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Objective: The objective of this experiment is to observe the output characteristics of a common-emitter npn bipolar transistor and to view

the characteristics graphically. Circuit diagram:

Figure: A npn BJT

Experimental data: All measured values are given below

R1 1.84K Values of V1 & V (R2) are IB 5uA 15uA

R2 98K

(hFE) 306

VBE 0.54

V1 1.2V 2.2V

V(R2) 0.75V 1.77V

Measured value of V2, V(R1) and IC are , For IB=5uA, VCE(V) 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 V2(V) 1.35 2.6 3.03 3.41 V(R1) (V) 1.24 2.4 2.6 2.7 IC(mA) 0.5 1 1.2 1.5 For IB=15uA, VCE(V) 0.1 V2(V) 3.5 V(R1) (V) 3.39 IC(mA) 1.9

1 3.76 2.77 1.5

1.5 4.34 2.79 1.5

2 4.74 2.8 1.5

3 5.88 2.81 1.5

4 6.87 2.84 1.6

6 8.93 2.86 1.6

0.3 6.46 6.58 3.5

0.5 7.28 6.66 3.5

0.7 7.49 6.8 3.5

1 7.87 6.87 3.6

1.5 8.39 6.89 3.6

2 8.9 6.91 3.6

3 10 6.95 3.7

4 11.03 7.01 3.8

6 13.14 7.08 3.8

Lab question answer: Answer to the question no 01: MATLAB code:


VCE=[.1 .3 .5 .7 1 1.5 2 3 4 6]; Ic1=[.5 1 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6]; Ic2=[1.9 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8]; plot(VCE,Ic1,VCE,Ic2);

Ic vs VCE curve 4

3.5

2.5

Ic
2 1.5 1 0.5 0

3 VCE

Figure: Ic vs. VBE curve

Answer to the question no 02: Find : At VCE=1V, For IB=5uA, =(IC/IE) ={1.5*10^(-3)/5*10^(-6)} =300 For IB=15uA, =(IC/IE) ={3.6*10^(-3)/15*10^(-6)} =240 Answer to the question no 03: Difference value of Measured 306

Calculate(for IB=5uA) 300

Calculate(for IB=5uA) 260

There have some difference of value of . Value of is changeable with difference value of collector current and difference temperature. Answer to the question no 04: Find rO: For iB=5uA, IC1= 1.5 mA for VCE1= 1 V & IC2= 1.51mA forVCE2 = 2 V rO =(VCE2-VCE1)/(IC2-IC1) =1/0.01 =100k For iB=15uA, IC1= 3.6 mA for VCE1= 1 V & IC2= 3.62mA forVCE2 = 2 V rO =(VCE2-VCE1)/(IC2-IC1) =1/0.01 =50k

Answer to the question no 05: Find VA: We know, rO=(VA+VCE)/IC For IB=5uA, VA=(1.5 100) 1 =149V For IB=15uA, VA= (3.6 50) 1 =179V Answer to the question no 06: Lab data sheet submit behind this report. Answer to the question no 07: ID=2011-1-80-039 Value of R1=2.131k For IB=5uA, V1=1.2V

Figure: A npn BJT

6.0mA

4.0mA

2.0mA

0A

-2.0mA 0V Ic(Q1) V(Q1:c) 1V 2V 3V 4V 5V 6V 7V 8V 9V 10V

Figure: IC vs VCE

Schematics Netlist R_R1 R_R2 V_V2 V_V1 Q_Q1 $N_0002 $N_0001 2.131k $N_0004 $N_0003 100k $N_0001 0 15V $N_0004 0 1.1V $N_0002 $N_0003 0 Q2N2222

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

NAME Q_Q1 MODEL Q2N2222 IB 4.65E-06 IC 7.72E-04 VBE 6.35E-01 VBC -1.27E+01 VCE 1.34E+01 BETADC 1.66E+02 GM 2.98E-02 RO 1.12E+05 BETAAC 1.85E+02

For IB=5uA, V1=1.2V

Figure: A npn BJT


6.0mA

4.0mA

2.0mA

0A

-2.0mA 0V Ic(Q1) V(Q1:c) 1V 2V 3V 4V 5V 6V 7V 8V 9V 10V

Figure: IC vs VCE Schematics Netlist R_R1 R_R2 V_V2 Q_Q1 V_V1 $N_0002 $N_0001 2.131k $N_0004 $N_0003 100k $N_0001 0 15V $N_0002 $N_0003 0 Q2N2222 $N_0004 0 2.2V

BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS

NAME Q_Q1 MODEL Q2N2222 IB 1.53E-05 IC 2.73E-03 VBE 6.69E-01 VBC -8.52E+00 VCE 9.19E+00 BETADC 1.78E+02 GM 1.05E-01 RO 3.03E+04 BETAAC 1.93E+02

Discussion: A BJT consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions, the emitter region, the base region and the collector region. (1) In electronics, a common-emitter amplifier is one of three basic single-stage bipolarjunction-transistor (BJT) amplifier topologies, typically used as a voltage amplifier. (2) In this circuit the base terminal of the transistor serves as the input, the collector is the output, and the emitter is common. (3) In this experiment we verify Vce vs Ic carve. (4) The collectoremitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base emitter current (current control), or by the baseemitter voltage (voltage control). (5) In this experiment, we see that if we increase the Base current we see that Ic increases Crave. (6) When we increase the voltage then the current also increases and when we decrease the voltage then automatically current also decrease. (7) CE characteristics show the common terminal between input & output thats why we called it common emitter. (8) The dependence of ic & Vce in lies between the output resistance r0.