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Learning Module #7: Part 1 Controversial art is art that is considered to be difficult, challenging or unconventional in society.

Art can also be considered controversial if the subject matter is too sensitive, scandalous or suggestive. Art is looked on as controversial when it is interpreted or judged in negative or positive ways. There are many types of controversial art that include; political, religious, racial and sexual factors. Art becomes controversial when these factors go against the accepted social norms of a particular culture. Controversial art exists in almost every culture, but vary depending on the social perceptions and accepted norms of that culture. Controversial art should be studied, because it allows for the reflections of societies morals, beliefs and values. However, interpreting controversial art is often very difficult because how different people perceive the world around them. For example, people who are strongly religious may interpret religious art quite differently than someone who is not religious at all. This concept of different interpretation depending upon perception leads to the question of just what is considered inappropriate and where controversial art should be created, discussed or displayed. For example, in K-12 classrooms the interplay between artistic expression and religious freedom is complicated due to the separation of church and state. Schools cannot endorse, solicit nor encourage religious/anti-religious activities. The judgment of controversial art is definitely influenced by the interpretation of controversial art. Interpretations are based off of an individual perceptions, thoughts and emotions. While judgment is biased and derivative from an individual perceptions, thoughts and emotions. This complex interplay between interpretation and judgment then makes interpreting or judging controversial art even more difficult. One way for art teachers to bypass this difficulty is to provide the contextual information needed in order to interpret and judge art from an informed position. For example, the porcelain sculpture Fountain (1917) by Marcel Duchamp of a urinal can be interpreted and judged by providing information of the historical period in which it was created. This might allow for students to interpret and judge the art piece based off historical factors and not their own personal opinions. Learning Module #7: Part 2 Abstract art is a term that refers to the simplification and stylization that occurs when rendering images and objects. There are many types of abstract art such as representational, nonobjective, and nonrepresentational. Abstract art like controversial art exists in many cultures. Throughout history different societies or cultures have developed ways of representing and expressing ideas. For example, classical Egyptians drew pictures of land and building from birds-eye view. African cultures expressed the reverence for fertility by exaggerating human reproductive organs. The study of abstract art is important because it allows for expression of human emotionality. It give substance to unconventional ideas and provides a foundation for critical thought. An individual must observe, internalize and process abstract art in order to understand it. Much like controversial art, abstract art is hard to interpret and judge, because it can cause confusion and misunderstanding. For example, nonobjective and nonrepresentational art is considered to be entirely imaginative and derivative from anything visual perceived by the artist. Personally I can appreciate some forms of abstract art such as representational. However, I find other forms such as nonrepresentational to be confusing and frustrating, because I cant understand it. One way to bypass this difficulty is to understand the artist background and

intention. This comes from observing other works of art from the artist and thinking about how, why and where an artist produces their work. This allows an individual to understand the artist more in terms of what their intentions are in relation to what they want their viewers to see, feel and think. For example, Mural (1943) by Jackson Pollock done in oil on canvas is an abstract artwork. Knowing that he was regarded as reclusive, had a volatile personality, and struggled with alcoholism for most of his life is helpful in interpreting his artwork. Looking at other pieces of his I can then made an informed judgment on rather this particular artwork is successful or not. I personal find this artwork more successful in terms that it has more form and it allows me to see more than just the colors or chaos within the structure. Learning Module #7: Par Prof. David Tammanys interpretation of Lapp Dance was very positive and engaging. He made me want to see the painting in person. It made me understand colors, and shapes better and how those might be manipulate on the surface to create an artwork that engaging emotional and intellectual. It really made me appreciate the beauty of piece. The four views discussion helped me understand different points of view. All of them found the artwork engaging and helped me understand more about the different elements such as the form and contours of the lines. This in turn made me appreciate the movement and the rhythm of the piece a lot more. The artist interview helped me to understand artist process, application, and production of the artwork better and appreciate the artists intention more. The content is the painting. The artwork is merely a just about painting not meant to be a representation of any outside influences.