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M MME EEE EE- --3 330 004 44

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STEAM AND GAS TURBINES
Topics to be discussed
Axial turbine stages - Stage velocity triangle, work, single stage
impulse turbine, speed ratio maximum utilization factor,
multistage velocity compounded impulse, multi stage pressure
compounded impulse, reaction stages, degree of reaction, zero
reaction stages, fifty percent reaction stages, hundred percent
reaction, negative reaction, free and forced vortex flow
Inward flow radial turbine stages, IFR Turbine, T-s diagram,
degree of reaction - Steam turbine governing Features of steam
turbine and gas turbine
Axial turbine stages
Stage velocity triangles
From the velocity triangle,
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2
3 3 3 3 3
y3 3 3 3 3 3
2 3 2 2 3 3
2 3 2 2 3 3
2
cos w cos
sin w sin
sin( ) sin(90 ) cos
sin( )
cos
cos cos
c c sin w sin
sin sin
(w sin ) (w sin )
x
y y
x
y y
y y
y
c c
c c w u u
c c u
u
c
c w c
w u u
c c c c
c c u u
c
o |
o |
o | | |
o |
|
| o
o |
o o
| |
= =
= = + = +
= =
+

=
= =
= = =
+ = +
+ = + +
+
3 2 2 3 3
2 3 2 3
w sin w sin
y
y y y y
c
c c w w
| | = +
+ = +
x3 x2
2 3
2 3
3 2
y2 y3 x
2 3
2 3 x 2 3
x3 x2
2 3
2 3
3 2
x x 2 3
2 3
2 3 2 3
c c
But w ; and w
cos cos
sin sin
c c c ( )
cos cos
c (tan tan )
c
Similarly, c ; c
cos cos
sin sin
c ( ) c (tan tan )
cos cos
tan tan tan tan
y y
c c
c
| |
| |
| |
| |
o o
o o
| |
o o
o o | |
= =
+ = +
+ = +
= =
+ = +
+ = +
Stage work
.
2 3 2 3
.
2 3 2
2
y3
.
2 2 2
2 2
.
2
2
w ( ( )) ( )
w ( )
Defining the blade-gas speed ratio :
u

c
For axial discharge at exit (c 0)
sin
w ( ) ( )
sin
w ( )
st
y y y y
y y
st
y
st
st
u c c u c c
c c
u
u u
c
c
u u
u u
u
o
o
o
o
= = +
= +
=
=
= =
=
Blade Loading and Flow Coefficients
.
2
.
2
2 3 2 3 2 3
.
2 3 2 3 2
2


( ) (tan tan ) ( )(tan tan )
( )(tan tan ) (tan tan ) (tan ta
st
x
x
st
y y x
st
x
w
u
c
u
c
w u c c uc u
u
c w
u u

|
o o o o
o o | o o | |
=
=
= + = + = +
= = + = + = +
3
n ) |
Stage reaction
The stage reaction is defined as the ratio of the static enthalpy
drop in the rotor to the static enthalpy drop in the stage
Blade and Stage Efficiencies
b
2 2 3 3
.
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3 3 2
Blade Efficiency or Utilization factor ( )
rotor blade work
= =
energy supplied to the rotor blades
1 1 1
( ) ( ) (w w )
2 2 2
Energy supplied to the rotor
e
st y y
st
rotorbladework
w u c u c
w u u c c
c
c q
=
= + +
i
2 2 2 2 2
i 2 2 3 3 2
absolute K.E supplied +change in K.E in rotor blades
1 1 1
e ( ) + (w w )
2 2 2
c u u
=
= +
Stage efficiency
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3 3 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 3 3 2
2 3
2 2 2 2
2 3 3 2
b
2 2 2
2 3 2
1 1 1
( ) ( ) (w w )
2 2 2
1 1 1
( ) + (w w )
2 2 2
,
( ) (w w )
=
c (w w )
u u c c
c u u
for axial machines u u u
c c
c
c q
+ +
=
+
= =
+
=
+
Blade and stage efficiencies are different on account of the
variable energy inputs and losses.
Further, stage efficiency accounts for the stage losses. While,
blade efficiency or blade utilization factor doesnt consider
this.
Single impulse stage
w
3
= w
2
w
2
c
2
c
x2
c
y2
u
c
3
c
x3
c
y3

2
u

3
There is no pressure drop in the in the rotor blades, so the
relative velocities at their entry and exit are the same (w
2
=w
3
)
for frictionless flow
So the utilization factor is given by
We have
Also w
2
= w
3
and
2
=
3
2 3 2 2 3 3
w sin w sin
y y
c c | | + = +
2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
(2sin ) 4 sin
1
2
4 (c sin )
4( sin )
uw uw
c
c
u u
c
| |
c
o
c o o o
= =

= =
Thus the utilization factor is a
function of the blade-to-gas speed
ratio and the nozzle angle
=f(,
2
)
Maximum Blade Utilization Factor
2
2
2
2
2
2 2 2
0
(4 sin 4 ) 0
4sin 8 0
sin

2
sin 2
opt
y
d
d
d
d
u
c
c c u
c
o
o o o
o
o o
o
o
o
=
=
=
= =
= =
So the maximum utilization factor requires the exit from the
stage in the axial direction
C
3
=c
x3
y2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 3 2 3
2 2 3 3
y3 3 3
Also c sin w sin 2
w sin
Since w w ; and [no pressure drop in rotor]
w sin w sin
c w sin 0
c u u
u
u
u u u
o |
|
| |
| |
|
= = + =
=
= =
= =
= = =
Stage Velocity Triangles for
max
w
3
= w
2
w
2
c
2
c
x2
c
y2
=2u
u
c
x3
=c
3

2
u

2
=0
So the maximum utilization factor
2
max 2
2
max 2 2 2
2
max 2
4( sin )
1 1
4( sin .sin sin )
2 4
sin
opt opt
c o o o
c o o o
c o
=
=
=
Multi Stage Velocity Compounding in impulse turbines
(Curtis stages or velocity stages)
N R
1
F R
2
V
p
Velocity
triangles for a
two-stage
velocity
compounded
impulse turbine
with
max
Assumptions for Curtis Stages
1. Equiangular flow through rotor
and guide blade
(
2
=
3
,
3
=

2
,

2
=

3
)
2. Frictionless flow over the
blades
w
2
= w
3
, c
3
= c

2
, w

2
= w

3
Such stages are known as Curtis stages or velocity stages
Assumptions for Curtis Stages
Equiangular flow through rotor and guide blade
(
2
=
3
, o
3
=o

2
,

2
=

3
)
Frictionless flow over the blades
w
2
=w
3
, c
3
=c

2
, w

2
=w

3
For maximum utilization factor :
c

y3
=0; u =w

3
sin

3
=w

2
sin

2
c

y2
=2u =c

2
sino

2
=c
3
sino
3
c
y3
=3u =w
3
sin
3
=w
2
sin
2
c
y2
=c
2
sino
2
=w
2
sin
2
+u
c
y2
=4u
Similarly for a three stage velocity compounded turbine
o
opt
=(1/6) sino
2
For n velocity stages.

opt
= u/c
2
= sin
2

opt
=(1/2n) sin
2
Work Output
Stage I : w
I
=u(C
y2
+C
y3
)
=u(w
2
sin
2
+w
3
sin
3
)
=2uw
2
sin
2
=6u
2
Stage II
w
II
=2uw
2
sin
2
w
II
=2u
2
Total work =6u
2
+2u
2
=8u
2
.
For an n-stage velocity compounded turbine
Total turbine work
Maximum utilization factor
n
2 2
T i
i=1
w w 2n u = =

2 2
2 2 2 2
max 2
2 2
2 2
2
max 2
2 1
4 4 ( sin )
1 1
2
( )
2 2
sin
T
w n u
n n
n
c c
c o o
c o
= = = =
=
W
i
= 2[2(n-i)+1]u
2
Velocity compounded impulse stages have the following
disadvantages :
Nozzles have to be of the converging-diverging type to
generate high velocities. Hence, blade design is more
difficult and expensive.
High velocity at nozzle exit leads to higher cascade losses
due to the formation of shock waves.
Pressure compounding eliminates these problems by :
Dividing the pressure drop between many stages, and thus
reducing leakage losses.
Lower stage velocities at subsonic speeds also reduce the
stage losses.
Multistage Pressure Compounded Impulse
(RateauStages)
N
1
R
1
N
2
R
2
V
p
Reaction Stages
N
R-1
F
R-2
V
p
Enthalpy-entropy diagram
p
1
p
2
2
3
3s
3ss
p
01
p
02
O
1
O
2
h
01
= h
02
Entropy
E
n
t
h
a
l
p
y
1
c
1
2
p
03
p
3
w
a
w
s
p
03s
s
O
3ss
c
2
2
p
03rel
h
02rel
= h
03rel
w
3
2
p
02re
l
2s
c
3
2
Isentropic stage work :
w
s
= h
01
h
03ss
= c
p
(T
01
T
03ss
)
Nozzle :
h
01
= h
02
= h
2
+ c
2
2
[No work transfer]
Actual work
w
a
= h
02
h
03
= h
01
h
03
= c
p
(T
01
T
03
)
Losses due to irreversibility is given by the enthalpy loss
coefficient
Stagnation Pressure Loss coefficient
2 2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
-
( - )
1
2
p
s
N s
c
h h
T T
c
c
= =
3 3
3 3
2
2
3
3
2
-
( - )
1
w
w
2
p
s
R s
c
h h
T T = =
01 02 0
2 2
2 2
( )
1 1
2 2
N
N
p p p
Y
c c
A
= =
02 03 0
2 2
3 3
( )
1 1
w w
2 2
rel rel R
R
p p p
Y

A
= =
R R
For subsonic applications
Y ~
Degree of reaction
2 3
01 03
1 3
2 3
1 3
2 2 2 2
2 3 3 2 2 3
01 03 st 2 2
static enthalpy change in rotor
R =
stagnation enthalpy change in stage
h h
R =
h h
if
h h
R =
h h
1 1
Since h h (w w ) (u u )
2 2
and h h w
y
c c
u c

= +
= =
3 3
2 2 2 2
3 2 2 3
2 2 3 3
2 3 y3
2 2
3 2
2 3
1 1
(w w ) ( )
2 2
R =
For axial turbine with u , and negative swirl (-c )
(w w )
R =
2 ( )
y
y y
y y
u c
u u
u c u c
u
u c c
+

+
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
3 3
2 2 2
3 2 3 2 3 2
y2 3 2 3 2 3
2 2
3 2 2 3 3 2
Fromvelocity triangles
w ( ) tan
Similarly
w tan
w w (tan tan )(tan tan )
But c ( tan ) ( tan ) (tan tan )
w w ( )(tan tan
x y x x
x x
x
y x x x
x y y
c c u c c
c c
c
c c u c u c
c c c
|
|
| | | |
| | | |
| |
= + = +
= +
= +
+ = + + = +
= +
2 3 3 2
3 2
2 3
3 2
m 3 2
)
( )(tan tan )
1
(tan tan )
2 ( ) 2
1
(tan tan ) tan
2
1
where tan (tan tan )
2
x y y
x
y y
m
c c c
c
R
u c c u
R
| |
| |
| | | | |
| | |
+
= =
+
= =
=
2 2
2 2
3 2
3 2
3 2
tan tan
tan tan
1
(tan tan )
2
1
= (tan tan )
2
1 1
R= (tan tan )
2 2
x x
x
x
x
x
x
c c u
u
c
c
R
u
c u
u c
c
u
o |
| o
| |
| o
| o
= +
=
=
+
+
Zero degree reaction stages
Fifty percent reaction stages
Velocity triangles will be symmetric

2
=
3
&
3
=
2
w
2
=c
3
& w
3
=c
2
Utilization factor
Optimum blade to gas speed

opt
= sin
2
Maximum utilization factor
Hundred percent reaction
Negative reaction A negative degree of reaction is
undesirable. For such stage h
3
> h
2
w
3
< w
2
| ||
2 >
| ||
3

These conditions require the diffusion of flow in the rotor blade
is also undesirable.
R = (h
2
- h
3
) / ( h
1
- h
3
) = 1 h
1
= h
2

C
2
= C
3
o
2 =
o
3

h
2
> h
1
C
2
< C
1
o
3 >
o
2
These conditions shows that
for such a stage the flow is decelerating in the nozzle or upstream
fixed blades. This is undesirable