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TO THE FILIPINOS In the Noli me tangere I began the sketch of the present state of our Native Land.

The effect that my attempt produced pointed out to me, before proceeding to unfold the other successive pictures before your eyes, the necessity of first making known to you the past in order that you may be able to judge better the present and to measure the road traversed during three centuries. Born and reared in the ignorance of our Yesterday, like almost all of you, without voice or authority to speak about what we did not see or studied, I considered it necessary to invoke the testimony of an illustrious Spaniard who governed the destinies of the Philippines in the beginning of her new era and witnessed the last moments of our ancient nationality. It is then the shadow of the civilization of our ancestors which the author is now evoking before you. I transmit faithfully to you his words, without changing or mutilating them, adapting them only whenever possible to modern orthography for greater clarity, and altering the somewhat defective punctuation of the original in order to make its perusal easier. The post, the nationality, and merits of De Morga, together with the data and testimonies furnished by his contemporaries, almost all Spaniards, recommend the book to your thoughtful consideration. If the book succeeds to awaken your consciousness of our past, already effaced from your memory, and to rectify what has been falsified and slandered, then I have not worked in vain, and with this as a basis, however small it may be, we shall be able to study the future. Jose Rizal Europe 1889 Translated by Encarnacion Alzona

PROLOGUE My very dear Friend: I accept your kind invitation, which so honors me and I'm going to write you a few lines instead of a prologue. I'm not afraid of the difficulties of writing in a language which I don't master; I'm not afraid because I follow the impulses of my heart and the heart knows how to overcome grammatical and lexicographic obstacles. It is not the purpose of these lines to present a dish to those who relish the rich phraseology of the majestic language of Cervantes, no; my purpose is to thank you in the name of the international republic of scholars, in the name of the Philippines, in the name of Spain, for the publication of this most important chronicle of the dear country in which you were born and whose adopted son I consider myself to be. With this reprinting you have erected a monumentum aere perennius1 to the name Rizal. Morga's book always enjoyed the fame of being the best chronicle of the "conquest" of the Philippines. Spaniards and foreigners are agreed on this opinion, on this estimate. No historian of the Philippines can disregard with impunity the wealth of data that sparkle in the work of the renowned justice; but neither can it satisfy his desires, because Morga's Sucesos is a rare book, so rare a book that the very few libraries that have it guard it with the same solicitude as if it were a treasure of the Incas. It must be supposed that the Spaniards rendered the just tribute of gratitude to the noble compatriot, to the upright representative of the metropolis in the Far East, to the gallant defender of the glorious Spanish flag, to the greatest chronicler of the Philippines, but the expectations of the scientific world were not fulfilled in the country bathed by the Tajo and

monument more enduring than bronze. (E. A.)

the Guadalquivir. Not one Spaniard could be found who, following the inspiration of a noble and prudent patriotism, admired the work of the author who possessed in his character and soul the best virtues of his nation and whose pen proved to be the precious pen of an excellent author of lofty ideas. The Spaniards did nothing; the Spaniards who always boasted of their patriotism and Hispanism; thus they lost an opportune moment of renewing the glories of the glorious past. In view of this regrettable indifference of Spanish Philipinologists, a foreigner (boldness)! meddled in the affairs of the country: An English lord, Lord Stanley, translated into the language of the "yes" the immortal work of the great Spaniard, applauded by the world of foreign orientalists, but did not receive an honorable mention from that nation whose duty it was not to leave the laurels of his undertaking to a foreigner. The scientific world was satisfied; every orientalist, every Philippiniste, ought to understand English, and the numerous notes and appendices of the translation did not hurt the value of the "resurrection" of the Sucesos de Filipinos. Thanks to .that translation, we foreigners did not believe in the necessity or at least in the urgent need for the reprinting of the Spanish original. But you, my dear friend, were not in accord with this resignation and modesty of the outside world, with this indifference and apathy of Spain. In your heart, which is truly noble and generous, you have felt the extent of national ingratitude, and you, the elder son of the Tagalog nation, you, the martyr of a loyal and active patriotism, you were the one who paid the debt of the nation of the very nation whose degenerate sons mock your race and deny them intellectual endowments. I admire this proof of patriotic nobility and generous patriotism. The parasites, the friars, and the Spanish gods of the Filipino world call you filibustero; thus you have been slandered by those who, for their madness for greatness, for the sake of their pockets, and for the bandage of their passions, are the indefatigable 3

grave-diggers of the integrity of the mother country. You have shown them who knows how to fulfill the duties of a patriot: The Filipino scholar who renews the laurels of a great author, statesman, and fighter of Spain and calls the attention of the government to the evils of the mother country or they who sow racial hatred in the breast of the Filipinos by their jeers and irritating expressions of contempt. You know already that you will be attacked cruelly by the crowd of Spaniards who consider an educated Indio a crime of lese majeste. But if an Indio has entered the world of scholars, if that Filipino scholar not only fulfills the duties that Spaniards first of all ought to fulfill, but also censures the conduct of the European colonizers and civilizers, then the Malayan author can consider himself lucky if only the anathema and curses of all those who believe themselves superior beings, infallible and untouchable, should rain over him on account of the place of his birth and the sickly color of his skin. But you have not written your book for them. The new edition of the Sucesos is dedicated to scholars and patriots. Both groups will be grateful to you. I have no doubt that your notes, so scholarly and well-thought out, will stir the European world. More than 150 years ago the just and Christian protest against the cruelties committed by the European discoverers in the New World stopped spreading, its precursor being a noble Spaniard, the venerable prelate, Las Casas. This man, truly a saint, spoke in the name of Christian religion and compassion, but he succeeded only in stopping the traffic of Negro slaves. The French idealists of the last century protested against the maltreatment of the "colored" man" as a result of their idea that the savage and the uncivilized man represent the age of innocence of humankind. Thus to the school of Rousseau as well as to various Spaniards the colored man seemed a grown-up child with the difference that the latter deduced from their theory the right to oppress him while the French idealists were in favor of applying to the "big children" all the inexhaustible and indulgent love that a father professed toward 4

his child.2 So we observe that this affection toward the "colored men" at bottom was a manifestation of the madness for greatness of the European race because their supposition (erroneous) was that, with the exception of the white race, of the Chinese and Japanese, all the other nations and races of the world are either savages, primitive men, or at least men whom the providence of the Supreme Being endowed with a childish and limited intelligence. Following this theory and the other that modern civilization was a poison, the French idealists wanted to guarantee a paternal and loving tutorship, but withal an eternal tutorship of the "colored men". And full of idealism they wanted that tutorship to be so indulgent and so benign that everything would be permitted the "colored men" while the white man was to play the role of nurse or governess of the child whose bad conduct had to be excused and even praised. A good example was the German Forster. On an islet in eastern Oceania, the natives stole his hat (if I remember rightly.) Forster did not complain against the thieves; on the contrary, he accused himself of having aroused the feeling of rapacity of the natives by using a beautiful hat. He was a model for numerous others. If the ideas of those deluded men had been realized, colored men would not have to thank their benevolent protectors, because they proposed not only to protect them against the brutalities of our race but also to protect and even nourish their vices and immoralities. The ugly nakedness of reality ended the beautiful dream of the deluded men who forgot that in the breast of every man slumbers the beast, that beast which, like the noxious bacilli that are killed through disinfection, is killed only through the spread of education. But the illusions of those enthusiasts did not remain sterile. The idea of the emancipation of slaves originated in these illusions. I only regret that the noble and generous nation, the Spanish nation, had ceded the laurels of the emancipation of the Negroes to a nation who bears the surname of "mercantile" the English nation.
It must be noted that the laws of the Spanish Indies had the same affectionate and protective tendencies, but unfortunately those who implemented them did not follow the intentions of the lawmakers.

In the following epoch, the cruelties committed by us Europeans were attacked, not for noble motives but for national rivalries and vain glory. Then the English accused the Spaniards, the Germans the Portuguese, the Dutch the French, etc., of having been barbarous and cruel toward the natives of their colonies while they kept silent about the cruelties committed by themselves either for malice or for being blinded by national love. The modern era, in short, with its democratic ideas, ended by looking with other eyes on their colored brothers. The new European generation proclaims, or rather recognizes, not only the equality of races but also that of whole mankind. To us the colored man is no longer a mystery or a human curiosity; the colored man is the same man as we are. Now through the diffusion and advancement of geographical, ethnographical, and historical knowledge, we are ashamed of the period when we denied to those brothers the full rights of man. Now we regret the errors, the crimes, the miseries that stain the pages of the history of the European race. Now we confess with the frankness of a repentant sinner our guilt and as the modern generation is not a deluded generation but an active generation, we extend our arms to our brothers asking them to forgive the faults of our ancestors and we try to make up for the errors and crimes of centuries past. So then, your observations on the conduct of the European conquerors and civilizers are in general not new to the historian. The Germans specially discussed this theme almost in the same manner as you do, and let no one tell me that the Germans can talk about the cruelties committed by other nations because they have had no colonies, for Emperor Charles V transferred to the bankers of Augsburg, to the Welsers (the Bal-zaros of the Spaniards) the territory that is now called Republic of Venezuela, and though German rule lasted only a few years, German cruelties were no different from those committed by other nations and the German historians rightly condemn with the greatest harshness the crimes of their fellow nationals. So in general the accusations in your notes are not a novelty. But with6

out doubt it interests us how the picture of these days of discovery and civilization is presented to the descendants of the maltreated, to the victims of European intolerance. Naturally I have found out that you have painted it from other points of view different from ours and that you have discovered things which have escaped the attention of the Europeans, because even the most impartial among us could not renounce all the inveterate preoccupations of race and nationality. And these new points of view give your notes an imperishable value, an undeniable value even for those who dream of an inaccessible superiority of race or nationality. The scholar will salute with enthusiasm your erudite annotations, the colonial politician with gratitude and respect. Through those lines run a flood of serious observations equally interesting and important to historians and ministers of overseas colonies alike. My great esteem for your notes does not hinder me from confessing that more than once I have observed that you suffer from the error of many modern historians who censure the occurences of centuries past in accordance with the concepts that correspond to contemporary ideas. This ought not to be so. The historian ought not to impute to the men of the XVI century the broad horizon of ideas that stirs the XIX century.. The second point with which I don't agree is some unbosoming against Catholicism. I believe that the origin of numerous occurences regrettable to religion, to Spain, and to the good name of the European race should be sought in the harsh behavior and abuses of many priests. Until this point I have referred only to your historical notes. Their very perusal inspires great interest in every man devoted to the scientific or political study of the colonial regime of the Spaniards as well as of the other Europeans. This interest naturally increases when you speak of presentday affairs, defending your compatriots and condemning the bad condition of the country. I recommend the perusal of these annotations to all Spaniards who love the Philippines and desire the preservation of the Archipelago. Even those who

deny that the Indio possesses natural human intelligence ought to read these lines in which an Indio speaks of the errors and illusions of "superior beings." I don't expect that those demi-gods can be cured of their prejudices ; to them your work is like your Tagalog novel :3 A mene, tekel, upharsian.4 But thank God there is a sufficient number of Spaniards who do not need the operation of the cataract or who suffer from gout and these will follow attentively your suggestions. Every educated man knows by now that the French adage applies to the questions of the colonial regime: Les jours de fete sont pases.5 The brutal exploitation of the natives cannot now find sufficient pretexts to appease the very sensitive public morality of the present generation. Neither religion nor civilization nor the glory of kings and nations now permits the conversion of the natives into servants without rights, without liberties. Even those states which base their regime on the prestige of their race take very great care not to offend the feelings of the ruled, because they know well that colonies cannot be preserved if the mother country does not know how to inspire her children overseas if not with affection, at least with the respect that one contracting party shows the other, to say the truth, who contests the greater part part of the advantage of the contract, but at least observes it scrupulously in all points. It is impossible now to regard colonies as a rich grazing-ground for the adventures or for the enfants perdus* of the mother country. The best men, the best talents, the most noble characters, ought to go out to fill the positions overseas to be able to thus serve as leaders and supporters of the integrity of the mother country and to restore, not the prestige, but the good name of the European race.
Rizal's famous novel, Noli me tdngere. (E. A.) Numbered, weighed, divided. (E. A.) 5 The days of festivities are over. (E A ) 6 Lost children. (E. A.)
3 4

The Philippines forms a colony sui generis,7 inhabited by millions of men whose religion is like ours, whose civilization is the child of our own, and whose diverse peoples amalgamate with the bond of the Spanish language. Those millions now aspire through the voice of their most enlightened sons to the assimilation of their country by the mother country and hope for the redemption of their country and the guarantee of the integrity of the mother country, not from the magnanimity and nobility of the Spanish nation but from her sense of justice and prudence. The best reforms that are introduced into the Philippines will remain sterile if the policy of governmental terrorism continues which places in danger the freedom of every Filipino liberal and smothers brutally public discussion of the ills of the country. The same policy in Russia created nihilism and in the Philippines it will be indisputably the godmother of separatist ideas. Thus the present policy serves only to compromise Spanish rule. The misfortune of Spain and the Philippines is that the majority of the Spaniards do not want to recognize this truth. Some cannot recognize it for their egotistic interests; others because they live on illusions or they regard the colonies overseas with the boasted national indifference To the first group belong the friars and those government employees who do not govern or administer the country but exploit the inhabitants. Every Hispanization or assimilation of the Filipinos or of the Philippines disturbs the circles of those predominant and powerful castes. To them the slogan "The Philippines for Spain!" means "Filipino gold into our pockets!" They fear the discussion of their abuses in the press of the country and in the Cortes of the kingdom; so they work with all the strength of their soul and of their gold to foment the traditional suspicion of the rest of the Spaniards, nourishing that hapless and hysterical suspicion by means of calumnies, denouncing every truly pro-Spanish

Of its own kind, unique. (E. A.)

movement of the Filipinos as filibusterismo. I don't believe that all the partisans of this anti-Filipino league are so blinded by their passions that they cannot see the consequences of their behavior the inevitable separation of the Philippines, or at least, a series of uprisings that will cost Spain much blood and much more money; but perhaps they trust in that "Apres nous le deluge"* for they know by the Holy Scriptures that the sins of the fathers are visited upon their children until the fourth generation. The friars at least know well that their power, their rule, will surely fall with or without the will of Spain and so they try by all means and with the help of pious frauds to postpone the end of their downfall. If this is brought about against the will of Spain, that is, by the separation of the country, it would not matter to them, because the orders of St. Augustine, St. Dominic, and St. Francis are international and they remain Augustinians, Dominicans, even if the Philippines does not remain Spanish territory, and in this case the friars either enter into an agreement with the Filipinos or emigrate to the place indicated by their general who resides at Rome. If the friars consent to the assimilation of the Philippines, they would do a patriotic act, but a very imprudent act with respect to the interests of their business. The ideas of the friars are the following: "If we agree to assimilation, the consequence will be that Filipino deputies will ask for the expulsion of the friars from the Philippines and they will get it; so it will be suicide to agree to the parliamentary representation of the Philippines and to other attributes of assimilation ; if we take advantage of the state of ignorance of the country that prevails in the circles of the central government, we can at least retard our downfall for some years to the benefit of our pockets." Filipino radicals contributed greatly toward the development of this friar tactics, because they proclaim the slogan "Out

"After us the deluge." (E. A.)


with the Friars!", thus placing the friars in the dilemma: Either to renounce voluntarily and immediately not only their omnipotent influence but also all their temporal property (which does not seem to them worthless) or retard their ruin at the expense of the integrity of the mother country and the welfare 'of the Philippines. Thus the Filipino radicals, adopting the intolerance of the friars, compelled them to follow the Latin adage oderint, dum metuant.0 The reasoning of the exploiting employee is identical with that of the friars. To them assimilation is their ruin, and naturally the interests of the stomach are greater than the interests of the mother country. Thus the Philippines count on an army of enemies, so much more fearful as they have in Spain the fame of being the support, the only support, of Spanish rule and the only ones who know the country. According to my modest opinion, the exploiting employees form an uncompromising party while the friars would renounce much if they are guaranteed the rest. . . . I have said the adversaries of the assimilation of the Philippines count on a large number of deluded persons. Among them in the first place are those who suffer from the madness of the greatness of the European race. Everything that does not smell of their country is repugnant to them. The climate and the culinary art of the country seem to them hellish, and the noses and the color of the skin of the Filipino Malays and Mestizos are horrifying to them. It is true that those hapless representatives of our European race do not belong to the haute volee10 of the educated class but in political questions the most educated person do not play an important role; so we will have to count on these speciments of the genus humanum. They belong to the uncompromising class, because de gustibus non est disputandum, and it is a disgrace for Spain that
Let them hate, provided they fear. (E.A.) High class. (E. A.) 11 There's no accounting for tastes. (E.A.)
9 10


they form a very large class. It is the fault of the government of the metropolis because it did not know how to infuse in the minds of the Spanish youth in school dynamic love for their brothers overseas; it cultivated dangerous national pride which is provocative and suicidal; but it forgot to imbue the children with love and enthusiasm for all countries and all races that form and inhabit the Spanish kingdom. If Spain did not have millions of colored subjects, it would be well and very good to educate the Spanish youth in proud illusions that every man who is not a Spaniard is inferior or repugnant, but as Spain still preserves remnants of her old colonial empire, it seems more than imprudent for the Spanish youth in the peninsula to forget that at least one third of Spanish subjects do not have the phenomenal luck of having been born in the peninsula. That national and European pride is very aggressive and irritating and it is the greatest enemy of Spain because it establishes as indisputable the superiority of the Castilas (Spaniards) and does not allow either the realization of the aspirations of the Filipinos or even the discussion of Philippine questions in a sense favorable to the desires of the country. And this is the more regrettable as a favorable solution of the Philippine question is certain, time only being insecure and the question of whether the solution will be for or against Spain. This depends upon the Spaniards in the peninsula. If the features and customs of the Filipinos seem to them so repugnant that it is not possible for them to embrace them as brothers, the Filipinos will separate from them without doubt. A Castila god of Manila, on the occasion of my humble defense of your Noli me tdngere, furious, wrote a little article in which this passage is found: "Are we not Spaniards, Spaniards of a good race and ready for every sacrifice?" Congratulations, I agree and I hope that this is not just a hollow phrase. The first duty of a Spaniard who desires to preserve the country ought to be: Sacrifice the folly for greatness of the European race and national vani


ties for the welfare and integrity of the mother country ; but, if I know those gentlemen, they will sacrifice their life, their money, and a hundred Philippines, Cubas, and Puerto Ricos before they will renounce their national vanities, as the fatuous and ruined nobleman sacrifices to his pride and vanity the few properties that remain to him from his grandparents: Trahit quem-que sua voluptas, stat pro ratione vanitas.12 If Hispa-nism does not want to be converted into big children s prattle, the Spaniards have to overcome their aversion to the flat noses of the Indios and salute them as brothers; if that is not possible, they should authorize the Filipinos to begin the war for independence, lne interests of Spain deserve more attention than the aesthetic concepts that certain lordlings form of the Indios. I repeat: The Philippines can be preserved only with, never against, the Filipinos. The second group of deluded Spaniards is formed by those who are opposed to assimilation, because they believe that it is not timely to grant it for the following reasons: 1st, the country has numerous savage tribes; 2nd, even the Christian and civilized Indios are still in a low level of education and culture. This is true, but it does not impede the realization of Philippine aspirations. The numerous savage tribes do not matter because they have a small number of souls, and the Filipinos do not claim the extension of constitutional liberties to the savage tribes. Yes, it is true that in general the Filipino Indios have little education, but the example of Bulgaria proves that constitutional government does not depend upon the number of illiterates and literates Still it must be added that this is not the time to discuss the question whether or not it is better to postpone the time for constitutional emancipation, if we do not want to provoke the danger of Hispania deliberante Philippinae perierunt13. No one should forget that the present state of the Philippines is intoler12 13

His own pleasure draws each man While Spain deliberates, the Philippines dies


able for any man who has sufficient dignity in his breast and even to the last peasant, because wherever he looks, he sees oppression, injustice, and offensive and injurious humiliation, and over this the impossibility of defending oneself, because the last Spanish criminal believes himself and considers himself superior even to the best and most noble son of the country, while every Filipino who does not keep quiet and says "Amen" to every despotic and corrupt act of the ruling caste receives the appelation of filibustero and runs the danger of being deported and not only he but also his friends; for in the Philippines, it is not only the criminal who is punished but also his whole family, physically and spiritually, as the vexations of your family prove. That peaceful and governable mass hears with greater pleasure what its educated sons tell it than what the friars preach, because naturally they have more confidence in the men of their own race than in those of another, who always boast of their superiority. Thus the Philippines will get by force, if they don't get them gratuitously, their parliamentary representation and their rights to live free and respected. But I doubt if the Filipinos would go to Madrid as deputies in the first case. Certainly the deluded ones of this group trust in the painting of the Indio by the friars and the majority of Spanish writers: The first ones disfigure it out of passion, the second because, blinded by their pride, they do not know that thus a very unpleasant awakening awaits them. The third and last group of deluded men hold the ideas of the first two groups; but their national and European pride is not exaggerated to the point of degenerating into folly for greatness, neither is it aggressive nor injurious. Thus they are better than the first group but worse than the second, because the latter at least promises to the coming generation what the present generation asks, while the third group says: "Never!" It is composed of the routinists and doctrinaires who


believe that the purpose of colonies is to provide the Spaniard with employment and money and that the children of the country must subordinate the interests of their country not to the interests of Spain but to the well-being of a handful of Spaniards. As doctrinaires, they are not satisfied with this rather bold and improvident pretension but they demand in addition the gratitude of the Filipinos because the superior beings permit them to be born, to live, to suffer, to pray, to pay, and to die ad majorem Hispanae gloriam.1* To be just, we must say that the deluded men of the third group are against every kind of abuse and never will permit a violation of the laws and honor to be covered up with the prestige of the white race. But as their very ideas are nothing more than the codification of the abuses of power and of the prestige of our race (according to those who believe in the innate superiority of the Europeans), so they create finally a regime that demands from its employees justice and honesty while it is founded on an unjust and immortal basis. Those three groups of deluded men exist in reality the first is composed of many Spaniards in Manila ; the second is represented by a series of benevolent ministers to whom the country owes many laudable reforms but reforms that, in view of despotism and terrorism, are like an excellent velocipede that is presented to a prisoner; the third group includes a large number of Spanish senators and deputies to which we can also add General Salamanca in view of his speeches in the Senate of the kingdom, though unwitting agents provocateurs1* of filibusterismo, while the second functions like a good Samaritan who bandage the wounds of a wounded gladiator so that he can come out quickly again to the arena ad majus gaudium1* of the sovereign people. The lions and tigers that attack the glaFor the greater glory of Spain. Hired plotters 16 For the greater delight
14 15


diator are the friars and other Castilas, and the manager of the performance is the third group of deluded Spaniards. Though it seems paradoxical, I believe that the indifferent persons among the Spaniards constitute the hope of the country, for, as they have no anti-Filipino prejudices, it is supposed that some day they may fraternize with those from the Philippines, if they are informed of their true condition. But for this the help of the government is also needed to see to it that the youth of the kingdom is taught the geography and ethnography of the Philippines. It is very sad, and perhaps more than sad, to note that the youth of countries which have no colonies, like my country Austria, is in general better informed about the Philippines than the Spanish youth and in part even the Spanish bureaucracy. It is very sad, and perhaps even more than very sad, that Spain who reigns over 6 or 8 million Malays, does not have either a college or academy for Malay or oriental studies, the seminaries of the friars being the exclusive enterprises of private or international corporations. It is imprudent, and perhaps even more than imprudent, that the employees in the Philippines work like apprentices, for they do not know the languages and ideas of their subjects, unable to graduate from the status of apprentices because even when their terms of office have not expired yet, they retire after staying a few years in their post, the governors a mere three years. It is a monstrosity of transcendental consequences if every Petition of Right of the Filipinos is considered a filibustero act that endangers the integrity of the mother country. All this only serves to nourish filibusterismo and to separate the colony from her metropolis. All the enemies and adversaries of the assimilation of Filipinos will get the same thing that the counselors of King Charles X of France obtained in 1830.


These observations are the fruit of the perusal of your notes, and it is the desire of my soul that your book find in Spain a circle of readers who will not burst into imprecations but will know how to deduce from its perusal that the Filipinos in reality are not like those in the disfigured picture painted by the friars and your enemies. If then they do not attend to the Filipinos, the Philippines will be lost, but through their fault. They pretend to be noble but they do not know how to be just; they pretend to be a superior nation and they do not know how to follow a prudent policy; they fear separatist ideas and they compel the Filipinos to seek refuge in revolution. May God will that these prophecies be not realized; but it seems that the governments of Spain lack the aptitude for that of parat tueri17 habent sua fata non solum libelli, sed eliam regna.18 Finally, I reiterate my expressions of gratitude for the precious gift with which you have favored your mother country, and the whole civilized world. I hope that you may continue your studies that honor Spain and the Philippines and glorify your name and with it the name Tagalog. I conclude these lines wishing justice for your work. Ferdinand Blumentritt Leitmeritz, Austria 9 November 1889
17 18

He prepares to look. No t only books have their own destiny but also kingdoms.