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Put in the most suitable modal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. $. &. Students ___________ use the staff car park.

I ___________ water the flowers. Tomorrow it is Saturday so I ___________go to school. I ___________ stop smoking. This is a lo ely party. !ut we ___________ go home "ecause of the "a"y#sitter. %atholics ___________ go to church on Sundays. 'ou ___________ stop smoking. It is "ad for your health.

Translate into English the following sentences. 1. ()e"es lle ar cor"ata en el tra"a*o+ 2. ,sta es una fiesta horri"le. )e"emos irnos a casa. 3. -o engo ma.ana a clase. )e"o ir al dentista. 4. )e"o de*ar de fumar. /e lo di*o el m0dico. 5. -o de"er1as comer tantas ham"urguesas. Son malas para la salud. $. )e"er1as hacer m2s e*ercicio. ,s "ueno para tu salud.

Choose the correct answer.

1. 2. 3. ". %. '.

The doctor says I might / must get more exercise. You look great in brown. You should / can wear it more often. His arm is broken so he isn!t able to / may not write. Tomorrow is a holiday so we mustn!t / don!t ha#e to get u$ early. &hen you are on a diet you ought to / could drink a lot of water. He sto$$ed the car so he should / could rest for a while.

2. Complete the sentences with the modals below. may must cant could should

1. 2. 3. ". %.

You (((((( come to us for dinner. I won!t acce$t no for an answer. (((((( I ha#e a $iece of cake $lease) He (((((( reach it. He!s not tall enough. You (((((( always brush your teeth before you go to slee$. I (((((( make $eo$le laugh when I was young.

3. Choose the correct answer.

1. The restaurant isn!t as busy as I ex$ected. &e mustnt have / might not have / neednt have reser#ed a table. 2. *ay looks ha$$y. He could have / must have / ought to have $assed his dri#ing test. 3. I!m so tired this morning. I couldnt have / neednt have / shouldnt have gone to bed so late. ". You could have / must have / may have called to tell us you were coming.

4. Complete the sentences with the correct affirmative or negative modal perfect form of the verbs in brackets. There may be more than one possible answer.

1.

&hy didn!t you write) You (((((((((((( +send, an e-mail or an ./..

2.

You missed a great film last night. You (((((((((((( +come, with us.

3.

It!s only nine o!clock. They (((((((((((( +go, to bed yet.

".

/y dictionary isn!t in my bag. I (((((((((((( +lea#e, it at home.

%.

The train won!t be here for ages. &e (((((((((((( +get, here so early.

. Choose the correct answer.

1. 0anny is cle#er. He could read / could have read when he was fi#e. 2. &e must have remembered / must remember to buy drinks for the $arty tonight. 3. You shouldnt buy / shouldnt have bought that gift. It was much too ex$ensi#e. ". That boy $lays the $iano really well. He might become / might have become a $rofessional $ianist one day. %. I found the book easily. You couldnt look ! couldnt have looked #ery hard for it. '. The dog must eat ! must have eaten the steak because no one else was at home.

CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER. 1. I 333.go home early4 "ut I5m not sure yet. a. may ". was c. can5t 2. I 3333speak ,nglish fluently when I was small. a. couldn5t ". may not c. am not a"le to 3. She3333di e ne6t week "ecause her ship won5t "e ready yet. a. might ". can c. won5t "e a"le to 4. 3333. I come on the trip ne6t week+ a. /ay ". /ight c. 7m I a"le to 5. It5s ery cloudy. It 33.. rain later. a. can ". is a"le to c. might. $. They 3333.to di e now. a. are a"le ". can c. could WR TE THE SENTENCES WH CH !EAN THE SA!E AS THE "O##OW N$. %SE POS T &E OR NE$AT &E "OR!S O" CAN' CO%#(' )E A)#E TO' !A* OR ! $HT. 1. 8erhaps I5ll go to 7ntarctica ne6t year. year. 2. )o you think I can go now+ 3. 8eople are not a"le to walk far "ecause of the cold. cold. 4. I think the ship is waiting. . waiting 5. It was impossi"le for 9iennes and Stroud to reach the other side of the continent. continent. $. 8erhaps they won5t go again. again. &. I don5t think he knows how to di e. e. REWR TE THE "O##OW N$ SENTENCES %S N$ THE APPROPR ATE "OR! O" !%ST' HA&E TO' !%STN+T AN( (ON+T HA&E TO.

1. It is necessary to ha e "reaks while studying. studying. 2. I need a :uite place to work in. in. 3. I know all the test material. . It material is not necessary to study anymore. 4. It is wrong to cheat in an e6am. e6am. 5. The school rules insist on uniforms at all times. times. $. It was necessary to stay off school yesterday as I was ill. ill. CHOOSE THE POS T &E OR THE NE$AT &E "OR! O" !%ST OR HA&E TO. 1. I 3333"e home "y 11 p.m. on week nights. 2. I 3333"e home "y 11 p.m. at weekends. 3. I 3333 take the "us to school ne6t week. 4. I 3333 talk on the telephone for a long time. 5. I 3333 work ne6t summer. $. I 3333 clean my room tomorrow. &. I 3333 "e in "ed "y ; p.m. when I was young. CO!P#ETE THE "O##OW N$ SENTENCES W TH SHO%#( OR SHO%#(N+T TO $ &E *O%R OP N ON. 1. Teachers 3333.gi 3333.gi e a lot of homework. 2. 8upils333.."e 8upils333.."e allowed to talk during lessons. 3. Teenagers3333..work Teenagers3333..work after school to earn some money. 4. Teenagers33333"e a"le to stay as late as they like. like. 5. 8eople33333.watch 8eople33333.watch a lot of T<. $. Tests33333.always Tests33333.always "e easy. THE "O##OW N$ SENTENCES A## HA&E ! STA,ES N THE %SE O" !O(A#S. CORRECT AS !AN* AS *O% CAN. 1. I can to dri e a car. car. 2. =e can speak ,nglish well ne6t year. year. 3. !illy wants to dri e4 "ut he doesn5t ha e to dri e "ecause he doesn5t ha e a licence. licence. 4. She couldn5t come to the party "ecause she must study for the test last night. night. 5. It5s late. late. =e must to lea e now. $. 'ou shouldn5t to cheat in tests. tests. &. )o I ha e some chocolate4 please+ ;. 7m I a"le to finish this4 please+ Com-lete these sentences to describe what .ou /must0' /mustn+t0 or /needn+t0 do in a -lane. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. $. &. 'ou 3333.smoke when the plane is on the ground. 'ou 3333..a seat "elt when the plane is taking off. 'ou 3333..wear a parachute. 'ou 3333..smoke in the toilets. 'ou 3333..take guns on the plane. 'ou 3333.lea e your luggage in the aisle. 'ou3333..ha e a meal.

;. 'ou 3333.put your luggage under the seat or in a locker. Choose the correct modal 1erb. 1. I 333..start school when I was 5. 2. I 3333.to wear a school uniform when I was fi e. 3. She 3333swim when she was &. 4. >e went into the kitchen. >e 3333smell the coffee. 5. It was ery hea y and I 333..not lift it. $. Then ?enny helped me and we 3333lift it. &. 'ou 3333not smoke in the cinema. ;. 'ou 333..not smoke anywhere. It5s "ad for you. @. I went to the "ank yesterday and got some money4 so I 333..not to go today. 1A. Students are not 3333..wear *ewellery in some ,nglish schools.

Obligation' necessit.2 mustn+t or needn+t. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. $. >a e you got any homework to do+ 'es4 "ut I 3333do it tonight. I5 e got a ery important e6am tomorrow morning. I 333.."e late. It5s your mother5s "irthday ne6t week. 'ou 333.forget it. /ichelle hasn5t got any lessons tomorrow morning. She 333.get up early. /y parents are sleeping4 so "e ery :uiet. =e 333.wake them up. That shirt isn5t dirty. 'ou 333.wash it.

" ## N THE $APS W TH A !O(A# &ER). 1. She 33333BskiC really well. 2. She 33333BskiC really well when she was fi e. 3. I 333333BfinishC it "y 9riday4 "ut it won5t "e easy. 4. I 333333BfinishC it "y 9riday4 "ut it wasn5t easy. 5. ?ohn 3333..Bli eC here. This house was "uilt in 1234. $. Shakespeare 3333..Bli eC here. This house was "uilt in 1234. &. 3333..Blea eC the room+ I don5t feel well. ;. I 33333...Blea eC the room "ecause I didn5t feel well. @. I 33333..BcheckC the oil "efore we lea e. 1A. I 33333..BcheckC the oil "efore we left. 11. It 33333BrainC. , eryone has their um"rella open. 12. It 33333BrainC. The ground is wet. 13. =hy don5t you take the e6am+ 'ou 3333.BpassC. 14. =hy didn5t you take the e6am+ 'ou3333.BpassC. 15. >e 3333.BstopC smoking "efore it5s too late. 1$. >e 3333.BstopC smoking "efore it was too late. 1&. I 33333B isitC you ne6t Sunday. 1;. I 33333B isitC you last Sunday. =hy didn5t you ask me+ 1@. Det5s take the map. =e 3333BgetC lost.

2A. I wonder where they are. They 3333.BgetC lost. REP#ACE THE WOR(S N TA# CS W TH APPROPR ATE !O(A# &ER)S TO !A,E T SO%N( !ORE NAT%RA#. =onderful4 it5s Sunday and BaC not necessary for me to get up at se en o5clock. B"CI5ll possibly stay in "ed a little "it longer although cCI think the children are probably awake now and I5ll BdC be obliged to get their "reakfast soon. They BeC refuse to make it for themsel es. BfC It good be a good idea for me to get up immediately "ecause BgC perhaps they will wreck the house. >owe er it5s ery early and they BhC are probably not hungry yet.BiC It would have been a good idea if I had put out the cornflakes and milk yesterday e ening. !ut all this thinking and not acting is really sillyE B*C It5s really necessary for me to get up this minute. -ow4 where are my "edroom slippers+ That damn dog BkChas probably hidden them againEBlC It would be a good idea for us to train it "etter4 "ut I suppose we BmCwerent obliged to "uy it in the first place4 and after all4 it5s only a puppy. Fh4 I5d forgottenE BnC It5s just possible that 7dam will "e "ack from his "usiness trip today#mar ellousE Fne adult isn5t enough to look after four children4 a puppy and three goldfishE =hy BoC did he refuse to take me with him+BpC It was possible for us to take his mother to come and look after the children. -e er againE

Choose the correct 1erbs for the s-aces. 1. I ___________________ to start school when I was fi e. >a e G had G must G need. 2. I ___________________ to wear a school uniform when I was fi e. -eedn5tG mustn5t G shouldn5t G didn5t ha e. 3. 'ou ________________ to smoke in a cinema. /ustn5t G shouldn5t G aren5t allowed G can5t. 4. 'ou ________________ smoke anywhere. It5s "ad for you. /ustn5t G needn5t G shouldn5t G aren5t allowed to. 5. I went to the "ank yesterday4 and got some money4 so I ___________________ go today. /ustn5t G ha en5t got G don5t need G needn5t.

Translate. &

1. 8odemos tra"a*ar me*or cuando la ha"itaciHn est2 limpia y ordenada. 2. -o puedes aparcar a:u1. 3. (8uedes ayudarme+ 4. )e"emos reciclar los periHdicos. 5. (Tengo :ue limpiar mi ha"itaciHn ahora+

Put an a--ro-riate 1erb of obligation in its correct form into each ga-. The 1erbs are must' ha1e to' had to' should. 1. I really think you _______________ get your hair cut. 2. %areful4 darling. 'ou _________________ play with matches. They are too dangerous. 3. /y wife suddenly "ecame ill in the middle of the night and I _______________ call the doctor. 4. I5m o erweight. The doctor said I ___________________ eat too many sweets or potatoes. 5. I like Saturdays "ecause ___________________ get up early. $. It5s my mother "irthday ne6t week. I ______________________ remem"er to "uy her a present and a card. &. -o one likes _____________________ work at weekends. ;. 'ou ____________________ come with me if you don5t want to. I don5t mind going on my own. @. I ha e a really "ad memory for phone num"ers. I ___________________ look them up in the "ook e ery time. 1A. =hen I was at school I _______________ wear uniform e ery"ody hated it. 11. 'ou __________________ touch electrical appliances if you5 e got wet hands. 'ou could kill yourself.

Social rules. *ou are in )ritain. A )ritish friend has in1ited .ou for a meal. Choose the best answer' a' b' c' or d' about how .ou should beha1e. 3. When .ou go to their house' should .ou a. Take some flowers+ ". Take some wine+ c. Take a present for their children+ d. 7sk them "efore what they would like you to "ring+ 4. When .ou arri1e and meet the other guests' should .ou a. Introduce yourself to the other guests+ ". Shake hands with all the other guests+ c. =ait to "e introduced to the other guests "y your hosts+ d. Tell e eryone your name4 *o" and position in your company+ 5. *ou would li6e to loo6 round their house. Should .ou a. =ait to "e in ited+ ". 7sk if you can look round+ c. Io and look round without saying anything+ d. 7sk the wife of the house to show you round+ 7. Some food is ser1ed that .ou reall. don+t li6e. Should .ou sa. a. JI5ll *ust ha e a little "it4 pleaseK+ ". JI5d rather not ha e any of that4 thank youK+ c. JI5m awfully sorry. I don5t like thatK+ d. nothing and eat it+

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n the da.s after the in1itation' should .ou a. =rite your hosts a thank#you letter+ ". 8hone them to say thank you+ c. In ite them to your house or to a restaurant+ d. -ot get in touch at all+

CO!P#ETE THE "O##OW N$ SENTENCES )* %S N$ !%ST HA&E' SHO%#( HA&E OR CO%#( HA&E. 1. 2. 3. 4. >ow did you know a"out the "ook+ Someone 333333..BtellC you. The ship was full of *ewels. /ary 333333..BtakeC some4 "ut she didn5t. , en if it didn5t interest you4 you 333333.BreadC the story a"out /ary. %alico ?ack and his men 333333..BfightC more "ra ely4 "ut they were drunk. 5. The !ritish 33333.BhangC /ary and 7nne4 "ut they thought they were pregnant. $. /ary 3333333.Ben*oyC dressing as a "oy or she would ha e said she was a girl. &. /ary5s mother 33333..BadmitC that /ary was a girl. =hat she did was wrong. ;. /ary 3333333.Blo eC her hus"and "ecause they were happy together. @. /ary 3333333.B"eC angry with %alico ?ack "ecause she spoke to him ery strongly. 1A. /ary 333333.Bli eC a normal life instead of "ecoming a pirate. It was a "ad thing to do. CO!P#ETE THE "O##OW N$ SENTENCES W TH !%ST HA&E' CO%#( HA&E OR SHO%#( HA&E. 1. 'ou had a toothache and you didn5t go to the dentist. 'ou33333333.. BgoC. 2. >e didn5t send his friend a "irthday card. >e33333333333333 BforgetC. 3. 'ou didn5t want to go to the party4 did you+ 'ou3333333333333BgoC if you wanted to. 4. 7ll the lights were off in my friend5s house. /y friend333333333.Bgo outC.

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5. I told you 8eter wanted a %). 'ou333333333333333333 B"uyC a %) for him if you had thought a"out it. $. =hy didn5t to speak to him a"out the pro"lem+ 'ou3333333333. BspeakC to him a"out it. &. I don5t "elie e they didn5t know a"out the party. They333333333. BknowC a"out it . ;. 'our teacher told you to do your homework4 "ut you didn5t. 'ou33333. BdoC it again.

WHAT WO%#( *O% SA* N THESE S T%AT ONS9 %SE A PAST !O(A# &ER) TO$ETHER W TH THE &ER) N )RAC,ETS. 1. %omfort a friend whose "oyfriend has missed a date. )on5t worryL he 333333333333333333.BforgetC. 2. ,6plain to your mother why didn5t you "ring a new friend to meet her. 'ou3333333333333333333..Bnot appro e ofC 3. ,6plain why you didn5t spend any money at the disco. /y friend paid so I33333333333..Bnot spend anythingC 4. %ontradict one friend5s e6planation or why another friend didn5t turn up for an appointment. !ut she33333333333333..Bnot forgetC. I reminded her a"out it yesterday. 5. %omplain a"out ha ing worked unnecessarily all weekend on a composition. I33333333333333333.Bmiss the foot"all matchC. The teacher has *ust gi en us another week to finish it. $. %riticise a friend who dro e after drinking se eral "eers. 'ou33333333333333.Bnot dri e G ha e an accidentC Rewrite the following sentences using the a--ro-riate form of must' have to' mustnt and dont have to. 1. It5s necessary to ha e "reaks while studying. 2. I need a :uiet place to work in. 3. I know all the test material. It5s not necessary to study any more. 4. It5s wrong to cheat in an e6am. 5. The school rules insist on uniforms at all times. $. It was necessary to stay off school yesterday as I was ill.

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Choose the -ositi1e or negati1e form of must or have to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. $. &. I ___________________ "e home "y 11 p.m. on week nights. I ___________________ "e home "y 11 p.m. at weekends. I ___________________ take the "us to school ne6t week. I ___________________ talk on the telephone for a long time. I ___________________ work ne6t summer. I ___________________ clean my room tomorrow. I ___________________ "e in "ed "y ; p.m. when I was young.

Com-lete the following sentences with should or shouldnt to gi1e .our o-inion. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. $. Teachers _______________ gi e a lot of homework. 8upils ________________ "e allowed to talk during lessons. Teenagers _______________ work after school to earn some money. Teenagers _____________ "e a"le to stay out as late as they like. 8eople ______________ watch a lot of T<. Tests ______________ always "e easy.

The following sentences all ha1e mista6es in the use of modals. Correct them. 1. I can to dri e a car. 2. =e can speak ,nglish well ne6t year. 3. !illy wants to dri e4 "ut he doesn5t ha e to dri e "ecause he doesn5t ha e a licence. 4. She couldn5t come to the party "ecause she must study for the test all night. 5. It5s late. =e must to lea e now. $. 'ou shouldn5t to cheat in tests. &. )o I ha e some chocolate4 please+ ;. 7m I a"le to ha e an e6tra day to finish this4 please+

7. !atch each sentence in column A with a suitable sentence in column ).

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1. Tom has an e6am tomorrow 2. /y "ike is "eing repaired. 3. 'ou5re a isual learner. 4. /y father wasn5t ery good at school. 5. I help in the house a lot. $. I5 e passed my maths e6amE &. =e had foot"all practice after school yesterday

a. 'ou must write things down. ". >e had to work hard to pass his e6ams. c. I don5t ha e to take it againE d. >e must study tonight. e. I5ll ha e to take the "us to school tomorrow. f. =e had to stay late at school. g. I ha e to make my "ed "efore going to school.

8ut an appropriate modal in its correct form into each gap. The er"s are must4 ha1e to4 should. 1. I really think you ____________ get your hair cut. 2. %areful4 darling. 'ou ____________ play with matches. 3. /y wife suddenly "ecame ill in the middle of the night and I ___________ call the doctor. 4. I5m o erweight. The doctor said I ____________ eat too many sweets. 5. I like Saturdays "ecause I ________________ get up early. $. It5s my "rother5s "irthday ne6t week. I ____________ remem"er to "uy her a present and a card. &. -o one likes ________________ work at weekends. ;. I ha e a really "ad memory for phone num"ers. I _______________ look them up in the "ook e ery time. @. =hen I was at school we ________________ wear a uniform. , ery"ody hated it. 1A. 'ou _____________ touch electrical appliances if you5 e got wet hands. 'ou could kill yourself.

!odals

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3. =hen I entered the house4 the fuse had "lown4 "ut I __________ see my way in the dark. 4. If you taught me how to do it4 I __________ do it alone. 5. If you take one of these ta"lets4 you __________ stay awake all night long. 7. 'ou __________ o ertake here. There5s a "roken line. 8. =hen you come of age4 you __________ see adult films. :. If dogs __________ there4 I would ha e taken mine with me. ;. If you __________ "ring your pet here4 e ery"ody would do so. <. M__________ I stand up4 sir+5 M-o4 you __________. The class isn5t o er yet.5 =. 'ou BnotC __________ look girls up and down like thisE 3>. 'ou BnotC __________ come around tonightE /y hus"and will "e at home. 33. If you help me4 we __________ "uild a shack. 34. I __________ gi e you a hand4 if you really needed oneE 35. I __________ play only in the park. /y mom has told me not to go outside the park. 37. I5d like to __________ sing as well as you do. 38. =hen I was your age4 I __________ dance for hours and hours without getting tired. 3:. She __________ win the singing contest last night. In actual fact4 she was "y far the "est singer. 3;. >e had tried to speak to her many times4 "ut without much success. Two days ago4 howe er4 he __________ see her. 3<. 8ets BnotC __________ 3=. 'ou BnotC __________ do such a thing hereE Iet outE 4>. 'ou5re not going to __________ take her with you. BpermissionC 43. 7lthough I knew they __________ escape4 I told them not to. 44. M__________ I see /r =right4 please+5 M'es4 of course.5 45. If you __________ meet the e6penses4 I5ll see to getting cheap la"our. 47. M__________ I go topless4 father+5MFf course you can5tE5 48. If I had enough money to "uy the materials needed4 I__________ put up a small cottage here. /y two sons__________ help me too. =e5re ery handy. 4:. =hen you finish ironing4 you __________ watch the telly.

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