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Immanuel Kant Kantian morality or ethics of duty -morality is a pure philosophy -philosophy can be divided either on the basis

of experience which is empirical or on what is priori which is a pure philosophy -pure philosophy can be divided either as formal, i.e.,logic or as that which studies definite objects of understanding i.e.,metaphysics -metaphysics has two kinds; metaphysics of nature and metaphysics of moral Kant is keen in distinguishing ethics from moral Ethics Is not pure philosophy for it involves an empirical part which he calls practical anthropology and a rational part which is moral proper, in this case ethics is both empirical and rational while morality is purely rational its basis is nothing but reason His school of thought in ethics cannot be used as synonym of morality, to be consistent he uses morals instead of ethics Kantian morality is founded on reason, he keeps on pounding the idea of the good will, motive, and duty According to kant to live a moral life is to live in accordance with the law of reason, he also argues that this command is true, valid, and binding because it is beyond experience Kantian moral dictum is so sharp it does not accept relativity or subjectivity as far as moral existence is concerned Since morality for kant is a priori then tha command to live a moral life by obeying the laws of reason is a must Kants moral theory is not concerned for the what is but of the what ought so to live a moral life is a must not just an invitation How can one live a moral life??? Reason is not the terminal point of life but it leads to the cultivation of the good will To live in accordance with the law of reason, one must live in accordance with the law of nature

What is the connection between reason and will??? Reason is capable of influencing the will Will is the determining factor of the righteousness of human conduct then the will should be a good will Practically good is is that which determines the will by concept of reason. . .a perfectly good will would stand quite as much under objective laws. . Good will is one that acts for the sake of duty Intelligence, courage, power and wealth all of this can give man happiness, without good will; however, all of this can lead man to a bad and mischievous life, if this happens, man is not living o moral life it is enough to speak only of the will in order that man can live a moral life??? Motive determines the moral quality of an act and not the consequences of the act The intention behind our acts that matters not the consequence of the act Motive in moral acts cannot be happiness, pleasure, God or religion but duty man never acts morally because man wants to be pleased or to be happy nor should man acts morally because God will reward his good action but man acts morally because it his duty to be moral duty is the obligation to act from the reverence, respect for and obedience to the moral law the will to perform an act is not governed by desire or inclination, duty then is absolute and unconditional he calls his brand of morality categorical good will reason establisheds a good will, good will in turn functions as it acts for dutys sake utilitarian ethics human happiness is the measure of goodness

the primary motive and the right action for utilitarian ethics is when an act produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people; an act opposition to this is wrong according to them it can be divided into two: act utilitarians (eudaimonistic and hedonistic) which require that man should act to produce the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people rule utilitarianism