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CS2302- COMPUTER NETWORKS UNIT II

Department of Computer Sc ence an! En" neer n"


CS 2302- COMPUTER NETWORKS Question Bank UNIT I PART A (2 a!ks" #$ W%at are t%e t&o t'pe( of ) ne conf "urat on* 2$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' error contro)* 3$ Def ne f)o& contro)* ,$ W%at ( re!un!anc'# -$ Wr te (%ort note( on error correct on* .$ Ment on t%e t'pe( of error correct n" met%o!($ /$ W%at are t%e (tep( fo))o&e! n c%ec0(um "enerator* 1$ Def ne c%ec0(um$ 2$ Wr te (%ort note( on CRC c%ec0er$ #0$ Wr te (%ort note( on 3RC$ ##$ 3 (t out t%e a4a )a+)e !etect on met%o!($ #2$ Ment on t%e t'pe( of error( an! !ef ne t%e term(* #3$ D (t n"u (% +et&een peer-to-peer re)at on(% p an! a pr mar'-(econ!ar' re)at on(% p$ #,$ W%at are t%e &a'( to a!!re(( t%e fram n" pro+)em* #-$ W%at are t%e re(pon( + ) t e( of !ata ) n0 )a'er* #.$ W%at are t%e funct on( of Application layer* #/$ Def ne 5 t (tuff n"$ #1$ W%at are t%e feature( pro4 !e! +' )a'er n"* #2$ W%at are %ea!er an! tra )er( an! %o& !o t%e' "et a!!e! an! remo4e!* 20$ 6roup t%e OSI )a'er( +' funct on*

PART B ($% a!ks" #$ E7p)a n n !eta ) t%e error !etect on an! error correct on($ 8#.9 2$ W t% a neat ! a"ram e7p)a n n !eta ) a+out t%e Network architecture$8#.9 3$ D (cu(( n !eta ) a+out :D3C$ 8#.9 ,$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een Internet arc% tecture an! OSI arc% tecture* 819 5. D (cu(( a+out t%e ) n0( operate! on t%e p%'( ca) me! a n !eta )$ 8#.9 6. E7p)a n t%e ! fferent approac%e( of fram n" n !eta )$ 8#.9 7. D (cu(( n !eta ) a+out Internet ;rc% tecture$ 8#.9 UNIT II PART A (2 a!ks" #$ W%at ( CSM;* 2$ E7p)a n CSM;<CD$ 3$ Ment on (ome of t%e p%'( ca) propert e( of Et%ernet$

,$ W%at ( t%e ro)e of =CI* -$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' error contro)* .$ W%at are t%e funct on( of +r !"e(* /$ W%at ( t%e ( >e of Et%ernet a!!re((* 1$ W%at ( t%e a!4anta"e of ?DDI o4er a +a( c to0en r n"* 2$ 3 (t an' t&o funct on( &% c% a +r !"e cannot perform* #0$ Ment on t%e funct on of %u+$ ##$ Ment on ! fferent ran!om acce(( tec%n @ue(* #2$ 3 (t t%e t&o t'pe( of !ata frame( n ?DDI #3$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e N;=* #,$ Name t%e four t'pe( of S frame($ #-$ W%at ( t%e acce(( met%o! u(e! +' & re)e(( 3;N(* PART B ($% a!ks" #$ E7p)a n t%e CSM;<CD a)"ort% m( of Et%ernet$ 819 2$ E7p)a n n !eta )( a+out t%e acce(( met%o! an! frame format u(e! n Et%ernet an! to0en r n"$ 8#.9 3$ Name t%e four +a( c net&or0 topo)o" e( an! e7p)a n t%em " 4 n" a)) t%e re)e4ant feature($ 8#.9 ,$ 8 9 E7p)a n t%e &or0 n" of carr er (en(e mu)t p)e acce(( protoco)$ 8,9 8 9 :o& !oe( a To0en R n" 3;N operate(* D (cu(($ 8.9 8 9 3 (t an! +r ef)' ! (cu(( t%e t&o ! fferent +a( c tran(m (( on tec%no)o" e( t%at can +e u(e! to (et up & re)e(( 3;NA($ 8.9 -$ E7p)a n t%e frame formatB operat on an! r n" ma ntenance feature of IEEE 102$- M;C protoco)$ 8#.9 .$ 5r ef)' !ef ne 0e' re@u rement( for & re)e(( 3;N($ 8#.9 /$ De(cr +e t%e ?DDI frame format an! e7p)a n$ 8#.9 1$ D (cu(( t%e M;C )a'er funct on( of IEEE 102$##$ 819 2$ E7p)a n n !eta )( t%e t'pe( of +r !"e($ 819 UNIT III PART & A (2 a!ks" #$ 3 (t t%e ! fference +et&een c rcu t (& tc% n" an! Pac0et (& tc% n"$ 2$ W%at are t%e ! fferent 0 n!( of Mu)t ca(t Rout n"* 3$ D (cu(( t%e c)a(( f e)! n IP a!!re(($ ,$ W%at ( meant +' c rcu t (& tc% n"* -$ W%at ( mu)t ca(t n"* .$ W%at ( a %o(t ! an! net !* /$ :o& !oe( a net ! ! ffer from a net&or0 a!!re((* 1$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of (u+nett n"* 2$ Def ne Ma(0 n"$

#0$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een +oun!ar' )e4e) ma(0 n" an! non-+oun!ar' )e4e) ma(0 n"$ ##$ W%at ( t%e funct on of router* #2$ :o& !oe( a router ! ffer from a +r !"e* #3$ ? n! t%e c)a(( of eac% a!!re((e($ #,$ W%' ( a!apt 4e rout n" (uper or to non a!apt 4e rout n"* #-$ W%at are t%e t%ree ma n e)ement( of ! (tance 4ector a)"or t%m($ #.$ W%at ( a!!re(( re(o)ut on* #/$ W%at are t%e +enef t( of (u+nett n" a net&or0* #1$ W%at are t%e metr c( u(e! +' rout n" protoco)(* PART B ($% a!ks" #$ E7p)a n (%orte(t pat% a)"or t%m & t% a (u ta+)e ))u(trat on$ 8#.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e ! (tance 4ector rout n" a)"or t%m$ 8#.9 3$ Ment on t%e ) m tat on( of ! (tance 4ector rout n" a)"or t%m$ 819 ,$ E7p)a n t%e +u )! n" an! ! (tr +ut on of ) n0 (tate pac0et( n ) n0 (tate rout n" a)"or t%m$ 819 -$ Ment on t%e ) m tat on( of ) n0 (tate rout n" a)"or t%m$ 819 .$ E7p)a n ) n0 (tate rout n" an! ! (cu(( t( a!4anta"e( o4er ! (tance 4ector rout n"$ 819 /$ E7p)a n n !eta )( pac0et (& tc% n"$ 8#.9 1$ E7p)a n n !eta )( Data"ram approac%$ 8#.9 2$ E7p)a n n !eta )( IP a!!re(( n" met%o!($ 8#.9 #0$ $ In c)a((fu) a!!re(( n" %o& ( an IP a!!re(( n c)a(( ;B C)a(( 5 an! C)a(( C ! 4 !e!* 8,9 $ 6 4en t%e a!!re(( 23$-.$/$2# an! t%e !efau)t c)a(( ; ma(0B f n! t%e +e" nn n" a!!re(( 8net&or0 a!!re((9$ 8.9 $ 6 4en t%e a!!re(( 20#$#10$-.$- an! t%e !efau)t c)a(( C ma(0B f n! t%e e" nn n" a!!re(( 8net&or0 a!!re((9$ 8.9

UNIT ' PART A (2 a!ks" #$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' tran(port )a'er protoco)* 2$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een net&or0 (er4 ce an! tran(port (er4 ce* 3$ 3 (t (ome of t%e Cua) t' of (er4 ce parameter( of tran(port )a'er ,$ W%at are t%e funct on( of tran(port )a'er(* -$ W%at ( tran(port ent t'* .$ W%at ( (e"mentat on* /$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of (e@uence contro)* 1$ :o& tran(port )a'er perform( Dup) cat on contro)* 2$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce pr m t 4e( n ( mp)e tran(port protoco)* #0$ W%at ( t%e met%o!( to mpro4e Co(*

##$ W%at ( traff c (%ap n"* Name t&o met%o!( of (%ape traff c* #2$ W%at ( t%e u(e of (e@uence num+er(* PART B ($% a!ks" #$ E7p)a n a con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m$ 8#.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e !ut e( of Tran(port )a'er$ 8#.9 3$ E7p)a n t%e TCP tran(m (( on po) c'B Con"e(t on contro)$ 819 -$ E7p)a n t%e TCP %ea!er an! &or0 n" of t%e TCP protoco)$ 8#.9 .$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( f e)!( of TCP %ea!er & t% t%e %e)p of a neat ! a"ram$ 8#.9 /$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( (tep( t%at are fo))o&e! n re)ea( n" a TCP connect on$ 8#.9 1$ E7p)a n t%e t%ree &a' %an!(%a0e protoco) to e(ta+) (% t%e tran(port )e4e) connect on$ 819 2$ D (cu(( a+out con"e(t on contro) n frame re)a'$ 8#.9 #0$ D (cu(( t%e 4ar ou( ((ue( of tran(port )a'er n !eta )($ 8#.9

UNIT ( PART A (2 a!ks" #$ D (cu(( t%e t%ree ma n ! 4 ( on( of t%e DNS$ 2$ W%at ro)e !oe( t%e DNS re(o)4er p)a' n t%e DNS ('(tem* 3$ :o& !oe( a DNS Re(o)4er +oot(trap t%e !oma n name )oo0up proce((* ,$ Def ne SMTP$ -$ Def ne t%e term !oma n$ .$ W%at are t%e t&o part( of a!!re(( n" ('(tem n SMTP* /$ D (cu(( MIME$ 1$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' u(er a"ent* 2$ W%at are t%e four propert e( of :TTP* #0$ W%at are t%e four "roup( of :TTP %ea!er* ##$ W%at are cate"or e( of &e+ !ocument(* #2$ W%at are +a( c funct on( of ema ) ('(tem* #3$ W%at ( WWW* #,$ W%at ( t%e &e+ +ro&(er* #-$ W%at ( a po(t off ce protoco)* #.$ Compare t%e :TTP an! ?TP$ #/$ W%at ( ma ) n" ) (t* #1$ W%at are t%e t&o ma n cate"or e( of DNS me((a"e(* #2$ Def ne cr'pto"rap%'$ 20$ W%at are t%e t&o cate"or e( of cr'pto"rap%' met%o!(* W%at ( t%e ma n ! fference +et&een t%e cate"or e(* 2#$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e( of pu+) c 0e' encr'pt on<!ecr'pt on*

PART B ($% a!ks" #$ E7p)a n DNS & t% reference to t( component( an! &or0 n"$ 8#.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e me((a"e tran(fer u( n" ( mp)e ma ) tran(fer protoco)$ 819 3$ E7p)a n t%e f na) !e) 4er' of ema ) to t%e en! u(er u( n" pop3$ 819 ,$ Wr te (%ort note( on ema ) (er4 ce( of t%e app) cat on )a'er$ 819 -$ E7p)a n n !eta )( WWW$ 819 .$ E7p)a n t%e arc% tecture an! (er4 ce( of e-ma ) n" ('(tem$ 8#.9 /$ W%at are t%e t&o cate"or e( of encr'pt on<!ecr'pt on met%o!(* W%at ( t%e ma n ! fference +et&een t%e cate"or e(* 819 1$ $ W t% a re)e4ant e7amp)e ! (cu(( %o& t%e !oma n (pace ( ! 4 !e!$ 8.9 $ D (t n"u (% +et&een a fu))' @ua) f e! !oma n name an! a part a))' @ua) f e! !oma n name$ 6 4e re)e4ant e7amp)e$ 8.9 $ 3 (t t%e 4ar ou( r (0( face! +' me((a"e( t%at are tran(m tte! o4er t%e nternet$ 8,9 2$ $ D (cu(( %o& ( mp)e ma ) tran(fer protoco) 8SMTP9 &or0(* Can mu)t me! a me((a"e( +e tran(m tte! u( n" SMTP* D (cu(($ 8#09 I( common "ate&a' nterface a )an"ua"e($ D (cu(($ 8.9

2 Marks and 16 Marks

Unit I PART A
#$ Def ne t%e term Computer Net&or0$ ; Computer net&or0 ( a num+er of computer( nterconnecte! +' one or more tran(m (( on pat%($ T%e tran(m (( on pat% often ( t%e te)ep%one ) neB !ue to t( con4en ence an! un 4er(a) pre(er4e$ 2$ Def ne Data Commun cat on$ Data commun cat on ( t%e e7c%an"e of !ata 8 n t%e form of 0( an! #(9 +et&een t&o !e4 ce( 4 a (ome form of tran(m (( on me! um 8(uc% a( a & re ca+)e9$ 3$ W%at ( t%e fun!amenta) purpo(e +e% n! !ata commun cat on* T%e purpo(e of !ata commun cat on ( to e7c%an"e nformat on +et&een t&o a"ent($ ,$ 3 (t out t%e t'pe( of !ata commun cat on$ Data commun cat on ( con( !ere! 3oca) f t%e commun cat n" !e4 ce are n t%e (ame +u )! n"$ Remote f t%e !e4 ce are fart%er apart$ -$ Def ne t%e term( !ata an! nformat on$ Data D ( a repre(entat on of fact(B concept( an! n(truct on( pre(ente! n a forma) >e! manner (u ta+)e for commun cat onB nterpretat on or proce(( n" +' %uman +e n"( or +' automat c mean($ Informat on D ( current)' a(( "ne! to !ata +' mean( +' t%e con4ent on( app) e! to t%o(e !ata$ .$ W%at are t%e fun!amenta) c%aracter (t c( on &% c% t%e effect 4ene(( of !ata commun cat on !epen!( on* T%e effect 4ene(( of a !ata commun cat on ('(tem !epen!( on t%ree c%aracter (t c($ #$ De) 4er'D T%e ('(tem mu(t !e) 4er !ata to t%e correct !e(t nat on$ 2$ ;ccurac'D T%e ('(tem mu(t !e) 4er !ata accurate)'$ 3$ T me) ne((D T%e ('(tem mu(t !e) 4er !ata n a t me)' manner$ /$ 6 4e t%e component( of !ata commun cat on$ #$ Me((a"e t%e me((a"e ( t%e nformat on to +e commun cate!$ 2$ Sen!er t%e (en!er ( t%e !e4 ce t%at (en!( t%e !ata me((a"e$ 3$ Rece 4er t%e rece 4er ( t%e !e4 ce t%at rece 4e( t%e me((a"e$ ,$ Me! um t%e tran(m (( on me! um ( t%e p%'( ca) pat% +' &% c% a me((a"e tra4e)( from (en!er to rece 4er$ -$ Protoco) ; protoco) ( a (et of ru)e( t%at "o4ern !ata commun cat on$ 1$ Def ne Net&or0$ ; net&or0 ( a (et of !e4 ce( 8no!e(9 connecte! +' me! a ) n0($ ; no!e can +e a computerB pr nterB or an' ot%er !e4 ce( capa+)e of (en! n" an! < or rece 4 n" !ata "enerate! +' ot%er no!e( on t%e net&or0$

2$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e of ! (tr +ute! proce(( n"* #$ Secur t' < Encap(u)at on 2$ D (tr +ute! !ata+a(e 3$ ?a(ter pro+)em (o)4 n" ,$ Secur t' t%rou"% re!un!anc' -$ Co))a+orat 4e proce(( n"$ #0$ W%at are t%e t%ree cr ter a nece((ar' for an effect 4e an! eff c ent net&or0* #$ Performance 2$ Re) a+ ) t' 3$ Secur t'$ ##$ Name t%e factor( t%at affect t%e performance of a net&or0$ - Performance of a net&or0 !epen!( on a num+er of factor(B #$ Num+er of u(er( 2$ T'pe of tran(m (( on me! um 3$ Capa+ ) t e( of t%e connecte! %ar!&are ,$ Eff c enc' of (oft&are$ #2$ Name t%e factor( t%at affect t%e re) a+ ) t' of a net&or0$ #$ ?re@uenc' of fa )ure$ 2$ Reco4er' t me of a net&or0 after a fa )ure$ 3$ Cata(trop%e$ #3$ Name t%e factor( t%at affect t%e (ecur t' of a net&or0$ Net&or0 (ecur t' ((ue( nc)u!e protect n" !ata from unaut%or >e! acce(( an! 4 ru(e($ #,$ Def ne PROTOCO3$ ; protoco) ( a (et of ru)e( 8con4ent on(9 t%at "o4ern a)) a(pect( of !ata commun cat on$ #-$ 6 4e t%e 0e' e)ement( of protoco)$ E S'nta7 D refer( to t%e (tructure or format of t%e !ataB mean n" t%e or!er n &% c% t%e' are pre(ente!$ E Semant c( D refer( to t%e mean n" of eac% (ect on of + t($ E T m n" D refer( to t&o c%aracter (t c($ #$ &%en !ata (%ou)! +e (ent an! 2$ %o& fa(t t%e' can +e (ent$ #.$ Def ne Stan!ar!$ ; (tan!ar! pro4 !e( a mo!e) for !e4e)opment t%at ma0e( t po(( +)e for a pro!uct to &or0 re"ar!)e(( of t%e n! 4 !ua) manufacturer$ #/$ W%' are (tan!ar! nee!e!* E Stan!ar!( are e((ent a) n creat n" an! ma nta n n" an open an! compet t 4e mar0et

for e@u pment manufacture( an! n "uarantee n" nat ona) an! nternat ona) nteropera+ ) t' of !ata an! te)ecommun cat on( tec%no)o"' an! proce((e($ E Stan!ar!( are nece((ar' to en(ure t%at pro!uct( from ! fferent manufacture( can &or0 to"et%er a( e7pecte!$ #1$ Def ne De facto an! De Fure (tan!ar!($ De facto (tan!ar!(D De facto 8+' fact9 (tan!ar!( are often e(ta+) (%e! or " na))' +' manufacture( (ee0 n" to !ef ne t%e funct ona) t' of a ne& pro!uct or tec%no)o"'$ De Fure (tan!ar!(D De Fure 8+' )a&9 (tan!ar!( %a4e +een )e" ()ate! +' an off c a))' reco"n >e! +o!'$ #2$ Def ne ) ne conf "urat on an! " 4e t( t'pe($ - 3 ne conf "urat on refer( to t%e &a' t&o or more commun cat on !e4 ce( attac% to a ) n0$ - T%ere are t&o po(( +)e ) ne conf "urat on(D $ Po nt to po nt an! $ Mu)t po nt$ 20$ Def ne topo)o"' an! ment on t%e t'pe( of topo)o" e($ Topo)o"' !ef ne( t%e p%'( ca) or )o" ca) arran"ement of ) n0( n a net&or0 T'pe( of topo)o"' D - Me(% - Star - Tree - 5u( - R n" 2#$ T%e 3uc0' Duc0' corporat on %a( a fu))' connecte! me(% net&or0 con( (t n" of e "%t !e4 ce($ Ca)cu)ate t%e tota) num+er of ca+)e ) n0( nee!e! an! t%e num+er of port( for eac% !e4 ce$ So)ut onD T%e formu)a for t%e num+er of ) n0( for a fu))' connecte! me(% ( n8n #9 < 2B &%ere n ( t%e num+er of !e4 ce($ Num+er of ) n0( G n8n #9 < 2 G 181 #9 < 2 G 21$ Num+er of port( per !e4 ce G n # G 1 # G /$ 22$ Def ne :u+$ In a (tar topo)o"'B eac% !e4 ce %a( a !e! cate! po nt to po nt ) n0 on)' to a centra) contro))er u(ua))' ca))e! a %u+$ 23$ 6 4e an a!4anta"e for eac% t'pe of net&or0 topo)o"'$ #$ Me(% topo)o"'D

E U(e of !e! cate! ) n0( "uarantee( t%at eac% connect on can carr' t( o&n !ata )oa!B t%u( e) m nat n" traff c pro+)em($ E Ro+u(t an! pr 4ac' < (ecur t'$ 2$ Star topo)o"'D E 3e(( e7pen( 4e t%an me(%$ E Nee!( on)' one ) n0 an! one nput an! output port to connect t an' num+er of ot%er($ E Ro+u(tne(($ 3$ Tree topo)o"'D E (ame a( t%o(e of a (tar$ ,$ 5u( topo)o"'D E Ea(e of n(ta))at on$ E U(e( )e(( ca+) n" t%an me(%B (tar or tree topo)o" e($ -$ R n" topo)o"'D E ; r n" ( re)at 4e)' ea(' to n(ta)) an! reconf "ure$ E Eac% !e4 ce ( ) n0e! on)' to t( mme! ate ne "%+or($ E ?au)t (o)at on ( ( mp) f e!$ 2,$ Def ne tran(m (( on mo!e an! t( t'pe($ Tran(m (( on mo!e !ef ne( t%e ! rect on of ( "na) f)o& +et&een t&o ) n0e! !e4 ce($ Tran(m (( on mo!e( are of t%ree t'pe($ - S mp)e7 - :a)f !up)e7 - ?u)) !up)e7$ 2-$ W%at ( 3;N* 3oca) ;rea Net&or0 83;N9 ( a net&or0 t%at u(e( tec%no)o"' !e( "ne! to (pan a (ma)) "eo"rap% ca) area$ ?or e$"$ an Et%ernet ( a 3;N tec%no)o"' (u ta+)e for u(e n a ( n")e +u )! n"$ 2.$ W%at ( W;N* W !e ;rea Net&or0 8W;N9 ( a net&or0 t%at u(e( tec%no)o"' !e( "ne! to (pan a )ar"e "eo"rap% ca) area$ ?or e$"$ a (ate)) te net&or0 ( a W;N +ecau(e a (ate)) te can re)a' commun cat on acro(( an ent re cont nent$ W;N( %a4e % "%er propa"at on !e)a' t%an 3;N($ 2/$ W%at ( M;N* E ; Metropo) tan ;rea Net&or0 8M;N9 ( a net&or0 t%at u(e( tec%no)o"' !e( "ne! to e7ten! o4er an ent re c t'$ E ?or e$"$ a compan' can u(e a M;N to connect t%e 3;N( n a)) t( off ce( t%rou"%out a c t'$ 21$ Def ne Peer to peer proce((e($

T%e proce((e( on eac% mac% ne t%at commun cate at a " 4en )a'er are ca))e! peer to peer proce((e($ 22$ W%at ( %a)f !up)e7 mo!e* ; tran(m (( on mo!e n &% c% eac% (tat on can +ot% tran(m t an! rece 4eB +ut not at t%e (ame t me$ 30$ W%at ( fu)) !up)e7 mo!e* ; tran(m (( on mo!e n &% c% +ot% (tat on( can tran(m t an! rece 4e ( mu)taneou()'$ 3#$ W%at ( nternet* E W%en t&o or more net&or0( are connecte! t%e' +ecome an nternet&or0 or nternet$ E T%e mo(t nota+)e nternet ( ca))e! t%e Internet$ 32$ W%at ( Internet * T%e Internet ( a commun cat on ('(tem t%at %a( +rou"%t a &ea)t% of nformat on to out f n"ert p( an! or"an >e! t for our u(e$ Internet Wor)!& !e net&or0$ 33$ 3 (t t%e )a'er( of OSI mo!e)$ - P%'( ca) - Data 3 n0 - Net&or0 - Tran(port - Se(( on - Pre(entat on - ;pp) cat on$ 3,$ Def ne OSI mo!e)$ T%e open ('(tem Interconnect on mo!e) ( a )a'ere! frame&or0 for t%e !e( "n of net&or0 ('(tem t%at a))o&( for commun cat on acro(( a)) t'pe( of computer ('(tem($ 3-$ W% c% OSI )a'er( are t%e net&or0 (upport )a'er(* - P%'( ca) - Data ) n0 - Net&or0 )a'er($ 3.$ W% c% OSI )a'er( are t%e u(er (upport )a'er(* - Se(( on - Pre(entat on - ;pp) cat on$ 3/$ W%at are t%e re(pon( + ) t e( of p%'( ca) )a'erB !ata ) n0 )a'erB net&or0 )a'erB tran(port )a'erB (e(( on )a'erB pre(entat on )a'erB app) cat on )a'er$ 8 9 P%'( ca) )a'er Re(pon( +)e for tran(m tt n" n! 4 !ua) + t( from one no!e to t%e ne7t$

8 9 Data ) n0 )a'er Re(pon( +)e for tran(m tt n" frame( from one no!e to t%e ne7t$ 8 9 Net&or0 )a'er Re(pon( +)e for t%e !e) 4er' of pac0et( from t%e or " na) (ource to t%e f na) !e(t nat on$ 8 49 Tran(port )a'er Re(pon( +)e for !e) 4er' of a me((a"e from one proce(( to anot%er$ 849 Se(( on )a'er To e(ta+) (%B mana"e an! term nate (e(( on($ 84 9 Pre(entat on )a'er Re(pon( +)e to tran()ateB encr'pt an! compre(( !ata$ 84 9 ;pp) cat on )a'er Re(pon( +)e for pro4 ! n" (er4 ce( to t%e u(er$ To a))o& acce(( to net&or0 re(ource($ 31$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of ! a)o" contro))er* T%e (e(( on )a'er ( t%e net&or0 ! a)o" contro))er$ It e(ta+) (%e(B ma nta n( an! ('nc%ron >e( t%e nteract on +et&een commun cat n" ('(tem($ 32$ Name (ome (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' t%e app) cat on )a'er$ Spec f c (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' t%e app) cat on )a'er nc)u!e t%e fo))o& n"$ - Net&or0 4 rtua) term na)$ - ? )e tran(ferB acce(( an! mana"ement 8?T;M9$ - Ma ) (er4 ce($ - D rector' (er4 ce($ ,0$ Def ne Net&or0 = rtua) Term na)$ Net&or0 = rtua) Term na) OSI remote )o" n protoco)$ It ( an ma" nar' term na) & t% a (et of (tan!ar! c%aracter (t c( t%at e4er' %o(t un!er(tan!($ ,#$ Def ne t%e term tran(m (( on me! um$ T%e tran(m (( on me! um ( t%e p%'( ca) pat% +et&een tran(m tter an! rece 4er n a !ata tran(m (( on ('(tem$ T%e c%aracter (t c( an! @ua) t' of !ata tran(m (( on are !eterm ne! +ot% t%e nature of ( "na) an! nature of t%e me! um$ ,2$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of tran(m (( on me! a* Tran(m (( on me! a are ! 4 !e! nto t&o cate"or e($ T%e' are a( fo))o&(D 8 9 6u !e! tran(m (( on me! a 8 9 Un"u !e! tran(m (( on me! a ,3$ :o& !o "u !e! me! a ! ffer from un"u !e! me! a* ; "u !e! me! a ( conta ne! & t% n p%'( ca) +oun!ar e(B &% )e an un"u !e! me! um ( +oun!)e(($ ,,$ W%at are t%e t%ree maFor c)a((e( of "u !e! me! a* Cate"or e( of "u !e! me! a$ #$ T& (te! pa r ca+)e$ Coa7 a) ca+)e$ ? +er opt c ca+)e$ ,-$ W%at ( a coa7 a) ca+)e*

; t'pe of ca+)e u(e! for computer net&or0 a( &e)) a( ca+)e te)e4 ( on$ T%e name ar (e( from t%e (tructure n &% c% a meta) (% e)! (urroun!( a center & re$ T%e (% e)! protect( t%e ( "na) on t%e nner & re from e)ectr ca) nterference$ #$ ; ) "%t +eam tra4e)( to a )e(( !en(e me! um$ W%at %appen( to t%e +eam n eac% of t%e fo))o& n" ca(e(D #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( )e(( t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ 2$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( e@ua) to t%e cr t ca) an")e$ 3$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( "reater t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( )e(( t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ t%e ra' refract( an! mo4e( c)o(er to t%e (urface$ #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( e@ua) to t%e cr t ca) an")e$ t%e ) "%t +en!( a)on" t%e nterface$ #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( "reater t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ t%e ra' ref)ect( an! tra4e)( a"a n n t%e !en(er (u+(tance$ ,.$ W%at ( ref)ect on* W%en t%e an")e of nc !ent +ecome( "reater t%an t%e cr t ca) an"e)B a ne& p%enomenon occur( ca))e! ref)ect on$ ,/$ D (cu(( t%e mo!e( for propa"at on ) "%t a)on" opt ca) c%anne)($ T%ere are t&o mo!e( for propa"at n" ) "%t a)on" opt ca) c%anne)($ S n")e mo!e an! mu)t mo!e$ Mu)t mo!e can +e mp)emente! n t&o form(D (tep n!e7 or "ra!e! n!e7$ ,1$W%at ( t%e purpo(e of c)a!! n" n an opt ca) f +er* ,2$D (cu(( t( !en( t' re)at 4e to t%e core$ ; ")a(( or p)a(t c ( (urroun!e! +' a c)a!! n" of )e(( !en(e ")a(( or p)a(t c$ T%e ! fference n !en( t' of t%e t&o mater a)( mu(t +e (uc% t%at a +eam of ) "%t mo4 n" t%rou"% t%e core ( ref)ecte! off t%e c)a!! n" n(tea! of +e n" refracte! nto t$ -0$ Name t%e a!4anta"e of opt ca) f +er o4er t& (te! pa r an! coa7 a) ca+)e$ : "%er +an!& !t%$ 3e(( ( "na) attenuat on$ Immun t' to e)ectroma"net c nterference$ Re( (tance to corro( 4e mater a)($ More mmune to tapp n"$ 3 "%t &e "%t$ -#$ W%at ( t%e ! (a!4anta"e of opt ca) f +er a( a tran(m (( on me! um* In(ta))at on < Ma ntenance$ Un ! rect ona)$ Co(t More e7pen( 4e t%an t%o(e of ot%er "u !e! me! a$ -2$ W%at mp)ementat on of EI; 232 ( a4a )a+)e* D5 2- mp)ementat on$ D5 2 mp)ementat on$

-3$ W%at !oe( t%e term mo!em (tan!( for * Mo!em (tan!( for mo!u)ator < !emo!u)ator$ -,$ W%at ( t%e funct on of a mo!u)ator* ; mo!u)ator con4ert( a ! " ta) ( "na) nto an ana)o" ( "na) u( n" ;SKB ?SKB PSK or C;M$ --$ W%at ( t%e funct on of a !emo!u)ator* ; !e mo!u)ator con4ert( an ana)o" ( "na) nto a ! " ta) ( "na)$ -.$ W%at ( an Inte)) "ent mo!em(* Inte)) "ent mo!em( conta n (oft&are to (upport a num+er of a!! t ona) funct on( (uc% a( automat c an(&er n" an! ! a) n"$ -/$ W%at are t%e factor t%at affect t%e !ata rate of a ) n0* T%e !ata rate of a ) n0 !epen!( on t%e t'pe of enco! n" u(e! an! t%e +an!& !t% of t%e me! um$ -1$ Def ne 3 ne co! n"$ 3 ne co! n" ( t%e proce(( of con4ert n" + nar' !ataB a (e@uence of + t(B to a ! " ta) ( "na)$ -2$ ?or n !e4 ce( n a net&or0B &%at ( t%e num+er of ca+)e ) n0( nece((ar' for me(%B r n"B +u( an! (tar net&or0($ Num+er of ) n0( for me(% topo)o"' D n 8n #9 < 2$ Num+er of ) n0( for r n" topo)o"' D n #$ Num+er of ) n0( for +u( topo)o"' D one +ac0+one an! n !rop ) ne($ Num+er of ) n0( for (tar topo)o"' D n$ .0$ Wr te t%e !e( "n ((ue( of !ata) n0 )a'er* #9 Ser4 ce( pro4 !e! to net&or0 )a'er$ 29 ?ram n" 39 Error contro) ,9 ?)o& contro) .#$ W%at ( !ata) n0* W%en a !ata) n0 contro) protoco) ( u(e! t%e tran(m (( on me! um +et&een ('(tem( ( referre! to a( a !ata) n0$ .2$ W%at ( t%e ma n funct on of !ata) n0 )a'er* T%e !ata) n0 )a'er tran(form( t%e p%'( ca) )a'erB a ra& tran(m (( on fac ) t' to a re) a+)e ) n0 an! ( re(pon( +)e for no!e to no!e !e) 4er'$ .3$ W%at ( a !ata) n0 protoco)* Data) n0 protoco) ( a )a'er of contro) pre(ent n eac% commun cat n" !e4 ce t%at pro4 !e( funct on( (uc% a( f)o& contro)B error !etect on an! error contro)$

.,$ W%at ( meant +' f)o& contro)* ?)o& contro) ( a (et of proce!ure( u(e! to re(tr ct t%e amount of !ata t%at t%e (en!er can (en! +efore &a t n" for an ac0no&)e!"ement$ .-$ :o& ( error contro))e! n !ata) n0 contro))e! protoco)* In a !ata) n0 contro) protoco)B error contro) ( act 4ate! +' retran(m (( on of !ama"e! frame t%at %a4e not +een ac0no&)e!"e! +' ot%er ( !e &% c% re@ue(t( a retran(m (( on$ ..$ D (cu(( t%e concept of re!un!anc' n error !etect on$ Error !etect on u(e( t%e concept of re!un!anc'B &% c% mean( a!! n" e7tra + t( for !etect n" error( at t%e !e(t nat on$ ./$ W%at are t%e t%ree t'pe( of re!un!anc' c%ec0( u(e! n !ata commun cat on(* - =ert ca) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8=RC9 - 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 83RC9 - C'c) c Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8CRC9 .1$ :o& can t%e par t' + t !etect a !ama"e! !ata un t* In par t' c%ec0B 8a re!un!ant + t9 a par t' + t ( a!!e! to e4er' !ata un t (o t%at t%e tota) num+er of #( ( e4en for e4en par t' c%ec0 n" funct on 8or o!! for o!! par t'9$ .2$ :o& can &e u(e t%e :amm n" co!e to correct a +ur(t error* 5' rearran" n" t%e or!er of + t tran(m (( on of t%e !ata un t(B t%e :amm n" co!e can correct +ur(t error($ /0$ 5r ef)' ! (cu(( Stop an! Wa t met%o! of f)o& contro)* In Stop an! Wa t of f)o& contro)B t%e (en!er (en!( one frame an! &a t( for an ac0no&)e!"ement +efore (en! n" t%e ne7t frame$ /#$ In t%e :amm n" co!e for a !ata un t of m + t( %o& !o 'ou compute t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( HrA nee!e!* In t%e :amm n" co!eB for a !ata un t of m + t(B u(e t%e formu)a 2r I G m J r J # to !eterm ne rB t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( nee!e!$ /2$ W%at are t%ree popu)ar ;RC mec%an (m(* - Stop an! &a t ;RCB - 6o 5ac0 N ;RC an! - Se)ect 4e Report ;RC$ /3$ :o& !oe( ;RC correct an error* ;n't me an error ( !etecte! n an e7c%an"eB a ne"at 4e ac0no&)e!"ment 8N;K9 ( returne! an! t%e (pec f e! frame( are retran(m tte!$

/-$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e t mer at t%e (en!er ( te n ('(tem( u( n" ;RC* T%e (en!er (tart( a t mer &%en t (en!( a frame$ If an ac0no&)e!"ment ( not rece 4e! & t% n an a))otte! t me per o!B t%e (en!er a((ume( t%at t%e frame &a( )o(t or !ama"e! an! re(en!( t$ /.$ W%at ( !ama"e! frame* ; !ama"e! frame ( reco"n >a+)e frame t%at !oe( arr 4eB +ut (ome of t%e + t( are n error 8%a4e +een a)tere! !ur n" tran(m (( on9 //$ W%at ( :D3C* :D3C ( a + t or ente! !ata) n0 protoco) !e( "ne! to (upport +ot% %a)f-!up)e7 an! fu)) !up)e7 commun cat on o4er po nt to po nt an! mu)t port ) n0$ /1$ 6 4e !ata tran(fer mo!e( of :D3C* #$ NRM Norma) Re(pon(e Mo!e 2$ ;RM ;('nc%ronou( Re(pon(e Mo!e 3$ ;5M - ;('nc%ronou( 5a)ance! Mo!e /2$ :o& man' t'pe( of frame( :D3C u(e(* #$ U-?rame( 2$ I-?rame( 3$ S-?rame 10$ State p%a(e( n4o)4e! n t%e operat on of :D3C* #$ In t a) >at on 2$ Data tran(fer 3$ D (connect 1#$ Def ne p ""'+ac0 n"* T%e nc)u( on of an ac0no&)e!"ment to a pre4 ou()' rece 4e! pac0et n an out"o n" !ata pac0et ( 0no&n a( p ""'+ac0 n"$ 12$ W%at ( t%e mean n" of ;CK frame* ;CK frame ( an n! cat on t%at a (tat on %a( rece 4e! (omet% n" from anot%er$ Part B #$ De(cr +e t%e funct on( of t%e )a'er( n t%e OSI reference mo!e)$ 2$ E7p)a n t%e feature( of t%e 4ar ou( un"u !e! tran(m (( on me! a n term( of fre@uenc' +an!B mo!u)at on (c%eme u(e!B no (e mmun t'B +an!& !t% an! !ata rate$ 3$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( topo)o" e($ ,$ De(cr +e t%e cate"or e( of net&or0$ -$ E7p)a n n !eta ) t%e mo!em (tan!ar!( an! t( tran(m (( on rate($ .$ W t% reference to tran(m (( on me! aB !e(cr +e t%e re)at 4e mer t( of opt ca) f +er( an! copper$ /$ E7p)a n t%e pr nc p)e( n4o)4e! n t%e tran(m (( on of !ata t%rou"% opt ca) f +er($ 1$ E7p)a n t%e (tructure of f +er ca+)e( & t% neat ! a"ram$

2$ 3 (t an! ! (cu(( t%e component( n an opt ca) tran(m (( on ('(tem$ #0$ ; net&or0 %a( n !e4 ce($ Determ ne t%e num+er of ca+)e ) n0( re@u re! for a me(%B r n"B +u( an! (tar topo)o"'$ Un t 2 Data 3 n0 3a'er P;RT - ; #$ Wr te t%e !e( "n ((ue( of !ata) n0 )a'er* #9 Ser4 ce( pro4 !e! to net&or0 )a'er$ 29 ?ram n" 39 Error contro) ,9 ?)o& contro) 2$ W%at ( !ata) n0* W%en a !ata) n0 contro) protoco) ( u(e! t%e tran(m (( on me! um +et&een ('(tem( ( referre! to a( a !ata) n0$ 3$ W%at ( t%e ma n funct on of !ata) n0 )a'er* T%e !ata) n0 )a'er tran(form( t%e p%'( ca) )a'erB a ra& tran(m (( on fac ) t' to a re) a+)e ) n0 an! ( re(pon( +)e for no!e to no!e !e) 4er'$ ,$ W%at ( a !ata) n0 protoco)* Data) n0 protoco) ( a )a'er of contro) pre(ent n eac% commun cat n" !e4 ce t%at pro4 !e( funct on( (uc% a( f)o& contro)B error !etect on an! error contro)$ -$ W%at ( meant +' f)o& contro)* ?)o& contro) ( a (et of proce!ure( u(e! to re(tr ct t%e amount of !ata t%at t%e (en!er can (en! +efore &a t n" for an ac0no&)e!"ement$ .$ :o& ( error contro))e! n !ata) n0 contro))e! protoco)* In a !ata) n0 contro) protoco)B error contro) ( act 4ate! +' retran(m (( on of !ama"e! frame t%at %a4e not +een ac0no&)e!"e! +' ot%er ( !e &% c% re@ue(t( a retran(m (( on$ /$ D (cu(( t%e concept of re!un!anc' n error !etect on$ Error !etect on u(e( t%e concept of re!un!anc'B &% c% mean( a!! n" e7tra + t( for !etect n" error( at t%e !e(t nat on$ 1$ W%at are t%e t%ree t'pe( of re!un!anc' c%ec0( u(e! n !ata commun cat on(* - =ert ca) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8=RC9 - 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 83RC9 - C'c) c Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8CRC9 2$ :o& can t%e par t' + t !etect a !ama"e! !ata un t* In par t' c%ec0B 8a re!un!ant + t9 a par t' + t ( a!!e! to e4er' !ata un t (o t%at t%e tota) num+er of #( ( e4en for e4en par t' c%ec0 n" funct on 8or o!! for o!! par t'9$ #0$ :o& can &e u(e t%e :amm n" co!e to correct a +ur(t error*

5' rearran" n" t%e or!er of + t tran(m (( on of t%e !ata un t(B t%e :amm n" co!e can correct +ur(t error($ ##$ 5r ef)' ! (cu(( Stop an! Wa t met%o! of f)o& contro)* In Stop an! Wa t of f)o& contro)B t%e (en!er (en!( one frame an! &a t( for an ac0no&)e!"ement +efore (en! n" t%e ne7t frame$ #2$ In t%e :amm n" co!e for a !ata un t of m + t( %o& !o 'ou compute t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( HrA nee!e!* In t%e :amm n" co!eB for a !ata un t of m + t(B u(e t%e formu)a 2r I G m J r J # to !eterm ne rB t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( nee!e!$ #3$ W%at are t%ree popu)ar ;RC mec%an (m(* - Stop an! &a t ;RCB - 6o 5ac0 N ;RC an! - Se)ect 4e Report ;RC$ #,$ :o& !oe( ;RC correct an error* ;n't me an error ( !etecte! n an e7c%an"eB a ne"at 4e ac0no&)e!"ment 8N;K9 ( returne! an! t%e (pec f e! frame( are retran(m tte!$ #-$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e t mer at t%e (en!er ( te n ('(tem( u( n" ;RC* T%e (en!er (tart( a t mer &%en t (en!( a frame$ If an ac0no&)e!"ment ( not rece 4e! & t% n an a))otte! t me per o!B t%e (en!er a((ume( t%at t%e frame &a( )o(t or !ama"e! an! re(en!( t$ #.$ W%at ( !ama"e! frame* ; !ama"e! frame ( reco"n >a+)e frame t%at !oe( arr 4eB +ut (ome of t%e + t( are n error 8%a4e +een a)tere! !ur n" tran(m (( on9 #/$ W%at ( :D3C* :D3C ( a + t or ente! !ata) n0 protoco) !e( "ne! to (upport +ot% %a)f-!up)e7 an! fu)) !up)e7 commun cat on o4er po nt to po nt an! mu)t port ) n0$ #1$ 6 4e !ata tran(fer mo!e( of :D3C* #$ NRM Norma) Re(pon(e Mo!e 2$ ;RM ;('nc%ronou( Re(pon(e Mo!e 3$ ;5M - ;('nc%ronou( 5a)ance! Mo!e #2$ :o& man' t'pe( of frame( :D3C u(e(* #$ U-?rame( 2$ I-?rame( 3$ S-?rame 20$ State p%a(e( n4o)4e! n t%e operat on of :D3C* #$ In t a) >at on 2$ Data tran(fer

3$ D (connect 2#$ Def ne p ""'+ac0 n"* T%e nc)u( on of an ac0no&)e!"ment to a pre4 ou()' rece 4e! pac0et n an out"o n" !ata pac0et ( 0no&n a( p ""'+ac0 n"$ 22$ W%at ( t%e mean n" of ;CK frame* ;CK frame ( an n! cat on t%at a (tat on %a( rece 4e! (omet% n" from anot%er$ 23$ W%at ( CSM;* Carr er Sen(e Mu)t p)e ;cce(( ( a protoco) u(e! to (en(e &%et%er a me! um ( +u(' +efore attempt n" to tran(m t$ 2,$ E7p)a n CSM;<CD Carr er Sen(e Mu)t p)e ;cce(( & t% co)) ( on !etect on ( a protoco) u(e! to (en(e &%et%er a me! um ( +u(' +efore tran(m (( on +ut ( %a( t%e a+ ) t' to !etect &%et%er a tran(m (( on %a( co)) !e! & t% anot%er 2-$ W%at ( co)) ( on !etect on* It ( t%e a+ ) t' of a (tat on to !eterm ne &%en a co)) ( on %a( occurre!$ 2.$ State ! fferent cate"or e( of CSM;<CD* #$ #0 5;SE 2$ #0 5;SE 2 3$ #0 5RO;D 3. ,$ # 5;SE 2/$ State a!4anta"e of Et%ernet* #$ Ine7pen( 4e 2$ Ea(' to n(ta)) 3$ Support( 4ar ou( & r n" tec%no)o" e($ 21$ W%at ( t%e mean n" of #05;SE2* 102$3 Et%ernet ( t% n co a7 a) ca+)e$ T%e #0 (pec f e( a 5an!& !t% of #0 M+p(B t%e 5a(e (pec f e( t%at t( a +a(e+an! tran(m (( onB an! t%e 2 n! cate( a ma7 mum (e"ment )en"t% for t% ( ca+)e t'pe of 200 meter($ 22$ W%at ( fa(t Et%ernet* It ( t%e % "% (pee! 4er( on of Et%ernet t%at (upport( !ata tran(fer rate( of #00 M+p($ 30$ State ! fferent ca+)e (tan!ar!( for ?a(t Et%ernet ca+) n"* #$ #00 5;SET, 2$ #00 5;SETK 3$ #00 5;SE?K

3#$ W%at ( + t (tuff n" an! &%' t ( nee!e! n :D3C* 5 t (tuff n" ( t%e proce(( of a!! n" one e7tra 0 &%ene4er t%ere are f 4e con(ecut 4e #( n t%e !ata (o t%at t%e rece 4er !oe( not m (ta0e t%e !ata for a f)a"$ 5 t (tuff n" ( nee!e! to %an!)e !ata tran(parenc'$ 32$ W%at ( t%e u(e of p<f + t n t%e :D3C frame* P<? + t ( (u+f e)! n :D3C frame$ T%e P<? f e)! ( a ( n")e + t & t% a !ua) purpo(eB &%en t ( (et t can mean po)) or f na)$ It mean( po)) &%en t%e frame ( (ent +' a pr mar' (tat on to (econ!ar' (tat on an! t mean f na) &%en t%e frame ( (ent +' a (econ!ar' to a pr mar' (tat on$ 33$ W%at ( t%e )en"t% of 102$3 M;C a!!re(($ 2 or . octet( 3,$ W%at ( t%e error !etect n" capa+ ) t' of par t' c%ec0* Par t' c%ec0 can !etect an error +ut t cannot (pec f' &% c% + t ( n error$ 3-$ W%at ( t%e ( >e of Et%ernet a!!re((* 2 or . octet( 3.$ W%at ( a +r !"e* 5r !"e ( a %ar!&are net&or0 n" !e4 ce u(e! to connect t&o 3;N($ ; +r !"e operate( at !ata ) n0 )a'er of t%e OSI reference mo!e)$ 3/$ W%at ( a repeater* Repeater ( a %ar!&are !e4 ce u(e! to (tren"t%en ( "na)( +e n" tran(m tte! on a net&or0($ 31$ Def ne router* ; net&or0 )a'er !e4 ce t%at connect( net&or0( & t% ! fferent p%'( ca) me! a an! tran()ate( +et&een net&or0 arc% tecture($ 32$ State t%e funct on( of +r !"e* #$ ?rame f )ter n" an! for&ar! n" 2$ 3earn n" t%e a!!re(( 3$ Rout n" ,0$ 3 (t an' t&o funct on( &% c% a +r !"e cannot perform* - 5r !"e cannot !eterm ne mo(t eff c ent pat%$ - Traff c mana"ement funct on$ ,#$ W%at ( %u+* Net&or0( re@u re a centra) )ocat on to +r n" me! a (e"ment to"et%er$ T%e(e centra) )ocat on( are ca))e! %u+($ ,2$ State mportant t'pe( of %u+($ #$ Pa(( 4e %u+ 2$ ;ct 4e %u+

3$ Inte)) "ent %u+ ,3$ Ment on t%e funct on of %u+$ #$ ?ac ) tate a!! n"<!e)et n" or mo4 n" &or0 (tat on( 2$ E7ten! t%e )en"t% of net&or0 3$ It pro4 !e( centra) >e mana"ement (er4 ce( ,$ Pro4 !e( mu)t p)e nterface($ ,,$ W%at ( t%e ma n funct on of "ate&a'$ ; "ate&a' ( a protoco) con4erter ,-$ ; "ate&a' operate( at &% c% )a'er$ 6ate&a' operate( at a)) (e4en )a'er( of OSI mo!e)$ ,.$ W% c% factor( a "ate&a' %an!)e(* Data rateB !ata ( >eB !ata format ,/$ W%at ( meant +' act 4e %u+* ; centra) %u+ n a net&or0 t%at retran(m t( t%e !ata t rece 4e($ ,1$ W%at ( t%e funct on of ;CK t mer* ;CK t mer ( u(e! n f)o& contro) protoco)( to !eterm ne &%en to (en! a (eparate ac0no&)e!"ment n t%e a+(ence of out"o n" frame$ ,2$ W% c% t'pe of rout n" can re(pon! to t%e c%an"e( n net&or0$ ;!apt 4e rout n" -0$ T%e n(ert on of an e7tra + t to a4o ! a )on" run of (ame + t ( ca))e! a( $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 5 t (tuff n" -#$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of +r !"e(* #$ Tran(parent +r !"e 2$ Source Rout n" +r !"e Tran(parent +r !"e - Tran(parent +r !"e 0eep a (u ta+)e of a!!re((e( n memor' to !eterm ne &%ere to (en! !ata Source Rout n" +r !"e - Source Rout n" +r !"e re@u re( t%e ent re rout n" ta+)e to +e nc)u!e! n t%e tran(m (( on an! !o not route pac0et nte)) "ent)'$ -2$ W%at ( SI?S* S%ort Inter ?rame Spac n" ( u(e! to a))o& t%e part e( n a ( n")e ! a)o" t%e c%ance to "o f r(t$ -3$ W%at are tran(rece 4er(* Tran(rece 4er( are com+ nat on of tran(m tter an! rece 4er$ Tran(rece 4er( are a)(o ca))e! a( me! um attac%ment un t 8M;U9 -,$ W%at ( t%e funct on of NIC* NIC ( u(e! to a))o& t%e computer to commun cate on t%e net&or0$ It (upport(

tran(m tt n"B rece 4 n" an! contro)) n" traff c & t% ot%er computer( on net&or0$ --$ Ment on ! fferent ran!om acce(( tec%n @ue(* #$ ;3O:; 2$ CSM; 3$ CSM;<CD -.$ W%at ( 5)uetoot%* W% c% fre@uenc' +an! ( u(e! for +an!& !t%* - 5)uetoot% ( a )o& co(tB )o& po&erB (%ort ran"e & re)e(( commun cat on tec%no)o"' - 2$,6:> to 2$,1, 6:> #$ Pa(( 4e %u+ 2$ ;ct 4e %u+ #$ Inte)) "ent %u+ -/$ 3 (t t%e t&o t'pe( of !ata frame( n ?DDI - S'nc%ronou( 8S frame9 - ;('nc%ronou( 8; frame9 -1$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e N;=* T%e net&or0 a))ocat on 4ector 8N;=9 ( a t mer for co)) ( on a4o !ance$ -2$ Name t%e four t'pe( of S frame($ - Rece 4e rea!'8RR9 - Rece 4e not rea!' 8RNR9 - ReFect 8REI9 - Se)ect 4e reFect 8SREL9 .0$ W%at are t%e four SONET )a'er(* SONET !ef ne( four )a'er($ T%e p%oton c )a'er ( t%e )o&e(t an! perform( p%'( ca) )a'er act 4 t e($ T%e (ect onB ) ne an! pat% )a'er( corre(pon! to t%e OSI mo!e)A( !ata ) n0 )a'er$ .#$ W%at ( a 4 rtua) tr +utar'* ; 4 rtua) tr +utar' ( a par ta) pa')oa! t%at can +e n(erte! nto an STS-# an! com+ ne! & t% ot%er part a) pa')oa!( to f )) out t%e frame$ .2$ W%at ( t%e acce(( met%o! u(e! +' & re)e(( 3;N(* T%e & re)e(( 3;N acce(( met%o! ( CSM;<C; 8Carr er Sen(e Mu)t p)e ;cce(( & t% Co)) ( on ;4o !ance9 P;RT 5D #$ W t% reference to () ! n" & n!o& protoco) e7p)a n (e)ect 4e repeat an! "o +ac0 N$8.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e !ata) n0 )a'er n Internet an! :D3C$ 8#.9 3$ E7p)a n t%e CSM;<CD a)"ort% m( of Et%ernet$ 819 ,$ E7p)a n n !eta )( a+out t%e acce(( met%o! an! frame format u(e! n Et%ernet an! to0en r n"$ 8#29 -$ #$ ; +)oc0 of 32 + t( %a( to +e tran(m tte!$ D (cu((

%o& t%e t% rt' t&o + t +)oc0 ( tran(m tte! to t%e rece 4er u( n" 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0$ 8.9 2$ Con( !er a 32 + t +)oc0 of !ata ###00### ##0###0# 00###00# #0#0#00# t%at %a( to +e tran(m tte!$ I? 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 ( u(e! &%at ( t%e tran(m tte! + t (tream$ 8,9 3$ In t%e :amm n" co!e for a !ata un t of m + t( %o& !o 'ou compute t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( HrA nee!e!$ 839 ,$ W%at 0 n!( of error( can 4ert ca) Re!un!anc' c%ec0 !eterm ne* W%at 0 n!( of error( t cannot !eterm ne*839 .$ $ 3 (t t%e t%ree ma n funct on( preforme! +' t%e !ata ) n0 )a'er of t%e ISO OSI mo!e)$ 839 $ E7p)a n t%e &or0 n" of carr er (en(e mu)t p)e acce(( protoco)$ 839 $ :o& !oe( a To0en R n" 3;N operate(* D (cu(($ 8.9 4$ 3 (t an! +r ef)' ! (cu(( t%e t&o ! fferent +a( c tran(m (( on tec%no)o" e( t%at can +e u(e! to (et up & re)e(( 3;NA($ 8,9 /$ E7p)a n :amm n" Co!e$ 1$ E7p)a n n !eta )( SONET an! SONET ?rame$ 2$ E7p)a n t%e frame formatB operat on an! r n" ma ntenance feature of IEEE 102$M;C protoco)$ #0$ $ E7p)a n t%e !ata) n0 )a'er n t%e Internet$ $ If t%e frame ( ##0#0##0## an! "enerator ( #00## &%at &ou)! +e t%e tran(m tte! frame* ##$ $ W%at ( t%e rema n!er o+ta ne! +' ! 4 ! n" 7/J7-J# +' t%e "enerator po)'nom a) 73J#$ $ ; + t (tream #00###0# ( tran(m tte! u( n" t%e (tan!ar! CRC met%o!$ T%e "enerator po)'nom a) ( 73J# (%o& t%e actua) + t (tr n" tran(m tte!$ Suppo(e t%e t% r! + t from )eft ( n4erte! !ur n" tran(m (( on (%o& t%at t% ( error ( !etecte! at rece 4erA( en!$ $ ; + t (tr n" 0####0#####0######0B nee!( to +e tran(m tte! at t%e !ata) n0 )a'er$ W%at ( t%e (tr n" actua))' tran(m tte! after + t (tuff n"$ #2$ 5r ef)' !ef ne 0e' re@u rement( for & re)e(( 3;N($ #3$ De(cr +e t%e ?DDI frame format an! e7p)a n$ #,$ D (cu(( t%e M;C )a'er funct on( of IEEE 102$##$ #-$ E7p)a n n !eta )( t%e t'pe( of +r !"e($

UNIT III P;RT ;

#$ W%at ( mean +' nternet&or0(* W%en t&o or more net&or0( are connecte!B t%e' +ecome nternet&or0 or nternet$ 2$ W%at are t%e met%o!( of pac0et (& tc% n"* = rtua) C rcu t approac%$ Data"ram approac% 3$ W%at ( an Internet Protoco) 8IP9* T%e protoco) t%at !ef ne( +ot% t%e format of pac0et( u(e! on a TCP<IP nternet an! t%e mec%an (m( for rout n" a pac0et to t( !e(t nat on$ ,$ W%at ( an IP a!!re((* ;n IP a!!re(( ( a 32 - + t a!!re(( t%at un @ue)' an! un 4er(a))' !ef ne t%e connect on of a %o(t or a router to t%e Internet$ T%e (en!er mu(t 0no& t%e IP a!!re(( of t%e !e(t nat on computer +efore (en! n" a pac0et$ -$ W%at are t%e cate"or e( of IP a!!re((e(* IP a!!re((e( &ere ! 4 !e! nto f 4e cate"or e( a( fo))o&($ C)a(( ; C)a(( 5 C)a(( C C)a(( D C)a(( E .$ D (cu(( t%e c)a(( f e)! n IP a!!re(($ If t%e a!!re(( ( " 4en n + nar' notat onB t%e f r(t fe& + t( can te)) u( t%e c)a(( of t%e a!!re(($ C)a(( ; - 0 C)a(( 5 - #0 C)a(( C - ##0 C)a(( D - ###0 C)a(( E - #### W%en t%e a!!re(( ( " 4en n !otte! !ec ma) notat onB t%en )oo0 at t%e f r(t +'te to !eterm ne t%e c)a(( of t%e a!!re(($$ C)a(( ; - 0 to #2/ C)a(( 5 #21 to #2# C)a(( C #22 to 223 C)a(( D 22, to 232 C)a(( E 2,0 to 2-/$ E7p)a n Mu)t ca(t n"$ ; form of a!!re(( n" n &% c% a (et of computer ( a(( "ne! one a!!re((B a cop' of an' !ata"ram (ent to t%e a!!re(( ( !e) 4ere! to eac% of t%e computer( n t%e (et$ 1$ Def ne t%e term +roa! ca(t n"$ ; form of !e) 4er' n &% c% one cop' of a pac0et ( !e) 4ere! to eac% computer on a

net&or0$ 2$ W%at ( a %o(t ! an! net !* Net ! T%e port on of t%e IP a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e net&or0 ca))e! t%e net !$ :o(t ! T%e port on of t%e IP a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e %o(t or router on t%e net&or0 ( ca))e! t%e %o(t !$ #0$ :o& !oe( a net ! ! ffer from a net&or0 a!!re((* ; net&or0 a!!re(( %a( +ot% net ! an! %o(t ! & t% 0A( for t%e %o(t !$ ##$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of (u+nett n"* W%en &e ! 4 !e a net&or0 nto (e4era) (u+net(B &e %a4e t%ree )e4e)( of % erarc%' T%e net ! ( t%e f r(t )e4e)B !ef ne( t%e ( te$ T%e (u+net ! ( t%e 2n! )e4e)B !ef ne( t%e p%'( ca) (u+net&or0$ T%e %o(t ! ( t%e 3r! )e4e) !ef ne( t%e connect on of t%e %o(t to t%e (u+net&or0$ #2$ Def ne Ma(0 n"$ Ma(0 n" ( a proce(( t%at e7tract( t%e a!!re(( of t%e p%'( ca) net&or0 from an IP a!!re(($ #3$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een +oun!ar' )e4e) ma(0 n" an! non-+oun!ar' )e4e) ma(0 n"$ 5oun!ar' )e4e) Ma(0 n"D If t%e ma(0 n" ( at t%e +oun!ar' )e4e)B t%e ma(0 num+er( are e t%er 2-- or 0B f n! n" t%e (u+net&or0 a!!re(( ( 4er' ea('$ Non 5oun!ar' )e4e) Ma(0 n"D If t%e ma(0 n" ( not at t%e +oun!ar' )e4e)B t%e ma(0 num+er( are not Fu(t 2-- or 0B f n! n" t%e (u+net&or0 a!!re(( n4o)4e( u( n" t%e + t& (e ;ND operator($ #,$ W%at ( t%e funct on of router* Router( re)a' pac0et( amon" mu)t p)e nterconnecte! net&or0($ T%e' route pac0et( from one net&or0 to an' num+er of potent a) !e(t nat on net&or0( on an nternet$ #-$ :o& !oe( a router ! ffer from a +r !"e* Router( pro4 !e ) n0( +et&een t&o (eparate +ut (ame t'pe 3;N( an! are mo(t act 4e at t%e net&or0 )a'er$ W%erea( +r !"e( ut ) >e a!!re(( n" protoco)( an! can affect t%e f)o& contro) of a ( n")e 3;NM mo(t act 4e at t%e !ata ) n0 )a'er$ #.$ W%at ( t%e c)a(( of eac% of t%e fo))o& n" a!!re((e(* a$ #00###0# #000#### #####00# #00#### C)a(( 5 +$ ##0###0# #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( C c$ 0####0## #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( ; !$ ###0#0## #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( D e$ ####0#0# #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( E /$ ? n! t%e c)a(( of eac% a!!re((e($ a$ ,$23$#,-$20 C)a(( ; +$ 22/$3,$/1$/ C)a(( D c$ 2,.$/$3$1 C)a(( E

!$ 22$.$1$, C)a(( ; e$ #21$/.$2$23 C)a(( C #1$ In rout n" &%at !oe( t%e term S:ORTEST mean* T%e term S%orte(t mean t%e com+ nat on of man' factor( nc)u! n" (%orte(tB c%eape(t B fa(te(t mo(t re) a+)e an! (o on$ #2$ W%' ( a!apt 4e rout n" (uper or to non a!apt 4e rout n"* ;!apt 4e rout n" ( (uper or to non a!apt 4e rout n" +ecau(e a!apt 4e rout n" ma' (e)ect a ne& route for eac% pac0et n re(pon(e to c%an"e n con! t on an! topo)o"' of t%e net&or0($ 20$ W%at ( t%e routerA( ro)e n contro)) n" t%e pac0et ) fet me* ;( pac0et ( "enerate!B eac% pac0et ( mar0et & t% a ) fet meB u(ua))' t%e num+er of %op( t%at are a))o&e! +efore a pac0et ( con( !ere! )o(t an!B accor! n")' !e(tro'e!$ ;( eac% router encounter( t%e pac0et (u+tract( # from t%e tota) +efore pa(( n" t on$ W%en t%e ) fet me tota) reac%e( 0B t%e pac0et ( !e(tro'e!$ 2#$ W%at are t%e mo(t popu)ar rout n" a)"or t%m(* a$ D (tance =ector rout n" +$ 3 n0 State rout n" 22$ W%at are t%e t%ree ma n e)ement( of ! (tance 4ector a)"or t%m($ a$ Kno&)e!"e a+out t%e ent re autonomou( ('(tem$ +$ Rout n" on)' to ne "%+our( c$ Informat on (%ar n" at re"u)ar nter4a)( 23$ W%at ( Supernett n"* Supernett n" com+ ne( (e4era) net&or0( nto one )a"er one$ 2,$ Def ne f)oo! n"* ?)oo! n" mean( t%at a router (en!( t( nformat on to a)) of t( ne "%+our( an! a)) of t( output port($ 2-$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( offere! +' net&or0 )a'er* a$ 3o" ca) a!!re(( n" +$ Rout n" 2.$ D (t n"u (% +et&een a!apt 4e an! non a!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m($ Non a!apt 4e Rout n"D Once a pat%&a' to a !e(t nat on %a( +een (e)ecte! t%e router (en!( a)) pac0et( for t%at !e(t nat on a)on" t%at one route$ T%e rout n" !ec ( on( are not +a(e! on t%e con! t on or topo)o"' of t%e net&or0($ ;!apt 4e Rout n"D Router ma' (e)ect a ne& route for eac% pac0et$8e4en pac0et( +e)on" n" to t%e (ame tran(m (( on9

T%e rout n" !ec ( on( are +a(e! on t%e con! t on or topo)o"' of t%e net&or0($ 2/$ I!ent f' t%e c)a(( an! !efau)t (u+net ma(0 of t%e IP a!!re(( 2#/$.-$#0$/$ It +e)on"( to c)a(( C$ Defau)t (u+net ma(0 2--$2--$2--$#22 21$ W%at are t%e f e)!( pre(ent n IP a!!re((* Net ! an! :o(t !$ Net ! port on of t%e p a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e net&or0$ :o(t ! port on of t%e p a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e %o(t or router on t%e net&or0($ 22$ W%at are t%e t%ree ma n e)ement( of 3 n0 (tate rout n"* #$ Kno&)e!"e a+out t%e ne "%+or%oo!$ 2$ S%ar n" & t% e4er' ot%er net&or0$ 3$ Informat on (%ar n" &%en t%ere ( a c%an"e$ 30$ W%at a)"or t%m !oe( ) n0 (tate rout n" u(e to ca)cu)ate t%e rout n" ta+)e($ D F0(tra a)"or t%m ( u(e! to ca)cu)ate t%e rout n" ta+)e$ 3#$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e( of f)oo! n"* - S mp)e - Nee!( no net&or0 nformat on or rout n" ta+)e( - Ro+u(t for fa )ure prone net&or0($ - S%orte(t pat% ( a)&a'( foun!$ 32$ W%at ( f)o& contro)* :o& to 0eep a fa(t (en!er from (&amp n" a ()o& rece 4er & t% !ata ( ca))e! f)o& contro)$ 33$ D fferent ate 4 rtua) c rcu t an! !ata"ramA($ =C ( connect on or ente! an! !ata"ram ( connect on)e(($ 3,$ W%at ( a!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m* ;!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m( c%an"e t%e r rout n" !ec ( on( to ref)ect c%an"e( n t%e topo)o"' an! u(ua))' t%e traff c a( &e))$ D (tance 4ector an! ) n0 (tate are e7amp)e( of t% ($ 3-$ W%at ( t%e t me to ) 4e f e)! n IP %ea!er* T me to ) 4e f e)! ( counter u(e! to ) m t pac0et ) fet me( count( n (econ! an! !efau)t 4a)ue ( 2-- (ec$ 3.$ W%at are t%e ma n ! (a!4anta"e( of ! (tance 4ector rout n"* Sp) t %or >on Count to nf n t' pro+)em 3/$ I!ent f' t%e c)a(( an! !efau)t (u+net ma(0 of t%e IP a!!re(( 2#/$.-$#0$/

IP a!!re(( 2#/$.-$#0$/ +e)on"( to c)a(( C a!!re(( an! !efau)t (u+net ma(0 ( 2--$2--$2--$0$ 31$ W%at ( meant +' 4 rtua) pat%* = rtua) pat% ( a (et of connect on( +et&een t&o (& tc%e($ 32$ W%at ( a!!re(( re(o)ut on* ;!!re(( re(o)ut on ( a proce(( of o+ta n n" t%e p%'( ca) a!!re(( of a computer +a(e! on t( IP a!!re((B n or!er to +e a+)e to f na))' actua))' tran(m t t%e frame or !ata"ram( o4er t%e net&or0 to &% c% t%e no!e +e)on"($ ,0$ W%' ( t t%at n a +roa!ca(t net&or0B t%e net&or0 )a'er ( often t% n or e4en non e7 (tent* Net&or0 )a'er ( re(pon( +)e for %o(t to %o(t !e) 4er' an! for rout n" t%e pac0et( t%rou"% t%e router( or (& tc%e($ In +roa!ca(t t%ere ( no nee! of a!!re(( n" t%e pac0et(B rout n" an! a!!re(( 4er f cat on$ ,#$ W%at are t%e +enef t( of (u+nett n" a net&or0* #$ Re!uce! net&or0 traff c 2$ Opt m >e! net&or0 performance 3$ S mp) f e! net&or0 mana"ement ,$ ?ac ) t e( (pann n" )ar"e "eo"rap% ca) ! (tance$ ,2$ W%at ( meant +' rout n" a)"or t%m* T%e a)"or t%m t%at mana"e( rout n" ta+)e( an! ma0e( t%e rout n" !ec ( on( ( ca))e! rout n" a)"or t%m$ ,3$ W%at are t%e !e( ra+)e propert e( of a rout n" a)"or t%m(* #$ Correctne(( 2$ S mp) c t' 3$ Ro+u(tne(( ,$ Sta+ ) t' -$ ?a rne(( .$ Opt ma) t' ,,$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of rout n" a)"or t%m(* #$ Non a!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m 2$ ;!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m ,-$ W%at are t%e metr c( u(e! +' rout n" protoco)(* Pat% )en"t%B re) a+ ) t'B !e)a'B +an!& !t%B )oa! an! commun cat on co(t$ P;RT 5 #$ E7p)a n t%e net&or0 )a'er n t%e Internet an! IP a!!re(( n" 2$ Wr te a note on 4ar ou( nternet&or0 n" !e4 ce( 3$ Compare 5r !"e( an! router( ,$ E7p)a n (%orte(t pat% a)"or t%m & t% a (u ta+)e ))u(trat on

#$ E7p)a n t%e ! (tance 4ector rout n" a)"or t%m$ 2$ Ment on t%e ) m tat on( of ! (tance 4ector rout n" a)"or t%m$ 3$ E7p)a n t%e +u )! n" an! ! (tr +ut on of ) n0 (tate pac0et( n ) n0 (tate rout n" a)"or t%m$ ,$ Ment on t%e ) m tat on( of ) n0 (tate rout n" a)"or t%m$ .$ E7p)a n ) n0 (tate rout n" an! ! (cu(( t( a!4anta"e( o4er ! (tance 4ector rout n"$ /$ E7p)a n n !eta )( pac0et (& tc% n"$ 1$ E7p)a n n !eta )( Data"ram approac%$ 2$ E7p)a n n !eta )( IP a!!re(( n" met%o!($ #0$ $ State &% c% )a'er( of t%e ISO OSI mo!e) !oe( t%e fo))o& n" nterconnect n" !e4 ce( operate$ a$ Repeater( +$ 5r !"e( c$ Router( !$ 6ate&a'( $ State t%e maFor ! fference +et&een D (tance =ector Rout n" an! 3 n0 (tate Rout n"$ D (cu(( %o& t%e(e rout n" tec%n @ue( &or0$ ##$ $ W%at ( (u+nett n"* D (cu(($ ;)(o (tate &% c% c)a((e( of IP a!!re(( can +e (u+nette!$ $ W%at ( (u+net ma(0 n"* D (cu(( $ :o& can &e pro4e t%at &e %a4e 2B#,/B,13B.,1 a!!re((e( n c)a(( ;* 4$ W%at ( t%e (u+net&or0 a!!re(( f t%e !e(t nat on a!!re(( ( 200$,-$3,$-. an! t%e (u+net ma(0 ( 2--$2--$2,0$0 #2$ $ In c)a((fu) a!!re(( n" %o& ( an IP a!!re(( n c)a(( ;B C)a(( 5 an! C)a(( C ! 4 !e!* D (cu(( $ 6 4en t%e a!!re(( 23$-.$/$2# an! t%e !efau)t c)a(( ; ma(0B f n! t%e +e" nn n" a!!re(( 8net&or0 a!!re((9 $ 6 4en t%e a!!re(( 20#$#10$-.$- an! t%e !efau)t c)a(( C ma(0B f n! t%e +e" nn n" a!!re(( 8net&or0 a!!re((9$ #3$ ?or t%e net&or0 (%o&n n f "ure & t% t%e " 4en ) n0 co(tB u(e DF0(traA( a)"or t%m to !eterm ne t%e (%orte(t pat% from ; to a)) ot%er no!e($ S%o& a)) 'our &or0 n" an! (%o& 'our re(u)t a( a (pann n" tree8(9 route! at ;$

UNIT , P;RT ; #$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' tran(port )a'er protoco)* a$ En! to En! !e) 4er' +$ ;!!re(( n"

c$ Re) a+)e !e) 4er' !$ ?)o& contro) e$ Mu)t p)e7 n" 2$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een net&or0 (er4 ce an! tran(port (er4 ce* Net&or0 (er4 ce( ( "enera))' unre) a+)e &%erea( tran(port (er4 ce ( re) a+)e$ T%e net&or0 (er4 ce ( on)' u(e! +' t%e tran(port ent t e( an! tran(port (er4 ce mu(t +e con4en ent an! ea(' to u(e$ 3$ 3 (t (ome of t%e Cua) t' of (er4 ce parameter( of tran(port )a'er a$ Error an! )o(( )e4e)( +$ De( re! a4era"e an! ma7 mum !e)a' c$ T%rou"%put !$ Pr or t' )e4e) e$ Re( )ence$ ,$ W%at are t%e funct on( of tran(port )a'er(* T%e tran(port )a'er ( re(pon( +)e for re) a+)e !ata !e) 4er'$ ?unct on( of tran(port )a'er $ Tran(port )a'er +rea0( me((a"e( nto pac0et( $ It perform( error reco4er' f t%e )o&er )a'er( are not a!e@uate)' error free$ $ ?unct on of f)o& contro) f not !one a!e@uate)' at t%e net&or0 )a'er$ 4$ ?unct on of mu)t p)e7 n" an! !emu)t p)e7 n" (e(( on( to"et%er$ 4$ T% ( )a'er can +e re(pon( +)e for (ett n" up an! re)ea( n" connect on( acro(( t%e net&or0$ -$ W%at ( tran(port ent t'* T%e ma n "oa) of t%e tran(port )a'er ( to pro4 !e eff c entB re) a+)e an! co(t effect 4e (er4 ce to t( u(er(B norma))' proce((e( n t%e app) cat on )a'er$ T%e %ar!&are an! (oft&are & t% n t%e tran(port )a'er t%at !oe( t%e &or0 ( ca))e! t%e tran(port ent t'$ .$ W%at ( (e"mentat on* W%en t%e ( >e of t%e !ata un t rece 4e! from t%e upper )a'er ( too )on" for t%e net&or0 )a'er !ata"ram( or !ata) n0 frame to %an!)eB t%e tran(port protoco) ! 4 !e( t n to (ma))erB u(ua+)e +)oc0($ T%e ! 4 ! n" proce(( ( ca))e! (e"mentat on$ /$ W%at ( concatenat on* W%en t%e ( >e of t%e !ata un t( +e)on" n" to a ( n")e (e(( on are (o (ma)) t%at (e4era) can f t to"et%er nto a ( n")e !ata"ram or frameB t%e tran(port protoco) com+ ne( t%em nto a ( n")e !ata un t$ T%e com+ n n" proce(( ( ca))e! concatenat on$ 1$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of (e@uence contro)* a$ If a )on"er !ata un t %a( +een (e"mente! t%e num+er( n! cate t%e or!er of rea((em+)'$ +$ If (e4era) (%orter un t( %a4e +een concatenate! t%e num+er( n! cate t%e en! of eac% (u+un t an! a))o& t%em to +e (eparate! accurate)' at t%e !e(t nat on$ 2$ :o& tran(port )a'er perform( Dup) cat on contro)* Se@uence num+er a))o& t%e rece 4er to !ent t' an! ! (car! !up) cate (e"ment($ #0$ Def ne Mu)t p)e7 n"$ Man' to one re)at on(% p T%e proce(( of accept n" me((a"e( from ! fferent proce((e(B ! fferent ate! +' t%e r a(( "ne! port num+er$ ;fter a!! n" t%e %ea!erB t%e tran(port )a'er pa((e( t%e pac0et to t%e net&or0 )a'er$ ##$ W%at are t%e t&o &a'( of mu)t p)e7 n" !one at t%e tran(port )a'er*

Mu)t p)e7 n" occur( at t%e tran(port )a'er n 2 &a'( $ Up&ar! Mu)t p)e7 n"D T%e mu)t p)e tran(port )a'er connect on u(e( t%e (ame net&or0 connect on($ $ Do&n&ar! Mu)t p)e7 n" T%e tran(port )a'er connect on u(e( t%e mu)t p)e net&or0 connect on($ #2$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce pr m t 4e( n ( mp)e tran(port protoco)* T%e parameter( of t%e (er4 ce pr m t 4e an! ) +rar' proce!ure( are fo))o&$ $ 3ISTEN $ CONNECT $ SEND 4$ RECEI=E 4$ DISCONNECT #3$ W%at ( t%e funct on of tran(m (( on t mer* T%e ma n funct on ( to retran(m t ac0no&)e!"e! (e"ment$ #,$ W%at ( meant +' &e)) 0no&n port* W%at ( t%e num+er(* We)) 0no&n port mean( t%e' are re(er4e! for u(e +' &e)) 0no&n app) cat on protoco)( (uc% a( :TTP an! ?TP$ T%e port num+er ran" n" from 0 to #023 are &e)) 0no&n port num+er($ #-$ W%at are t%e t%ree (tep( n4o)4e! n e(ta+) (% n" a connect on* Connect on e(ta+) (%ment n4o)4e( t%e fo))o& n"D $ :o(t ; (en!( a pac0et to announce t( & (% for connect on an! nc)u!e( t( n t a) >at on nformat on a+out traff c from ; to 5$ $ :o(t 5 (en!( a pac0et to ac0no&)e!"e 8conf rm9 t%e re@ue(t of ;$ $ :o(t 5 (en!( a pac0et t%at nc)u!e( t( n t a) >at on nformat on a+out traff c from 5 to ;$ 4$ :o(t ; (en!( a pac0et to ac0no&)e!"e 8conf rm9 t%e re@ue(t of 5$ #.$ W%at are t%e (tep( n4o)4e! &% )e term nat n" a connect on* , act on( are nee!e! to c)o(e t%e connect on( n +ot% ! rect on($ $ :o(t ; (en!( a pac0et announc n" t( & (% for connect on term nat on$ $ :o(t 5 (en!( a (e"ment ac0no&)e!" n" t%e re@ue(t of ;$ ;fter t% (B t%e connect on ( c)o(e! n one ! rect onB +ut not n t%e ot%er$ $ W%en %o(t 5 %a( f n (%e! (en! n" t( o&n !ataB t (en!( a (e"ment to n! cate t%at t &ant( to c)o(e t%e connect on$ 4$ :o(t ; ac0no&)e!"e 8conf rm9 t%e re@ue(t of 5$ #/$ W%en ( up&ar! mu)t p)e7 n" u(e!* Up&ar! mu)t p)e7 n" ( u(e! &%en co(t ( t%e ma n cr ter a to +e con( !ere!$ #1$ W%at ( Tran(port Contro) Protoco) 8TCP9* T%e TCP<IP protoco) t%at pro4 !e( app) cat on pro"ram( & t% acce(( to a connect on or ente! commun cat on (er4 ce$ TCP offer( re) a+)e f)o& contro))e! !e) 4er'$ More mportant TCP accommo!ate( c%an" n" con! t on( n t%e Internet +' a!apt n" t( retran(m (( on (c%eme$ #2$ Def ne t%e term 8 9 :o(t 8 9 IP a$ :o(t D ;n en! u(erA( computer connect on to a net&or0$ In an nternet eac% computer ( c)a(( f e! a( a %o(t or a router$ +$ IPD Internet Protoco) t%at !ef ne( +ot% t%e format of pac0et u(e! on a TCP<IP nternet an! t%e mec%an (m for rout n" a pac0et to t( !e(t nat on$

20$ W%at ( UDP* U(er Data"ram Protoco) ( t%e TCP<IP protoco) t%at pro4 !e( app) cat on pro"ram & t% connect on)e(( commun cat on (er4 ce$ 2#$ W%at are t%e four maFor a(pect( of re) a+)e !e) 4er' at t%e tran(port )a'er* ;t t%e tran(port )a'erB re) a+)e !e) 4er' %a( , a(pect(M $ Error contro) $ Se@uence contro) $ 3o(( contro) 4$ Dup) cat on contro) 22$ W%at ( RTT* RTT ( an acron'm for Roun! Tr p T meM t ( a mea(ure of t%e t me t ta0e( for a pac0et to tra4e) from a computerB acro(( a net&or0 to anot%er computer an! +ac0$ 23$ :o& ( RTT u(e! n net&or0 n"* Tran(port protoco)( ) 0e TCP &% c% e7pect( an ac0no&)e!"ement to arr 4e after !ata %a( +een (ucce((fu))' rece 4e!B 0eep an e(t mate of t%e current RTT on eac% connect on$ T%e' u(e t%e RTT e(t mate to !eterm ne %o& )on" to &a t for an ac0no&)e!"ment +efore retran(m tt n"$ 2,$ :o& ( RTT compute!* T%e (en! n" ( !e recor!( t%e c)oc0 &%en t tran(m t( a pac0etB an! t%en e7am ne( t%e c)oc0 a"a n &%en an ac0no&)e!"ment arr 4e($ 5' (u+tract n" t%e t&o 4a)ue(B t o+ta n( a ( n")e e(t mate of t%e roun! tr p t me$ It t%en com+ ne( t%at ( n")e e(t mate & t% pre4 ou( e(t mate( to "et an a4era"e$ 2-$ Do TCPBUDP or +ot% compute RTT* TCP !oe(M UDP !oe( not 2.$ E7p)a n t%e purpo(e of t%e(e t mer( n TCPD a$ retran(m (( on t mer +$ per( (t t mer c$ 0eep a) 4e t mer !$ t me &a te! t mer 8a9 retran(m (( on t mer T%e retran(m (( on t mer ( to contro) a )o(t or ! (car!e! (e"ment an! re(en! a !up) cate pac0et after t%e t me e7p re($ 8+9 ;fter t%e (en! n" & n!o& %a( +een c)o(e! 8& t% >ero cre! t9 a per( (t t mer ( u(e! +' t%e (ource to per o! ca))' pro+e t%e !e(t nat on %o(t to (ee f t%e & n!o& %a( actua))' +een c%an"e!$ T%e purpo(e ( to pre4ent !ea!)oc0 ( tuat on( &%ere a cre! t to open t%e & n!o& %a( +een )o(t$ 8c9 T%e 0eep a) 4e t mer ( an opt ona) feature n (ome TCP mp)ementat on($ It ( u(e! to pre4ent a )on" !)e connect on +et&een t&o TCPA( 8!9 T me &a te! t mer ( u(e! !ur n" connect on term nat on$ 2/$ W%at ( an ( ))' & n!o& ('n!rome* W%en e t%er t%e (en! n" app) cat on pro"ram create( !ata ()o&)' or t%e rece 4 n" app) cat on pro"ram con(ume( !ata ()o&)' or +ot%$ T% ( pro+)em ( ca))e! t%e ( ))' & n!o& ('n!rome$ 21$ 3 (t t%e f)a" u(e! n TCP %ea!er*

TCP %ea!er conta n( ( 7 f)a"($ T%e' are UR6B ;CKB PS:B RSTB SNN an! ?IN$ 22$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of ur"ent po nter n t%e TCP %ea!er* In certa n c rcum(tance(B t ma' +e nece((ar' for a TCP (en!er to not f' t%e rece 4er of ur"ent !ata t%at (%ou)! +e proce((e! +' t%e rece 4 n" app) cat on a( (oon a( po(( +)e$ T% ( #. + t f e)! te))( t%e rece 4er &%en t%e )a(t +'te of ur"ent !ata n t%e (e"ment en!($ 30$ W%at ( t%e (e"ment* T%e un t of !ata tran(fer +et&een t&o !e4 ce( u( n" TCP ( a (e"ment$ 3#$ W%at ( a port* ;pp) cat on( runn n" on ! fferent %o(t( commun cate & t% TCP & t% t%e %e)p of a concept ca))e! a( port($ ; port ( a #. + t un @ue num+er a))ocate! to a part cu)ar app) cat on$ 32$ W%at ( Soc0et* T%e commun cat on (tructure nee!e! for (oc0et pro"ramm n" ( ca))e! (oc0et$ ; port !ent f e( a ( n")e app) cat on on a ( n")e computer$ Soc0et G IP a!!re(( J Port num+er 33$ :o& TCP ! ffer from t%e () ! n" & n!o& protoco)($ TCP ! ffer( from t%e () ! n" & n!o& protoco)( n t%e fo))o& n" &a'(D #$ W%en u( n" TCPB app) cat on( treat t%e !ata (ent an! rece 4e! a( an ar+ trar' +'te (tream$ T%e (en! n" - TCP mo!u)e ! 4 !e( t%e +'te (tream nto a (et of pac0et( ca))e! (e"ment(B an! (en!( n! 4 !ua) (e"ment( & t% n an IP !ata"ram$ - TCP !ec !e( &%ere (e"ment +oun!ar e( (tart an! en!$ 2$ T%e TCP () ! n" & n!o& operate( at t%e +'te )e4e) rat%er t%an t%e pac0et 8or (e"ment9 )e4e)$ T%e )eft an! r "%t & n!o& e!"e( are +'te po nter($ 3$ Se"ment +oun!ar e( ma' c%an"e at an' t me$ TCP ( free to retran(m t t&o a!Facent (e"ment( eac% conta n n" 200 +'te( of !ata a( a ( n")e (e"ment of ,00 +'te$ ,$ T%e ( >e of t%e (en! an! rece 4e & n!o& c%an"e !'nam ca))'$ 3,$ E7p)a n %o& t%e TCP pro4 !e( t%e re) a+ ) t'* ; num+er of mec%an (m( pro4 !e t%e re) a+ ) t'$ #$ C%ec0(um 2$ Dup) cate !ata !etect on 3$ Retran(m (( on ,$ Se@uenc n" -$ T mer( 3-$ W%at ( a !ata"ram (oc0et* ; (tructure !e( "ne! to +e u(e! & t% connect on)e(( protoco)( (uc% a( UDP$ 3.$ OTCP (oft&are ( mp)emente! a( a f n te (tate mac% ne($P D (cu(($ To 0eep trac0 of a)) t%e ! fferent e4ent( %appen n" !ur n" connect on e(ta+) (%ment B connect on term nat on an! !ata tran(fer$ 3/$ W%at ( (tream (oc0et* ; (tructure !e( "ne! to +e u(e! & t% a connect on or ente! protoco) (uc% a( TCP

31$ 6 4e t%e (trate" e( TCP u(e( to a4o ! con"e(t on$ #$ S)o& (tart an! a!! t 4e ncrea(e 2$ Mu)t p) cat 4e !ecrea(e 32$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of c%o0e pac0et$ It ( pac0et (ent +' router to t%e (ource to nform t of con"e(t on$ ,0$ 6 4e t%e (tructure of UDP %ea!er ,#$ State an' 2 (oc0et pr m t 4e( for TCP an! (tate t%e r funct on$ #$ 3 (ten a$ nt ) (ten 8 nt (! B nt +ac0)o"9 2$ C)o(e a$ nt c)o(e 8 nt (!9 ,2$ 6 4e (ome e7amp)e( of app) cat on &%ere UDP ( preferre! o4er TCP$ #$ In mu)t ca(t n" 2$ Route up!ate protoco) n RIP ,3$ W%at ( con"e(t on* W%en )oa! on net&or0 ( "reater t%an t( capc t'B t%ere ( con"e(t on of !ata pac0et($ Con"e(t on occur( +ecau(e router( an! (& tc%e( %a4e @ueue( or +uffer($ ,,$ W%at ( meant +' ()o& (tart n TCP* ;t t%e +e" nn n" of a connect onB TCP (et( t%e con"e(t on & n!o& ( >e to t%e ma7 mum (e"ment ( >e$ ?or eac% (e"ment t%at ( ac0no&)e!"e!B TCP ncrea(e( t%e ( >e of t%e con"e(t on & n!o& +' one ma7 mum (e"ment ( >e unt ) t reac%e( a t%re(%o)! of one %a)f of t%e a))o&a+)e & n!o& ( >e$ T% ( ( ca))e! S)o& Start t ( u(e! & t% a!! t 4e ncrea(e$ ,-$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m(* Con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m( are ! 4 !e! nto 2 t'pe($ T%e' are a( fo))o&(D Open )oop a)"or t%m( C)o(e! )oop a)"or t%m( ,.$ Def ne t%e term L tter$ L tter ( t%e 4ar at on n !e)a' for pac0et( +e)on" n" to t%e (ame f)o&$ ,/$ W%at are t%e (c%e!u) n" tec%n @ue( !e( "ne! to mpro4e t%e @ua) t' of (er4 ce(* #$ ?I?O @ueu n" 2$ Pr or t' @ueu n" 3$ We "%te! fa r @ueu n" ,1$ Def ne Traff c S%ap n"$ It ( a mec%an (m to contro) t%e amount an! rate of t%e traff c (ent to t%e net&or0$ T&o tec%n @ue( can (%ape traff c$ $ 3ea0' +uc0et $ To0en +uc0et ,2$ Def ne Re(ource Re(er4at on$ ; f)o& of !ata nee!( re(ource( (uc% a( a +ufferB +an!& !t%B CPU t me an! (o on$ T%e @ua) t' of (er4 ce ( mpro4e! f t%e(e re(ource are re(er4e! +efore%an!$ -0$ ODNS can u(e t%e (er4 ce( of UDP or TCP u( n" port -3P$ D (cu(( &%en UDP ( u(e! an! &%en TCP ( u(e!$ UDP ( u(e! &%en t%e ( >e of t%e re(pon(e me((a"e ( )e(( t%an -#2 +'te($ TCP ( u(e! &%en t%e ( >e of t%e re(pon(e me((a"e ( "reater t%an -#2 +'te($

P;RT 5 #$ E7p)a n a con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m$ 2$ E7p)a n t%e !ut e( of Tran(port )a'er$ 3$ E7p)a n t%e TCP tran(m (( on po) c'B Con"e(t on contro)$ ,$ E7p)a n t%e fo))o& n" ((ue( of tran(port protoco) a$ E(ta+) (% n" a connect on +$ Term nat n" a connect on -$ E7p)a n t%e TCP %ea!er an! &or0 n" of t%e TCP protoco)$ .$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( f e)!( of TCP %ea!er & t% t%e %e)p of a neat ! a"ram$ /$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( (tep( t%at are fo))o&e! n re)ea( n" a TCP connect on$ 1$ E7p)a n t%e t%ree &a' %an!(%a0e protoco) to e(ta+) (% t%e tran(port )e4e) connect on$ 2$ D (cu(( a+out con"e(t on contro) n frame re)a'$ #0$ D (cu(( t%e 4ar ou( ((ue( of tran(port )a'er n !eta )($ ##$ $ 3 (t an! ! (cu(( t%e 4ar ou( pr m t 4e( for a ( mp)e tran(port (er4 ce( $ ODNS can u(e t%e (er4 ce of UDP or TCP u( n" port -3P D (cu(( &%en UDP ( u(e! an! &%en TCP ( u(e!$ $ : "%) "%t t%e feature( of UDP an! +r ef)' ! (cu(( t%e (ame$ #2$ $ D (cu(( connect on e(ta+) (%ment an! connect on re)ea(e n TCP $ D (cu(( %o& TCP pro4 !e( re) a+ ) t' u( n" error contro)$ $ D (cu(( t%e (trate" e( TCP u(e( to a4o ! con"e(t on$ UNIT P;RT ; #$ W%at ( t%e Doma n Name S'(tem re(pon( +)e for* T%e Doma n NameS'(tem con4ert( !oma n name( 8of t%e form &&&$c%aru)at%apu+) cat on$com9 nto IP num+er($ 2$ D (cu(( t%e t%ree ma n ! 4 ( on( of t%e DNS$ 6ener c !oma n( Countr' !oma n( In4er(e !oma n( 3$ W%at ro)e !oe( t%e DNS re(o)4er p)a' n t%e DNS ('(tem* ; DNS re(o)4er ( re(pon( +)e for mo4 n" re@ue(t( of t%e )oca) DNS (er4er on +e%a)f of c) ent($ ,$ :o& !oe( a DNS Re(o)4er +oot(trap t%e !oma n name )oo0up proce((* ; DNS re(o)4er mu(t 0no& t%e IP a!!re(( of at )ea(t one DNS (er4er$ IT u(e( t% ( a!!re(( to (tart t%e DNS )oo0up proce(($ -$ Def ne SMTP$ T%e protoco) t%at (upport( ema ) on t%e Internet ( ca))e! S mp)e Ma ) Tran(fer Protoco)$ SMTP ( par tof t%e TCP<IP protoco) (u te$ .$ Def ne t%e term !oma n$ ; part of t%e computer nam n" % erarc%' u(e! n t%e Internet$ ?or e7amp)e commerc a) or"an >at on( %a4e name( re" (tere! un!er t%e com !oma n$

/$ W%at are t%e t&o part( of a!!re(( n" ('(tem n SMTP* T%e a!!re(( n" ('(tem u(e! +' SMTP con( (t( of t&o part(D ; )oca) part an! a !oma n name (eparate! +' an Q ( "n 3oca) Part Q Doma n Name 1$ D (cu(( MIME$ Mu)t purpo(e Internet Ma ) E7ten( on ( an e7ten( on of SMTP t%at a))o&( t%e tran(fer of mu)t me! a an! ot%er non ;SCII me((a"e($ 2$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' u(er a"ent* Compo( n" Me((a"e( Rea! n" Me((a"e( Rep)' n" to Me((a"e( ?or&ar! n" Me((a"e :an!) n" ma ) +o7e( #0$ W%at are t%e four propert e( of :TTP* a$ 6)o+a) un form re(ource !ent f er +$ Re@ue(t re(pon(e e7c%an"e c$ State)e((ne(( !$ Re(ource meta !ata ##$ De(cr +e &%' :TTP ( !e( "ne! a( a (tate)e(( protoco)* Ma nta n n" (tate acro(( re@ue(t re(pon(e connect on( ( "n f cant)' ncrea(e( t%e n t a) nteract on( n a connect on ( nce t%e !ent t' of eac% part' nee!( to +e e(ta+) (%e! an! an' (a4e! (tate mu(t +e retr e4e!$ :TTP ( t%erefore (tate)e(( to en(ure t%at t%e Internet ( (ca)a+)e ( nce (tate ( not conta ne! n t%e :TTP re@ue(t<re(pon(e pa r( +' !efau)t$ #2$ W%at are t%e four "roup( of :TTP %ea!er* T%e four "roup( of :TTP %ea!er areD a$ 6enera) %ea!er +$ Ent t' %ea!er c$ Re@ue(t %ea!er an! !$ Re(pon(e %ea!er$ #3$ Def ne t%e term( 8 9 5ro&(er 8 9 :'perte7t Mar0 Up )an"ua"e$ a$ 5ro&(erD ; computer pro"ram t%at acce((e( an! ! (p)a'( nformat on from t%e &or)! & !e &e+$ ; +ro&(er conta n( mu)t p)e app) cat on pro"ram( an! u(e( an o+Fect( name to !eterm ne &% c% app) cat on (%ou)! +e u(e! to acce(( t%e o+Fect($ +$ :'perte7t Mar0up 3an"ua"eD T%e (ource form u(e! for !ocument( on t%e &or)! & !e &e+$ :TM3 em+e!( comman!( t%at !eterm ne formatt n" a)on" & t% t%e te7t to +e ! (p)a'e!$ E7D To mo4e to a ne& ) ne or n!ent te7t #,$ W%at ( a %'perte7t* ; (et of !ocument( n &% c% a " 4en !ocument can conta n te7t a( &e)) a( em+e!!e! reference to ot%er !ocument($ #-$ W%at are cate"or e( of &e+ !ocument(* Stat c !ocument( T%e content( are f 7e! an! (tore! n a (er4er$ D'nam c !ocument( create! +' a (er4er on)' at a +ro&(er re@ue(t$ ;ct 4e !ocumnet( It ( a cop' of a pro"ram retr e4e! +' t%e c) ent an! run at t%e c) ent ( !e$ #.$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' UR3*

Un form Re(ource 3ocator ( a (tan!ar! for (pec f' n" an' 0 n! of nformat on on t%e Internet$ UR3 ( a ('ntant c form u(e! to !ent f' a pa"e of nformat on on t%e &or)! & !e &e+$ ; t'p ca) UR3 ( %ttpD<<&&&$a+!c$com<pro!uct($%tm) #/$ W%at are +a( c funct on( of ema ) ('(tem* 5a( c funct on( of ema )( areD a$ Compo( t on +$ Tran(fer c$ Report n" !$ D (p)a' n" e$ D (po( t on #1$ W%at ( an E)ectron c Ma )* Ema ) ( a popu)ar app) cat on n &% c% a u(er or computer (en!( a memo to one or more rec p ent($ #2$ W%at ( WWW* It ( an nternet app) cat on t%at a))o&( u(er( to 4 e& &e+ pa"e( an! mo4e from one &e+ pa"e to anot%er$ &&& ( t%e %'perme! a ('(tem u(e! on t%e nternet n &% c% a pa"e of nformat on can conta n te7tB ma"e(B au! o or 4 !eo c) p( an! reference to ot%er pa"e($ 20$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' %'perme! a* ; (et of !ocument( n &% c% a " 4en !ocument can conta n te7tB "rap% c(B 4 !eo an! au! o c) p( a( &e)) a( em+e!!e! reference( to ot%er !ocument( &or)! & !e &e+ pa"e( are %'perme! a !ocument($ 2#$ W%at ( t%e &e+ +ro&(er* We+ +ro&(er ( a (oft&are pro"ram t%at nterpret( an! ! (p)a'( t%e content( of :TM3 &e+ pa"e($ 22$ W%at ( a po(t off ce protoco)* ;n e-ma ) protoco) t%at a))o&( retr e4a) of e-ma ) me((a"e( from an e-ma ) (er4er u( n" remote connect on$ 23$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' act 4e &e+ pa"e(* W%en a c) ent (en! a :TTP re@ue(t for an act 4e &e+ pa"eB t%e &e+ (er4er (en!( +ac0 an :TTP re(pon(e t%at conta n( an :TM3 pa"e a( u(ua)$ :TM3 pa"e a)(o conta n( a (ma)) pro"ram t%at e7ecute( on t%e c) ent computer n( !e t%e &e+ +ro&(er$ 2,$ W%at are t%e tran(m (( on mo!e( of ?TP* Tran(m (( on mo!e( of ?TP areD $ Stream mo!eD Defau)t mo!e an! !ata ( !e) 4ere! from ?TP to TCP a( a cont nuou( (tream of !ata$ $ 5)oc0 mo!eD Data ( !e) 4ere! from ?TP to TCP n term( of +)oc0($ Eac% !ata +)oc0 fo))o&( t%e t%ree +'te %ea!er$ $ Compre((e! mo!eD ? )e ( compre((e! +efore tran(m tt n" f ( >e ( + "$ Run )en"t% enco! n" met%o! ( u(e! for compre(( on$ 2-$ Compare t%e :TTP an! ?TP ?TPD ?TP tran(fer( t%e f )e from c) ent to (er4er an! (er4er to c) ent$ It u(e( t&o ! fferent port connect on$ 8 $e$B port 20 an!

port 2#9 U(e( TCP protoco) :TTPD :TTP tran(fer t%e f )e from (er4er to c) ent 8 e &e+ pa"e9 :TTP u(e on)' one port connect on 8 e port 109 It a)(o u(e TCP protoco)$ 2.$ W%at ( ma ) n" ) (t* Ma ) n" ) (t conta n( t%e a!!re(( of !e(t nat on u(er($ 2/$ W%at ( t%e app) cat on )a'er protoco) &or)! & !e &e+* Wor)! & !e &e+ ( a repo( tor' of nformat on of (prea! a)) o4er t%e &or)! an! ) n0e! to"et%er$ 21$ W%at ( t%e u(e of Ma ) tran(fer a"ent* Ma ) tran(fer a"ent 8MT;9 tran(fer( t%e ema ) acro(( t%e Internet$ 22$ W%at are t%e t&o ma n cate"or e( of DNS me((a"e(* DNS %a( t&o t'pe( of me((a"e( D Cuer' an! re(pon(e$ 30$ W%' &a( t%ere a nee! for DNS* In DNSB &%en t%ere ( a c%an"eB (uc% a( a!! n" a ne& %o(tB remo4 n" a %o(t or c%an" n" an IP a!!re((B t%e c%an"e mu(t +e ma!e to t%e DNS ma(ter f )e$ T%e !'nam c !oma n name ('(tem 8DDNS9 %a( +een !e4 (e! to re(pon! to t% ( nee!$ 3#$ W%at are t%e t&o t'pe( of u(er ;"ent(* a$ Comman! !r 4en an! +$ 6UI +a(e!$ 32$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of ?TP* To cop' a f )e from one %o(t to anot%er on t%e Internet$ 33$ W%at !oe( C6I (tan! for an! &%at ( t( funct on* C6I (tan!( for Common 6ate&a' Interface$ C6I ( a tec%no)o"' t%at create( an! %an!)e( !'nam c !ocument($ 3,$ W%at ( a %omepa"e* ; un t of %'perte7t or %'perme! a a4a )a+)e on t%e &e+ ( ca))e! a pa"e$ T%e ma n pa"e for an or"an >at on or an n! 4 !ua) ( 0no&n a( a %omepa"e$ 3-$ Def ne cr'pto"rap%'$ Cr'pto"rap%' ( t%e (c ence an! art of tran(form n" me((a"e( to ma0e t%em (ecure an! mmune to attac0$ 3.$ W%at ( C p%erte7t* T%e encr'pte! me((a"e ( ca))e! C p%erte7t$ 3/$ Def ne Pa(( 4e an! ;ct 4e attac0$ Pa(( 4eD Pa(( 4e attac0 are n t%e nature of ea4e(!ropp n" on or mon tor n" of tran(m (( on($ ;ct 4eD It n4o)4e( (ome mo! f cat on of t%e !ata (tream or t%e creat on of a fa)(e (tream$ 31$ W%at are t%e t&o cate"or e( of cr'pto"rap%' met%o!(* W%at ( t%e ma n ! fference +et&een t%e cate"or e(* T&o cate"or e( are $ Secret 8('mmetr c9 0e' cr'pto"rap%' an! $ Pu+) c 0e' 8a('mmetr c9 0e' cr'pto"rap%'$ - In ('mmetr c 0e' cr'pto"rap%'B t%e (ame 0e' ( u(e! +' t%e (en!er 8for encr'pt on9 an! t%e rece 4er 8 for !ecr'pt on9$ T%e 0e' ( (%are!$

- In pu+) c 0e' cr'pto"rap%'B t%e pu+) c 0e' t%at ( u(e! for encr'pt on ( ! fferent from t%e pr 4ate 0e' t%at ( u(e! for !ecr'pt on$ 32$ State &% c% )a'er of t%e TCP<IP reference mo!e) t%e fo))o& n" protoco)( are pre(ent$ a$ TCP Tran(port )a'er +$ SMTP ;pp) cat on )a'er ,0$ W%at ( f )ter for ema ) u(er(* ? )ter( are ru)e( t%at are c%ec0e! &%en e-ma ) come( n or &%en u(er a"ent ( (tarte!$ Eac% ru)e (pec f e( a con! t on an! an act on$ ,#$ Ment on t%e a(pect( of (ecur t'$ a$ Conf !ent a) t' +$ Inte"r t' c$ ;4a )a+ ) t' !$ ;ut%ent cat on ,2$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e( of pu+) c 0e' encr'pt on<!ecr'pt on* a$ It remo4e( t%e re(tr ct on of a (%are! ('mmetr c 0e' +et&een t&o ent t e($ +$ T%e num+er of 0e'( nee!e! ( re!uce! tremen!ou()' ,3$ W%at are t%e part( of a +ro&(er* Eac% +ro&(er con( (t( of t%ree part($ $ ; contro))er $ C) ent pro"ram( an! $ Interpreter($ P;RT 5D #$ E7p)a n DNS & t% reference to t( component( an! &or0 n"$ 8#.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e me((a"e tran(fer u( n" ( mp)e ma ) tran(fer protoco)$ 819 3$ E7p)a n t%e f na) !e) 4er' of ema ) to t%e en! u(er u( n" pop3$ 819 ,$ Wr te (%ort note( on ema ) (er4 ce( of t%e app) cat on )a'er$ 819 -$ E7p)a n n !eta )( t%e SMTP$ 819 .$ E7p)a n n !eta )( WWW$ 819 /$ E7p)a n t%e arc% tecture an! (er4 ce( of e-ma ) n" ('(tem$ 8#.9 1$ E7p)a n (u+(t tut on an! tran(po( t on c p%er( & t% an e7amp)e for eac%$ 8-9 2$ E7p)a n t%e RS; pu+) c 0e' encr'pt on a)"or t%m( & t% an e7amp)e$ 819 #0$ W%at are t%e t&o cate"or e( of encr'pt on<!ecr'pt on met%o!(* W%at ( t%e ma n ! fference +et&een t%e cate"or e($ 819 ##$ E7p)a n act 4e an! pa(( 4e attac0($ 819 #2$ E7p)a n DES encr'pt on a)"or t%m$ :o& ( t ! fferent from tr p)e DES* 819 #3$ $ W t% a re)e4ant e7amp)e ! (cu(( %o& t%e !oma n (pace ( ! 4 !e!$ 8.9 $ D (t n"u (% +et&een a fu))' @ua) f e! !oma n name an! a part a))' @ua) f e! !oma n name$ 6 4e re)e4ant e7amp)e$ 8.9 $ 3 (t t%e 4ar ou( r (0( face! +' me((a"e( t%at are tran(m tte! o4er t%e nternet$

8,9 #,$ $ D (cu(( %o& ( mp)e ma ) tran(fer protoco) 8SMTP9 &or0(* Can mu)t me! a me((a"e( +e tran(m tte! u( n" SMTP* D (cu(($ 8#09 $ I( common "ate&a' nterface a )an"ua"e($ D (cu(($ 8.9 Un t I Data Commun cat onP;RT ; #$ Def ne t%e term Computer Net&or0$ ; Computer net&or0 ( a num+er of computer( nterconnecte! +' one or more tran(m (( on pat%($ T%e tran(m (( on pat% often ( t%e te)ep%one ) neB !ue to t( con4en ence an! un 4er(a) pre(er4e$ 2$ Def ne Data Commun cat on$ Data commun cat on ( t%e e7c%an"e of !ata 8 n t%e form of 0( an! #(9 +et&een t&o !e4 ce( 4 a (ome form of tran(m (( on me! um 8(uc% a( a & re ca+)e9$ 3$ W%at ( t%e fun!amenta) purpo(e +e% n! !ata commun cat on* T%e purpo(e of !ata commun cat on ( to e7c%an"e nformat on +et&een t&o a"ent($ ,$ 3 (t out t%e t'pe( of !ata commun cat on$ Data commun cat on ( con( !ere! 3oca) f t%e commun cat n" !e4 ce are n t%e (ame +u )! n"$ Remote f t%e !e4 ce are fart%er apart$ -$ Def ne t%e term( !ata an! nformat on$ Data D ( a repre(entat on of fact(B concept( an! n(truct on( pre(ente! n a forma) >e! manner (u ta+)e for commun cat onB nterpretat on or proce(( n" +' %uman +e n"( or +' automat c mean($ Informat on D ( current)' a(( "ne! to !ata +' mean( +' t%e con4ent on( app) e! to t%o(e !ata$ .$ W%at are t%e fun!amenta) c%aracter (t c( on &% c% t%e effect 4ene(( of !ata commun cat on !epen!( on* T%e effect 4ene(( of a !ata commun cat on ('(tem !epen!( on t%ree c%aracter (t c($ #$ De) 4er'D T%e ('(tem mu(t !e) 4er !ata to t%e correct !e(t nat on$ 2$ ;ccurac'D T%e ('(tem mu(t !e) 4er !ata accurate)'$ 3$ T me) ne((D T%e ('(tem mu(t !e) 4er !ata n a t me)' manner$ /$ 6 4e t%e component( of !ata commun cat on$ #$ Me((a"e t%e me((a"e ( t%e nformat on to +e commun cate!$ 2$ Sen!er t%e (en!er ( t%e !e4 ce t%at (en!( t%e !ata me((a"e$ 3$ Rece 4er t%e rece 4er ( t%e !e4 ce t%at rece 4e( t%e me((a"e$ ,$ Me! um t%e tran(m (( on me! um ( t%e p%'( ca) pat% +' &% c% a me((a"e tra4e)( from (en!er to rece 4er$ -$ Protoco) ; protoco) ( a (et of ru)e( t%at "o4ern !ata commun cat on$ 1$ Def ne Net&or0$ ; net&or0 ( a (et of !e4 ce( 8no!e(9 connecte! +' me! a ) n0($ ; no!e can +e a computerB pr nterB or an' ot%er !e4 ce( capa+)e of (en! n" an! < or rece 4 n" !ata "enerate! +' ot%er no!e( on t%e net&or0$ 2$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e of ! (tr +ute! proce(( n"* #$ Secur t' < Encap(u)at on 2$ D (tr +ute! !ata+a(e 3$ ?a(ter pro+)em (o)4 n"

,$ Secur t' t%rou"% re!un!anc' -$ Co))a+orat 4e proce(( n"$ #0$ W%at are t%e t%ree cr ter a nece((ar' for an effect 4e an! eff c ent net&or0* #$ Performance 2$ Re) a+ ) t' 3$ Secur t'$ ##$ Name t%e factor( t%at affect t%e performance of a net&or0$ - Performance of a net&or0 !epen!( on a num+er of factor(B #$ Num+er of u(er( 2$ T'pe of tran(m (( on me! um 3$ Capa+ ) t e( of t%e connecte! %ar!&are ,$ Eff c enc' of (oft&are$ #2$ Name t%e factor( t%at affect t%e re) a+ ) t' of a net&or0$ #$ ?re@uenc' of fa )ure$ 2$ Reco4er' t me of a net&or0 after a fa )ure$ 3$ Cata(trop%e$ #3$ Name t%e factor( t%at affect t%e (ecur t' of a net&or0$ Net&or0 (ecur t' ((ue( nc)u!e protect n" !ata from unaut%or >e! acce(( an! 4 ru(e($ #,$ Def ne PROTOCO3$ ; protoco) ( a (et of ru)e( 8con4ent on(9 t%at "o4ern a)) a(pect( of !ata commun cat on$ #-$ 6 4e t%e 0e' e)ement( of protoco)$ E S'nta7 D refer( to t%e (tructure or format of t%e !ataB mean n" t%e or!er n &% c% t%e' are pre(ente!$ E Semant c( D refer( to t%e mean n" of eac% (ect on of + t($ E T m n" D refer( to t&o c%aracter (t c($ #$ &%en !ata (%ou)! +e (ent an! 2$ %o& fa(t t%e' can +e (ent$ #.$ Def ne Stan!ar!$ ; (tan!ar! pro4 !e( a mo!e) for !e4e)opment t%at ma0e( t po(( +)e for a pro!uct to &or0 re"ar!)e(( of t%e n! 4 !ua) manufacturer$ #/$ W%' are (tan!ar! nee!e!* E Stan!ar!( are e((ent a) n creat n" an! ma nta n n" an open an! compet t 4e mar0et for e@u pment manufacture( an! n "uarantee n" nat ona) an! nternat ona) nteropera+ ) t' of !ata an! te)ecommun cat on( tec%no)o"' an! proce((e($ E Stan!ar!( are nece((ar' to en(ure t%at pro!uct( from ! fferent manufacture( can &or0 to"et%er a( e7pecte!$ #1$ Def ne De facto an! De Fure (tan!ar!($ De facto (tan!ar!(D De facto 8+' fact9 (tan!ar!( are often e(ta+) (%e! or " na))' +' manufacture( (ee0 n" to !ef ne t%e funct ona) t' of a ne& pro!uct or tec%no)o"'$ De Fure (tan!ar!(D De Fure 8+' )a&9 (tan!ar!( %a4e +een )e" ()ate! +' an off c a))' reco"n >e! +o!'$ #2$ Def ne ) ne conf "urat on an! " 4e t( t'pe($ - 3 ne conf "urat on refer( to t%e &a' t&o or more commun cat on !e4 ce( attac% to a ) n0$ - T%ere are t&o po(( +)e ) ne conf "urat on(D $ Po nt to po nt an!

$ Mu)t po nt$ 20$ Def ne topo)o"' an! ment on t%e t'pe( of topo)o" e($ Topo)o"' !ef ne( t%e p%'( ca) or )o" ca) arran"ement of ) n0( n a net&or0 T'pe( of topo)o"' D - Me(% - Star - Tree - 5u( - R n" 2#$ T%e 3uc0' Duc0' corporat on %a( a fu))' connecte! me(% net&or0 con( (t n" of e "%t !e4 ce($ Ca)cu)ate t%e tota) num+er of ca+)e ) n0( nee!e! an! t%e num+er of port( for eac% !e4 ce$ So)ut onD T%e formu)a for t%e num+er of ) n0( for a fu))' connecte! me(% ( n8n #9 < 2B &%ere n ( t%e num+er of !e4 ce($ Num+er of ) n0( G n8n #9 < 2 G 181 #9 < 2 G 21$ Num+er of port( per !e4 ce G n # G 1 # G /$ 22$ Def ne :u+$ In a (tar topo)o"'B eac% !e4 ce %a( a !e! cate! po nt to po nt ) n0 on)' to a centra) contro))er u(ua))' ca))e! a %u+$ 23$ 6 4e an a!4anta"e for eac% t'pe of net&or0 topo)o"'$ #$ Me(% topo)o"'D E U(e of !e! cate! ) n0( "uarantee( t%at eac% connect on can carr' t( o&n !ata )oa!B t%u( e) m nat n" traff c pro+)em($ E Ro+u(t an! pr 4ac' < (ecur t'$ 2$ Star topo)o"'D E 3e(( e7pen( 4e t%an me(%$ E Nee!( on)' one ) n0 an! one nput an! output port to connect t an' num+er of ot%er($ E Ro+u(tne(($ 3$ Tree topo)o"'D E (ame a( t%o(e of a (tar$ ,$ 5u( topo)o"'D E Ea(e of n(ta))at on$ E U(e( )e(( ca+) n" t%an me(%B (tar or tree topo)o" e($ -$ R n" topo)o"'D E ; r n" ( re)at 4e)' ea(' to n(ta)) an! reconf "ure$ E Eac% !e4 ce ( ) n0e! on)' to t( mme! ate ne "%+or($ E ?au)t (o)at on ( ( mp) f e!$ 2,$ Def ne tran(m (( on mo!e an! t( t'pe($ Tran(m (( on mo!e !ef ne( t%e ! rect on of ( "na) f)o& +et&een t&o ) n0e! !e4 ce($ Tran(m (( on mo!e( are of t%ree t'pe($ - S mp)e7 - :a)f !up)e7 - ?u)) !up)e7$ 2-$ W%at ( 3;N* 3oca) ;rea Net&or0 83;N9 ( a net&or0 t%at u(e( tec%no)o"' !e( "ne! to (pan a (ma)) "eo"rap% ca) area$ ?or e$"$ an Et%ernet ( a 3;N tec%no)o"' (u ta+)e for u(e n a ( n")e +u )! n"$

2.$ W%at ( W;N* W !e ;rea Net&or0 8W;N9 ( a net&or0 t%at u(e( tec%no)o"' !e( "ne! to (pan a )ar"e "eo"rap% ca) area$ ?or e$"$ a (ate)) te net&or0 ( a W;N +ecau(e a (ate)) te can re)a' commun cat on acro(( an ent re cont nent$ W;N( %a4e % "%er propa"at on !e)a' t%an 3;N($ 2/$ W%at ( M;N* E ; Metropo) tan ;rea Net&or0 8M;N9 ( a net&or0 t%at u(e( tec%no)o"' !e( "ne! to e7ten! o4er an ent re c t'$ E ?or e$"$ a compan' can u(e a M;N to connect t%e 3;N( n a)) t( off ce( t%rou"%out a c t'$ 21$ Def ne Peer to peer proce((e($ T%e proce((e( on eac% mac% ne t%at commun cate at a " 4en )a'er are ca))e! peer to peer proce((e($ 22$ W%at ( %a)f !up)e7 mo!e* ; tran(m (( on mo!e n &% c% eac% (tat on can +ot% tran(m t an! rece 4eB +ut not at t%e (ame t me$ 30$ W%at ( fu)) !up)e7 mo!e* ; tran(m (( on mo!e n &% c% +ot% (tat on( can tran(m t an! rece 4e ( mu)taneou()'$ 3#$ W%at ( nternet* E W%en t&o or more net&or0( are connecte! t%e' +ecome an nternet&or0 or nternet$ E T%e mo(t nota+)e nternet ( ca))e! t%e Internet$ 32$ W%at ( Internet * T%e Internet ( a commun cat on ('(tem t%at %a( +rou"%t a &ea)t% of nformat on to out f n"ert p( an! or"an >e! t for our u(e$ Internet Wor)!& !e net&or0$ 33$ 3 (t t%e )a'er( of OSI mo!e)$ - P%'( ca) - Data 3 n0 - Net&or0 - Tran(port - Se(( on - Pre(entat on - ;pp) cat on$ 3,$ Def ne OSI mo!e)$ T%e open ('(tem Interconnect on mo!e) ( a )a'ere! frame&or0 for t%e !e( "n of net&or0 ('(tem t%at a))o&( for commun cat on acro(( a)) t'pe( of computer ('(tem($ 3-$ W% c% OSI )a'er( are t%e net&or0 (upport )a'er(* - P%'( ca) - Data ) n0 - Net&or0 )a'er($ 3.$ W% c% OSI )a'er( are t%e u(er (upport )a'er(* - Se(( on - Pre(entat on - ;pp) cat on$ 3/$ W%at are t%e re(pon( + ) t e( of p%'( ca) )a'erB !ata ) n0 )a'erB net&or0 )a'erB tran(port )a'erB (e(( on )a'erB pre(entat on )a'erB app) cat on )a'er$ 8 9 P%'( ca) )a'er Re(pon( +)e for tran(m tt n" n! 4 !ua) + t( from one no!e to t%e

ne7t$ 8 9 Data ) n0 )a'er Re(pon( +)e for tran(m tt n" frame( from one no!e to t%e ne7t$ 8 9 Net&or0 )a'er Re(pon( +)e for t%e !e) 4er' of pac0et( from t%e or " na) (ource to t%e f na) !e(t nat on$ 8 49 Tran(port )a'er Re(pon( +)e for !e) 4er' of a me((a"e from one proce(( to anot%er$ 849 Se(( on )a'er To e(ta+) (%B mana"e an! term nate (e(( on($ 84 9 Pre(entat on )a'er Re(pon( +)e to tran()ateB encr'pt an! compre(( !ata$ 84 9 ;pp) cat on )a'er Re(pon( +)e for pro4 ! n" (er4 ce( to t%e u(er$ To a))o& acce(( to net&or0 re(ource($ 31$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of ! a)o" contro))er* T%e (e(( on )a'er ( t%e net&or0 ! a)o" contro))er$ It e(ta+) (%e(B ma nta n( an! ('nc%ron >e( t%e nteract on +et&een commun cat n" ('(tem($ 32$ Name (ome (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' t%e app) cat on )a'er$ Spec f c (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' t%e app) cat on )a'er nc)u!e t%e fo))o& n"$ - Net&or0 4 rtua) term na)$ - ? )e tran(ferB acce(( an! mana"ement 8?T;M9$ - Ma ) (er4 ce($ - D rector' (er4 ce($ ,0$ Def ne Net&or0 = rtua) Term na)$ Net&or0 = rtua) Term na) OSI remote )o" n protoco)$ It ( an ma" nar' term na) & t% a (et of (tan!ar! c%aracter (t c( t%at e4er' %o(t un!er(tan!($ ,#$ Def ne t%e term tran(m (( on me! um$ T%e tran(m (( on me! um ( t%e p%'( ca) pat% +et&een tran(m tter an! rece 4er n a !ata tran(m (( on ('(tem$ T%e c%aracter (t c( an! @ua) t' of !ata tran(m (( on are !eterm ne! +ot% t%e nature of ( "na) an! nature of t%e me! um$ ,2$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of tran(m (( on me! a* Tran(m (( on me! a are ! 4 !e! nto t&o cate"or e($ T%e' are a( fo))o&(D 8 9 6u !e! tran(m (( on me! a 8 9 Un"u !e! tran(m (( on me! a #$ :o& !o "u !e! me! a ! ffer from un"u !e! me! a* #$ ; "u !e! me! a ( conta ne! & t% n p%'( ca) +oun!ar e(B &% )e an un"u !e! me! um ( +oun!)e(($ #$ W%at are t%e t%ree maFor c)a((e( of "u !e! me! a* Cate"or e( of "u !e! me! a$ #$ #$ T& (te! pa r ca+)e$ Coa7 a) ca+)e$ ? +er opt c ca+)e$ #$ W%at ( a coa7 a) ca+)e* ; t'pe of ca+)e u(e! for computer net&or0 a( &e)) a( ca+)e te)e4 ( on$ T%e name ar (e( from t%e (tructure n &% c% a meta) (% e)! (urroun!( a center & re$ T%e (% e)! protect( t%e ( "na) on t%e nner & re from e)ectr ca) nterference$ #$ ; ) "%t +eam tra4e)( to a )e(( !en(e me! um$ W%at %appen( to t%e +eam n eac% of t%e fo))o& n" ca(e(D #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( )e(( t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ 2$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( e@ua) to t%e cr t ca) an")e$ 3$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( "reater t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$

#$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( )e(( t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ t%e ra' refract( an! mo4e( c)o(er to t%e (urface$ #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( e@ua) to t%e cr t ca) an")e$ t%e ) "%t +en!( a)on" t%e nterface$ #$ T%e nc !ent an")e ( "reater t%an t%e cr t ca) an")e$ t%e ra' ref)ect( an! tra4e)( a"a n n t%e !en(er (u+(tance$ #$ W%at ( ref)ect on* W%en t%e an")e of nc !ent +ecome( "reater t%an t%e cr t ca) an"e)B a ne& p%enomenon occur( ca))e! ref)ect on$ #$ D (cu(( t%e mo!e( for propa"at on ) "%t a)on" opt ca) c%anne)($ T%ere are t&o mo!e( for propa"at n" ) "%t a)on" opt ca) c%anne)($ S n")e mo!e an! mu)t mo!e$ Mu)t mo!e can +e mp)emente! n t&o form(D (tep n!e7 or "ra!e! n!e7$ #$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of c)a!! n" n an opt ca) f +er* D (cu(( t( !en( t' re)at 4e to t%e core$ ; ")a(( or p)a(t c ( (urroun!e! +' a c)a!! n" of )e(( !en(e ")a(( or p)a(t c$ T%e ! fference n !en( t' of t%e t&o mater a)( mu(t +e (uc% t%at a +eam of ) "%t mo4 n" t%rou"% t%e core ( ref)ecte! off t%e c)a!! n" n(tea! of +e n" refracte! nto t$ -0$ Name t%e a!4anta"e of opt ca) f +er o4er t& (te! pa r an! coa7 a) ca+)e$ : "%er +an!& !t%$ 3e(( ( "na) attenuat on$ Immun t' to e)ectroma"net c nterference$ Re( (tance to corro( 4e mater a)($ More mmune to tapp n"$ 3 "%t &e "%t$ #$ W%at ( t%e ! (a!4anta"e of opt ca) f +er a( a tran(m (( on me! um* In(ta))at on < Ma ntenance$ Un ! rect ona)$ Co(t More e7pen( 4e t%an t%o(e of ot%er "u !e! me! a$ #$ W%at mp)ementat on of EI; 232 ( a4a )a+)e* D5 2- mp)ementat on$ D5 2 mp)ementat on$ #$ W%at !oe( t%e term mo!em (tan!( for * Mo!em (tan!( for mo!u)ator < !emo!u)ator$ #$ W%at ( t%e funct on of a mo!u)ator* 2$ W%at ( t%e funct on of a !emo!u)ator* ; mo!u)ator con4ert( a ! " ta) ( "na) nto an ana)o" ( "na) u( n" ;SKB ?SKB PSK or C;M$ ; !e mo!u)ator con4ert( an ana)o" ( "na) nto a ! " ta) ( "na)$ #$ W%at ( an Inte)) "ent mo!em(* Inte)) "ent mo!em( conta n (oft&are to (upport a num+er of a!! t ona) funct on( (uc% a( automat c an(&er n" an! ! a) n"$ #$ W%at are t%e factor t%at affect t%e !ata rate of a ) n0* T%e !ata rate of a ) n0 !epen!( on t%e t'pe of enco! n" u(e! an! t%e +an!& !t% of t%e me! um$ #$ Def ne 3 ne co! n"$ 3 ne co! n" ( t%e proce(( of con4ert n" + nar' !ataB a (e@uence of + t(B to a ! " ta)

( "na)$ #$ ?or n !e4 ce( n a net&or0B &%at ( t%e num+er of ca+)e ) n0( nece((ar' for me(%B r n"B +u( an! (tar net&or0($ Num+er of ) n0( for me(% topo)o"' D n 8n #9 < 2$ Num+er of ) n0( for r n" topo)o"' D n #$ Num+er of ) n0( for +u( topo)o"' D one +ac0+one an! n !rop ) ne($ Num+er of ) n0( for (tar topo)o"' D n$ .0$ Wr te t%e !e( "n ((ue( of !ata) n0 )a'er* #9 Ser4 ce( pro4 !e! to net&or0 )a'er$ 29 ?ram n" 39 Error contro) ,9 ?)o& contro) .#$ W%at ( !ata) n0* W%en a !ata) n0 contro) protoco) ( u(e! t%e tran(m (( on me! um +et&een ('(tem( ( referre! to a( a !ata) n0$ .2$ W%at ( t%e ma n funct on of !ata) n0 )a'er* T%e !ata) n0 )a'er tran(form( t%e p%'( ca) )a'erB a ra& tran(m (( on fac ) t' to a re) a+)e ) n0 an! ( re(pon( +)e for no!e to no!e !e) 4er'$ .3$ W%at ( a !ata) n0 protoco)* Data) n0 protoco) ( a )a'er of contro) pre(ent n eac% commun cat n" !e4 ce t%at pro4 !e( funct on( (uc% a( f)o& contro)B error !etect on an! error contro)$ .,$ W%at ( meant +' f)o& contro)* ?)o& contro) ( a (et of proce!ure( u(e! to re(tr ct t%e amount of !ata t%at t%e (en!er can (en! +efore &a t n" for an ac0no&)e!"ement$ .-$ :o& ( error contro))e! n !ata) n0 contro))e! protoco)* In a !ata) n0 contro) protoco)B error contro) ( act 4ate! +' retran(m (( on of !ama"e! frame t%at %a4e not +een ac0no&)e!"e! +' ot%er ( !e &% c% re@ue(t( a retran(m (( on$ ..$ D (cu(( t%e concept of re!un!anc' n error !etect on$ Error !etect on u(e( t%e concept of re!un!anc'B &% c% mean( a!! n" e7tra + t( for !etect n" error( at t%e !e(t nat on$ ./$ W%at are t%e t%ree t'pe( of re!un!anc' c%ec0( u(e! n !ata commun cat on(* - =ert ca) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8=RC9 - 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 83RC9 - C'c) c Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8CRC9 .1$ :o& can t%e par t' + t !etect a !ama"e! !ata un t* In par t' c%ec0B 8a re!un!ant + t9 a par t' + t ( a!!e! to e4er' !ata un t (o t%at t%e tota) num+er of #( ( e4en for e4en par t' c%ec0 n" funct on 8or o!! for o!! par t'9$ .2$ :o& can &e u(e t%e :amm n" co!e to correct a +ur(t error* 5' rearran" n" t%e or!er of + t tran(m (( on of t%e !ata un t(B t%e :amm n" co!e can correct +ur(t error($ /0$ 5r ef)' ! (cu(( Stop an! Wa t met%o! of f)o& contro)* In Stop an! Wa t of f)o& contro)B t%e (en!er (en!( one frame an! &a t( for an ac0no&)e!"ement +efore (en! n" t%e ne7t frame$ /#$ In t%e :amm n" co!e for a !ata un t of m + t( %o& !o 'ou compute t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( HrA nee!e!* In t%e :amm n" co!eB for a !ata un t of m + t(B u(e t%e formu)a 2r I G m J r J # to

!eterm ne rB t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( nee!e!$ /2$ W%at are t%ree popu)ar ;RC mec%an (m(* - Stop an! &a t ;RCB - 6o 5ac0 N ;RC an! - Se)ect 4e Report ;RC$ /3$ :o& !oe( ;RC correct an error* ;n't me an error ( !etecte! n an e7c%an"eB a ne"at 4e ac0no&)e!"ment 8N;K9 ( returne! an! t%e (pec f e! frame( are retran(m tte!$ /-$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e t mer at t%e (en!er ( te n ('(tem( u( n" ;RC* T%e (en!er (tart( a t mer &%en t (en!( a frame$ If an ac0no&)e!"ment ( not rece 4e! & t% n an a))otte! t me per o!B t%e (en!er a((ume( t%at t%e frame &a( )o(t or !ama"e! an! re(en!( t$ /.$ W%at ( !ama"e! frame* ; !ama"e! frame ( reco"n >a+)e frame t%at !oe( arr 4eB +ut (ome of t%e + t( are n error 8%a4e +een a)tere! !ur n" tran(m (( on9 //$ W%at ( :D3C* :D3C ( a + t or ente! !ata) n0 protoco) !e( "ne! to (upport +ot% %a)f-!up)e7 an! fu)) !up)e7 commun cat on o4er po nt to po nt an! mu)t port ) n0$ /1$ 6 4e !ata tran(fer mo!e( of :D3C* #$ NRM Norma) Re(pon(e Mo!e 2$ ;RM ;('nc%ronou( Re(pon(e Mo!e 3$ ;5M - ;('nc%ronou( 5a)ance! Mo!e /2$ :o& man' t'pe( of frame( :D3C u(e(* #$ U-?rame( 2$ I-?rame( 3$ S-?rame 10$ State p%a(e( n4o)4e! n t%e operat on of :D3C* #$ In t a) >at on 2$ Data tran(fer 3$ D (connect 1#$ Def ne p ""'+ac0 n"* T%e nc)u( on of an ac0no&)e!"ment to a pre4 ou()' rece 4e! pac0et n an out"o n" !ata pac0et ( 0no&n a( p ""'+ac0 n"$ 12$ W%at ( t%e mean n" of ;CK frame* ;CK frame ( an n! cat on t%at a (tat on %a( rece 4e! (omet% n" from anot%er$ .0$ Part 5 #$ De(cr +e t%e funct on( of t%e )a'er( n t%e OSI reference mo!e)$ 2$ E7p)a n t%e feature( of t%e 4ar ou( un"u !e! tran(m (( on me! a n term( of fre@uenc' +an!B mo!u)at on (c%eme u(e!B no (e mmun t'B +an!& !t% an! !ata rate$ 3$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( topo)o" e($ ,$ De(cr +e t%e cate"or e( of net&or0$ -$ E7p)a n n !eta ) t%e mo!em (tan!ar!( an! t( tran(m (( on rate($ .$ W t% reference to tran(m (( on me! aB !e(cr +e t%e re)at 4e mer t( of opt ca) f +er( an! copper$ /$ E7p)a n t%e pr nc p)e( n4o)4e! n t%e tran(m (( on of !ata t%rou"% opt ca) f +er($ 1$ E7p)a n t%e (tructure of f +er ca+)e( & t% neat ! a"ram$ 2$ 3 (t an! ! (cu(( t%e component( n an opt ca) tran(m (( on ('(tem$ #0$ ; net&or0 %a( n !e4 ce($ Determ ne t%e num+er of ca+)e ) n0( re@u re! for a me(%B r n"B +u( an! (tar topo)o"'$

Un t 2 Data 3 n0 3a'er P;RT - ; #$ Wr te t%e !e( "n ((ue( of !ata) n0 )a'er* #9 Ser4 ce( pro4 !e! to net&or0 )a'er$ 29 ?ram n" 39 Error contro) ,9 ?)o& contro) 2$ W%at ( !ata) n0* W%en a !ata) n0 contro) protoco) ( u(e! t%e tran(m (( on me! um +et&een ('(tem( ( referre! to a( a !ata) n0$ 3$ W%at ( t%e ma n funct on of !ata) n0 )a'er* T%e !ata) n0 )a'er tran(form( t%e p%'( ca) )a'erB a ra& tran(m (( on fac ) t' to a re) a+)e ) n0 an! ( re(pon( +)e for no!e to no!e !e) 4er'$ ,$ W%at ( a !ata) n0 protoco)* Data) n0 protoco) ( a )a'er of contro) pre(ent n eac% commun cat n" !e4 ce t%at pro4 !e( funct on( (uc% a( f)o& contro)B error !etect on an! error contro)$ -$ W%at ( meant +' f)o& contro)* ?)o& contro) ( a (et of proce!ure( u(e! to re(tr ct t%e amount of !ata t%at t%e (en!er can (en! +efore &a t n" for an ac0no&)e!"ement$ .$ :o& ( error contro))e! n !ata) n0 contro))e! protoco)* In a !ata) n0 contro) protoco)B error contro) ( act 4ate! +' retran(m (( on of !ama"e! frame t%at %a4e not +een ac0no&)e!"e! +' ot%er ( !e &% c% re@ue(t( a retran(m (( on$ /$ D (cu(( t%e concept of re!un!anc' n error !etect on$ Error !etect on u(e( t%e concept of re!un!anc'B &% c% mean( a!! n" e7tra + t( for !etect n" error( at t%e !e(t nat on$ 1$ W%at are t%e t%ree t'pe( of re!un!anc' c%ec0( u(e! n !ata commun cat on(* - =ert ca) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8=RC9 - 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 83RC9 - C'c) c Re!un!anc' C%ec0 8CRC9 2$ :o& can t%e par t' + t !etect a !ama"e! !ata un t* In par t' c%ec0B 8a re!un!ant + t9 a par t' + t ( a!!e! to e4er' !ata un t (o t%at t%e tota) num+er of #( ( e4en for e4en par t' c%ec0 n" funct on 8or o!! for o!! par t'9$ #0$ :o& can &e u(e t%e :amm n" co!e to correct a +ur(t error* 5' rearran" n" t%e or!er of + t tran(m (( on of t%e !ata un t(B t%e :amm n" co!e can correct +ur(t error($ ##$ 5r ef)' ! (cu(( Stop an! Wa t met%o! of f)o& contro)* In Stop an! Wa t of f)o& contro)B t%e (en!er (en!( one frame an! &a t( for an ac0no&)e!"ement +efore (en! n" t%e ne7t frame$ #2$ In t%e :amm n" co!e for a !ata un t of m + t( %o& !o 'ou compute t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( HrA nee!e!* In t%e :amm n" co!eB for a !ata un t of m + t(B u(e t%e formu)a 2r I G m J r J # to !eterm ne rB t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( nee!e!$ #3$ W%at are t%ree popu)ar ;RC mec%an (m(* - Stop an! &a t ;RCB - 6o 5ac0 N ;RC an!

- Se)ect 4e Report ;RC$ #,$ :o& !oe( ;RC correct an error* ;n't me an error ( !etecte! n an e7c%an"eB a ne"at 4e ac0no&)e!"ment 8N;K9 ( returne! an! t%e (pec f e! frame( are retran(m tte!$ #-$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e t mer at t%e (en!er ( te n ('(tem( u( n" ;RC* T%e (en!er (tart( a t mer &%en t (en!( a frame$ If an ac0no&)e!"ment ( not rece 4e! & t% n an a))otte! t me per o!B t%e (en!er a((ume( t%at t%e frame &a( )o(t or !ama"e! an! re(en!( t$ #.$ W%at ( !ama"e! frame* ; !ama"e! frame ( reco"n >a+)e frame t%at !oe( arr 4eB +ut (ome of t%e + t( are n error 8%a4e +een a)tere! !ur n" tran(m (( on9 #/$ W%at ( :D3C* :D3C ( a + t or ente! !ata) n0 protoco) !e( "ne! to (upport +ot% %a)f-!up)e7 an! fu)) !up)e7 commun cat on o4er po nt to po nt an! mu)t port ) n0$ #1$ 6 4e !ata tran(fer mo!e( of :D3C* #$ NRM Norma) Re(pon(e Mo!e 2$ ;RM ;('nc%ronou( Re(pon(e Mo!e 3$ ;5M - ;('nc%ronou( 5a)ance! Mo!e #2$ :o& man' t'pe( of frame( :D3C u(e(* #$ U-?rame( 2$ I-?rame( 3$ S-?rame 20$ State p%a(e( n4o)4e! n t%e operat on of :D3C* #$ In t a) >at on 2$ Data tran(fer 3$ D (connect 2#$ Def ne p ""'+ac0 n"* T%e nc)u( on of an ac0no&)e!"ment to a pre4 ou()' rece 4e! pac0et n an out"o n" !ata pac0et ( 0no&n a( p ""'+ac0 n"$ 22$ W%at ( t%e mean n" of ;CK frame* ;CK frame ( an n! cat on t%at a (tat on %a( rece 4e! (omet% n" from anot%er$ 23$ W%at ( CSM;* Carr er Sen(e Mu)t p)e ;cce(( ( a protoco) u(e! to (en(e &%et%er a me! um ( +u(' +efore attempt n" to tran(m t$ 2,$ E7p)a n CSM;<CD Carr er Sen(e Mu)t p)e ;cce(( & t% co)) ( on !etect on ( a protoco) u(e! to (en(e &%et%er a me! um ( +u(' +efore tran(m (( on +ut ( %a( t%e a+ ) t' to !etect &%et%er a tran(m (( on %a( co)) !e! & t% anot%er 2-$ W%at ( co)) ( on !etect on* It ( t%e a+ ) t' of a (tat on to !eterm ne &%en a co)) ( on %a( occurre!$ 2.$ State ! fferent cate"or e( of CSM;<CD* #$ #0 5;SE 2$ #0 5;SE 2 3$ #0 5RO;D 3. ,$ # 5;SE 2/$ State a!4anta"e of Et%ernet*

#$ Ine7pen( 4e 2$ Ea(' to n(ta)) 3$ Support( 4ar ou( & r n" tec%no)o" e($ 21$ W%at ( t%e mean n" of #05;SE2* 102$3 Et%ernet ( t% n co a7 a) ca+)e$ T%e #0 (pec f e( a 5an!& !t% of #0 M+p(B t%e 5a(e (pec f e( t%at t( a +a(e+an! tran(m (( onB an! t%e 2 n! cate( a ma7 mum (e"ment )en"t% for t% ( ca+)e t'pe of 200 meter($ 22$ W%at ( fa(t Et%ernet* It ( t%e % "% (pee! 4er( on of Et%ernet t%at (upport( !ata tran(fer rate( of #00 M+p($ 30$ State ! fferent ca+)e (tan!ar!( for ?a(t Et%ernet ca+) n"* #$ #00 5;SET, 2$ #00 5;SETK 3$ #00 5;SE?K 3#$ W%at ( + t (tuff n" an! &%' t ( nee!e! n :D3C* 5 t (tuff n" ( t%e proce(( of a!! n" one e7tra 0 &%ene4er t%ere are f 4e con(ecut 4e #( n t%e !ata (o t%at t%e rece 4er !oe( not m (ta0e t%e !ata for a f)a"$ 5 t (tuff n" ( nee!e! to %an!)e !ata tran(parenc'$ 32$ W%at ( t%e u(e of p<f + t n t%e :D3C frame* P<? + t ( (u+f e)! n :D3C frame$ T%e P<? f e)! ( a ( n")e + t & t% a !ua) purpo(eB &%en t ( (et t can mean po)) or f na)$ It mean( po)) &%en t%e frame ( (ent +' a pr mar' (tat on to (econ!ar' (tat on an! t mean f na) &%en t%e frame ( (ent +' a (econ!ar' to a pr mar' (tat on$ 33$ W%at ( t%e )en"t% of 102$3 M;C a!!re(($ 2 or . octet( 3,$ W%at ( t%e error !etect n" capa+ ) t' of par t' c%ec0* Par t' c%ec0 can !etect an error +ut t cannot (pec f' &% c% + t ( n error$ 3-$ W%at ( t%e ( >e of Et%ernet a!!re((* 2 or . octet( 3.$ W%at ( a +r !"e* 5r !"e ( a %ar!&are net&or0 n" !e4 ce u(e! to connect t&o 3;N($ ; +r !"e operate( at !ata ) n0 )a'er of t%e OSI reference mo!e)$ 3/$ W%at ( a repeater* Repeater ( a %ar!&are !e4 ce u(e! to (tren"t%en ( "na)( +e n" tran(m tte! on a net&or0($ 31$ Def ne router* ; net&or0 )a'er !e4 ce t%at connect( net&or0( & t% ! fferent p%'( ca) me! a an! tran()ate( +et&een net&or0 arc% tecture($ 32$ State t%e funct on( of +r !"e* #$ ?rame f )ter n" an! for&ar! n" 2$ 3earn n" t%e a!!re(( 3$ Rout n" ,0$ 3 (t an' t&o funct on( &% c% a +r !"e cannot perform* - 5r !"e cannot !eterm ne mo(t eff c ent pat%$ - Traff c mana"ement funct on$ ,#$ W%at ( %u+* Net&or0( re@u re a centra) )ocat on to +r n" me! a (e"ment to"et%er$ T%e(e centra) )ocat on( are ca))e! %u+($

,2$ State mportant t'pe( of %u+($ #$ Pa(( 4e %u+ 2$ ;ct 4e %u+ 3$ Inte)) "ent %u+ ,3$ Ment on t%e funct on of %u+$ #$ ?ac ) tate a!! n"<!e)et n" or mo4 n" &or0 (tat on( 2$ E7ten! t%e )en"t% of net&or0 3$ It pro4 !e( centra) >e mana"ement (er4 ce( ,$ Pro4 !e( mu)t p)e nterface($ ,,$ W%at ( t%e ma n funct on of "ate&a'$ ; "ate&a' ( a protoco) con4erter ,-$ ; "ate&a' operate( at &% c% )a'er$ 6ate&a' operate( at a)) (e4en )a'er( of OSI mo!e)$ ,.$ W% c% factor( a "ate&a' %an!)e(* Data rateB !ata ( >eB !ata format ,/$ W%at ( meant +' act 4e %u+* ; centra) %u+ n a net&or0 t%at retran(m t( t%e !ata t rece 4e($ ,1$ W%at ( t%e funct on of ;CK t mer* ;CK t mer ( u(e! n f)o& contro) protoco)( to !eterm ne &%en to (en! a (eparate ac0no&)e!"ment n t%e a+(ence of out"o n" frame$ ,2$ W% c% t'pe of rout n" can re(pon! to t%e c%an"e( n net&or0$ ;!apt 4e rout n" -0$ T%e n(ert on of an e7tra + t to a4o ! a )on" run of (ame + t ( ca))e! a( $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 5 t (tuff n" -#$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of +r !"e(* #$ Tran(parent +r !"e 2$ Source Rout n" +r !"e Tran(parent +r !"e - Tran(parent +r !"e 0eep a (u ta+)e of a!!re((e( n memor' to !eterm ne &%ere to (en! !ata Source Rout n" +r !"e - Source Rout n" +r !"e re@u re( t%e ent re rout n" ta+)e to +e nc)u!e! n t%e tran(m (( on an! !o not route pac0et nte)) "ent)'$ -2$ W%at ( SI?S* S%ort Inter ?rame Spac n" ( u(e! to a))o& t%e part e( n a ( n")e ! a)o" t%e c%ance to "o f r(t$ -3$ W%at are tran(rece 4er(* Tran(rece 4er( are com+ nat on of tran(m tter an! rece 4er$ Tran(rece 4er( are a)(o ca))e! a( me! um attac%ment un t 8M;U9 -,$ W%at ( t%e funct on of NIC* NIC ( u(e! to a))o& t%e computer to commun cate on t%e net&or0$ It (upport( tran(m tt n"B rece 4 n" an! contro)) n" traff c & t% ot%er computer( on net&or0$ --$ Ment on ! fferent ran!om acce(( tec%n @ue(* #$ ;3O:; 2$ CSM; 3$ CSM;<CD -.$ W%at ( 5)uetoot%* W% c% fre@uenc' +an! ( u(e! for +an!& !t%* - 5)uetoot% ( a )o& co(tB )o& po&erB (%ort ran"e & re)e(( commun cat on tec%no)o"' - 2$,6:> to 2$,1, 6:>

#$ Pa(( 4e %u+ 2$ ;ct 4e %u+ #$ Inte)) "ent %u+ -/$ 3 (t t%e t&o t'pe( of !ata frame( n ?DDI - S'nc%ronou( 8S frame9 - ;('nc%ronou( 8; frame9 -1$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of t%e N;=* T%e net&or0 a))ocat on 4ector 8N;=9 ( a t mer for co)) ( on a4o !ance$ -2$ Name t%e four t'pe( of S frame($ - Rece 4e rea!'8RR9 - Rece 4e not rea!' 8RNR9 - ReFect 8REI9 - Se)ect 4e reFect 8SREL9 .0$ W%at are t%e four SONET )a'er(* SONET !ef ne( four )a'er($ T%e p%oton c )a'er ( t%e )o&e(t an! perform( p%'( ca) )a'er act 4 t e($ T%e (ect onB ) ne an! pat% )a'er( corre(pon! to t%e OSI mo!e)A( !ata ) n0 )a'er$ .#$ W%at ( a 4 rtua) tr +utar'* ; 4 rtua) tr +utar' ( a par ta) pa')oa! t%at can +e n(erte! nto an STS-# an! com+ ne! & t% ot%er part a) pa')oa!( to f )) out t%e frame$ .2$ W%at ( t%e acce(( met%o! u(e! +' & re)e(( 3;N(* T%e & re)e(( 3;N acce(( met%o! ( CSM;<C; 8Carr er Sen(e Mu)t p)e ;cce(( & t% Co)) ( on ;4o !ance9 P;RT 5D #$ W t% reference to () ! n" & n!o& protoco) e7p)a n (e)ect 4e repeat an! "o +ac0 N$ 8.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e !ata) n0 )a'er n Internet an! :D3C$ 8#.9 3$ E7p)a n t%e CSM;<CD a)"ort% m( of Et%ernet$ 819 ,$ E7p)a n n !eta )( a+out t%e acce(( met%o! an! frame format u(e! n Et%ernet an! to0en r n"$ 8#29 -$ #$ ; +)oc0 of 32 + t( %a( to +e tran(m tte!$ D (cu(( %o& t%e t% rt' t&o + t +)oc0 ( tran(m tte! to t%e rece 4er u( n" 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0$ 8.9 2$ Con( !er a 32 + t +)oc0 of !ata ###00### ##0###0# 00###00# #0#0#00# t%at %a( to +e tran(m tte!$ I? 3on" tu! na) Re!un!anc' C%ec0 ( u(e! &%at ( t%e tran(m tte! + t (tream$ 8,9 3$ In t%e :amm n" co!e for a !ata un t of m + t( %o& !o 'ou compute t%e num+er of re!un!ant + t( HrA nee!e!$ 839 ,$ W%at 0 n!( of error( can 4ert ca) Re!un!anc' c%ec0 !eterm ne* W%at 0 n!( of error( t cannot !eterm ne* 839 .$ $ 3 (t t%e t%ree ma n funct on( preforme! +' t%e !ata ) n0 )a'er of t%e ISO OSI mo!e)$ 839 $ E7p)a n t%e &or0 n" of carr er (en(e mu)t p)e acce(( protoco)$ 839 $ :o& !oe( a To0en R n" 3;N operate(* D (cu(($ 8.9 4$ 3 (t an! +r ef)' ! (cu(( t%e t&o ! fferent +a( c tran(m (( on tec%no)o" e( t%at can +e u(e! to (et up & re)e(( 3;NA($ 8,9 /$ E7p)a n :amm n" Co!e$

1$ E7p)a n n !eta )( SONET an! SONET ?rame$ 2$ E7p)a n t%e frame formatB operat on an! r n" ma ntenance feature of IEEE 102$M;C protoco)$ #0$ $ E7p)a n t%e !ata) n0 )a'er n t%e Internet$ $ If t%e frame ( ##0#0##0## an! "enerator ( #00## &%at &ou)! +e t%e tran(m tte! frame* ##$ $ W%at ( t%e rema n!er o+ta ne! +' ! 4 ! n" 7/J7-J# +' t%e "enerator po)'nom a) 73J#$ $ ; + t (tream #00###0# ( tran(m tte! u( n" t%e (tan!ar! CRC met%o!$ T%e "enerator po)'nom a) ( 73J# (%o& t%e actua) + t (tr n" tran(m tte!$ Suppo(e t%e t% r! + t from )eft ( n4erte! !ur n" tran(m (( on (%o& t%at t% ( error ( !etecte! at rece 4erA( en!$ $ ; + t (tr n" 0####0#####0######0B nee!( to +e tran(m tte! at t%e !ata) n0 )a'er$ W%at ( t%e (tr n" actua))' tran(m tte! after + t (tuff n"$ #2$ 5r ef)' !ef ne 0e' re@u rement( for & re)e(( 3;N($ #3$ De(cr +e t%e ?DDI frame format an! e7p)a n$ #,$ D (cu(( t%e M;C )a'er funct on( of IEEE 102$##$ #-$ E7p)a n n !eta )( t%e t'pe( of +r !"e($ UNIT III P;RT - ; #$ W%at ( mean +' nternet&or0(* W%en t&o or more net&or0( are connecte!B t%e' +ecome nternet&or0 or nternet$ 2$ W%at are t%e met%o!( of pac0et (& tc% n"* = rtua) C rcu t approac%$ Data"ram approac% 3$ W%at ( an Internet Protoco) 8IP9* T%e protoco) t%at !ef ne( +ot% t%e format of pac0et( u(e! on a TCP<IP nternet an! t%e mec%an (m( for rout n" a pac0et to t( !e(t nat on$ ,$ W%at ( an IP a!!re((* ;n IP a!!re(( ( a 32 - + t a!!re(( t%at un @ue)' an! un 4er(a))' !ef ne t%e connect on of a %o(t or a router to t%e Internet$ T%e (en!er mu(t 0no& t%e IP a!!re(( of t%e !e(t nat on computer +efore (en! n" a pac0et$ -$ W%at are t%e cate"or e( of IP a!!re((e(* IP a!!re((e( &ere ! 4 !e! nto f 4e cate"or e( a( fo))o&($ C)a(( ; C)a(( 5 C)a(( C C)a(( D C)a(( E .$ D (cu(( t%e c)a(( f e)! n IP a!!re(($ If t%e a!!re(( ( " 4en n + nar' notat onB t%e f r(t fe& + t( can te)) u( t%e c)a(( of t%e a!!re(($ C)a(( ; - 0 C)a(( 5 - #0 C)a(( C - ##0

C)a(( D - ###0 C)a(( E - #### W%en t%e a!!re(( ( " 4en n !otte! !ec ma) notat onB t%en )oo0 at t%e f r(t +'te to !eterm ne t%e c)a(( of t%e a!!re(($$ C)a(( ; - 0 to #2/ C)a(( 5 #21 to #2# C)a(( C #22 to 223 C)a(( D 22, to 232 C)a(( E 2,0 to 2-/$ E7p)a n Mu)t ca(t n"$ ; form of a!!re(( n" n &% c% a (et of computer ( a(( "ne! one a!!re((B a cop' of an' !ata"ram (ent to t%e a!!re(( ( !e) 4ere! to eac% of t%e computer( n t%e (et$ 1$ Def ne t%e term +roa! ca(t n"$ ; form of !e) 4er' n &% c% one cop' of a pac0et ( !e) 4ere! to eac% computer on a net&or0$ 2$ W%at ( a %o(t ! an! net !* Net ! T%e port on of t%e IP a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e net&or0 ca))e! t%e net !$ :o(t ! T%e port on of t%e IP a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e %o(t or router on t%e net&or0 ( ca))e! t%e %o(t !$ #0$ :o& !oe( a net ! ! ffer from a net&or0 a!!re((* ; net&or0 a!!re(( %a( +ot% net ! an! %o(t ! & t% 0A( for t%e %o(t !$ ##$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of (u+nett n"* W%en &e ! 4 !e a net&or0 nto (e4era) (u+net(B &e %a4e t%ree )e4e)( of % erarc%' T%e net ! ( t%e f r(t )e4e)B !ef ne( t%e ( te$ T%e (u+net ! ( t%e 2n! )e4e)B !ef ne( t%e p%'( ca) (u+net&or0$ T%e %o(t ! ( t%e 3r! )e4e) !ef ne( t%e connect on of t%e %o(t to t%e (u+net&or0$ #2$ Def ne Ma(0 n"$ Ma(0 n" ( a proce(( t%at e7tract( t%e a!!re(( of t%e p%'( ca) net&or0 from an IP a!!re(($ #3$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een +oun!ar' )e4e) ma(0 n" an! non-+oun!ar' )e4e) ma(0 n"$ 5oun!ar' )e4e) Ma(0 n"D If t%e ma(0 n" ( at t%e +oun!ar' )e4e)B t%e ma(0 num+er( are e t%er 2-- or 0B f n! n" t%e (u+net&or0 a!!re(( ( 4er' ea('$ Non 5oun!ar' )e4e) Ma(0 n"D If t%e ma(0 n" ( not at t%e +oun!ar' )e4e)B t%e ma(0 num+er( are not Fu(t 2-- or 0B f n! n" t%e (u+net&or0 a!!re(( n4o)4e( u( n" t%e + t& (e ;ND operator($ #,$ W%at ( t%e funct on of router* Router( re)a' pac0et( amon" mu)t p)e nterconnecte! net&or0($ T%e' route pac0et( from one net&or0 to an' num+er of potent a) !e(t nat on net&or0( on an nternet$ #-$ :o& !oe( a router ! ffer from a +r !"e* Router( pro4 !e ) n0( +et&een t&o (eparate +ut (ame t'pe 3;N( an! are mo(t act 4e at t%e net&or0 )a'er$ W%erea( +r !"e( ut ) >e a!!re(( n" protoco)( an! can affect t%e f)o& contro) of a ( n")e 3;NM mo(t act 4e at t%e !ata ) n0 )a'er$ #.$ W%at ( t%e c)a(( of eac% of t%e fo))o& n" a!!re((e(* a$ #00###0# #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( 5 +$ ##0###0# #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( C c$ 0####0## #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( ;

!$ ###0#0## #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( D e$ ####0#0# #000#### ######00 ##00#### C)a(( E /$ ? n! t%e c)a(( of eac% a!!re((e($ a$ ,$23$#,-$20 C)a(( ; +$ 22/$3,$/1$/ C)a(( D c$ 2,.$/$3$1 C)a(( E !$ 22$.$1$, C)a(( ; e$ #21$/.$2$23 C)a(( C #1$ In rout n" &%at !oe( t%e term S:ORTEST mean* T%e term S%orte(t mean t%e com+ nat on of man' factor( nc)u! n" (%orte(tB c%eape(t B fa(te(t mo(t re) a+)e an! (o on$ #2$ W%' ( a!apt 4e rout n" (uper or to non a!apt 4e rout n"* ;!apt 4e rout n" ( (uper or to non a!apt 4e rout n" +ecau(e a!apt 4e rout n" ma' (e)ect a ne& route for eac% pac0et n re(pon(e to c%an"e n con! t on an! topo)o"' of t%e net&or0($ 20$ W%at ( t%e routerA( ro)e n contro)) n" t%e pac0et ) fet me* ;( pac0et ( "enerate!B eac% pac0et ( mar0et & t% a ) fet meB u(ua))' t%e num+er of %op( t%at are a))o&e! +efore a pac0et ( con( !ere! )o(t an!B accor! n")' !e(tro'e!$ ;( eac% router encounter( t%e pac0et (u+tract( # from t%e tota) +efore pa(( n" t on$ W%en t%e ) fet me tota) reac%e( 0B t%e pac0et ( !e(tro'e!$ 2#$ W%at are t%e mo(t popu)ar rout n" a)"or t%m(* a$ D (tance =ector rout n" +$ 3 n0 State rout n" 22$ W%at are t%e t%ree ma n e)ement( of ! (tance 4ector a)"or t%m($ a$ Kno&)e!"e a+out t%e ent re autonomou( ('(tem$ +$ Rout n" on)' to ne "%+our( c$ Informat on (%ar n" at re"u)ar nter4a)( 23$ W%at ( Supernett n"* Supernett n" com+ ne( (e4era) net&or0( nto one )a"er one$ 2,$ Def ne f)oo! n"* ?)oo! n" mean( t%at a router (en!( t( nformat on to a)) of t( ne "%+our( an! a)) of t( output port($ 2-$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( offere! +' net&or0 )a'er* a$ 3o" ca) a!!re(( n" +$ Rout n" 2.$ D (t n"u (% +et&een a!apt 4e an! non a!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m($ Non a!apt 4e Rout n"D Once a pat%&a' to a !e(t nat on %a( +een (e)ecte! t%e router (en!( a)) pac0et( for t%at !e(t nat on a)on" t%at one route$ T%e rout n" !ec ( on( are not +a(e! on t%e con! t on or topo)o"' of t%e net&or0($ ;!apt 4e Rout n"D Router ma' (e)ect a ne& route for eac% pac0et$8e4en pac0et( +e)on" n" to t%e (ame tran(m (( on9 T%e rout n" !ec ( on( are +a(e! on t%e con! t on or topo)o"' of t%e net&or0($ 2/$ I!ent f' t%e c)a(( an! !efau)t (u+net ma(0 of t%e IP a!!re(( 2#/$.-$#0$/$

It +e)on"( to c)a(( C$ Defau)t (u+net ma(0 2--$2--$2--$#22 21$ W%at are t%e f e)!( pre(ent n IP a!!re((* Net ! an! :o(t !$ Net ! port on of t%e p a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e net&or0$ :o(t ! port on of t%e p a!!re(( t%at !ent f e( t%e %o(t or router on t%e net&or0($ 22$ W%at are t%e t%ree ma n e)ement( of 3 n0 (tate rout n"* #$ Kno&)e!"e a+out t%e ne "%+or%oo!$ 2$ S%ar n" & t% e4er' ot%er net&or0$ 3$ Informat on (%ar n" &%en t%ere ( a c%an"e$ 30$ W%at a)"or t%m !oe( ) n0 (tate rout n" u(e to ca)cu)ate t%e rout n" ta+)e($ D F0(tra a)"or t%m ( u(e! to ca)cu)ate t%e rout n" ta+)e$ 3#$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e( of f)oo! n"* - S mp)e - Nee!( no net&or0 nformat on or rout n" ta+)e( - Ro+u(t for fa )ure prone net&or0($ - S%orte(t pat% ( a)&a'( foun!$ 32$ W%at ( f)o& contro)* :o& to 0eep a fa(t (en!er from (&amp n" a ()o& rece 4er & t% !ata ( ca))e! f)o& contro)$ 33$ D fferent ate 4 rtua) c rcu t an! !ata"ramA($ =C ( connect on or ente! an! !ata"ram ( connect on)e(($ 3,$ W%at ( a!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m* ;!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m( c%an"e t%e r rout n" !ec ( on( to ref)ect c%an"e( n t%e topo)o"' an! u(ua))' t%e traff c a( &e))$ D (tance 4ector an! ) n0 (tate are e7amp)e( of t% ($ 3-$ W%at ( t%e t me to ) 4e f e)! n IP %ea!er* T me to ) 4e f e)! ( counter u(e! to ) m t pac0et ) fet me( count( n (econ! an! !efau)t 4a)ue ( 2-- (ec$ 3.$ W%at are t%e ma n ! (a!4anta"e( of ! (tance 4ector rout n"* Sp) t %or >on Count to nf n t' pro+)em 3/$ I!ent f' t%e c)a(( an! !efau)t (u+net ma(0 of t%e IP a!!re(( 2#/$.-$#0$/ IP a!!re(( 2#/$.-$#0$/ +e)on"( to c)a(( C a!!re(( an! !efau)t (u+net ma(0 ( 2--$2--$2--$0$ 31$ W%at ( meant +' 4 rtua) pat%* = rtua) pat% ( a (et of connect on( +et&een t&o (& tc%e($ 32$ W%at ( a!!re(( re(o)ut on* ;!!re(( re(o)ut on ( a proce(( of o+ta n n" t%e p%'( ca) a!!re(( of a computer +a(e! on t( IP a!!re((B n or!er to +e a+)e to f na))' actua))' tran(m t t%e frame or !ata"ram( o4er t%e net&or0 to &% c% t%e no!e +e)on"($ ,0$ W%' ( t t%at n a +roa!ca(t net&or0B t%e net&or0 )a'er ( often t% n or e4en non e7 (tent* Net&or0 )a'er ( re(pon( +)e for %o(t to %o(t !e) 4er' an! for rout n" t%e pac0et( t%rou"% t%e router( or (& tc%e($ In +roa!ca(t t%ere ( no nee! of a!!re(( n" t%e pac0et(B rout n" an! a!!re(( 4er f cat on$

,#$ W%at are t%e +enef t( of (u+nett n" a net&or0* #$ Re!uce! net&or0 traff c 2$ Opt m >e! net&or0 performance 3$ S mp) f e! net&or0 mana"ement ,$ ?ac ) t e( (pann n" )ar"e "eo"rap% ca) ! (tance$ ,2$ W%at ( meant +' rout n" a)"or t%m* T%e a)"or t%m t%at mana"e( rout n" ta+)e( an! ma0e( t%e rout n" !ec ( on( ( ca))e! rout n" a)"or t%m$ ,3$ W%at are t%e !e( ra+)e propert e( of a rout n" a)"or t%m(* #$ Correctne(( 2$ S mp) c t' 3$ Ro+u(tne(( ,$ Sta+ ) t' -$ ?a rne(( .$ Opt ma) t' ,,$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of rout n" a)"or t%m(* #$ Non a!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m 2$ ;!apt 4e rout n" a)"or t%m ,-$ W%at are t%e metr c( u(e! +' rout n" protoco)(* Pat% )en"t%B re) a+ ) t'B !e)a'B +an!& !t%B )oa! an! commun cat on co(t$ P;RT 5 #$ E7p)a n t%e net&or0 )a'er n t%e Internet an! IP a!!re(( n" 2$ Wr te a note on 4ar ou( nternet&or0 n" !e4 ce( 3$ Compare 5r !"e( an! router( ,$ E7p)a n (%orte(t pat% a)"or t%m & t% a (u ta+)e ))u(trat on -$ #$ E7p)a n t%e ! (tance 4ector rout n" a)"or t%m$ 2$ Ment on t%e ) m tat on( of ! (tance 4ector rout n"a)"or t%m$ 3$ E7p)a n t%e +u )! n" an! ! (tr +ut on of ) n0 (tate pac0et( n ) n0 (tate rout n" a)"or t%m$ ,$ Ment on t%e ) m tat on( of ) n0 (tate rout n" a)"or t%m$ .$ E7p)a n ) n0 (tate rout n" an! ! (cu(( t( a!4anta"e( o4er ! (tance 4ector rout n"$ /$ E7p)a n n !eta )( pac0et (& tc% n"$ 1$ E7p)a n n !eta )( Data"ram approac%$ 2$ E7p)a n n !eta )( IP a!!re(( n" met%o!($ #0$ $ State &% c% )a'er( of t%e ISO OSI mo!e) !oe( t%e fo))o& n" nterconnect n" !e4 ce( operate$ a$ Repeater( +$ 5r !"e( c$ Router( !$ 6ate&a'( $ State t%e maFor ! fference +et&een D (tance =ector Rout n" an! 3 n0 (tate Rout n"$ D (cu(( %o& t%e(e rout n" tec%n @ue( &or0$ ##$ $ W%at ( (u+nett n"* D (cu(($ ;)(o (tate &% c% c)a((e( of IP a!!re(( can +e (u+nette!$ $ W%at ( (u+net ma(0 n"* D (cu(( $ :o& can &e pro4e t%at &e %a4e 2B#,/B,13B.,1 a!!re((e( n c)a(( ;* 4$ W%at ( t%e (u+net&or0 a!!re(( f t%e !e(t nat on a!!re(( ( 200$,-$3,$-. an!

t%e (u+net ma(0 ( 2--$2--$2,0$0 #2$ $ In c)a((fu) a!!re(( n" %o& ( an IP a!!re(( n c)a(( ;B C)a(( 5 an! C)a(( C ! 4 !e!* D (cu(( $ 6 4en t%e a!!re(( 23$-.$/$2# an! t%e !efau)t c)a(( ; ma(0B f n! t%e +e" nn n" a!!re(( 8net&or0 a!!re((9 $ 6 4en t%e a!!re(( 20#$#10$-.$- an! t%e !efau)t c)a(( C ma(0B f n! t%e +e" nn n" a!!re(( 8net&or0 a!!re((9$ #3$ ?or t%e net&or0 (%o&n n f "ure & t% t%e " 4en ) n0 co(tB u(e DF0(traA( a)"or t%m to !eterm ne t%e (%orte(t pat% from ; to a)) ot%er no!e($ S%o& a)) 'our &or0 n" an! (%o& 'our re(u)t a( a (pann n" tree8(9 route! at ;$ UNIT , P;RT ; #$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' tran(port )a'er protoco)* a$ En! to En! !e) 4er' +$ ;!!re(( n" c$ Re) a+)e !e) 4er' !$ ?)o& contro) e$ Mu)t p)e7 n" 2$ W%at ( t%e ! fference +et&een net&or0 (er4 ce an! tran(port (er4 ce* Net&or0 (er4 ce( ( "enera))' unre) a+)e &%erea( tran(port (er4 ce ( re) a+)e$ T%e net&or0 (er4 ce ( on)' u(e! +' t%e tran(port ent t e( an! tran(port (er4 ce mu(t +e con4en ent an! ea(' to u(e$ 3$ 3 (t (ome of t%e Cua) t' of (er4 ce parameter( of tran(port )a'er a$ Error an! )o(( )e4e)( +$ De( re! a4era"e an! ma7 mum !e)a' c$ T%rou"%put !$ Pr or t' )e4e) e$ Re( )ence$ ,$ W%at are t%e funct on( of tran(port )a'er(* T%e tran(port )a'er ( re(pon( +)e for re) a+)e !ata !e) 4er'$ ?unct on( of tran(port )a'er $ Tran(port )a'er +rea0( me((a"e( nto pac0et( $ It perform( error reco4er' f t%e )o&er )a'er( are not a!e@uate)' error free$ $ ?unct on of f)o& contro) f not !one a!e@uate)' at t%e net&or0 )a'er$ 4$ ?unct on of mu)t p)e7 n" an! !emu)t p)e7 n" (e(( on( to"et%er$ 4$ T% ( )a'er can +e re(pon( +)e for (ett n" up an! re)ea( n" connect on( acro(( t%e net&or0$ -$ W%at ( tran(port ent t'* T%e ma n "oa) of t%e tran(port )a'er ( to pro4 !e eff c entB re) a+)e an! co(t effect 4e (er4 ce to t( u(er(B norma))' proce((e( n t%e app) cat on )a'er$ T%e %ar!&are an! (oft&are & t% n t%e tran(port )a'er t%at !oe( t%e &or0 ( ca))e! t%e tran(port ent t'$ .$ W%at ( (e"mentat on* W%en t%e ( >e of t%e !ata un t rece 4e! from t%e upper )a'er ( too )on" for t%e net&or0 )a'er !ata"ram( or !ata) n0 frame to %an!)eB t%e tran(port protoco) ! 4 !e( t n to (ma))erB u(ua+)e +)oc0($ T%e ! 4 ! n" proce(( ( ca))e! (e"mentat on$ /$ W%at ( concatenat on* W%en t%e ( >e of t%e !ata un t( +e)on" n" to a ( n")e (e(( on are (o (ma)) t%at (e4era) can

f t to"et%er nto a ( n")e !ata"ram or frameB t%e tran(port protoco) com+ ne( t%em nto a ( n")e !ata un t$ T%e com+ n n" proce(( ( ca))e! concatenat on$ 1$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of (e@uence contro)* a$ If a )on"er !ata un t %a( +een (e"mente! t%e num+er( n! cate t%e or!er of rea((em+)'$ +$ If (e4era) (%orter un t( %a4e +een concatenate! t%e num+er( n! cate t%e en! of eac% (u+un t an! a))o& t%em to +e (eparate! accurate)' at t%e !e(t nat on$ 2$ :o& tran(port )a'er perform( Dup) cat on contro)* Se@uence num+er a))o& t%e rece 4er to !ent t' an! ! (car! !up) cate (e"ment($ #0$ Def ne Mu)t p)e7 n"$ Man' to one re)at on(% p T%e proce(( of accept n" me((a"e( from ! fferent proce((e(B ! fferent ate! +' t%e r a(( "ne! port num+er$ ;fter a!! n" t%e %ea!erB t%e tran(port )a'er pa((e( t%e pac0et to t%e net&or0 )a'er$ ##$ W%at are t%e t&o &a'( of mu)t p)e7 n" !one at t%e tran(port )a'er* Mu)t p)e7 n" occur( at t%e tran(port )a'er n 2 &a'( $ Up&ar! Mu)t p)e7 n"D T%e mu)t p)e tran(port )a'er connect on u(e( t%e (ame net&or0 connect on($ $ Do&n&ar! Mu)t p)e7 n" T%e tran(port )a'er connect on u(e( t%e mu)t p)e net&or0 connect on($ #2$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce pr m t 4e( n ( mp)e tran(port protoco)* T%e parameter( of t%e (er4 ce pr m t 4e an! ) +rar' proce!ure( are fo))o&$ $ 3ISTEN $ CONNECT $ SEND 4$ RECEI=E 4$ DISCONNECT #3$ W%at ( t%e funct on of tran(m (( on t mer* T%e ma n funct on ( to retran(m t ac0no&)e!"e! (e"ment$ #,$ W%at ( meant +' &e)) 0no&n port* W%at ( t%e num+er(* We)) 0no&n port mean( t%e' are re(er4e! for u(e +' &e)) 0no&n app) cat on protoco)( (uc% a( :TTP an! ?TP$ T%e port num+er ran" n" from 0 to #023 are &e)) 0no&n port num+er($ #-$ W%at are t%e t%ree (tep( n4o)4e! n e(ta+) (% n" a connect on* Connect on e(ta+) (%ment n4o)4e( t%e fo))o& n"D $ :o(t ; (en!( a pac0et to announce t( & (% for connect on an! nc)u!e( t( n t a) >at on nformat on a+out traff c from ; to 5$ $ :o(t 5 (en!( a pac0et to ac0no&)e!"e 8conf rm9 t%e re@ue(t of ;$ $ :o(t 5 (en!( a pac0et t%at nc)u!e( t( n t a) >at on nformat on a+out traff c from 5 to ;$ 4$ :o(t ; (en!( a pac0et to ac0no&)e!"e 8conf rm9 t%e re@ue(t of 5$ #.$ W%at are t%e (tep( n4o)4e! &% )e term nat n" a connect on* , act on( are nee!e! to c)o(e t%e connect on( n +ot% ! rect on($ $ :o(t ; (en!( a pac0et announc n" t( & (% for connect on term nat on$ $ :o(t 5 (en!( a (e"ment ac0no&)e!" n" t%e re@ue(t of ;$ ;fter t% (B t%e connect on ( c)o(e! n one ! rect onB +ut not n t%e ot%er$ $ W%en %o(t 5 %a( f n (%e! (en! n" t( o&n !ataB t (en!( a (e"ment to n! cate t%at

t &ant( to c)o(e t%e connect on$ 4$ :o(t ; ac0no&)e!"e 8conf rm9 t%e re@ue(t of 5$ #/$ W%en ( up&ar! mu)t p)e7 n" u(e!* Up&ar! mu)t p)e7 n" ( u(e! &%en co(t ( t%e ma n cr ter a to +e con( !ere!$ #1$ W%at ( Tran(port Contro) Protoco) 8TCP9* T%e TCP<IP protoco) t%at pro4 !e( app) cat on pro"ram( & t% acce(( to a connect on or ente! commun cat on (er4 ce$ TCP offer( re) a+)e f)o& contro))e! !e) 4er'$ More mportant TCP accommo!ate( c%an" n" con! t on( n t%e Internet +' a!apt n" t( retran(m (( on (c%eme$ #2$ Def ne t%e term 8 9 :o(t 8 9 IP a$ :o(t D ;n en! u(erA( computer connect on to a net&or0$ In an nternet eac% computer ( c)a(( f e! a( a %o(t or a router$ +$ IPD Internet Protoco) t%at !ef ne( +ot% t%e format of pac0et u(e! on a TCP<IP nternet an! t%e mec%an (m for rout n" a pac0et to t( !e(t nat on$ 20$ W%at ( UDP* U(er Data"ram Protoco) ( t%e TCP<IP protoco) t%at pro4 !e( app) cat on pro"ram & t% connect on)e(( commun cat on (er4 ce$ 2#$ W%at are t%e four maFor a(pect( of re) a+)e !e) 4er' at t%e tran(port )a'er* ;t t%e tran(port )a'erB re) a+)e !e) 4er' %a( , a(pect(M $ Error contro) $ Se@uence contro) $ 3o(( contro) 4$ Dup) cat on contro) 22$ W%at ( RTT* RTT ( an acron'm for Roun! Tr p T meM t ( a mea(ure of t%e t me t ta0e( for a pac0et to tra4e) from a computerB acro(( a net&or0 to anot%er computer an! +ac0$ 23$ :o& ( RTT u(e! n net&or0 n"* Tran(port protoco)( ) 0e TCP &% c% e7pect( an ac0no&)e!"ement to arr 4e after !ata %a( +een (ucce((fu))' rece 4e!B 0eep an e(t mate of t%e current RTT on eac% connect on$ T%e' u(e t%e RTT e(t mate to !eterm ne %o& )on" to &a t for an ac0no&)e!"ment +efore retran(m tt n"$ 2,$ :o& ( RTT compute!* T%e (en! n" ( !e recor!( t%e c)oc0 &%en t tran(m t( a pac0etB an! t%en e7am ne( t%e c)oc0 a"a n &%en an ac0no&)e!"ment arr 4e($ 5' (u+tract n" t%e t&o 4a)ue(B t o+ta n( a ( n")e e(t mate of t%e roun! tr p t me$ It t%en com+ ne( t%at ( n")e e(t mate & t% pre4 ou( e(t mate( to "et an a4era"e$ 2-$ Do TCPBUDP or +ot% compute RTT* TCP !oe(M UDP !oe( not 2.$ E7p)a n t%e purpo(e of t%e(e t mer( n TCPD a$ retran(m (( on t mer +$ per( (t t mer c$ 0eep a) 4e t mer !$ t me &a te! t mer 8a9 retran(m (( on t mer T%e retran(m (( on t mer ( to contro) a )o(t or ! (car!e! (e"ment an! re(en! a !up) cate pac0et after t%e t me e7p re($ 8+9 ;fter t%e (en! n" & n!o& %a( +een c)o(e! 8& t% >ero cre! t9 a per( (t t mer ( u(e! +' t%e (ource to per o! ca))' pro+e t%e !e(t nat on %o(t to (ee f t%e & n!o& %a( actua))'

+een c%an"e!$ T%e purpo(e ( to pre4ent!ea!)oc0 ( tuat on( &%ere a cre! t to open t%e & n!o& %a( +een )o(t$ 8c9 T%e 0eep a) 4e t mer ( an opt ona) feature n (ome TCP mp)ementat on($ It ( u(e! to pre4ent a )on" !)e connect on +et&een t&o TCPA( 8!9 T me &a te! t mer ( u(e! !ur n" connect on term nat on$ 2/$ W%at ( an ( ))' & n!o& ('n!rome* W%en e t%er t%e (en! n" app) cat on pro"ram create( !ata ()o&)' or t%e rece 4 n" app) cat on pro"ram con(ume( !ata ()o&)' or +ot%$ T% ( pro+)em ( ca))e! t%e ( ))' & n!o& ('n!rome$ 21$ 3 (t t%e f)a" u(e! n TCP %ea!er* TCP %ea!er conta n( ( 7 f)a"($ T%e' are UR6B ;CKB PS:B RSTB SNN an! ?IN$ 22$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of ur"ent po nter n t%e TCP %ea!er* In certa n c rcum(tance(B t ma' +e nece((ar' for a TCP (en!er to not f' t%e rece 4er of ur"ent !ata t%at (%ou)! +e proce((e! +' t%e rece 4 n" app) cat on a( (oon a( po(( +)e$ T% ( #. + t f e)! te))( t%e rece 4er &%en t%e )a(t +'te of ur"ent !ata n t%e (e"ment en!($ 30$ W%at ( t%e (e"ment* T%e un t of !ata tran(fer +et&een t&o !e4 ce( u( n" TCP ( a (e"ment$ 3#$ W%at ( a port* ;pp) cat on( runn n" on ! fferent %o(t( commun cate & t% TCP & t% t%e %e)p of a concept ca))e! a( port($ ; port ( a #. + t un @ue num+er a))ocate! to a part cu)ar app) cat on$ 32$ W%at ( Soc0et* T%e commun cat on (tructure nee!e! for (oc0et pro"ramm n" ( ca))e! (oc0et$ ; port !ent f e( a ( n")e app) cat on on a ( n")e computer$ Soc0et G IP a!!re(( J Port num+er 33$ :o& TCP ! ffer from t%e () ! n" & n!o& protoco)($ TCP ! ffer( from t%e () ! n" & n!o& protoco)( n t%e fo))o& n" &a'(D #$ W%en u( n" TCPB app) cat on( treat t%e !ata (ent an! rece 4e! a( an ar+ trar' +'te (tream$ T%e (en! n" - TCP mo!u)e ! 4 !e( t%e +'te (tream nto a (et of pac0et( ca))e! (e"ment(B an! (en!( n! 4 !ua) (e"ment( & t% n an IP !ata"ram$ - TCP !ec !e( &%ere (e"ment +oun!ar e( (tart an! en!$ 2$ T%e TCP () ! n" & n!o& operate( at t%e +'te )e4e) rat%er t%an t%e pac0et 8or (e"ment9 )e4e)$ T%e )eft an! r "%t & n!o& e!"e( are +'te po nter($ 3$ Se"ment +oun!ar e( ma' c%an"e at an' t me$ TCP ( free to retran(m t t&o a!Facent (e"ment( eac% conta n n" 200 +'te( of !ata a( a ( n")e (e"ment of ,00 +'te$ ,$ T%e ( >e of t%e (en! an! rece 4e & n!o& c%an"e !'nam ca))'$ 3,$ E7p)a n %o& t%e TCP pro4 !e( t%e re) a+ ) t'* ; num+er of mec%an (m( pro4 !e t%e re) a+ ) t'$ #$ C%ec0(um 2$ Dup) cate !ata !etect on 3$ Retran(m (( on ,$ Se@uenc n" -$ T mer( 3-$ W%at ( a !ata"ram (oc0et* ; (tructure !e( "ne! to +e u(e! & t% connect on)e(( protoco)( (uc% a( UDP$

3.$ OTCP (oft&are ( mp)emente! a( a f n te (tate mac% ne($P D (cu(($ To 0eep trac0 of a)) t%e ! fferent e4ent( %appen n" !ur n" connect on e(ta+) (%ment B connect on term nat on an! !ata tran(fer$ 3/$ W%at ( (tream (oc0et* ; (tructure !e( "ne! to +e u(e! & t% a connect on or ente! protoco) (uc% a( TCP 31$ 6 4e t%e (trate" e( TCP u(e( to a4o ! con"e(t on$ #$ S)o& (tart an! a!! t 4e ncrea(e 2$ Mu)t p) cat 4e !ecrea(e 32$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of c%o0e pac0et$ It ( pac0et (ent +' router to t%e (ource to nform t of con"e(t on$ ,0$ 6 4e t%e (tructure of UDP %ea!er ,#$ State an' 2 (oc0et pr m t 4e( for TCP an! (tate t%e r funct on$ #$ 3 (ten a$ nt ) (ten 8 nt (! B nt +ac0)o"9 2$ C)o(e a$ nt c)o(e 8 nt (!9 ,2$ 6 4e (ome e7amp)e( of app) cat on &%ere UDP ( preferre! o4er TCP$ #$ In mu)t ca(t n" 2$ Route up!ate protoco) n RIP ,3$ W%at ( con"e(t on* W%en )oa! on net&or0 ( "reater t%an t( capc t'B t%ere ( con"e(t on of !ata pac0et($ Con"e(t on occur( +ecau(e router( an! (& tc%e( %a4e @ueue( or +uffer($ ,,$ W%at ( meant +' ()o& (tart n TCP* ;t t%e +e" nn n" of a connect onB TCP (et( t%e con"e(t on & n!o& ( >e to t%e ma7 mum (e"ment ( >e$ ?or eac% (e"ment t%at ( ac0no&)e!"e!B TCP ncrea(e( t%e ( >e of t%e con"e(t on & n!o& +' one ma7 mum (e"ment ( >e unt ) t reac%e( a t%re(%o)! of one %a)f of t%e a))o&a+)e & n!o& ( >e$ T% ( ( ca))e! S)o& Start t ( u(e! & t% a!! t 4e ncrea(e$ ,-$ W%at are t%e t'pe( of con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m(* Con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m( are ! 4 !e! nto 2 t'pe($ T%e' are a( fo))o&(D Open )oop a)"or t%m( C)o(e! )oop a)"or t%m( ,.$ Def ne t%e term L tter$ L tter ( t%e 4ar at on n !e)a' for pac0et( +e)on" n" to t%e (ame f)o&$ ,/$ W%at are t%e (c%e!u) n" tec%n @ue( !e( "ne! to mpro4e t%e @ua) t' of (er4 ce(* #$ ?I?O @ueu n" 2$ Pr or t' @ueu n" 3$ We "%te! fa r @ueu n" ,1$ Def ne Traff c S%ap n"$ It ( a mec%an (m to contro) t%e amount an! rate of t%e traff c (ent to t%e net&or0$ T&o tec%n @ue( can (%ape traff c$ $ 3ea0' +uc0et $ To0en +uc0et ,2$ Def ne Re(ource Re(er4at on$ ; f)o& of !ata nee!( re(ource( (uc% a( a +ufferB +an!& !t%B CPU t me an! (o on$ T%e

@ua) t' of (er4 ce ( mpro4e! f t%e(e re(ource are re(er4e! +efore%an!$ -0$ ODNS can u(e t%e (er4 ce( of UDP or TCP u( n" port -3P$ D (cu(( &%en UDP ( u(e! an! &%en TCP ( u(e!$ UDP ( u(e! &%en t%e ( >e of t%e re(pon(e me((a"e ( )e(( t%an -#2 +'te($ TCP ( u(e! &%en t%e ( >e of t%e re(pon(e me((a"e ( "reater t%an -#2 +'te($ P;RT 5 #$ E7p)a n a con"e(t on contro) a)"or t%m$ 2$ E7p)a n t%e !ut e( of Tran(port )a'er$ 3$ E7p)a n t%e TCP tran(m (( on po) c'B Con"e(t on contro)$ ,$ E7p)a n t%e fo))o& n" ((ue( of tran(port protoco) a$ E(ta+) (% n" a connect on +$ Term nat n" a connect on -$ E7p)a n t%e TCP %ea!er an! &or0 n" of t%e TCP protoco)$ .$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( f e)!( of TCP %ea!er & t% t%e %e)p of a neat ! a"ram$ /$ E7p)a n t%e 4ar ou( (tep( t%at are fo))o&e! n re)ea( n" a TCP connect on$ 1$ E7p)a n t%e t%ree &a' %an!(%a0e protoco) to e(ta+) (% t%e tran(port )e4e) connect on$ 2$ D (cu(( a+out con"e(t on contro) n frame re)a'$ #0$ D (cu(( t%e 4ar ou( ((ue( of tran(port )a'er n !eta )($ ##$ $ 3 (t an! ! (cu(( t%e 4ar ou( pr m t 4e( for a ( mp)e tran(port (er4 ce( $ ODNS can u(e t%e (er4 ce of UDP or TCP u( n" port -3P D (cu(( &%en UDP ( u(e! an! &%en TCP ( u(e!$ $ : "%) "%t t%e feature( of UDP an! +r ef)' ! (cu(( t%e (ame$ #2$ $ D (cu(( connect on e(ta+) (%ment an! connect on re)ea(e n TCP $ D (cu(( %o& TCP pro4 !e( re) a+ ) t' u( n" error contro)$ $ D (cu(( t%e (trate" e( TCP u(e( to a4o ! con"e(t on$ UNIT P;RT ; #$ W%at ( t%e Doma n Name S'(tem re(pon( +)e for* T%e Doma n NameS'(tem con4ert( !oma n name( 8of t%e form &&&$c%aru)at%apu+) cat on$com9 nto IP num+er($ 2$ D (cu(( t%e t%ree ma n ! 4 ( on( of t%e DNS$ 6ener c !oma n( Countr' !oma n( In4er(e !oma n( 3$ W%at ro)e !oe( t%e DNS re(o)4er p)a' n t%e DNS ('(tem* ; DNS re(o)4er ( re(pon( +)e for mo4 n" re@ue(t( of t%e )oca) DNS (er4er on +e%a)f of c) ent($ ,$ :o& !oe( a DNS Re(o)4er +oot(trap t%e !oma n name )oo0up proce((* ; DNS re(o)4er mu(t 0no& t%e IP a!!re(( of at )ea(t one DNS (er4er$ IT u(e( t% ( a!!re(( to (tart t%e DNS )oo0up proce(($ -$ Def ne SMTP$ T%e protoco) t%at (upport( ema ) on t%e Internet ( ca))e! S mp)e Ma ) Tran(fer Protoco)$ SMTP ( par tof t%e TCP<IP protoco) (u te$ .$ Def ne t%e term !oma n$ ; part of t%e computer nam n" % erarc%' u(e! n t%e Internet$ ?or e7amp)e commerc a) or"an >at on( %a4e name( re" (tere! un!er t%e com !oma n$ /$ W%at are t%e t&o part( of a!!re(( n" ('(tem n SMTP*

T%e a!!re(( n" ('(tem u(e! +' SMTP con( (t( of t&o part(D ; )oca) part an! a !oma n name (eparate! +' an Q ( "n 3oca) Part Q Doma n Name 1$ D (cu(( MIME$ Mu)t purpo(e Internet Ma ) E7ten( on ( an e7ten( on of SMTP t%at a))o&( t%e tran(fer of mu)t me! a an! ot%er non ;SCII me((a"e($ 2$ W%at are t%e (er4 ce( pro4 !e! +' u(er a"ent* Compo( n" Me((a"e( Rea! n" Me((a"e( Rep)' n" to Me((a"e( ?or&ar! n" Me((a"e :an!) n" ma ) +o7e( #0$ W%at are t%e four propert e( of :TTP* a$ 6)o+a) un form re(ource !ent f er +$ Re@ue(t re(pon(e e7c%an"e c$ State)e((ne(( !$ Re(ource meta !ata ##$ De(cr +e &%' :TTP ( !e( "ne! a( a (tate)e(( protoco)* Ma nta n n" (tate acro(( re@ue(t re(pon(e connect on( ( "n f cant)' ncrea(e( t%e n t a) nteract on( n a connect on ( nce t%e !ent t' of eac% part' nee!( to +e e(ta+) (%e! an! an' (a4e! (tate mu(t +e retr e4e!$ :TTP ( t%erefore (tate)e(( to en(ure t%at t%e Internet ( (ca)a+)e ( nce (tate ( not conta ne! n t%e :TTP re@ue(t<re(pon(e pa r( +' !efau)t$ #2$ W%at are t%e four "roup( of :TTP %ea!er* T%e four "roup( of :TTP %ea!er areD a$ 6enera) %ea!er +$ Ent t' %ea!er c$ Re@ue(t %ea!er an! !$ Re(pon(e %ea!er$ #3$ Def ne t%e term( 8 9 5ro&(er 8 9 :'perte7t Mar0 Up )an"ua"e$ a$ 5ro&(erD ; computer pro"ram t%at acce((e( an! ! (p)a'( nformat on from t%e &or)! & !e &e+$ ; +ro&(er conta n( mu)t p)e app) cat on pro"ram( an! u(e( an o+Fect( name to !eterm ne &% c% app) cat on (%ou)! +e u(e! to acce(( t%e o+Fect($ +$ :'perte7t Mar0up 3an"ua"eD T%e (ource form u(e! for !ocument( on t%e &or)! & !e &e+$ :TM3 em+e!( comman!( t%at !eterm ne formatt n" a)on" & t% t%e te7t to +e ! (p)a'e!$ E7D To mo4e to a ne& ) ne or n!ent te7t #,$ W%at ( a %'perte7t* ; (et of !ocument( n &% c% a " 4en !ocument can conta n te7t a( &e)) a( em+e!!e! reference to ot%er !ocument($ #-$ W%at are cate"or e( of &e+ !ocument(* Stat c !ocument( T%e content( are f 7e! an! (tore! n a (er4er$ D'nam c !ocument( create! +' a (er4er on)' at a +ro&(er re@ue(t$ ;ct 4e !ocumnet( It ( a cop' of a pro"ram retr e4e! +' t%e c) ent an! run at t%e c) ent ( !e$ #.$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' UR3* Un form Re(ource 3ocator ( a (tan!ar! for (pec f' n" an' 0 n! of nformat on on t%e Internet$

UR3 ( a ('ntant c form u(e! to !ent f' a pa"e of nformat on on t%e &or)! & !e &e+$ ; t'p ca) UR3 ( %ttpD<<&&&$a+!c$com<pro!uct($%tm) #/$ W%at are +a( c funct on( of ema ) ('(tem* 5a( c funct on( of ema )( areD a$ Compo( t on +$ Tran(fer c$ Report n" !$ D (p)a' n" e$ D (po( t on #1$ W%at ( an E)ectron c Ma )* Ema ) ( a popu)ar app) cat on n &% c% a u(er or computer (en!( a memo to one or more rec p ent($ #2$ W%at ( WWW* It ( an nternet app) cat on t%at a))o&( u(er( to 4 e& &e+ pa"e( an! mo4e from one &e+ pa"e to anot%er$ &&& ( t%e %'perme! a ('(tem u(e! on t%e nternet n &% c% a pa"e of nformat on can conta n te7tB ma"e(B au! o or 4 !eo c) p( an! reference to ot%er pa"e($ 20$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' %'perme! a* ; (et of !ocument( n &% c% a " 4en !ocument can conta n te7tB "rap% c(B 4 !eo an! au! o c) p( a( &e)) a( em+e!!e! reference( to ot%er !ocument( &or)! & !e &e+ pa"e( are %'perme! a !ocument($ 2#$ W%at ( t%e &e+ +ro&(er* We+ +ro&(er ( a (oft&are pro"ram t%at nterpret( an! ! (p)a'( t%e content( of :TM3 &e+ pa"e($ 22$ W%at ( a po(t off ce protoco)* ;n e-ma ) protoco) t%at a))o&( retr e4a) of e-ma ) me((a"e( from an e-ma ) (er4er u( n" remote connect on$ 23$ W%at !o 'ou mean +' act 4e &e+ pa"e(* W%en a c) ent (en! a :TTP re@ue(t for an act 4e &e+ pa"eB t%e &e+ (er4er (en!( +ac0 an :TTP re(pon(e t%at conta n( an :TM3 pa"e a( u(ua)$ :TM3 pa"e a)(o conta n( a (ma)) pro"ram t%at e7ecute( on t%e c) ent computer n( !e t%e &e+ +ro&(er$ 2,$ W%at are t%e tran(m (( on mo!e( of ?TP* Tran(m (( on mo!e( of ?TP areD $ Stream mo!eD Defau)t mo!e an! !ata ( !e) 4ere! from ?TP to TCP a( a cont nuou( (tream of !ata$ $ 5)oc0 mo!eD Data ( !e) 4ere! from ?TP to TCP n term( of +)oc0($ Eac% !ata +)oc0 fo))o&( t%e t%ree +'te %ea!er$ $ Compre((e! mo!eD ? )e ( compre((e! +efore tran(m tt n" f ( >e ( + "$ Run )en"t% enco! n" met%o! ( u(e! for compre(( on$ 2-$ Compare t%e :TTP an! ?TP ?TPD ?TP tran(fer( t%e f )e from c) ent to (er4er an! (er4er to c) ent$ It u(e( t&o ! fferent port connect on$ 8 $e$B port 20 an! port 2#9 U(e( TCP protoco) :TTPD :TTP tran(fer t%e f )e from (er4er to c) ent 8 e &e+ pa"e9 :TTP u(e on)' one port connect on 8 e port 109

It a)(o u(e TCP protoco)$ 2.$ W%at ( ma ) n" ) (t* Ma ) n" ) (t conta n( t%e a!!re(( of !e(t nat on u(er($ 2/$ W%at ( t%e app) cat on )a'er protoco) &or)! & !e &e+* Wor)! & !e &e+ ( a repo( tor' of nformat on of (prea! a)) o4er t%e &or)! an! ) n0e! to"et%er$ 21$ W%at ( t%e u(e of Ma ) tran(fer a"ent* Ma ) tran(fer a"ent 8MT;9 tran(fer( t%e ema ) acro(( t%e Internet$ 22$ W%at are t%e t&o ma n cate"or e( of DNS me((a"e(* DNS %a( t&o t'pe( of me((a"e( D Cuer' an! re(pon(e$ 30$ W%' &a( t%ere a nee! for DNS* In DNSB &%en t%ere ( a c%an"eB (uc% a( a!! n" a ne& %o(tB remo4 n" a %o(t or c%an" n" an IP a!!re((B t%e c%an"e mu(t +e ma!e to t%e DNS ma(ter f )e$ T%e !'nam c !oma n name ('(tem 8DDNS9 %a( +een !e4 (e! to re(pon! to t% ( nee!$ 3#$ W%at are t%e t&o t'pe( of u(er ;"ent(* a$ Comman! !r 4en an! +$ 6UI +a(e!$ 32$ W%at ( t%e purpo(e of ?TP* To cop' a f )e from one %o(t to anot%er on t%e Internet$ 33$ W%at !oe( C6I (tan! for an! &%at ( t( funct on* C6I (tan!( for Common 6ate&a' Interface$ C6I ( a tec%no)o"' t%at create( an! %an!)e( !'nam c !ocument($ 3,$ W%at ( a %omepa"e* ; un t of %'perte7t or %'perme! a a4a )a+)e on t%e &e+ ( ca))e! a pa"e$ T%e ma n pa"e for an or"an >at on or an n! 4 !ua) ( 0no&n a( a %omepa"e$ 3-$ Def ne cr'pto"rap%'$ Cr'pto"rap%' ( t%e (c ence an! art of tran(form n" me((a"e( to ma0e t%em (ecure an! mmune to attac0$ 3.$ W%at ( C p%erte7t* T%e encr'pte! me((a"e ( ca))e! C p%erte7t$ 3/$ Def ne Pa(( 4e an! ;ct 4e attac0$ Pa(( 4eD Pa(( 4e attac0 are n t%e nature of ea4e(!ropp n" on or mon tor n" of tran(m (( on($ ;ct 4eD It n4o)4e( (ome mo! f cat on of t%e !ata (tream or t%e creat on of a fa)(e (tream$ 31$ W%at are t%e t&o cate"or e( of cr'pto"rap%' met%o!(* W%at ( t%e ma n ! fference +et&een t%e cate"or e(* T&o cate"or e( are $ Secret 8('mmetr c9 0e' cr'pto"rap%' an! $ Pu+) c 0e' 8a('mmetr c9 0e' cr'pto"rap%'$ - In ('mmetr c 0e' cr'pto"rap%'B t%e (ame 0e' ( u(e! +' t%e (en!er 8for encr'pt on9 an! t%e rece 4er 8 for !ecr'pt on9$ T%e 0e' ( (%are!$ - In pu+) c 0e' cr'pto"rap%'B t%e pu+) c 0e' t%at ( u(e! for encr'pt on ( ! fferent from t%e pr 4ate 0e' t%at ( u(e! for !ecr'pt on$ 32$ State &% c% )a'er of t%e TCP<IP reference mo!e) t%e fo))o& n" protoco)( are pre(ent$ a$ TCP Tran(port )a'er +$ SMTP ;pp) cat on )a'er ,0$ W%at ( f )ter for ema ) u(er(*

? )ter( are ru)e( t%at are c%ec0e! &%en e-ma ) come( n or &%en u(er a"ent ( (tarte!$ Eac% ru)e (pec f e( a con! t on an! an act on$ ,#$ Ment on t%e a(pect( of (ecur t'$ a$ Conf !ent a) t' +$ Inte"r t' c$ ;4a )a+ ) t' !$ ;ut%ent cat on ,2$ W%at are t%e a!4anta"e( of pu+) c 0e' encr'pt on<!ecr'pt on* a$ It remo4e( t%e re(tr ct on of a (%are! ('mmetr c 0e' +et&een t&o ent t e($ +$ T%e num+er of 0e'( nee!e! ( re!uce! tremen!ou()' ,3$ W%at are t%e part( of a +ro&(er* Eac% +ro&(er con( (t( of t%ree part($ $ ; contro))er $ C) ent pro"ram( an! $ Interpreter($ P;RT 5D #$ E7p)a n DNS & t% reference to t( component( an! &or0 n"$ 8#.9 2$ E7p)a n t%e me((a"e tran(fer u( n" ( mp)e ma ) tran(fer protoco)$ 819 3$ E7p)a n t%e f na) !e) 4er' of ema ) to t%e en! u(er u( n" pop3$ 819 ,$ Wr te (%ort note( on ema ) (er4 ce( of t%e app) cat on )a'er$ 819 -$ E7p)a n n !eta )( t%e SMTP$ 819 .$ E7p)a n n !eta )( WWW$ 819 /$ E7p)a n t%e arc% tecture an! (er4 ce( of e-ma ) n" ('(tem$ 8#.9 1$ E7p)a n (u+(t tut on an! tran(po( t on c p%er( & t% an e7amp)e for eac%$ 8-9 2$ E7p)a n t%e RS; pu+) c 0e' encr'pt on a)"or t%m( & t% an e7amp)e$ 819 #0$ W%at are t%e t&o cate"or e( of encr'pt on<!ecr'pt on met%o!(* W%at ( t%e ma n ! fference +et&een t%e cate"or e($ 819 ##$ E7p)a n act 4e an! pa(( 4e attac0($ 819 #2$ E7p)a n DES encr'pt on a)"or t%m$ :o& ( t ! fferent from tr p)e DES* 819 #3$ $ W t% a re)e4ant e7amp)e ! (cu(( %o& t%e !oma n (pace ( ! 4 !e!$ 8.9 $ D (t n"u (% +et&een a fu))' @ua) f e! !oma n name an! a part a))' @ua) f e! !oma n name$ 6 4e re)e4ant e7amp)e$ 8.9 $ 3 (t t%e 4ar ou( r (0( face! +' me((a"e( t%at are tran(m tte! o4er t%e nternet$ 8,9 #,$ $ D (cu(( %o& ( mp)e ma ) tran(fer protoco) 8SMTP9 &or0(* Can mu)t me! a me((a"e( +e tran(m tte! u( n" SMTP* D (cu(($ 8#09 $ I( common "ate&a' nterface a )an"ua"e($ D (cu(($ 8.9

CS2302 & COMPUTER NETWORKS TWO MARKS UNIT-I $) W*at a!e t*e t*!ee +!ite!ia ne+essa!, -o! an e--e+ti.e an/ e--i+ient net0o!k# T%e mo(t mportant cr ter a are performanceB re) a+ ) t' an! (ecur t'$ Performance of t%e net&or0 !epen!( on num+er of u(er(B t'pe of tran(m (( on me! umB an! t%e capa+ ) t e( of t%e connecte! %<& an! t%e eff c enc' of t%e (<&$ Reliability ( mea(ure! +' fre@uenc' of fa )ureB t%e t me t ta0e( a ) n0 to reco4er from t%e fa )ure an! t%e net&or0A( ro+u(tne(( n a cata(trop%e$ Security ((ue( nc)u!e protect n" !ata from unaut%or >e! acce(( an! 4 ru(e($ 2) 1!ou2 t*e OSI 3a,e!s 4, -un+tion# T%e (e4en )a'er( of t%e OSI mo!e) +e)on" n" to t%ree (u+"roup($ P%'( ca)B !ata ) n0 an! net&or0 )a'er( are t%e network support layersM t%e' !ea) & t% t%e p%'( ca) a(pect( of mo4 n" !ata from one !e4 ce to anot%er$ Se(( onB pre(entat on an! app) cat on )a'er( are t%e user support layersM t%e' a))o& nteropera+ ) t' amon" unre)ate! (oft&are ('(tem($ T%e tran(port )a'er en(ure( end-to-end reliable data transmission. 3) W*at a!e *ea/e! an/ t!ai3e!s an/ *o0 /o t*e, 5et a//e/ an/ !e o.e/# Eac% )a'er n t%e (en! n" mac% ne a!!( t( o&n nformat on to t%e me((a"e t rece 4e( from t%e )a'er Fu(t a+o4e t an! pa((e( t%e &%o)e pac0a"e to t%e )a'er Fu(t +e)o& t$ T% ( nformat on ( a!!e! n t%e form of %ea!er( or tra )er($ :ea!er( are a!!e! to t%e me((a"e at t%e )a'er( .B-B,B3B an! 2$ ; tra )er ( a!!e! at )a'er2$ ;t t%e rece 4 n" mac% neB t%e %ea!er( or tra )er( attac%e! to t%e !ata un t at t%e corre(pon! n" (en! n" )a'er( are remo4e!B an! act on( appropr ate to t%at )a'er are ta0en$ ') W*at a!e t*e -eatu!es 2!o.i/e/ 4, 3a,e!in5#

T&o n ce feature(D It !ecompo(e( t%e pro+)em of +u )! n" a net&or0 nto more mana"ea+)e component($ It pro4 !e( a more mo!u)ar !e( "n$ () W*, a!e 2!oto+o3s nee/e/# In net&or0(B commun cat on occur( +et&een t%e ent t e( n ! fferent ('(tem($ T&o ent t e( cannot Fu(t (en! + t (tream( to eac% ot%er an! e7pect to +e un!er(too!$ ?or commun cat onB t%e ent t e( mu(t a"ree on a protoco)$ ; protoco) ( a (et of ru)e( t%at "o4ern !ata commun cat on$ %) W*at a!e t*e t0o inte!-a+es 2!o.i/e/ 4, 2!oto+o3s# Ser4 ce nterface Peer nterface Ser4 ce nterface- !ef ne( t%e operat on( t%at )oca) o+Fect( can perform on t%e protoco)$Peer nterface- !ef ne( t%e form an! mean n" of me((a"e( e7c%an"e! +et&een protoco) peer( to mp)ement t%e commun cat on (er4 ce$ 6) Mention t*e /i--e!ent 2*,si+a3 e/ia# T& (te! pa r8t%e & re t%at 'our p%one connect( to9 Coa7 a) ca+)e8t%e & re t%at 'our T= connect( to9 Opt ca) f +er8t%e me! um mo(t common)' u(e! for % "%-+an!& !t%B )on"-! (tance ) n0(9 Space8t%e (tuff t%at ra! o &a4e(B m cro&a4e( an! nfra re! +eam( propa"ate t%rou"%9 7) 8e-ine Si5na3s# S "na)( are actua))' e)ectroma"net c &a4e( tra4e) n" at t%e (pee! of ) "%t$ T%e (pee! of ) "%t (B %o&e4erB me! um !epen!ent-e)ectroma"net c &a4e( tra4e) n" t%rou"% copper an! f +er !o (o at a+out t&o-t% r!( t%e (pee! of ) "%t n 4acuum$ 9) W*at is 0a.e:s 0a.e3en5t*# T%e ! (tance +et&een a pa r of a!Facent ma7 ma or m n ma of a &a4eB t'p ca))' mea(ure! n meter(B ( ca))e! &a4eA( &a4e)en"t%$ $0) 8e-ine Mo/u3ation# Mo!u)at on -4ar' n" t%e fre@uenc'B amp) tu!e or p%a(e of t%e ( "na) to effect t%e tran(m (( on of nformat on$ ; ( mp)e e7amp)e of mo!u)at on ( to 4ar' t%e po&er 8amp) tu!e9 of a ( n")e &a4e)en"t%$ $$) E;23ain t*e t0o t,2es o- /u23e;# Full duplex-t&o + t (tream( can +e ( mu)taneou()' tran(m tte! o4er t%e ) n0( at t%e (ame t meB one "o n" n eac% ! rect on$ Half duplex- t (upport( !ata f)o& n" n on)' one ! rect on at a t me$ $2) W*at is CO8EC# ; !e4 ce t%at enco!e( ana)o" 4o ce nto a ! " ta) ISDN ) n0 ( ca))e! a CODECB for coder/decoder$ $3) W*at is s2!ea/ s2e+t!u an/ e;23ain t*e t0o t,2es o- s2!ea/ s2e+t!u # Sprea! (pectrum ( to (prea! t%e ( "na) o4er a & !er fre@uenc' +an! t%an norma) n (uc% a &a' a( to m n m >e t%e mpact of nterference from ot%er !e4 ce($ ?re@uenc' :opp n"

D rect (e@uence $') W*at a!e t*e /i--e!ent en+o/in5 te+*ni<ues# NRR NRRI Manc%e(ter ,5<-5 $() =o0 /oes NR>-? /i--e! -!o NR>-I# In t%e NRR-3 (e@uenceB po( t 4e an! ne"at 4e 4o)ta"e( %a4e (pec f c mean n"(D po( t 4e for 0 an! ne"at 4e for #$ n t%e NRR-I (e@uenceB t%e 4o)ta"e( are mean n")e(($ In(tea!B t%e rece 4er )oo0( for c%an"e( from one )e4e) to anot%er a( t( +a( ( for reco"n t on of #($ $%) W*at a!e t*e !es2onsi4i3ities o- /ata 3ink 3a,e!# Spec f c re(pon( + ) t e( of !ata ) n0 )a'er nc)u!e t%e fo))o& n"$ a9 ?ram n" +9 P%'( ca) a!!re(( n" c9 ?)o& contro) !9 Error contro) e9 ;cce(( contro)$ $6) W*at a!e t*e 0a,s to a//!ess t*e -!a in5 2!o43e # 5'te-Or ente! Protoco)(8PPP9 5 t-Or ente! Protoco)(8:D3C9 C)oc0-5a(e! ?ram n"8SONET9 $7) 8istin5uis* 4et0een 2ee!-to-2ee! !e3ations*i2 an/ a 2!i a!,-se+on/a!, !e3ations*i2) 2ee! -to- 2ee! !e3ations*i2* ;)) t%e !e4 ce( (%are t%e ) n0 e@ua))'$ Pr mar'-(econ!ar' re)at on(% pD One !e4 ce contro)( traff c an! t%e ot%er( mu(t tran(m t t%rou"% t$ $9) Mention t*e t,2es o- e!!o!s an/ /e-ine t*e te! s# T%ere are 2 t'pe( of error( S n")e-+ t error$ 5ur(t-+ t error$ S n")e + t errorD T%e term ( n")e + t error mean( t%at on)' one + t of a " 4en !ata un t 8(uc% a( +'te c%aracter<!ata un t or pac0et9 ( c%an"e! from # to 0 or from 0 to #$ 5ur(t errorD Mean( t%at 2 or more + t( n t%e !ata un t %a4e c%an"e! from # to 0 from 0 to #$ 20) ?ist out t*e a.ai3a43e /ete+tion et*o/s) T%ere are , t'pe( of re!un!anc' c%ec0( are u(e! n !ata commun cat on$ =ert ca) re!un!anc' c%ec0( 8=RC9$ 3on" tu! na) re!un!anc' c%ec0( 83RC9$ C'c) c re!un!anc' c%ec0( 8CRC9$ C%ec0(um$ 2$) W!ite s*o!t notes on @RC) T%e mo(t common an! )ea(t e7pen( 4e mec%an (m for error !etect on ( t%e 4ert ca) re!un!anc' c%ec0 8=RC9 often ca))e! a par t' c%ec0$ In t% ( tec%n @ue a re!un!ant + t ca))e! a par t' + tB ( appen!e! to e4er' !ata un t (oB t%at t%e tota) num+er of 0A( n t%e un t 8 nc)u! n" t%e par t' + t9 +ecome( e4en$ 22) W!ite s*o!t notes on ?RC) In )on" tu! na) re!un!anc' c%ec0 83RC9B a +)oc0 of + t( ( ! 4 !e! nto ro&( an! a

re!un!ant ro& of + t( ( a!!e! to t%e &%o)e +)oc0$ 23) W!ite s*o!t notes on CRC) T%e t% r! an! mo(t po&erfu) of t%e re!un!anc' c%ec0 n" tec%n @ue( ( t%e c'c) c re!un!anc' c%ec0( 8CRC9 CRC ( +a(e! on + nar' ! 4 ( on$ :ere a (e@uence of re!un!ant + t(B ca))e! t%e CRC rema n!er ( appen!e! to t%e en! of !ata un t$ 2') W!ite s*o!t notes on CRC +*e+ke!) ; CRC c%ec0er funct on( e7act)' ) 0e a "enerator$ ;fter rece 4 n" t%e !ata appen!e! & t% t%e CRC t !oe( t%e (ame mo!u)o-2 ! 4 ( on$ If t%e rema n!er ( a)) 0A( t%e CRC ( !roppe! an! t%e !ata accepte!$ Ot%er& (eB t%e rece 4e! (tream of + t( ( ! (car!e! an! t%e !ate( are re(ent$ 2() 8e-ine +*e+ksu ) T%e error !etect on met%o! u(e! +' t%e % "%er )a'er protoco) ( ca))e! c%ec0(um$ C%ec0(um ( +a(e! on t%e concept of re!un!anc'$ 2%) W*at a!e t*e ste2s -o33o0e/ in +*e+ksu 5ene!ato!# T%e (en!er fo))o&( t%e(e (tep( a9 t%e un t( are ! 4 !e! nto 0 (ect on( eac% of n + t($ +9 ;)) (ect on( are a!!e! to"et%er u( n" 2A( comp)ement to "et t%e (um$ c9 T%e (um ( comp)emente! an! +ecome t%e c%ec0(um$ !9 T%e c%ec0(um ( (ent & t% t%e !ata$ 26) Mention t*e t,2es o- e!!o! +o!!e+tin5 et*o/s) T%ere are 2 error-correct n" met%o!($ S n")e + t error correct on 5ur(t error correct on$ 27) W!ite s*o!t notes on e!!o! +o!!e+tion# It ( t%e mec%an (m to correct t%e error( an! t can +e %an!)e! n 2 &a'($ W%en an error ( ! (co4ere!B t%e rece 4er can %a4e t%e (en!er retran(m t t%e ent re !ata un t$ ; rece 4er can u(e an error correct n" co!erB &% c% automat ca))' correct( certa n error($ 29) W*at is t*e 2u!2ose o- *a in5 +o/e# ; %amm n" co!e can +e !e( "ne! to correct +ur(t error( of certa n )en"t%($ So t%e ( mp)e (trate"' u(e! +' t%e %amm n" co!e to correct ( n")e + t error( mu(t +e re!e( "ne! to +e app) ca+)e for mu)t p)e + t correct on$ 30) W*at is !e/un/an+,# It ( t%e error !etect n" mec%an (mB &% c% mean( a (%orter "roup of + t( or e7tra + t( ma' +e appen!e! at t%e !e(t nat on of eac% un t$ 3$) 8e-ine -3o0 +ont!o3# ?)o& contro) refer( to a (et of proce!ure( u(e! to re(tr ct t%e amount of !ata$ T%e (en!er can (en! +efore &a t n" for ac0no&)e!"ment$ 32) Mention t*e +ate5o!ies o- -3o0 +ont!o3# T%ere are 2 met%o!( %a4e +een !e4e)ope! to contro) f)o& of !ata acro(( commun cat on ) n0($ a9 Stop an! &a t- (en! one from at a t me$ +9 S) ! n" & n!o&- (en! (e4era) frame( at a t me$ 33) W*at is a 4u--e!# Eac% rece 4 n" !e4 ce %a( a +)oc0 of memor' ca))e! a +ufferB re(er4e! for (tor n" ncom n" !ata unt ) t%e' are proce((e!$ UNIIT-II $) W*at a!e t*e -un+tions o- MAC#

M;C (u+ )a'er re(o)4e( t%e content on for t%e (%are! me! a$ It conta n( ('nc%ron >at onB f)a"B f)o& an! error contro) (pec f cat on( nece((ar' to mo4e nformat on from one p)ace to anot%erB a( &e)) a( t%e p%'( ca) a!!re(( of t%e ne7t (tat on to rece 4e an! route a pac0et$ 2) W*at a!e t*e -un+tions o- ??C# T%e IEEE proFect 102 mo!e)( ta0e t%e (tructure of an :D3C frame an! ! 4 !e( t nto 2 (et( of funct on($ One (et conta n( t%e en! u(er port on of t%e :D3C frame t%e )o" ca) a!!re((B contro) nformat onB an! !ata$ T%e(e funct on( are %an!)e! +' t%e IEEE 102$2 )o" ca) ) n0 contro) 833C9 protoco)$ 3) W*at is Et*e!net# Et%ernet ( a mu)t p)e-acce(( net&or0B mean n" t%at a (et of no!e( (en! an! rece 4e frame( o4er a (%are! ) n0$ ') 8e-ine t*e te! +a!!ie! sense in CSMAAC8# ;)) t%e no!e( can ! (t n"u (% +et&een !)e an! a +u('-) n0 an! Oco)) ( on !etectP mean( t%at a no!e ) (ten( a( t tran(m t( an! can t%erefore !etect &%en a frame t ( tran(m tt n" %a( nterfere! 8co)) !e!9 & t% a frame tran(m tte! +' anot%er no!e$ () 8e-ine Re2eate!# ; repeater ( a !e4 ce t%at for&ar!( ! " ta) ( "na)(B muc% ) 0e an amp) f er for&ar!( ana)o" ( "na)($ :o&e4erB no more t%an four repeater( ma' +e po( t one! +et&een an' pa r( of %o(t(B mean n" t%at an Et%ernet %a( a tota) reac% of on)' 2B-00m$ %) 8e-ine +o33ision /ete+tion# In Et%ernetB a)) t%e(e %o(t( are compet n" for acce(( to t%e (ame ) n0B an! a( a con(e@uenceB t%e' are (a ! to +e n t%e (ame co)) ( on !etect on$ 6) W*, Et*e!net is sai/ to 4e a I-persistent 2!oto+o3# ;n a!aptor & t% a frame to (en! tran(m t( & t% pro+a+ ) t' H# H&%ene4er a +u(' ) ne "oe( !)e$ 7) W*at is e;2onentia3 4a+k o--# Once an a!aptor %a( !etecte! a co)) ( on an! (toppe! t( tran(m (( onB t &a t( a certa n amount of t me an! tr e( a"a n$ Eac% t me t tr e( to tran(m t +ut fa )(B t%e a!aptor !ou+)e( t%e amount of t me t &a t( +efore tr' n" a"a n$ T% ( (trate"' of !ou+) n" t%e !e)a' nter4a) +et&een eac% tran(m (( on attempt ( a "enera) tec%n @ue 0no&n a( e7ponent a) +ac0 off$ 9) W*at is token *o3/in5 ti e (T=T"# It !ef ne( t%at %o& muc% !ata a " 4en no!e ( a))o&e! to tran(m t eac% t me t po((e((e( t%e to0en or e@u 4a)ent)'B %o& )on" a " 4en no!e ( a))o&e! to %o)! t%e to0en$ $0) W*at a!e t*e t0o +3asses o- t!a--i+ in B88I# S'nc%ronou( ;('nc%ronou( $$) W*at a!e t*e -ou! 2!o inent 0i!e3ess te+*no3o5ies# 5)uetoot% W -? 8forma))' 0no&n a( 102$##9 W M;K8102$#.9 T% r! "enerat on or 36 ce))u)ar & re)e(($ $2) 8e-ine B3uetoot*# 5)uetoot% f ))( t%e n c%e of 4er' (%ort-ran"e commun cat on +et&een mo+ )e p%one(B PD;(B note+oo0 computer(B an! ot%er per(ona) or per p%era) !e4 ce($ ?or e7amp)eB

5)uetoot% can +e u(e! to connect mo+ )e p%one( to a %ea!(etB or a note+oo0 computer to a pr nter$ $3) W*at a!e t*e -ou! ste2s in.o3.es in s+annin5# #$ T%e no!e (en!( a Pro+e frame$ 2$ ;)) ;P( & t% n reac% rep)' & t% a Pro+e Re(pon(e frame$ 3$ T%e no!e (e)ect( one of t%e acce(( po nt(B an! (en!( t%at ;P an ;((oc at on Re@ue(t frame$ ,$ T%e ;P rep) e( & t% an ;((oc at on Re(pon(e frame$ $') E;23ain t*e te! *an/o--# If t%e p%one ( n4o)4e! n a ca)) at t%e t me B t%e ca)) mu(t +e tran(ferre! to t%e ne& +a(e (tat on n &%at ( ca))e! a %an! off$ $() 8e-ine sat2*ones# Satp%one( u(e commun cat on (ate)) te( a( +a(e (tat on(B commun cat n" on fre@uenc' +an!( t%at %a4e +een re(er4e! nternat ona))' for (ate)) te u(e$ $%) =o0 to e/iate a++ess to a s*a!e/ 3ink# Et%ernetBto0en r n"B an! (e4era) & re)e(( protoco)($ Et%ernet an! to0en r n" me! a acce(( protoco)( %a4e no centra) ar+ trator of acce(($ Me! a acce(( n & re)e(( net&or0( ( ma!e more comp) cate! +' t%e fact t%at (ome no!e( ma' +e % !!en from eac% ot%er !ue to ran"e ) m tat on( of ra! o tran(m (( on$ $6) 8e-ine A55!e5ation 2oints# It co))ect( an! proce((e( t%e !ata t%e' rece 4e from ne "%+or n" no!e(B an! t%en tran(m t t%e proce((e! !ata$ 5' proce(( n" t%e !ata ncrementa))'B n(tea! of for&ar! n" a)) t%e ra& !ata to t%e +a(e (tat onB t%e amount of traff c n t%e net&or0 ( re!uce!$ $7) 8e-ine Bea+ons# 5eacon to !eterm ne t%e r o&n a+(o)ute )ocat on( +a(e! on 6PS or manua) conf "urat on$ T%e maFor t' of no!e( can t%en !er 4e t%e r a+(o)ute )ocat on +' com+ n n" an e(t mate of t%e r po( t on re)at 4e to t%e +eacon( & t% t%e a+(o)ute )ocat on nformat on pro4 !e! +' t%e +eacon($ $9) W*at is t*e use o- S0it+*# It ( u(e! to for&ar! t%e pac0et( +et&een (%are! me! a 3;N( (uc% a( Et%ernet$ Suc% (& tc%e( are (omet me( 0no&n +' t%e o+4 ou( name of 3;N (& tc%e($ 20) E;23ain B!i/5e# It ( a co))ect on of 3;N( connecte! +' one or more +r !"e( ( u(ua))' (a ! to form an e7ten!e! 3;N$ In t%e r ( mp)e(t 4ar ant(B +r !"e( ( mp)' accept 3;N frame( on t%e r nput( an! for&ar! t%em out on a)) ot%er output($ 2$) W*at is S2annin5 t!ee# It ( for t%e +r !"e( to (e)ect t%e port( o4er &% c% t%e' & )) for&ar! frame($ 22) W*at a!e t*e t*!ee 2ie+es o- in-o! ation in t*e +on-i5u!ation essa5es# #$ T%e ID for t%e +r !"e t%at ( (en! n" t%e me((a"e$ 2$ T%e ID for &%at t%e (en! n" +r !"e +e) e4e( to t%e root +r !"e$ 3$ T%e ! (tanceB mea(ure! n %op(B from t%e (en! n" +r !"e to t%e root +r !"e$ 23) W*at is 4!oa/+ast# 5roa!ca(t ( ( mp)e eac% +r !"e for&ar!( a frame & t% a !e(t nat on +roa!ca(t a!!re(( out on eac% act 4e 8(e)ecte!9 port ot%er t%an t%e one on &% c% t%e frame &a( rece 4e!$ 2') W*at is u3ti+ast# It can +e mp)emente! & t% eac% %o(t !ec ! n" for t(e)f &%et%er or not to accept

t%e me((a"e$ 2() =o0 /oes a 5i.en 4!i/5e 3ea!n 0*et*e! it s*ou3/ -o!0a!/ a u3ti+ast -!a e o.e! a 5i.en 2o!t# It )earn( e7act)' t%e (ame &a' t%at a +r !"e )earn( &%et%er t (%ou)! for&ar! a un ca(t frame o4er a part cu)ar port- +' o+(er4 n" t%e (ource a!!re((e( t%at t rece 4e( o4er t%at port$ 2%) W*at a!e t*e 3i itations o- 4!i/5es# (ca)e %etero"ene t' UNIT-III $) 8e-ine 2a+ket s0it+*in5# ; pac0et (& tc% ( a !e4 ce & t% (e4era) nput( an! output( )ea! n" to an! from t%e %o(t( t%at t%e (& tc% nterconnect($ 2) W*at is a .i!tua3 +i!+uit# ; )o" ca) c rcu t ma!e +et&een t%e (en! n" an! rece 4 n" computer($ T%e connect on ( ma!e after +ot% computer( !o %an!(%a0 n"$ ;fter t%e connect onB a)) pac0et( fo))o& t%e (ame route an! arr 4e n (e@uence$ 3) W*at a!e /ata 5!a s# In !ata"ram approac%B eac% pac0et ( treate! n!epen!ent)' from a)) ot%er($ E4en &%en one pac0et repre(ent( Fu(t a p)ace of a mu)t pac0et tran(m (( onB t%e net&or0 treat( t a)t%ou"% t e7 (te! a)one$ Pac0et( n t% ( tec%no)o"' are referre! to a( !ata"ram$ ') W*at is eant 4, s0it+*e/ .i!tua3 +i!+uit# S& tc%e! 4 rtua) c rcu t format ( compara+)e conceptua))' to ! a)-up ) ne n c rcu t (& tc% n"$ In t% ( met%o!B a 4 rtua) c rcu t ( create! &%ene4er t ( nee!e! an! e7 t( on)' for t%e !urat on of (pec f c e7c%an"e$ () W*at is eant 4, Pe! anent .i!tua3 +i!+uit# Permanent 4 rtua) c rcu t( are compara+)e to )ea(e! ) ne( n c rcu t (& tc% n"$ In t% ( met%o!B t%e (ame 4 rtua) c rcu t ( pro4 !e! +et&een t&o u(e( on a cont nuou( +a( ($ T%e c rcu t ( !e! cate! to t%e (pec f c u(e($ %) W*at a!e t*e 2!o2e!ties in sta! to2o3o5,# E4en t%ou"% a (& tc% %a( a f 7e! num+er of nput( an! output(B &% c% ) m t( t%e num+er of %o(t( t%at can +e connecte! to a ( n")e (& tc% B )ar"e net&or0( can +e +u )t +' nterconnect n" a num+er of (& tc%e($ We can connect (& tc%e( to eac% ot%er an! to %o(t( u( n" po nt-to po nt ) n0(B &% c% t'p ca))' mean( t%at &e can +u )! net&or0( of )ar"e "eo"rap% c (cope$ 6) W*at is @CI# ; = rtua) C rcu t I!ent f er t%at un @ue)' !ent f e( t%e connect on at t% ( (& tc%B an! &% c% & )) +e carr e! n( !e t%e %ea!er of t%e pac0et( t%at +e)on"( to t% ( connect on$ 7) W*at is *o2-4,-*o2 -3o0 +ont!o3# Eac% no!e ( en(ure! of %a4 n" t%e +uffer( t nee!( to @ueue t%e pac0et( t%at arr 4e on t%at c rcu t$ T% ( +a( c (trate"' ( u(ua))' ca))e! %op-+'-%op f)o& contro)$ 9) E;23ain t*e te! 4est-e--o!t# If (omet% n" "oe( &ron" an! t%e pac0et "et( )o(tB corrupte!B m (!e) 4ere!B or n an' &a' fa )( to reac% t( nten!e! !e(t nat onB t%e net&or0 !oe( not% n"$ $0) W*at is a;i u t!ans ission unit#

MTU- &% c% ( t%e )ar"e(t IP !ata"ram t%at t can carr' n a frame $ $$) 8e-ine Routin5# It ( t%e proce(( of +u )! n" up t%e ta+)e( t%at a))o& t%&e co))ect output for a pac0et to +e !eterm ne!$ $2) 8e-ine ICMP# Internet Contro) Me((a"e Protoco) ( a co))ect on of error me((a"e( t%at are (ent +ac0 to t%e (ource %o(t &%ene4er a router or %o(t ( una+)e to proce(( an IP !ata"ram (ucce((fu))' $3) W!ite t*e ke,s -o! un/e!stan/in5 t*e /istan+e .e+to! !outin5# T%e t%ree 0e'( for un!er(tan! n" t%e a)"or t%m areB Kno&)e!"e a+out t%e &%o)e net&or0( Rout n" on)' to ne "%+or( Informat on (%ar n" at re"u)ar nter4a)( $') W!ite t*e ke,s -o! un/e!stan/in5 t*e 3ink state !outin5# T%e t%ree 0e'( for un!er(tan! n" t%e a)"or t%m areB Kno&)e!"e a+out t%e ne "%+or%oo!$ Rout n" to a)) ne "%+or($ Informat on (%ar n" &%en t%ere ( a ran"e$ $() =o0 t*e 2a+ket +ost !e-e!!e/ in /istan+e .e+to! an/ 3ink state !outin5# In ! (tance 4ector rout n"B co(t refer to %op count &% )e n ca(e of ) n0 (tate rout n"B co(t ( a &e "%te! 4a)ue +a(e! on a 4ar et' of factor( (uc% a( (ecur t' )e4e)(B traff c or t%e (tate of t%e ) n0$ $%) 8e-ine Re3ia43e -3oo/in5# It ( t%e proce(( of ma0 n" (ure t%at a)) t%e no!e( part c pat n" n t%e rout n" protoco) "et a cop' of t%e ) n0 (tate nformat on from a)) t%e ot%er no!e($ $6) W*at a!e t*e -eatu!es in OSPB# ;ut%ent cat on of rout n" me((a"e($ ;!! t ona) % erarc%'$ 3oa! +a)anc n"$ $7) 8e-ine Su4nettin5# Su+nett n" pro4 !e( an e)e"ant)' ( mp)e &a' to re!uce t%e tota) num+er of net&or0 num+er( t%at are a(( "ne!$ T%e !ea ( to ta0e a ( n")e IP net&or0 num+er an! a))ocate t%e IP a!!re(( & t% t%at net&or0 to (e4era) p%'( ca) net&or0(B &% c% are no& referre! to a( (u+net($ $9) W*at a!e t*e /i--e!ent t,2es o- AS# Stu+ ;S Mu)t %ome! ;S Tran( t ;S 20) W*at is an A!ea# ;n ;rea ( a (et of router( t%at are a!m n (trat 4e)' conf "ure! to e7c%an"e ) n0(tate nformat on & t% eac% ot%er$ T%ere ( one (pec a) area- t%e +ac0+one areaB a)(o 0no&n a( area 0$ 2$) W*at is Sou!+e S2e+i-i+ Mu3ti+ast# SSM B a rece 4 n" %o(t (pec f e( +ot% a mu)t ca(t "roup an! a (pec f c %o(t $t%e rece 4 n" %o(t &ou)! t%en rece 4e mu)t ca(t a!!re((e! to t%e (pec f e! "roupB +ut on)' f t%e' are from t%e (pec a) (en!er$

22) W*at is eant 4, +on5estion# Con"e(t on n a net&or0 occur( f u(er (en!( !ata nto t%e net&or0 at a rate "reater t%an t%at a))o&e! +' net&or0 re(ource($ 23) W*, t*e +on5estion o++u!s in net0o!k# Con"e(t on occur( +ecau(e t%e (& tc%e( n a net&or0 %a4e a ) m te! +uffer ( >e to (tore arr 4e! pac0et($ 2') W*at a!e t*e !u3es o- non 4oun/a!,-3e.e3 askin5# T%e +'te( n t%e IP a!!re(( t%at corre(pon!( to 2-- n t%e ma(0 & )) +e repeate! n t%e (u+ net&or0 a!!re(( T%e +'te( n t%e IP a!!re(( t%at corre(pon!( to 0 n t%e ma(0 & )) c%an"e to 0 n t%e (u+ net&or0 a!!re(( ?or ot%er +'te(B u(e t%e + t-& (e ;ND operator$ 2() W*at is ?SP# In ) n0 (tate rout n"B a (ma)) pac0et conta n n" rout n" nformat on (ent +' a router to a)) ot%er router +' a pac0et ca))e! ) n0 (tate pac0et$ UNIT-I@ $) E;23ain t*e ain i/ea o- U8P# T%e +a( c !ea ( for a (ource proce(( to (en! a me((a"e to a port an! for t%e !e(t nat on proce(( to rece 4e t%e me((a"e from a port$ 2) W*at a!e t*e /i--e!ent -ie3/s in 2seu/o *ea/e!# Protoco) num+er Source IP a!!re(( De(t nat on IP a!!re((e($ 3) 8e-ine TCP# TCP "uarantee( t%e re) a+)eB n or!er !e) 4er' of a (tream of +'te($ It ( a fu))!up)e7 protoco)B mean n" t%at eac% TCP connect on (upport( a pa r of +'te (tream(B one f)o& n" n eac% ! rect on$ ') 8e-ine Con5estion Cont!o3# It n4o)4e( pre4ent n" too muc% !ata from +e n" nFecte! nto t%e net&or0B t%ere+' cau( n" (& tc%e( or ) n0( to +ecome o4er)oa!e!$ T%u( f)o& contro) ( an en! to an en! ((ueB &% )e con"e(t on contro) ( concerne! & t% %o& %o(t( an! net&or0( nteract$ () State t*e t0o kin/s o- e.ents t!i55e! a state t!ansition# ; (e"ment arr 4e( from t%e peer$ T%e )oca) app) cat on proce(( n4o0e( an operat on on TCP$ %) W*at is eant 4, se5 ent# ;t t%e (en! n" an! rece 4 n" en! of t%e tran(m (( onB TCP ! 4 !e( )on" tran(m (( on( nto (ma))er !ata un t( an! pac0a"e( eac% nto a frame ca))e! a (e"ment$ 6) W*at is eant 4, se5 entation# W%en t%e ( >e of t%e !ata un t rece 4e! from t%e upper )a'er ( too )on" for t%e net&or0 )a'er !ata"ram or !ata ) n0 )a'er frame to %an!)eB t%e tran(port protoco) ! 4 !e( t nto (ma))er u(a+)e +)oc0($ T%e ! 4 ! n" proce(( ( ca))e! (e"mentat on$ 7) W*at is eant 4, Con+atenation# T%e ( >e of t%e !ata un t +e)on" n" to ( n")e (e(( on( are (o (ma)) t%at (e4era) can f t to"et%er nto a ( n")e !ata"ram or frameB t%e tran(port protoco) com+ ne( t%em nto a ( n")e !ata un t$ T%e com+ n n" proce(( ( ca))e! concatenat on$

9) W*at is !ate 4ase/ /esi5n# Rate- +a(e! !e( "nB n &% c% t%e rece 4er te))( t%e (en!er t%e rate-e7pre((e! n e t%er +'te( or pac0et( per (econ! at &% c% t ( & )) n" to accept ncom n" !ata$ $0) 8e-ine 1ate0a,) ; !e4 ce u(e! to connect t&o (eparate net&or0( t%at u(e ! fferent commun cat on protoco)($ $$) W*at is eant 4, <ua3it, o- se!.i+e# T%e @ua) t' of (er4 ce !ef ne( a (et of attr +ute( re)ate! to t%e performance of t%e connect on$ ?or eac% connect onB t%e u(er can re@ue(t a part cu)ar attr +ute eac% (er4 ce c)a(( ( a((oc ate! & t% a (et of attr +ute($ $2) W*at a!e t*e t0o +ate5o!ies o- QoS att!i4utes# T%e t&o ma n cate"or e( areB U(er Or ente! Net&or0 Or ente! $3) ?ist out t*e use! !e3ate/ att!i4utes# U(er re)ate! attr +ute( are SCR Su(ta na+)e Ce)) Rate PCR Pea0 Ce)) Rate MCR- M n mum Ce)) Rate C=DT Ce)) =ar at on De)a' To)erance$ $') W*at a!e t*e net0o!ks !e3ate/ att!i4utes# T%e net&or0 re)ate! attr +ute( areB Ce)) )o(( rat o 8C3R9 Ce)) tran(fer !e)a' 8CTD9 Ce)) !e)a' 4ar at on 8CD=9 Ce)) error rat o 8CER9$ $() W*at is RE8# Ran!om Ear)' Detect on n eac% router ( pro"ramme! to mon tor t( o&n @ueue )en"t% an! &%en t !etect( t%at con"e(t on ( mm nentB to not f' t%e (ource to a!Fu(t t( con"e(t on & n!o&$ $%) W*at a!e t*e t*!ee e.ents in.o3.e/ in t*e +onne+tion# ?or (ecur t'B t%e tran(port )a'er ma' create a connect on +et&een t%e t&o en! port($ ; connect on ( a ( n")e )o" ca) pat% +et&een t%e (ource an! !e(t nat on t%at ( a((oc ate! & t% a)) pac0et( n a me((a"e$ Creat n" a connect on n4o)4e( t%ree (tep(D Connect on e(ta+) (%ment Data tran(fer Connect on re)ea(e UNIT-@ $) W*at is t*e -un+tion o- SMTP# T%e TCP<IP protoco) (upport( e)ectron c ma ) on t%e Internet ( ca))e! S mp)e Ma ) Tran(fer 8SMTP9$ It ( a ('(tem for (en! n" me((a"e( to ot%er computer u(er( +a(e! on e-ma ) a!!re((e($ SMTP pro4 !e( ma ) e7c%an"e +et&een u(er( on t%e (ame or ! fferent computer($ 2) W*at is t*e /i--e!en+e 4et0een a use! a5ent (UA" an/ a ai3 t!ans-e! a5ent (MTA"# T%e U; prepare( t%e me((a"eB create( t%e en4e)opeB an! put( t%e me((a"e n t%e en4e)ope$ T%e MT; tran(fer( t%e ma ) acro(( t%e Internet$ 3) =o0 /oes MIME en*an+e SMTP# MIME ( a (upp)ementar' protoco) t%at a))o&( non-;SCII !ata to +e (ent t%rou"% SMTP$ MIME tran(form( non-;SCII !ata at t%e (en!er ( te to N=T ;SCII !ata an! !e) 4erer( t to t%e c) ent SMTP to +e (ent t%rou"% t%e Internet$ T%e (er4er SMTP at t%e

rece 4 n" ( !e rece 4e( t%e N=T ;SCII !ata an! !e) 4er( t to MIME to +e tran(forme! +ac0 to t%e or " na) !ata$ ,$ W*, is an a223i+ation su+* as POP nee/e/ -o! e3e+t!oni+ essa5in5# Wor0(tat on( nteract & t% t%e SMTP %o(tB &% c% rece 4e( t%e ma ) on +e%a)f of e4er' %o(t n t%e or"an >at onB to retr e4e me((a"e( +' u( n" a c) ent-(er4er protoco) (uc% a( Po(t Off ce Protoco)B 4er( on 38POP39$ ;)t%ou"% POP3 ( u(e! to !o&n)oa! me((a"e( from t%e (er4erB t%e SMTP c) ent (t )) nee!e! on t%e !e(0top to for&ar! me((a"e( from t%e &or0(tat on u(er to t( SMTP ma ) (er4er$ -$ 6 4e t%e format of :TTP re@ue(t me((a"e*

5o!' 8pre(ent on)' n (ome m("e(9

%$ W*at is t*e 2u!2ose o- 8o ain Na e S,ste # Doma n Name S'(tem can map a name to an a!!re(( an! con4er(e)' an a!!re(( to name$ 6) 8is+uss t*e t*!ee ain /i.ision o- t*e /o ain na e s2a+e$ Doma n name (pace ( ! 4 !e! nto t%ree ! fferent (ect on(D "ener c !oma n(B countr' !oma n( S n4er(e !oma n$ 6ener c !oma nD Def ne re" (tere! %o(t( accor! n" to t%e r "ener c +e%a4 orB u(e( "ener c (uff 7e($ Countr' !oma nD U(e( t&o c%aracter( to !ent f' a countr' a( t%e )a(t (uff 7$ In4er(e !oma nD ? n!( t%e !oma n name " 4en t%e IP a!!re(($ 7) 8is+uss t*e TCP +onne+tions nee/e/ in BTP) ?TP e(ta+) (%e( t&o connect on( +et&een t%e %o(t($ One connect on ( u(e! for !ata tran(ferB t%e ot%er for contro) nformat on$ T%e contro) connect on u(e( 4er' ( mp)e ru)e( of commun cat on$ T%e !ata connect on nee!( more comp)e7 ru)e( !ue to t%e 4ar et' of !ata t'pe( tran(ferre!$ 9) 8is+uss t*e 4asi+ o/e3 o- BTP) T%e c) ent %a( t%ree component(D t%e u(er nterfaceB t%e c) ent contro) proce((B an! t%e c) ent !ata tran(fer proce(($ T%e (er4er %a( t&o component(D t%e (er4er contro) proce(( an! t%e (er4er !ata tran(fer proce(($ T%e contro) connect on ( ma!e +et&een t%e contro)

proce((e($ T%e !ata connect on ( ma!e +et&een t%e !ata tran(fer proce((e($ $0) Na e -ou! -a+to!s nee/e/ -o! a se+u!e net0o!k# Privacy: T%e (en!er an! t%e rece 4er e7pect conf !ent a) t'$ ut!enticationD T%e rece 4er ( (ure of t%e (en!erA( !ent t' an! t%at an mpo(ter %a( not (ent t%e me((a"e$ "nte#rityD T%e !ata mu(t arr 4e at t%e rece 4er e7act)' a( t &a( (ent$ $on-ReputationD T%e rece 4er mu(t a+)e to pro4e t%at a rece 4e! me((a"e came from a (pec f c (en!er$ $$) =o0 is a se+!et ke, /i--e!ent -!o 2u43i+ ke,# In (ecret 0e'B t%e (ame 0e' ( u(e! +' +ot% part e($ T%e (en!er u(e( t% ( 0e' an! an encr'pt on a)"or t%m to encr'pt !ataM t%e rece 4er u(e( t%e (ame 0e' an! t%e corre(pon! n" !ecr'pt on a)"or t%m to !ecr'pt t%e !ata$ In pu+) c 0e'B t%ere are t&o 0e'(D a pr 4ate 0e' an! a pu+) c 0e'$ T%e pr 4ate 0e' ( 0ept +' t%e rece 4er$ T%e pu+) c 0e' ( announce! to t%e pu+) c$ $2) W*at is a /i5ita3 si5natu!e# D " ta) ( "nature ( a met%o! to aut%ent cate t%e (en!er of a me((a"e$ It ( ( m )ar to t%at of ( "n n" tran(act on( !ocument( &%en 'ou !o +u( ne(( & t% a +an0$ In net&or0 tran(act on(B 'ou can create an e@u 4a)ent of an e)ectron c or ! " ta) ( "nature +' t%e &a' 'ou (en! !ata$ $3) W*at a!e t*e a/.anta5es C /isa/.anta5es o- 2u43i+ ke, en+!,2tion# ;!4anta"e(D a9 Remo4e t%e re(tr ct on of a (%are! (ecret 0e' +et&een t&o ent t e($ :ere eac% ent t' can create a pa r of 0e'(B 0eep t%e pr 4ate oneB an! pu+) c)' ! (tr +ute t%e ot%er one$ +9 T%e no$ of 0e'( nee!e! ( re!uce! tremen!ou()'$ ?or one m )) on u(er( to commun cateB on)' t&o m )) on 0e'( are nee!e!$ D (a!4anta"eD If 'ou u(e )ar"e num+er( t%e met%o! to +e effect 4e$ Ca)cu)at n" t%e c p%er te7t u( n" t%e )on" 0e'( ta0e( a )ot of t me$ So t ( not recommen!e! for )ar"e amount( of te7t$ $') W*at a!e t*e a/.anta5es C /isa/.anta5es o- se+!et ke, en+!,2tion# ;!4anta"eD Secret Ke' a)"or t%m( are eff c entD t ta0e( )e(( t me to encr'pt a me((a"e$ T%e rea(on ( t%at t%e 0e' ( u(ua))' (ma))er$ So t ( u(e! to encr'pt or !ecr'pt )on" me((a"e($ D (a!4anta"e(D a9 Eac% pa r of u(er( mu(t %a4e a (ecret 0e'$ If N peop)e n &or)! &ant to u(e t% ( met%o!B t%ere nee!( to +e N 8N-#9<2 (ecret 0e'($ ?or one m )) on peop)e to commun cateB a %a)f-+ )) on (ecret 0e'( are nee!e!$ +9 T%e ! (tr +ut on of t%e 0e'( +et&een t&o part e( can +e ! ff cu)t$ $() 8e-ine 2e! utation) Permutat on ( tran(po( t on n + t )e4e)$ Strai#!t permutationD T%e no$ of + t( n t%e nput an! output are pre(er4e!$ %ompressed permutationD T%e no$ of + t( ( re!uce! 8(ome of t%e + t( are !roppe!9$

&xpanded permutationD T%e no$ of + t( ( ncrea(e! 8(ome + t( are repeate!9$ $%) 8e-ine su4stitution C t!ans2osition en+!,2tion# $ Substitution: ; c%aracter )e4e) encr'pt on n &% c% eac% c%aracter ( rep)ace! +' anot%er c%aracter n t%e (et$ 'ransposition: ; C%aracter )e4e) encr'pt on n &% c% t%e c%aracter( reta n t%e r p)a nte7t +ut t%e po( t on of t%e c%aracter c%an"e($ $6) 8e-ine C1I# $ C6I ( a (tan!ar! for commun cat on +et&een :TTP (er4er( an! e7ecuta+)e pro"ram($ It ( u(e! n crat n" !'nam c !ocument($ $7) W*at a!e t*e !e<uests essa5es su22o!t SNMP an/ e;23ain it# 6ET SET T%e former ( u(e! to retr e4e a p ece of (tate from (ome no!e an! t%e )atter ( u(e! to (tore a ne& p ece of (tate n (ome no!e$ $9) 8e-ine P1P# Prett' 6oo! Pr 4ac' ( u(e! to pro4 !e (ecur t' for e)ectron c ma )$ It pro4 !e( aut%ent cat onB conf !ent a) t'B !ata nte"r t'B an! non repu! at on$ 20) 8e-ine SS=# Secure S%e)) ( u(e! to pro4 !e a remote )o" nB an! u(e! to remote)' e7ecute comman!( an! tran(fer f )e( an! a)(o pro4 !e (tron" c) ent<(er4er aut%ent cat on < me((a"e nte"r t'$ 2$) 1i.e t*e -o! at o- =TTP !es2onse essa5e#