Anda di halaman 1dari 44

Structural Design of Taipei 101 Tower

Ching-Chang Chang Assistant V.P.


Evergreen Consulting Engineering, Inc.

Evergreen Consulting Engineering, Inc.


Structural Design and Site Supervision for Taipei 101 Over 30 Years in Practice, Since 1974 Specialize in Building Structural Consulting Services

Site Plan
Parking Exit North Square Parking Entry

Grand Hyatt Hotel World Trade Center

Shopping Mall Office Tower


South Square

Retail Center City Park

Parking Entry

Main Street

Parking Exit

PROJECT PROFILE Site Area( Floor Area( Height Floors


Main Tower Podium Basement

30,277 m 373,831 m 508 m


101 6 5

Main Usage
Main Tower Podium Basement
Office (7F 84F) Mech. Level (Every 8F) Shopping Mall (B1F 5F) Parking (B2F B5F)

Tower

Podium

Clay

Colluvium (1)

380150

167200

Colluvium (2)

Sandstone

FOUNDATION PLAN
A 1 1.6 2 3 B C D E F G H H.5 J K L M N P Q R S T

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18 19

TYPICAL FLOOR FRAMING PLAN

Lower Story

16

TYPICAL FLOOR FRAMING PLAN

Upper Story

16

MECHANICAL FLOOR

2X4=8 outriggers, 1 vertical belt truss, 1 horizontal belt truss, SMRF

18

SCA

M.2

M.9

P.1

P.7

SCB

SCA
SC1

M.2

M.9

P.1

P.7

SCB SCA M.2 M.9 P.1 P.7 SCB

SC1 SC1

12.2

12.2
12.9

12.2 12.9 12.9

14.1

14.1
14.7

14.1 14.7 14.7

SC2

SC2 SC2

Elevation

BUILDING MODE SHAPES

1st mode

2nd mode

3rd mode

10

Structural Design Structural System Analysis & Design


Wind Design Seismic Design Special Measures

OUTLINE

Wind Design
Wind Tunnel Test TYPHOON

DESIGN CRITERIA

WIND YEAR (14 m/s) - HUMAN COMFORT (a<5 cm/s2 ) 50 YEAR(39.9m/s) - DRIFT RATIO < 5/1000

100 YEAR(43.3m/s) - STRESS CHECK(factored load)

Wind Analysis 1/2-yrs


10

8 T O T A LA C C E L E R A T IO N ( % g )

floor acceleration @ Level 89F w/ inherent damping 7.4cm/sec2 (w/ typhoon) > 5 cm/sec2 6.2cm/sec2 (w/o typhoon) > 5 cm/sec2
Taiw anese C riteria (5 m illi-g)

0 0.1 1 R ET UR N PERIO D (years) 10

IS OCriteria

W ithT yphoons (1.5% dam ping)

W ithoutT yphoons (1.5% dam ping)

w ith T M D(5% dam ping- T Y P HO O N)

Wind Analysis 50-yrs


6 0 0 .0

Maximum drift ratio < 5/1000


450

DES IGN S HEAR 50 y ear r etu r n p er io d lo ad

DR I FT R ATI O 50 y ear r etu r n p er io d lo ad

1.0Wx
5 0 0 .0

400

1.0Wx 1.0Wy

1.0Wy

350

ELEVATIONM

ELEVATIONM
0 .0 5 0 0 0 .0 1 0 0 0 0 .0 1 5 0 0 0 .0

300

4 0 0 .0

250

3 0 0 .0

200

150

2 0 0 .0

100

50

1 0 0 .0
0

0 .0

-5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

SHEAR (TONS)

SHEAR (TONS)

Wind Analysis 100yrs


550

DES IGN S HEAR 1 0 0 y ear r etu r n p er io d lo ad

550

DES IGN MOMENT 1 0 0 y ear r etu r n p er io d lo ad

1.0Wy
450

1.0Wy
450

1.0Wx

1.0Wx

ELEVATIONM

ELEVATIONM
0 5000 10000 15000

350

350

250

250

150

150

50

50

-5 0

-5 0 0 .0 E +0 0

1 .0 E +0 6

2 .0 E +0 6

3 .0 E +0 6

4 .0 E +0 6

SHEAR (TONS)

MOMENT (T-M)

RESULTS OF WIND ANALYSIS


For 0.5 year return period of wind: floor acceleration without damper=7cm/sec2 For 50 year return period of wind: max story drift =0.499%0.5% allowable For 100 year return period of wind: max member stress ratio 1.00 max story drift=0.57%

20

Structural Design Structural System Analysis & Design


Wind Design Seismic Design Special Measures

OUTLINE

SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

Motion of Plates

CODE DESIGN LOADING DRIFT RATIO < 5/ 1000 100 YEAR 950 YEAR PGA=0.39G - REMAIN ELASTIC - RETAIN STABILITY
Distribution of Active Faults

DESIGN INTENSITY:0.13G

FACTORED SHEAR COMPARISON


550

DES IGN S HEAR 1 0 0 y ear r etu r n p er io d lo ad

1.3Wy
450

1.0Ey

ELEVATIONM

350

250

150

50

-5 0 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000

SHEAR (TONS)

DRIFT RATIO COMPARISON


DISPLACEMENT 100 year return period load
450 400

350

Elevation M

300

250

200

1 .0 W y
150

1 .0 Ey

100

50

- 50 0 2 4 6

DISPLACEMENTM)

TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS (

X-SC1

X-12.2

X-12.9

HIGH DUCTILE GIRDER FLANGE PROVIDES 5% PLASTIC ROTATION

24

RESULTS OF EQK ANALYSIS


Under envelope of Code shear and dynamic shear: max story drift =0.325%0.5% allowable For 100 year return period of earthquake: stress ratio1.00 by response spectrum analysis For 950 year return period of earthquake: ductility demand <2.5 by pushover method; plastic hinge rotatio=0.25% For 2500 year return period of earthquake: plastic hinge rotatio=4%4% allowable If plastic rotation demand0.5%, cut girder flange
23

Structural Design Structural System Analysis & Design


Wind Design Seismic Design Special Measures

OUTLINE

SPECIAL MEASURES TO RESIST WIND AND SEISMIC FORCES High Strength and High Ductility Steel Plates
SM570M

High Strength and High Performance Concrete Infilling Columns - 10,000 psi

Pile Capacity Test Tuned Mass Damper - Tower Smaller Tuned Mass Dampers - Pinnacle

HIGH PERFORMANCE STEEL PLATES - SM570M


Used for tower columns, girders & braces High strength : 60 ksiFy74 ksi High ductility : Yield ratio80% For girders & braces (t 40 mm ) 85% For girders & braces (t 40 mm ), columns High weldability : Ceq 0.44 % ( t 40 mm ) 0.47 % ( t 40 mm ) Through-thickness ductility Impact absorption energy

SUPER-COLUMN FABRICATION

Max Col. Size:2400mm3000mm80mm/70MPa HPC

WELDING OF SUPER-COLUMN

Welding Sequence

Preheat Pads

WELDING OF SUPER-COLUMN

ElectricPads Pads Electric

10000 psi HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE


Design strength : 10000psi @ 90 days High flowability: slump - 25020mm slump flow - 60020mm 5% maximum air bubble underneath diaphragm plate Autogenous shrinkage 30010-6 m/m @ 90 days

COLUMN INFILL MOCKUP TEST


10,000 psi HPC

REVERSE CIRCULATION PILE

STATIC TESTING OF PILES


COMPRESSION: TENSION: 4000 TONNES 2200 TONNES

DYNAMIC TESTING OF PILES


Silencer
Gravel

COMPRESSION: 2000 TONNES MAX.

Reaction Mass
Combustion Chamber Piston

Load Cell
Beam

Laser

Laser Generator

Laser Sensor Transducer

Bearing

Plate

Pile

SLURRY WALL

REDUCED BEAM SECTION

10

8 T O T A LA C C E L E R A T IO N ( % g )

Taiw anese C riteria (5 m illi-g)


4

0 0.1 1 R ETUR N PERIO D (years) 10

IS OCriteria

W ithT yphoons (1.5% dam ping)

W ithoutT yphoons (1.5% dam ping)

w ith T M D(5% dam ping- T Y P HO O N)

TMD

BUILDING TMD
Building Wind Damper Animation

TMD CONSTRUCTION

TMD

VIO

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION