g= 3 Mr = 1.96563e-11 ! Lateral gap area areal=np*h*x0 ! Vertical gap area areav=n*w*x0 ! Stroke vs. Capacitance data x1 cx1 x2 cx2 x3 cx3 x4 cx4 x5 cx5 = = = = = = = = = = 14 0.97857e-2 15 0.96669e-2 16 0.95445e-2 17 0.94185e-2 18 0.93384e-2

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

number of finger number of finger pairs initial finger overlap finger length (stator comb) finger length (moving comb) initial gap finger width finger thickness finger gap (lateral) comb gap (vertical) mass

! Voltage conditions Vi = 40 Vo = 60 Vac = 10 ! Damping parmeters nu=18.3e-12 ! dynamic viscosity po=0.1 ! reference pressure dens=1.17e-18 ! density fc=nu/(2*3.14159*dens*(g**2)) ! cutoff frequency daduv=w*n ! change in plate area - vertical dadul=h*np ! change in plate area - lateral ! Model n,1,0 n,2,0 n,3,0 n,4,0 et,1,126,,0,1 !Trans126, UX-Volt DOF r,1,,,gi,, rmore,x1,cx1,x2,cx2,x3,cx3 rmore,x4,cx4,x5,cx5 e,1,2 e,2,3 et,2,21,,,4 r,2,Mr type,2 real,2 e,2 et,3,14,,1 r,3,k type,3 real,3 ! Mass element ! input dc bias ! output dc bias ! input ac bias

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e,2,4 ! Lateral dampers et,4,139 ! Slide-film damper, Couette flow, Continuum theory mp,visc,4,nu mp,dens,4,dens r,4,g,areal,-dadul,po type,4 mat,4 real,4 e,1,2 e,2,3 ! Vertical dampers r,5,g,areav,-daduv,po real,5 e,1,2 e,2,3

d,1,ux,0 d,3,ux,0 d,4,ux,0 d,2,uy,0 d,2,volt,0 ! Prestress static analysis /solu d,1,volt,Vi d,3,volt,Vo pstres,on solve fini ! Harmonic Frequency Sweep fr0=60000 fr1=120000 /solu antyp,harm d,1,volt,Vac d,3,volt,0 pstres,on harfrq,fr0,fr1 nsubs,60 outres,all,all kbc,1 solve /post26 nsol,2,2,u,x,ux2 esol,3,2,,nmisc,24,ir esol,4,2,,nmisc,25,ii /axlab,x,Frequency (Hz) ! label of x axis plcplx,0 /axlab,y, Displacement (um) plvar,2 ! plot displacement versus time (frequency) plcplx,1 /axlab,y, Phase angle plvar,2 plcplx,2 /axlab,y, Current (pA) plvar,3,4 fini

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Index

A

acceleration, 912 ACEL command, 45, 912 acoustic analysis, 151 load step options, 159 loads for, 157 reviewing results from, 1511 acoustics, 151 absolute pressure, 151 absorbing boundary condition, 152 amplitude, 157 applications of, 151 axisymmetric cases, 152 boundary admittance, 152 circular or spherical boundary (RAD), 152 compressible fluid, 151 coupled acoustic analysis, 151 coupling matrix, 1511 definition of, 151 density, 152 far-field problems, 1512 fluid load, 1511 fluid-structure interaction, 151, 1511 fluid-structure interface, 155 forcing frequency, 157 harmonic acoustic analysis, 152 infinite acoustic elements, 152 inviscid fluid, 151 mean pressure, 151 meshing the model, 154 modal analysis, 151 outgoing pressure wave, 152 particle velocity, 151 pressure changes, 151 pressure gradient, 151 sample fluid-structure acoustic analysis (batch), 1512 sample room acoustic analysis, 1513 solving acoustics problems, 151 sound-absorption material, 1513 speed of sound (SONC), 152 standing wave pattern, 1513 transient acoustic analysis, 151 uncoupled acoustic analysis, 151 unsymmetric matrices, 156 wavelength, 154 ADAPT command, 22 adiabatic boundaries, 41 advection limit, 51

advection term, 141 ambient radiation, 41 amplitude, 157 analysis options acoustics, 156 analysis type acoustics, 151 angular acceleration vectors, 22 ANTYPE command, 22 Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis, 71 boundary conditions, 73 mesh updating, 75 remeshing, 76 arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis example problems, 78 artificial viscosity, 29, 83 axis of rotation, 102

B

backward time integration method, 51 BFCUM command, 22 BFDELE command, 22 BFE command, 22 BFUNIF command, 22 Bingham viscosity model, 93, 96, 914 boundary conditions, 25, 82 laminar and turbulent flow, 311 thermal analysis, 41 transient analysis, 53 bulk temperature, 43 buoyancy, 45

C

Carreau viscosity model, 93, 96, 914 CE command, 22 CECMOD command, 22 CEDELE command, 22 CGLOC command, 102 CGOMEGA command, 102 /CLEAR command, 22 CNVTOL command, 22 collocated Galerkin approach, 47, 141 compressible flow analysis, 12, 24, 31, 81 compressible fluid, 151 conduction limit, 51 conductivity matrix algorithm, 45 conjugate heat transfer, 12, 45 convergence, 26, 28, 211, 51, 112 coordinate systems, 21, 22, 101 Couette flow, 1618 coupled acoustic analysis, 151 coupling algorithms, 121

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

Index CP command, 22 cross-talk, 1612 FLDATA22 command, 112 FLDATA23 command, 112 FLDATA24 command, 33, 311, 314, 141 FLDATA25 command, 28, 44, 141 FLDATA26 command, 28, 29 FLDATA29 command, 214 FLDATA3 command, 213 FLDATA30 command, 210 FLDATA31 command, 29, 314 FLDATA32 command, 22, 27 FLDATA33 command, 141 FLDATA34 command, 29, 314, 141 FLDATA35 command, 64 FLDATA36 command, 63 FLDATA37 command, 45, 121 FLDATA38 command, 51 FLDATA4 command, 22, 53, 64 FLDATA4A command, 51, 51 FLDATA5 command, 26, 26, 214 FLDATA7 command, 91, 93, 913, 131 FLDATA8 command, 94 FLDATA9 command, 94 FLOCHECK command, 53 FLOTRAN analysis applications, 11 characterizing flow, 33 compressible flow, 12, 81 evaluating, 214 files , 25 fluid properties, 91 free surface, 12 incompressible flow, 12 laminar flow, 11 multiple species transport, 12 non-Newtonian fluid flow, 12 overview, 23 restarting, 27 setting parameters, 25 solvers, 111 special features, 101 stopping, 213 thermal analysis, 12, 41 transient analysis, 51 turbulent flow, 12 types, 11 verifying results, 214 FLOTRAN elements, 21 flow regime, 24 thin film, 164 FLREAD command, 26 fluid analyses acoustics (see acoustics)

D

D command, 311, 73, 104, 134 DA command, 311, 73 database backing up, 1510 DELTIM command, 22 density, 41, 92 DESOL command, 22 displacements, 159 distributed resistance, 104 divergence, 214, 83 DK command, 22 DL command, 311, 73 DOF capping, 29 domain file, 27 drag, 316 DSYM command, 22

E

effective viscosity, 25, 32 elements, 21 ERESX command, 22 example problems arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian analysis, 78 compressible flow, 84 incompressible flow, 316 modal projection method, 1613 multiple species, 135 slide film, 1620 squeeze film, 166 thermal analysis, 48 volume of fluid analysis, 65

F

files Jobname.RST, 1511 FLDATA1 command, 33, 41, 51 FLDATA10 command, 94 FLDATA11 command, 94 FLDATA12 command, 99, 914 FLDATA13 command, 45, 910 FLDATA14 command, 43, 81, 99 FLDATA15 command, 912 FLDATA17 command, 81, 912 FLDATA18 command, 45, 111 FLDATA19 command, 111 FLDATA2 command, 22, 26, 210 FLDATA20 command, 112, 113 FLDATA21 command, 112 Index2

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

Index slide film, 1618 squeeze film, 161 thin film, 161 fluid properties initializing and varying, 99 specifying, 91 tables, 93 user-defined file, 92, 910 user-programmable subroutines, 92, 914 fluid property types, 91 fluid-structure interaction, 151, 159, 1511 fluid-structure interface, 155 forced convection, 12, 44 forces, 159 forcing frequency, 157 free convection, 45 free surface analysis, 12 kinetic energy, 25 Knudsen number, 164

L

laminar flow, 11, 31, 33 large signal cases, 1618 LCCALC command, 22 LCDEF command, 22 LCFACT command, 22 LCFILE command, 22 lift, 316 load step options acoustics, 159 loads, 42, 156

M

mass imbalances, 311 mass types, 51 material model interface, 12 meshing, 24, 39, 41 mixture types, 131 modal projection method, 1610 modified inertial relaxation, 29, 134 moments, 159 monotone Streamline Upwind approach, 47 monotone streamline upwind approach, 141 moving wall, 311 MP command, 41, 91 MSADV command, 141 MSCAP command, 134 MSDATA command, 132, 133 MSMETH command, 134 MSNOMF command, 131 MSPROP command, 133 MSRELAX command, 134 MSSOLU command, 134 MSSPEC command, 131, 132, 133 multiple species transport, 12, 131

G

generalized symmetry boundary conditions, 311, 73 global iterations, 210, 51, 112 graphical solution tracking, 211 gravitational acceleration, 912

H

harmonic acoustic analysis, 152 harmonic acoustic analysis guidelines, 152 heat balance, 47, 48 heat fluxes, 41 heat transfer (film) coefficients, 41 hydraulic diameter, 32

I

IC command, 131 ICE command, 61 ICVFRC command, 61 impedance, 159 incompressible flow analysis, 12, 31 boundary conditions, 311 difficult problems, 314 example problem, 316 meshing requirements, 39 inertial relaxation, 28, 84 infinite acoustic elements, 152 inlet parameters, 33 inlet values, 311 intersections, 311 INTSRF command, 316

N

N command, 22 natural convection, 12 NCNV command, 22 NEQIT command, 22 Newmark time integration method, 51 NMODIF command, 22 nodal residuals file, 26 non-fluid properties, 41, 91 non-Newtonian fluid flow analysis, 12, 913 non-Newtonian viscosity models, 93, 96 NROTAT command, 22 NSVR command, 22 Index3

K

KBC command, 22 KEYOPT command, 101, 132

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

Index

O

overwrite frequency option, 26

P

particle velocity, 151 PERI command, 311 periodic boundaries, 311 /PICE command, 61 PLVFRC command, 65 power law viscosity model, 93, 96, 913 preconditioned bicgstab solver, 115 preconditioned generalized minimum residual solver, 113 PRESOL command, 22 pressure gradient, 151 pressure surface loads, 159 pressure wave limit, 51 print file, 26 PRNLD command, 22 problem domain, 24 property calculations, 81 property types, 91, 94 PRRSOL command, 22 PSOLVE command, 22

SIMPLEN algorithm, 121 slide film, 161, 1618 solution, 156 Solvers, 111, 156 sparse direct solver, 115, 156 species mass fractions, 131 specific heat, 41, 81, 92, 97 specified flow, 311 specified pressure, 311 squeeze film, 161 squeeze stiffness effect, 161 stationary wall, 311 stepped or ramped loads, 1510 Stokes flow, 1618 streamline upwind/Petrov-Galerkin approach, 47, 141 surface tension coefficient, 61, 91, 93, 98 surface-to-surface radiation, 41, 48 Sutherland's law, 96 swirl, 103 symmetry boundary, 311

T

temperature equation, 41 temperature field algorithm, 45 temperature load, 41 temperature offset, 99 thermal analysis, 12 example problems, 48 loads and boundary conditions, 41 property specifications, 41 thermal boundary conditions, 41 thermal conductivity, 41, 92, 98 thin film analysis, 161 Couette vs. Stokes flow, 1618 cross-talk, 1612 flow regime, 164 harmonic response analysis, 163 large signal cases, 1618 modal projection method, 1610 slide film, 1618 squeeze film, 161 static analysis, 162 TIME command, 22 time steps, 51 TIMINT command, 22 TOFFST command, 99, 912 total temperature, 81 transient analysis, 51 boundary conditions, 53 settings, 51 terminating, 53

Q

quadrature order, 210

R

radiosity solver method, 48 ratio of specific heats, 81, 912 reference pressure, 912 reference properties, 912 relaxation factors, 28, 44, 134 RESCONTROL command, 22 residuals, 26 restart file, 27 results file, 26 reviewing results acoustics, 1511 Reynolds number, 32 rotating reference frames, 102 rotational speeds, 102

S

sample acoustic analysis batch method, 1512 search directions, 112 semi-direct solvers, 112 SFE command, 62 SFL command, 62 SIMPLEF algorithm, 121 Index4

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

Index tri-diagonal matrix algorithm, 111 TRNOPT command, 22 turbulence model, 24, 210, 32, 33 turbulence ratio, 33, 314 turbulent flow, 12, 31 turbulent kinetic energy, 33, 311

U

uncoupled acoustic analysis, 151 units, 91 unspecified boundary, 311

V

variable density option, 45 velocity capping, 314 viscosity, 41 artificial, 29 Bingham model, 93, 96, 914 Carreau model, 93, 96, 914 effective, 25, 32 power law model, 93, 96, 913 viscous heating, 44 volume of fluid analysis, 61 boundary conditions, 62 example problems, 65 input settings, 63 loads, 61 postprocessing, 65

W

wall roughness, 311 wall static contact angle, 91, 93, 99

ANSYS Fluids Analysis Guide . ANSYS Release 9.0 . 002114 . SAS IP, Inc.

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