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Material Models in SCC Mix Design

Claus Pade, SCC-seminar in Copenhagen, 19 June, 2006

Role of Model in Mix Design


Estimate/predict the rheological behavior of concrete


0 (1) (2) 125

0 = distance of flow pl = speed of flow

Yield stress

pl 1

Yield stress (Pa)

75

100

C B A
25 50 75 100 pl

0 1

Shear rate (1) Newtonian liquid (water) (2) Bingham-material (concrete)

25

50

Plastic viscosity (Pas)

A: Separation B: SCC C: Not sufficient flow

Types of Model

Emperic
- Too simplistic - It works but you dont know why

Analytic
- Too complicated - It works and you know why

Danish SCC-Consortium Model


Originally proposed by Oh et al.:

concrete = paste A

+1

0,concrete = 0, paste (A B + 1)
concrete , is the plastic viscosity of the pasta , is the plastic viscosity of the paste

1 * = f k
, is the volume fraction of the aggregate *, is the max volume fraction of the
aggregate between surface and volume of a particle with characteristic dimension 1 f/k (sphere) = 6 f/k > 6 for all other shapes

concrete

0,concrete , is the yield stress of the concrete f/k, is a shape factor related to the ratio 0,pasta , is the yield stress of the paste
A, A, B, B, are constants , is the relative thickness of excess paste

Elements of the Model


Excess paste

D R

The excess of paste is found around each aggregate particle with = R/D constant for all aggregate particles = R/D is the same for either particle

Experimental Program
0,concrete = 0, paste (A B + 1)
0,paste paste 0,concrete concrete * / * f/k A B

1 * = f k

EMPA Zrich - Estimated from plate-plate rheological measurements

DTI - Estimated using 4C Auto Slump Flow equipment

DTI - Estimated using the 4C Packing software

Fit-parameters in regression analysis

Materials and Composition


Mix 1
0/2 Natural pit Max packing w/c SP-konc Excess paste 4/8 Sea dredged 0.35 0.50 110,120,130,140 L 0.808 8/16 Sea dredged
0/2 Glass beads Max packing w/c SP-konc Excess paste

Mix 2
4/8 Glass beads 0.35 0.50 100,110,120,130 L 0.848 8/16 Glass beads

Mix 3
0/4 Natural pit Max packing w/c SP-konc Excess paste 4/8 0.804 0.35 0.50 160,170,180,190 L 8/16 Crushed granite Crushed granite

Identical pastes in all three mixtures

4C Packing Diagrams
37,18,45, 0.808 37,18,45, 0.848

8/16

0/4

8/16

0/4

4/8 4/8 8/16 0/4

45,10,45, 0.804

4/8

4C Auto Slump Flow


Slump flow spread (mm)

Best fit Eksperiment

Time (s)
Yield stress = 26 Pa Plastic viscosity = 44 Pa x s

Results Yield Stress

0,concrete = 4.5 10 6 4.3


200

1 * = shapefactor
Shapefactor = 7

175

Shapefactor = 11.7
150

Shapefactor = 6

Yield stress (Pa)

125 100 75 50 25 0 0.74

0.76

0.78

0.80

0.82

0.84

0.86

0.88

0.90

0.92

0.94

phi/phi* /*

Results Yield Stress


200 180 160 140

Crushed

Natural

Glass beads

Yield Stress (Pa)

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0.62

50 Pa

0.64

0.66

0.68

0.70

0.72

0.74

0.76

0.78

0.80

, Aggregate volume fraction

Crushed +100L excess paste Natural +45L excess paste

8/ 16 se a
10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8

Shapefactor
dr ed ge d dr ed ge d

4/ 8 se a

4/ 8 cr us he d I us he d II

Parameter guess

2/ 8 cr

8/ 16 cr us he d I

Shapefactor Image Analysis

G la ss 14 m m G la ss B

Parameter measurement

6m ot to m

as h

Shapefactor Image Analysis


16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

Parameter guess

Parameter measurement

Shapefactor

lp

lp

tu ra

tu ra

na

0/ 2

0/ 4

na

G la

ss

0/ 4

it

it

Status
0,concrete = 0, paste (A B + 1)
For practical purpose:

1 * = f k

0,concrete = A B

1 * shapefactor
OK! OK! ? ?

Estimate particle packing parameter - * Select aggregate proportions Estimate shapefactor Estimate the constants A and B