A Thesis
Submitted to the Faculty
of
Purdue University
by
Mustafa Kemal Ozkan
In Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree
of
Master of Science in Civil Engineering
May 2010
Purdue University
West Lafayette, Indiana
ii
To the memory of my grandfather, Ali Bicer.
To my parents for their endless love, support and encouragement.
iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would here like to express my thanks to the people who have been very
helpful to me during the time it took me to write this thesis.
I would like to express the deepest appreciation to my advisor and mentor,
Professor Ayhan Irfanoglu for giving me the opportunity to work in a very
interesting area and for his support and guidance throughout my graduate
studies at Purdue University.
I also would like to thank the members of my graduate committee,
Professor Mete A. Sozen and Professor Michael E. Kreger, for their time and
suggestions on this thesis.
I wish also to thank Professor Robert J. Connor and Ryan J. Sherman for
kindly sharing data for the highmast lighting towers.
I would like to express my sincere thanks to my friends and colleagues,
particularly Fabian Consuegra and Bismarck Luna, for providing a very enjoyable
working environment.
I thank to the faculty and staff of the Structural Engineering department,
especially to Molly Stetler, for their kindness and support.
The last, and the most, I want to thank my family for their love, support
and encouragement.
iv
To my sister Aysenur Ozkan, I appreciate that you are just my sister and
thank you for being there always. I owe so much thanks to my grandmother,
Sabire Bicer, who has always supported me since the start of my life.
I am greatly indebted to my mother, Nurten Ozkan, and my father, Taki
Ozkan, thank you for providing me with the opportunity to be where I am.
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... viii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ xxii
LIST OF SYMBOLS ......................................................................................... xxvii
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... xxix
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ 1
1.1. General ....................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1. Sources of Dynamic Excitation ............................................................. 1
1.1.2. Dynamic Loadings ................................................................................ 2
1.1.3. Consequences of Vibration ................................................................... 2
1.1.4. Vibration Control ................................................................................... 3
1.2. Object and Scope ....................................................................................... 4
1.3. Organization ............................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH ............................. 6
2.1. HumanStructure Dynamic Interaction and Human Induced Vibration ....... 6
2.2. Vibration Criteria ....................................................................................... 12
2.2.1. ISO International Standard ................................................................. 12
2.2.2. Murrays Criterion ............................................................................... 14
2.2.3. Other Recommendations and Criteria ................................................ 14
2.2.4. Recommended Criteria for Sensitive Laboratory and Healthcare
Facility Floors ...................................................................................... 18
2.3. Vibration Mitigation Techniques ................................................................ 23
2.3.1. Passive Vibration Mitigation Techniques ............................................ 23
2.3.2. Active Vibration Mitigation Techniques ............................................... 29
2.3.3. SemiActive Vibration Mitigation Techniques ...................................... 31
2.4. Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) Overview .................................................. 32
2.4.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 32
2.4.2. An Introductory Example of a TMD for an Undamped
SDOF System ..................................................................................... 37
CHAPTER 3. FREE AND FORCED VIBRATION OF BEAMS WITH ANY
NUMBER OF ATTACHED SPRING MASS SYSTEMS
SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF
DYNAMIC LOADS ........................................................................ 40
3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 40
3.2. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform Beams
Carrying SpringMass Systems ................................................................. 42
3.2.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Functions .............................. 42
vi
Page
3.2.2. Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the Constrained Beam ..................... 43
3.3. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for NonUniform Beams
Carrying SpringMass Systems ................................................................. 51
3.3.1. Equations of Motion and Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the
Constrained Beam .............................................................................. 51
3.3.2. Coefficient Matrix [B
v
] for the vth Attaching Point .............................. 54
3.3.3. Coefficient Matrix [B
L
] for the Left End of the Beam............................ 59
3.3.4. Coefficient Matrix [B
R
] for the Right End of the Beam ......................... 60
3.4. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform
MultiSpan Beams Carrying SpringMass Systems ................................... 63
3.4.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Function ................................ 63
3.4.2. Coefficient Matrices and Determination of Natural Frequencies
and Mode Shapes ............................................................................... 65
3.5. Forced Vibration of EulerBernoulli Beams ............................................... 74
3.5.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 74
3.5.2. Formulation of Forced Vibration for Beams ........................................ 74
CHAPTER 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS ............................................................... 81
4.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 81
4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying
One, Two and Three SpringMass Systems.............................................. 82
4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span NonUniform Beam Carrying
SpringMass Systems ............................................................................... 94
4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Uniform MultiSpan Beam Carrying
SpringMass Systems ............................................................................. 102
4.4.1. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass System ................................................................. 102
4.4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems ............................................................... 106
4.4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass Systems ............................................................... 109
4.4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems ............................................................... 112
4.5. Forced Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying
One, Two and Three SpringMass Systems ........................................... 120
4.5.1. Impact Loading ................................................................................. 120
4.5.2. Harmonic Loading ............................................................................ 134
4.5.3. Moving Load ..................................................................................... 148
4.5.4. Moving Pulsating Force .................................................................... 153
4.6. Forced Vibration Analysis of HighMast Lighting Tower under
Wind Load ............................................................................................... 158
4.7. Forced Vibration Analysis of Multi Span Uniform Beams Carrying
One and Two SpringMass Systems ....................................................... 162
4.7.1. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass System ................................................................. 162
vii
Page
4.7.2. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems ............................................................... 176
4.7.3. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass Systems ............................................................... 189
4.7.4. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems ............................................................... 207
CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................. 215
5.1. Summary ................................................................................................ 215
5.2. Conclusion .............................................................................................. 217
5.3. Future Work ............................................................................................ 220
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 221
APPENDICES
Appendix A. ................................................................................................... 228
Appendix B. ................................................................................................... 234
Appendix C. ................................................................................................... 238
Appendix D. ................................................................................................... 241
viii
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
2.1 Recommended values for i (Murray et al., 1997) ................................... 8
2.2 Recommended acceleration limits for vibration due to rhythmic
activities (Allen, 1990) ............................................................................ 17
2.3 Suggested design parameters for rhythmic activities
(Allen et al., 1985) .................................................................................. 18
2.4 Minimum recommended natural assembly floor frequencies, Hz
(Allen et al., 1985) .................................................................................. 18
2.5 Application and Interpretation of Generic Vibration Criteria
(Pan et al.2008) ...................................................................................... 21
4.1 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ................................................... 83
4.2 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ................................................... 83
4.3 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ................................................... 84
4.4 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ..................................................... 84
4.5 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ..................................................... 84
4.6 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ...................................... 85
4.7 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ...................................... 85
4.8 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ...................................... 85
4.9 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) ........................................ 86
4.10 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) ........................................ 86
4.11 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ....................... 87
4.12 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ....................... 87
4.13 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ....................... 88
ix
Table Page
4.14 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) ......................... 88
4.15 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) ......................... 89
4.16 The lowest six natural frequencies of the bare uniform beam ................ 89
4.17 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ................................................... 95
4.18 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ................................................... 95
4.19 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ................................................... 95
4.20 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ..................................................... 96
4.21 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ..................................................... 96
4.22 The lowest five natural frequencies of the bare nonuniform beam ........ 96
4.23 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the highmast lighting tower
carrying one springmass system at the free end ................................. 100
4.24 Comparison of the lowest four natural frequencies of the bare
highmast lighting tower ........................................................................ 100
4.25 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying
one springmass system at second span ............................................. 103
4.26 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying
one springmass system at first span ................................................... 104
4.27 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 1 .......................................... 106
4.28 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 2 .......................................... 107
4.29 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
one springmass system based on case 1 ........................................... 109
4.30 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
one springmass system based on case 2 ........................................... 110
4.31 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 1 .......................................... 112
4.32 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 2 .......................................... 113
4.33 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 3 .......................................... 114
4.34 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 4 .......................................... 115
4.35 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 5 .......................................... 116
4.36 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass systemCase 1 ........ 120
x
Table Page
4.37 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass systemCase 2 ........ 120
4.38 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ........................................ 121
4.39 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ........................................ 122
4.40 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ........................................ 122
4.41 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) .......................................... 122
4.42 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) .......................................... 123
4.43 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ........................................ 124
4.44 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ........................................ 124
4.45 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ........................................ 124
4.46 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ......................................... 125
4.47 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under impact loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) .......................................... 125
4.48 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ............................ 126
4.49 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ............................ 126
4.50 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ............................ 127
4.51 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .............................. 127
xi
Table Page
4.52 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .............................. 127
4.53 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ............................ 128
4.54 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ............................ 128
4.55 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ............................ 129
4.56 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .............................. 129
4.57 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .............................. 129
4.58 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ................ 130
4.59 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ................ 130
4.60 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ................ 131
4.61 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) .................. 131
4.62 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) .................. 131
4.63 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ................ 132
4.64 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ................ 132
4.65 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ................ 133
xii
Table Page
4.66 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) .................. 133
4.67 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems
under impact loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) .................. 133
4.68 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass systemCase 1 ........ 134
4.69 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass systemCase 2 ........ 134
4.70 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) .............................................. 135
4.71 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) .............................................. 136
4.72 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) .............................................. 136
4.73 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ................................................ 136
4.74 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ................................................ 137
4.75 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) .............................................. 138
4.76 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) .............................................. 138
4.77 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) .............................................. 138
4.78 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ................................................ 139
4.79 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ................................................ 139
4.80 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) .................................. 140
xiii
Table Page
4.81 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) .................................. 140
4.82 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) .................................. 141
4.83 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .................................... 141
4.84 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .................................... 141
4.85 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) .................................. 142
4.86 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) .................................. 142
4.87 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) .................................. 143
4.88 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .................................... 143
4.89 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .................................... 143
4.90 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ...................... 144
4.91 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ...................... 144
4.92 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ...................... 145
4.93 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) ........................ 145
4.94 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) ........................ 145
xiv
Table Page
4.95 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ...................... 146
4.96 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ...................... 146
4.97 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ...................... 147
4.98 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) ........................ 147
4.99 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) ........................ 147
4.100 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying
one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 9 .................. 148
4.101 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass systemCase 1 ........ 148
4.102 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under moving load Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ............................................ 149
4.103 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system
under moving loadCase 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ............................................. 150
4.104 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving load Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ....................................................... 150
4.105 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving load Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ......................................................... 150
4.106 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving load Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ......................................................... 151
4.107 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ............................................ 151
4.108 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ............................................ 151
4.109 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ............................................ 152
xv
Table Page
4.110 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .............................................. 152
4.111 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .............................................. 152
4.112 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass systemCase 1 ........ 153
4.113 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ..................................... 154
4.114 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ..................................... 154
4.115 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ..................................... 154
4.116 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ....................................... 155
4.117 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ....................................... 155
4.118 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ......................... 155
4.119 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ......................... 156
4.120 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ......................... 156
4.121 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) ........................... 156
4.122 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) ........................... 157
4.123 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying
one springmass system under moving pulsating force  Case 4 ......... 157
4.124 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 163
xvi
Table Page
4.125 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 163
4.126 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 164
4.127 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 165
4.128 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 3 ........................................................................ 166
4.129 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 3 ........................................................................ 166
4.130 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 167
4.131 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 168
4.132 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 169
4.133 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 169
4.134 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 .................................................................... 170
4.135 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 .................................................................... 171
4.136 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 .................................................................... 171
4.137 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 172
4.138 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 173
xvii
Table Page
4.139 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating forceCase 1 ............................................................. 174
4.140 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating forceCase 1 ............................................................. 174
4.141 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 175
4.142 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 176
4.143 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 177
4.144 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 177
4.145 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 178
4.146 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
twospan uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 3 ........................................................................ 179
4.147 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 4 ........................................................................ 179
4.148 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 4 ........................................................................ 180
4.149 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 181
4.150 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 181
4.151 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 182
4.152 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 182
xviii
Table Page
4.153 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
twospan uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 3 .................................................................... 183
4.154 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 4 .................................................................... 184
4.155 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 4 .................................................................... 184
4.156 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
twospan uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 185
4.157 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 2 .............................................................................. 186
4.158 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 2 .............................................................................. 186
4.159 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
twospan uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating forceCase 1 ............................................................. 187
4.160 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating forceCase 2 ............................................................. 188
4.161 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating forceCase 2 ............................................................. 188
4.162 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 189
4.163 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 190
4.164 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 190
4.165 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 191
4.166 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 191
xix
Table Page
4.167 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 2 ........................................................................ 192
4.168 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 3 ........................................................................ 193
4.169 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 3 ........................................................................ 193
4.170 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 3 ........................................................................ 193
4.171 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
threespan uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 4 ........................................................................ 194
4.172 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
impact loading  Case 4 ........................................................................ 194
4.173 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 195
4.174 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 196
4.175 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 196
4.176 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 197
4.177 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 197
4.178 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 2 .................................................................... 198
4.179 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 .................................................................... 199
4.180 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 .................................................................... 199
xx
Table Page
4.181 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 3 .................................................................... 199
4.182 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
threespan uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 .................................................................... 200
4.183 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
harmonic loading  Case 4 .................................................................... 200
4.184 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 201
4.185 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 202
4.186 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 202
4.187 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
threespan uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 2 .............................................................................. 203
4.188 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving loadCase 2 .............................................................................. 203
4.189 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force Case 1 ............................................................ 204
4.190 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force Case 1 ............................................................ 205
4.191 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force Case 1 ............................................................ 205
4.192 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
threespan uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force Case 2 ............................................................ 206
4.193 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying one springmass system under
moving pulsating force Case 2 ............................................................ 206
4.194 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 208
xxi
Table Page
4.195 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 208
4.196 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
impact loading  Case 1 ........................................................................ 208
4.197 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 209
4.198 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 210
4.199 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
harmonic loading  Case 1 .................................................................... 210
4.200 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 211
4.201 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 212
4.202 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving loadCase 1 .............................................................................. 212
4.203 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force Case 1 ............................................................ 213
4.204 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force Case 1 ............................................................ 214
4.205 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under
moving pulsating force Case 1 ............................................................ 214
xxii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1.1 Types of Dynamic Loadings (Murray et al.1997) ..................................... 2
2.1 Directions of coordinate systems for vibrations influencing humans
(Naeim, 1991). ...................................................................................... 10
2.2 Average plot of force versus time for heel impact (Naeim, 1991) .......... 11
2.3 Typical floor response to heel impact (Naeim, 1991) ............................ 11
2.4 Recommended peak acceleration for human comfort for vibrations
(Allen and Murray, 1993; ISO 2631/2, 1989). ........................................ 13
2.5 Modified ReiherMeister perceptibility chart (Naeim, 1991) ................... 15
2.6 CSA annoyance criteria chart for floor vibrations (Naeim, 1991)........... 16
2.7 Generic Vibration Criteria of Gordon (Pan et al.2008) ........................... 20
2.8 Perception criteria (Ungar, 2007) .......................................................... 21
2.9 Viscous damper fitted between chevron braces beneath the deck
of the London Millennium bridge (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ........ 26
2.10 Freelayer damping and constrainedlayer damping systems
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 27
2.11 Friction damper device components and principle of action
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 27
2.12 Illustration of a tuned sloshing damper
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 29
2.13 Operating principles of an active control system
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 30
2.14 Active mass dampers (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ......................... 30
2.15 Uncontrolled and actively controlled velocity response of
an office floor (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ...................................... 31
2.16 Semiactive TMD on a vibrating system ................................................ 32
2.17 Undamped and damped vibration absorbers ........................................ 34
2.18 Tuned Mass Dampers beneath the London Millennium Bridge
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 35
2.19 Example of the effect of damping ratio of the vibration absorber
on the frequency response of a primary system
(Bachmann et al., 1994) ........................................................................ 37
2.20 SDOFTMD system (Connor, 2003) ...................................................... 37
3.1 A cantilever beam carrying n springmass systems
(Wu and Chou, 1999) ............................................................................ 42
3.2 A nonuniform cantilever beam carrying n springmass systems .......... 51
xxiii
Figure Page
3.3 A uniform multispan beam carrying S springmass systems and
T pinned supports (Lin and Tsai, 2007) ................................................. 64
3.4 Twospan uniform beam with one intermediate support and
one springmass system ....................................................................... 73
3.5 Simplysupported beam subjected to stepfunction force F
0
................. 76
3.6 Simplysupported beam subjected to harmonic force F
0
sin(t) ............ 77
3.7 Simplysupported beam subjected to moving load ................................ 78
3.8 Simplysupported beam subjected to moving pulsating load ................ 78
3.9 Simplysupported beam subjected to moving pulsating load ................ 79
4.1 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying
One SpringMass System ..................................................................... 90
4.2 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems.................................................................... 91
4.3 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying
Three SpringMass Systems ................................................................. 92
4.4 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF Uniform Beams ................. 93
4.5 Mode Shapes of NonUniform SS, CC, SC and FC Beams
Carrying One SpringMass System ....................................................... 97
4.6 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF
NonUniform Beams .............................................................................. 98
4.7 Mode Shapes of HighMast Lighting Tower Carrying
One SpringMass System on the Top ................................................. 101
4.8 Mode Shapes of Bare HighMast Lighting Tower ................................ 101
4.9 Twospan beam carrying one springmass system
attached to second span ..................................................................... 103
4.10 Twospan beam carrying one springmass system
attached to first span ........................................................................... 104
4.11 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying one springmass
system at second span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
) ................................................ 105
4.12 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying one springmass
system at first span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
) ...................................................... 105
4.13 Twospan beam carrying two springmass systems (Case 1) ............. 106
4.14 Twospan beam carrying two springmass systems (Case 2) ............. 107
4.15 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying two springmass
systems tuned based on Case 1(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) ...................... 108
4.16 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying two springmass
systems tuned based on Case 2(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) ...................... 108
4.17 Threespan beam carrying one springmass system
attached to first span ........................................................................... 109
4.18 Threespan beam carrying one springmass system
attached to second span ..................................................................... 110
4.19 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying one springmass
system at first span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
) .................................................... 111
xxiv
Figure Page
4.20 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying one springmass
system at second span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
) .............................................. 111
4.21 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached
to first and second span (Case 1) ....................................................... 112
4.22 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached
to first and second span (Case 2) ....................................................... 113
4.23 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached
to first and second span (Case 3) ....................................................... 114
4.24 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached
to first and third span (Case 4) ............................................................ 115
4.25 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached
to first and third span (Case 5) ............................................................ 116
4.26 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass
systems at first span and second span tuned based on Case 1
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 117
4.27 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass
systems at first and second span tuned based on Case 2
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 117
4.28 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass
systems at first span and second span tuned based on Case 3
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 118
4.29 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass
systems at first and third span tuned based on Case 4
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 118
4.30 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass
systems at first span and third span tuned based on Case 5
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 119
4.31 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.25L ......................................... 121
4.32 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.5L ........................................... 123
4.33 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L .............................................. 135
4.34 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.5L ................................................ 137
4.35 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to moving load .................................................................... 149
4.36 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to moving pulsating force .................................................... 153
4.37 Force and wind velocity profile of HMLT ............................................. 159
4.38 Dynamic responses of bare HMLT under wind load ............................ 160
4.39 Dynamic responses of HMLT carrying one springmass
system at the shallow end under wind load (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ................... 161
xxv
Figure Page
4.40 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.25L ............................ 162
4.41 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.75L ............................ 164
4.42 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ........ 165
4.43 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L .................................. 167
4.44 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L .................................. 168
4.45 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ............. 170
4.46 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving load ........................................................ 172
4.47 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving pulsating force ........................................ 173
4.48 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass
systems subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.75L .......................... 176
4.49 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass
systems subjected to stepfunction force
at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ...................................................................... 178
4.50 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass
systems subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L ................................ 180
4.51 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass
systems subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ........... 183
4.52 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass
systems subjected to moving load ...................................................... 185
4.53 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass
systems subjected to moving pulsating load ....................................... 187
4.54 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x= (1/6) L .......................... 189
4.55 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x= (3/6) L .......................... 192
4.56 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L ................................ 195
4.57 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (3/6) L ................................ 198
4.58 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving load ........................................................ 201
4.59 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving pulsating force ........................................ 204
4.60 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x= (1/6) L .......................... 207
xxvi
Figure Page
4.61 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L ................................ 209
4.62 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving load ........................................................ 211
4.63 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving pulsating force ........................................ 213
Appendix Figure
A.1 SDOFTMD system ............................................................................. 228
xxvii
LIST OF SYMBOLS
Natural frequency of primary system
c Viscous damping coefficient of primary system
Damping ratio of primary system
k Stiffness of primary system
d
Natural frequency of tuned mass damper
c
d
Viscous damping coefficient of tuned mass damper
d
Damping ratio of tuned mass damper
k
d
Stiffness of tuned mass damper
Forcing frequency
Mass ratio
e
Equivalent damping ratio
u Displacement of SDOF system
u Velocity of SDOF system
u Acceleration of SDOF system
u
d
Displacement of tuned mass damper
u
d
Velocity of tuned mass damper
u
d
Acceleration of tuned mass damper
Phase angle
E Modulus of elasticity
I Moment of inertia
m Beam mass per unit length
m
v
Point mass of the vth springmass system
k
v
Spring constant of the vth springmass system
z
v
Instantaneous displacement of vth springmass system
xxviii
z
i
Slope of constrained beam at the vth attaching point
y
ii
Curvature of constrained beam at the vth attaching point
Y
v
(x) Amplitude of y
v
Z
v
Amplitude of z
v
L Represents the left as superscript
R Represents the right as superscript
y(x,t) Instantaneous displacement of the beam
v
Natural frequency of springmass system
[B
v
] Coefficient matrix for the vth attaching point
[B
L
] Coefficient matrix for the left end of the beam
[B
R
] Coefficient matrix for the right end of the beam
C
vi
Integration constants
n Number of springmass systems
[B] Overall coefficient matrix
Mass per unit volume
A Cross sectional area
A
0
Cross sectional area at x=0
I
0
Moment of inertia at x=0
r Radius
Taper ratio of the beam
t Thickness
i
(t) Generalized coordinates
Y
i
(x) ith normal mode shape of a beam
Q
i
(t) Generalized force corresponding to
i
(t)
w(x,t) Transverse deflection of a beam
f(x,t) External force per unit length
ij
Kronecker delta
xxix
ABSTRACT
Ozkan, Mustafa Kemal. M.S.C.E., Purdue University, May 2010. Dynamic
Response of Beams with Passive Tuned Mass Dampers. Major Professor:
Ayhan Irfanoglu.
Passive tuned mass damper (TMD) is a standalone vibrating system
attached to a primary structure and designed to reduce vibration of the structure
at selected frequency. This study focuses on the application of single or multiple
TMDs on EulerBernoulli beams and examines their effectiveness based on free
and forced vibration characteristics of the beams, i.e., the primary structures.
There is a gap in the existing literature in terms of free and forced vibration
analysis of beams carrying any number of concentrated elements. There are
methods developed for the free vibration analysis but they are not practical due
to the complex mathematical expressions. Numerical assembly method (Wu and
Chou, 1999) is used to determine free vibration characteristics of beams in order
to get over the drawbacks of other approaches in the literature and forced
vibration response is obtained based on modal analysis approach and
orthogonality condition.
The freevibration formulations for uniform, nonuniform singlespan and
multispan continuous beams carrying any number of elastically mounted
masses are derived for various boundary conditions. Numerical solutions for
dynamic responses of these beams subjected to impulsive, harmonic, moving
and moving pulsating loads are presented. A numerical eigenvalue solution is
used to obtain the modal properties of the entire beam at its fundamental and
lower normal modes. The modal analysis approach allows calculating
xxx
displacement, velocity, acceleration and jerk responses at any point on the
beam. The resultant dynamic responses of beams with and without TMDs are
compared with each other in order to observe the performance of TMDs.
Numerical examples are given to confirm the validity and efficiency of the
proposed method. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of several structures
studied in literature are calculated and compared with those in existing literature
to verify the accuracy of the developed algorithm. The illustrative forcing
functions are considered as humaninduced dynamic loads for uniform single and
multiple span beams. The results demonstrate that passive TMDs are efficient in
reducing the dynamic responses of beams subjected to harmonic excitations.
However, passive TMDs do not show the same level of performance under non
harmonic loads. Additionally, wind load analysis is performed for a sample high
mast lighting tower (HMLT) represented as a cantilever nonuniform beam in this
study and the efficiency of attached TMD is analyzed. Experimental wind velocity
data is used to generate the wind induced dynamic load on the HMLT. Results
indicate that properly tuned passive TMDs may be an option to reduce dynamic
response in windexcited HMLTs.
1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. General
Annoying motions and audible resonant behavior are two common
concerns in structures under servicelevel dynamic loads. In more serious cases,
excessive vibrations or fatigue which may cause structural failure may exist.
These unwanted vibrations should be eliminated or at least reduced below
corresponding threshold levels to avoid serious structural problems or simply to
meet system performance requirements. It may be easier to modify the design of
a yet to be built structure to mitigate against possible unwanted vibrations
compared to modifying an actual, existing structure. The latter case may be
called for if the existing structure has insufficient design or, is subjected to
change in functionality, or due to changes in environmental conditions.
1.1.1. Sources of Dynamic Excitation
In practical engineering design one of the most important requirements is
to define the sources of dynamic excitation and to analyze their magnitude and
significance by comparing them with the static loads. It is usually much easier to
deal with static loads rather than dynamic loads. Some of the structures,
especially the flexible and lightly damped ones, may exhibit large amplifications
against dynamic loads. The use of a structure, such as a laboratory housing
sensitive equipments or hospitals with sensitive operating rooms such as those
for neurosurgery or microsurgery, is another issue to consider in vibration
analysis. Therefore, the relation between the sources of dynamic excitation, the
structural form and the purpose of the structure should be considered at the
design stage.
2
1.1.2. Dynamic Loadings
Dynamic loads can be categorized as harmonic, periodic, transient and
impulsive as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Rotating machinery can be identified as
harmonic or sinusoidal loads. Rhythmic human activities such as dancing and
aerobics and impactive machinery cause periodic loads. Transient loads consist
of movement of people including walking and running. Single jumps and heel
drop impacts can be given examples of impulsive loads.
Figure 1.1 Types of Dynamic Loadings (Murray et al.1997)
1.1.3. Consequences of Vibration
Vibration of structures is undesirable for a number of reasons. For
example, overstressing and collapse of structures or simply cracking or other
damages requiring repair can be given as consequences of earthquakeinduced
vibrations. To give another example, damage to safetyrelated equipment is
another problem occurring in nuclear plants during earthquakes. Excessive
structural vibrations in hospitals and other medical facilities can interfere with the
performance of medical procedures, impair the operation of sensitive equipment
and have adverse effects on patient comfort. Adverse human response is also a
3
phenomenon in structures such as health clubs, gymnasiums, stadiums, dance
floors and even office buildings due to the human activities.
Human beings are highly sensitive to vibration. Therefore, adverse human
response should be seriously thought at the design stage although vibrations that
are disturbing for occupants of buildings usually cause small stresses. However,
if the structure is subjected to large number of cycles of loads above certain
thresholds, fatigue fracture problem may occur as another phenomenon. Fatigue
fracture usually occurs in welded steel structures where tiny cracks, which are
initially difficult to see, grow in size under the repetitions of stress until they are
large enough to be seen or cause rupture. For example, highmast lighting
towers are subjected to wind load which, over time, may cause millions of cycles
of significant stress and could result in structural failure.
1.1.4. Vibration Control
The first step to design the structure which is sensitive to vibrations is to
identify the dynamic loads in terms of frequency and amplitude or measured
variation in time. Analyzing the response of the structure to obtain dynamic
deflections, stresses, frequencies and accelerations come next. Finally, it is
essential to check the calculated or measured performance by using specified
criteria to guarantee that there are no adverse consequences of vibration.
It is important to think ahead during the early stage of conceptual design
and make necessary design adjustments in order to minimize the vibration
susceptibility. Some structures, such as dancing floors, are affected over a
confined frequency range. It may be feasible to increase the structural depth in
dance floors in order to improve stiffness of the structure so as to keep the
frequency of the structure above predominant dancing frequency.
4
Active control over the natural frequency of buildings may be provided by
increasing the stiffness or reducing the mass but this method is usually difficult or
uneconomic to obtain the optimum value. It may be more efficient to design and
use special vibrationabsorbing devices, called passive tuned mass dampers
(TMDs) or tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs), as part of the structure to reduce
effects of dynamic loads. Some of the construction techniques, such as welded
steelwork, may be more delicate to vibration because of their lack of inherent
damping capacity. Therefore, it may sometimes be more effective to choose
materials with high damping or to install artificial damping devices.
1.2. Object and Scope
The main motivation of this study is to investigate the effects of tuned
vibration absorbers (TVAs), also called tuned mass dampers (TMDs), in terms of
controlling the dynamic deflections, stresses, frequencies and accelerations of
structural elements or structures which are subjected to different types of
dynamic loadings.
The scope of the study includes (a) analytical and numerical procedures to
solve the free and forced vibration of uniform and nonuniform single and multi
span beams, which are subjected to different types of dynamic loadings, with
attached springmass systems, in particular, passive TMDs (b) some applications
of these analytical procedures in real structural elements.
The free vibration analysis of structural elements, such as beams, is
commonly found in existing literature. A critical aspect of the presented study is
to analyze the forced vibration of these structural elements with attached spring
mass systems and to check that whether these springmass systems, which can
also be called as TVA or TMD, work towards reducing the consequences of
adverse vibration.
5
1.3. Organization
Chapter 2 reviews and describes the existing research on practical
approaches for vibration reduction together with detailed explanation of vibration
excitation sources which are humaninduced vibration, machinery induced
vibration and windinduced vibration.
Chapter 3 discusses the analytical approaches to determine natural
frequencies, mode shapes and responses of beams with attached spring mass
systems under different types of dynamic loads. Applications of passive TVAs to
uniform and nonuniform beams are presented. The effect of single TVA versus
multiple TVAs is discussed.
Chapter 4 includes the numerical results for free and forced vibration of
beams carrying single or multiple spring mass systems. Illustrative numerical
examples are presented for stepfunction forces (i.e., impact loading), harmonic
forces, moving loads and moving pulsating forces.
Summary and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5.
6
CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH
2.1. HumanStructure Dynamic Interaction and Human Induced Vibration
Humaninduced forces, such as walking, running, jumping, dancing and
other similar activities, cause unwanted vibrations in civil engineering structures,
such as floors, footbridges, grandstands, stairs. These kinds of rhythmical human
activities can generate significant resonant, transient, steadystate or impulsive
responses (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). According to Nyawako and Reynolds
(2007), pacing frequency for walking can be considered in the range of 1.53.0
Hz and it is above 3 Hz for activities such as running or jogging. However, this
range can decrase to the range of 1.251.5 Hz for offices based on Smiths
(1998) and Murrays (1998) studies.
Humanstructure interaction concept is a considerably important issue for
slender structures which are subjected to humaninduced forces (R.Sachse et al.
2003). Todays new construction techniques provide us to design light, slender,
longspanned structures, however these opportunities have increased the
susceptibility level of structures to detrimental vibrations (Firth, 2002; Naeim,
1991; Tuan and Saul, 1985; Setareh et al. 2006a). When these lighter and longer
floor systems together with their less damping are considered with the rhythmical
activities of the occupants, there is a significant increase in attention to the
vibration level during the design stage to reduce floor vibration problems because
of the greater possibility of increased vibration annoyance in occupants (Naeim,
1991). Moreover, humaninduced vibrations may cause serviceability and safety
problems, in terms of annoying level of vibrations for occupants and fatigue
behavior of structures, respectively (Smith, 1998; Bachmann, 1992). The major
reasons of annoying vibrations in civil engineering structures can be explained
with three main factors which are increased human activities, such as aerobics or
7
audience participation, reduced natural frequency due to longer floor systems
and reduced damping and mass provided by new construction techniques (Allen,
1990). Pedestrian structures, office buildings, footbridges, gymnasiums and sport
halls, shopping malls, airport terminals, dance halls and concert halls can be
given as an example for civil engineering structures which tend to be susceptible
to humaninduced vibration (Bachmann, 1992; Kerr and Bishop, 2001; Pavic et
al. 2002a; Hanagan et al. 2003; Ebrahimpour and Sack, 2005).
Another case that designers need to pay attention is to consider the
usability of civil engineering structures for different types of occupation for both
economic and serviceability reasons. For instance, building owners or occupants
might need to convert an office floor into a gymnasium or a dance facility in the
future (Webster and Levy, 1992).
It is also necessary to know how human induced forces can be identified
in order to figure out the response of the structure under human induced
vibration. Human induced forcetime histories have been obtained for the last
three decades and these experimental results have been analyzed by Fourier
series. Because of this approximation for many experimental results, most of the
researchers came up with the common idea that human induced forces are
perfectly periodic (Sachse et al., 2003). On the other hand, there are some
opposite assumptions questioning that human induced forces are perfectly
periodic because of the fact that these forces are inherently narrowband
(Eriksson, 1994). Sometimes, autospectral density functions are used to
represent humaninduced forces in the frequency domain (Tuan and Saul, 1985;
Mouring and Ellingwood, 1994; Eriksson, 1994). Moreover, according to Murray
et al. (1997), dynamic forces which cause floor vibration problems are generally
repeated forces, such as machinery or human induced forces, and they are
usually sinusoidal or nearly sinusoidal. Thereby, such repeated forces can be
defined as sum of sinusoidal forces. Their forcing frequencies can be considered
as multiples of the fundamental frequency of the force repetition such as step
frequency for human activities. Murray et al. (1997) defined timedependent
8
harmonic force component matching the fundamental frequency of the floor by
using Fourier series as given in Equation 2.1.
F = P o
cos(2ni
stcp
t +
) Eq. 2.1
where P (persons weight) can be taken as 0.7 kN (157 pounds) and
recommended values for o
opt
=
1
1 +p
,
Eq. 2.2
d
opt
= _
3
8(1+)
3
Eq. 2.3
where is the mass ratio.
37
Figure 2.19 Example of the effect of damping ratio of the vibration absorber on
the frequency response of a primary system (Bachmann et al., 1994)
2.4.2. An Introductory Example of a TMD for an Undamped SDOF System
As it is shown in Figure 2.20, the structure and TMD are represented as
twomass system and a SDOF system is used in order to characterize the whole
structure. TMD parameters are given with subscript d by following equations
(Connor, 2003).
Figure 2.20 SDOFTMD system (Connor, 2003)
38
2
=
k
m
,
Eq. 2.4
c = 2m Eq. 2.5
d
2
=
k
d
m
d
,
Eq. 2.6
c
d
= 2
d
d
m
d
Eq. 2.7
p = moss rotio =
m
d
m
,
Eq. 2.8
Governing equations of motions can be written as;
For primary mass,
(1 +p)u +2u +
2
u =
p
m
pu
d
Eq. 2.9
For tuned mass,
u
d
+2
d
d
u
d
+
d
2
u
d
= u Eq. 2.10
The optimal natural frequency of tuned mass damper can be assumed as
in this design procedure which means that TMD is tuned to fundamental
frequency of the primary structure and therefore, stiffness of the damper and the
primary mass can be correlated by following equation;
k
d
= pk Eq. 2.11
Forcing function and the corresponding response of TMD and primary
structure can be given as;
p = p sin0t Eq. 2.12
u = usin(0t +o
1
) Eq. 2.13
u
d
= u
d
sin(0t +o
1
+o
2
) Eq. 2.14
where u is the displacement amplitude and o is the phase shift.
The worst case here is the equal frequencies of forcing and the
structure which is the resonant condition. The responses for this case are as
follows;
u =
p
kp _
1
1 +[
2
p
+
1
2
d
2
Eq. 2.15
39
u
d
=
1
2
d
u Eq. 2.16
And the response without damper is;
u =
p
k
_
1
2
] Eq. 2.17
Eq.2.15 can be expressed in terms of equivalent damping ratio in order to
compare the cases with and without damper.
u =
p
k
_
1
2
c
] Eq. 2.18
c
=
p
2
_
1 +_
2
p
+
1
2
d
]
2
Eq. 2.19
As it is shown in equation 2.19, any increase in mass ratio increases the
total damping. Moreover, decreasing the damping ratio of the damper increases
the damping as well. However, decreasing the damping ratio also increase the
relative motion of the damper according to equation 2.16. Therefore, it is
important to consider this motion during the design stage and select TMD
parameters based on available circumstances. The detailed procedures to obtain
the responses of TMD and primary structure are shown in Appendix A.
40
CHAPTER 3. FREE AND FORCED VIBRATION OF BEAMS WITH ANY
NUMBER OF ATTACHED SPRING MASS SYSTEMS
SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF DYNAMIC LOADS
3.1. Introduction
This chapter describes the free and the forced transverse vibrations of
uniform and nonuniform beams carrying single or multiple springmass systems.
Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) are represented as springmass systems in
this study. The beam and attached TVAs are considered as a single system
together in order to show how TVAs contribute to the mitigation of vibration in
terms of controlling the responses of the primary structure by comparing the
cases with and without TVAs. The equations of motion of a beam are derived
according to EulerBernoulli beam theory. Hence, rotary inertia and shear
deflection are neglected. Also plane sections are assumed to remain plane and
normal to the longitudinal axis. In this chapter, the free vibration analysis of
uniform, nonuniform singlespan and multispan continuous beams with single or
multiple attached spring mass systems is performed first and then the forced
vibration of these beams is discussed with numerical examples.
The free vibration characteristics of a uniform beam can be easily
obtained but the problem gets more difficult when the beam carries concentrated
elements such as elastically mounted point masses which refer TVAs in this
study. Although there are various techniques presented to solve the eigenvalue
problem for beams carrying any number of concentrated masses, these
techniques are not practical to apply due to complex mathematical expressions
and excessive computing time. Most of the existing research consists of no more
than two concentrated masses because of these reasons. However, Wu and
Chou (1999) found the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform single
41
span beam carrying any number of elastically attached point masses through a
numerical assembly method. This study adopts the same method to obtain the
exact solutions for the free vibration characteristics of any type of beams with
attached springmass systems mentioned here.
The numerical assembly method is used in order to obtain the eigenvalue
equation B
]{C
]
vector. Any value of , angular frequency, which makes determinant of the
coefficient matrix equal to zero indicates one of the natural frequency of the
beam together with all the attached springmass systems. Moreover, when the
obtained natural frequency is introduced into the coefficient matrix, the {C
] vector
that satisfies the eigenvalue equation represents the corresponding mode shape
as well (Wu and Chou, 1999). The same procedure is also used for the free
vibration of nonuniform and multispan uniform beams carrying springmass
systems. After that, forced vibration response of beam subjected to different
types of dynamic loads is obtained and the resultant responses are compared for
the cases with and without springmass systems.
42
3.2. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform Beams Carrying
SpringMass Systems
3.2.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Functions
Based on Wu and Chou (1999)s study, figure 3.1 shows the sketch of a
uniform cantilever beam carrying n springmass systems. The whole beam with
length L is divided into n+1 segments. v enclosed in circle and v in parentheses
represent the attaching point and the corresponding segment, respectively.
Moreover, the left and the right ends of the beam are shown by the letters L and
R, respectively.
The equation of motion for a bare uniform EulerBernoulli beam and the v
th springmass are given by
EI
o
4
y(x, t)
ox
4
+m
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= u
Eq. 3.1
m
+k
(z
y
) = u Eq. 3.2
Figure 3.1 A cantilever beam carrying n springmass systems
(Wu and Chou, 1999)
43
The continuity of the deformations at the attaching point requires that
For the deflection y
L
(x
, t) = y
R
(x
, t) Eq. 3.3
For the slope y
iL
(x
, t) = y
iR
(x
, t) Eq. 3.4
For the curvature y
iiL
(x
, t) = y
iiR
(x
, t) Eq. 3.5
The force equilibrium at the attaching point requires that
EIy
iiiL
(x
, t) EIy
iiiR
(x
, t) = m
Eq. 3.6
The boundary conditions for the fixed and free ends of the beam are given
by
y(u, t) = u y
i
(u, t) = u Eq. 3.7
y
ii
(l, t) = u y
iii
(l, t) = u Eq. 3.8
3.2.2. Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the Constrained Beam
The free vibration of the beam and vth springmass take the form
y(x, t) = (x)c
ot
Eq. 3.9
z
= Z
c
ot
Eq. 3.10
The insertion of equation 3.9 into equation 3.1 leads to
EI
o
4
ox
4
((x)c
ot
) +m
o
2
ot
2
((x)c
ot
) = u
Eq. 3.11
iiii
(x) [
4
(x) = u Eq. 3.12
where
[
4
=
m
2
EI
,
Eq. 3.13
and the substitution of equation 3.9 and 3.10 into equation 3.2 gives
k
(k
m
2
)Z
= u Eq. 3.14
+(y
2
1)Z
= u Eq. 3.15
where
y
, and
=
_
k
,
Eq. 3.16
44
If equations 3.9 and 3.10 are substituted into equations 3.36, the
compatibility equations and force equilibrium at the attaching point are given by
L
(x
) =
R
(x
)
Eq. 3.17
iL
(x
) =
iR
(x
)
Eq. 3.18
iiL
(x
) =
iiR
(x
)
Eq. 3.19
iiiL
(x
) 
iiiR
(x
) +
p
l
3
([l)
4
Z
= u
Eq. 3.20
where
p
=
m
m
b
, and m
b
= ml
Eq. 3.21
After introducing equation 3.9 into equations 3.7 and 3.8, the boundary
conditions of the cantilever beam become
(u) = u
i
(u) = u Eq. 3.22
ii
(l) = u
iii
(l) = u Eq. 3.23
The solution of the differential equation 3.12 is given by (Murphy, 1960)
and takes the form as follows
(x) = C
1
sin([x) +C
2
cos([x) +C
3
sinh([x) +C
4
cosh([x) Eq. 3.24
For the vth segment, the solution can be written as follows
() = C
1
sin([l) +C
2
cos([l) +C
3
sinh([l) +C
4
cosh([l) Eq. 3.25
where
=
x
l
,
Eq. 3.26
The derivatives of (x) can be also written as following equations
i
(x) =
J
J
J
Jx
=
1
l
J
J
=
1
l
i
() Eq. 3.27
ii
(x) =
J
Jx
_
1
l
i
()_ =
1
l
J
i
()
Jx
=
1
l
J
i
()
J
J
Jx
=
1
l
2
ii
() Eq. 3.28
iii
(x) =
J
Jx
_
1
l
2
ii
()_ =
1
l
2
J
ii
()
Jx
=
1
l
2
J
ii
()
J
J
Jx
=
1
l
3
iii
() Eq. 3.29
45
Therefore, the following equations can be written from equations 3.2429
i
(x) =
1
l
i
() = [C
1
cos([l)  C
2
sin([l) +C
3
cosh([l) + C
4
sinh([l)]
Eq. 3.30
ii
(x) =
1
l
2
ii
() = [
2
C
1
sin([l)  C
2
cos([l) + C
3
sinh([l) + C
4
cosh([l)]
Eq. 3.31
iii
(x) =
1
l
3
iii
() = [
3
C
1
cos([l) + C
2
sin([l) + C
3
cosh([l) + C
4
sinh([l)]
Eq. 3.32
As it is shown in Figure 3.1, the left end of the beam is corresponding with
the first segment of the beam. If boundary conditions (Equation 3.22) of the left
end of the beam are introduced into equations 3.25 and 3.30, one obtains
(u) = C
12
+C
14
= u Eq. 3.33
i
(u) = [(C
11
+C
13
) = u  [ = u  C
11
+C
13
= u Eq. 3.34
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
B
L
]{C
L
] = u Eq. 3.35
where
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2
Eq. 3.36
{C
L
] = {C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
] = {C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
] Eq. 3.37
The following equations are obtained by introducing equations 3.36 into
equations 3.2429. The segments on the left and the right side of the vth
attaching point located at x=x
v
are represented by v and v+1, respectively,
because of the segments that they belong. Therefore, the related coefficients are
shown by C
vj
and C
v+1,j
(j=1~4), respectively.
C
1
sin(0
) +C
2
cos(0
) +C
3
sinh(0
) +C
4
cosh(0
) C
+1,1
sin(0
) 
C
+1,2
cos(0
) C
+1,3
sinh(0
) C
+1,4
cosh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.38
46
C
1
cos(0
) C
2
sin(0
) +C
3
cosh(0
) +C
4
sinh(0
) C
+1,1
cos(0
) +
C
+1,2
sin(0
) C
+1,3
cosh(0
) C
+1,4
sinh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.39
C
1
sin(0
) C
2
cos(0
) +C
3
sinh(0
) +C
4
cosh(0
) +C
+1,1
sin(0
) +
C
+1,2
cos(0
) C
+1,3
sinh(0
) C
+1,4
cosh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.40
C
1
cos(0
) +C
2
sin(0
) +C
3
cosh(0
) +C
4
sinh(0
) +C
+1,1
cos(0
) 
C
+1,2
sin(0
) C
+1,3
cosh(0
) C
+1,4
sinh(0
)] +p
([l)Z
= u
Eq. 3.41
Moreover, the substitution of equation 3.25 into equation 3.15 gives
C
1
sin(0
) +C
2
cos(0
) +C
3
sinh(0
) +C
4
cosh(0
) +(y
2
1)Z
= u
Eq. 3.42
where
0
= [l Eq. 3.43
If equations 3.3842 are written in matrix form, one obtains
B
]{C
] = u Eq. 3.44
where B
] and {C
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) u
cos(0
) sin(0
) cosh(0
) sinh(0
) cos(0
) sin(0
) cosh(0
) sinh(0
) u
sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) u
cos(0
) sin(0
) cosh(0
) sinh(0
) cos(0
) sin(0
) cosh(0
) sinh(0
) p
([l)
sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) u u u u y
2
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
S: 2
S: 1
S:
S: +1
S: +2
Eq. 3.45
{C
] = {C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
+1,1
C
+1,2
C
+1,3
C
+1,4
Z
] Eq. 3.46
= {C
43
C
42
C
41
C
4
C
4+1
C
4+2
C
4+3
C
4+4
C
4+5
] Eq. 3.47
4
7
48
The right end of the beam belongs to the (n+1)th segment as it is shown in
Figure 3.1. If boundary conditions (Equation 3.23) of the right end of the beam
are introduced into equations 3.31 and 3.32, one obtains
C
n+1,1
sin([l) C
n+1,2
cos([l) +C
n+1,3
sinh([l) +C
n+1,4
cosh([l) = u
Eq. 3.48
C
n+1,1
cos([l) +C
n+1,2
sin([l) +C
n+1,3
cosh([l) +C
n+1,4
sinh([l) = u
Eq. 3.49
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
B
R
]{C
R
] = u Eq. 3.50
where
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
cos([l) sin([l) cosh([l) sinh([l)
_
p 1
p
Eq. 3.51
{C
R
] = {C
n+1,1
C
n+1,2
C
n+1,3
C
n+1,4
] = {C
4n+1
C
4n+2
C
4n+3
C
4n+4
]
Eq. 3.52
where
p = Sn +4 Eq. 3.53
Here, p represents the total number of equations. There are five equations
for any attaching point for a springmass system, including three compatibility
equations, one force equilibrium equation and one governing equation for the
sprung mass. Moreover, there are two more equations for each boundary of the
beam. Therefore, there are 5n+4 equations in all for the whole beam to obtain
integration constants C
vi
and modal displacements Z
v
where v=1~n and i=1~4. In
other words, based on equation 3.25 and the governing equation of springmass,
there are four unknown integration constants for each beam segment and there
is one additional unknown Z
v
. If there is n springmass system, it means that
there is n+1 segment in the whole beam. Therefore, the total number of
unknowns for the beam carrying n springmass systems is equal to
4(n+1)+n=5n+4 (n unknown for Z
v
and 4(n+1) unknown for integration constants).
49
Hence, if all of the unknowns (C
vi
and Z
v
) indicated in equations 3.37, 3.47
and 3.52 can be written as column vector {C
] and B
R
]
are assembled by using the conventional assembly technique for direct stiffness
matrix method. Then, the following equation can be written for the entire system
in order to obtain required natural frequencies and mode shapes
B
]{C
] = u Eq. 3.54
The nontrivial solution of the equation 3.54 is
B
 = u Eq. 3.55
The natural frequencies of the entire vibrating system
]) for these
beams carrying more than one springmass system are also indicated in
Appendix B.
C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
5
C
6
C
7
C
8
C
9
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u
1 u 1 u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) p
1
([l)
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u y
1
2
1
u u u u sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l) u
u u u u cos([l) sin([l) cosh([l) sinh([l) u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
S
4
S
6
7
8
9
Eq. 3.56
5
0
51
3.3. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for NonUniform Beams Carrying
SpringMass Systems
3.3.1. Equations of Motion and Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the
Constrained Beam
The free vibration problem of uniform beams carrying various
concentrated elements has been studied by many researchers. On the other
hand, the literature regarding the free vibration characteristics of nonuniform
beams carrying any number of springmass systems is very rare. However, Chen
and Wu (2002) applied numerical assembly method for nonuniform beams
carrying springmass systems. Based on their studies, the same procedure that
is used in order to obtain the free vibration characteristics of uniform beams is
applied to nonuniform beams in this study. As it is shown in Figure 3.2, a non
uniform beam carrying n springmass systems is divided into (n+1) segments.
The total length is L; v on the top represents the attaching point and the
corresponding segment. The left and the right ends of the beam are shown by
the letters L and R, respectively.
Figure 3.2 A nonuniform cantilever beam carrying n springmass systems
52
The equation of motion for a bare nonuniform beam is given by
o
2
ox
2
_EI(x)
o
2
y(x, t)
ox
2
_ +pA(x)
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= u Eq. 3.57
where A(x) and I(x) are the crosssectional area at position x and moment of
inertia of A(x). A(x) and I(x) are given as follows
A(x) = 2nr(x)t Eq. 3.58
I(x) =
n
4
r
0
4
(x) r
4
(x)] Eq. 3.59
where
r
o
(x) = r(x) +
t
2
, Eq. 3.60
r
(x) = r(x) 
t
2
, Eq. 3.61
r(x) = r(u) +
r(I) r(u)
I
x = r(u) _1 +
(o 1)
I
x_ Eq. 3.62
where
o =
r
u
(I)
r
u
(u)
_
Eq. 3.63
When equation 3.61 and 3.62 are introduced into equation 3.59, I(x) can
be written as
I(x) =
n
4
4r
3
(x)t +r(x)t
3
] Eq. 3.64
Because of the fact that t
3
is much smaller than r(x), the term, r(x) t
3
, can
be neglected. Hence, the moment of inertia is given by
I(x) = nr
3
(x)t Eq. 3.65
and the substitution of equation 3.62 into equations 3.58 and 3.65 gives
A(x) = 2nr(u)t _1 +
(o 1)
I
x_ = A
0
_1 +
(o 1)
I
x_ Eq. 3.66
I(x) = nr
3
(u)t _1 +
(o 1)
I
x_
3
= I
0
_1 +
(o 1)
I
x_
3
Eq. 3.67
Similar to equation 3.9, the free vibration of the beam takes the form
y(x, t) = (x)c
ot
Eq. 3.68
53
If equations 3.6668 are substituted into equation 3.57, one obtains
EI(x)
J
4
(x)
Jx
4
+ E
JI(x)
Jx
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
+E
J
2
I(x)
Jx
2
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
+ E
JI(x)
Jx
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
 pA(x)
2
(x) = u
Eq. 3.69
EI
0
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
3
d
4
(x)
dx
4
+SEI
0
(u1)
L
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
2
d
3
(x)
dx
3
+ 6EI
0
j
(u1)
L
[
2
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
d
2
(x)
dx
2
+
SEI
0
(u1)
L
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
2
d
3
(x)
dx
3
 pA
0
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
2
(x) = u
Eq. 3.70
The coefficient is given by
= _1 +
(o 1)
I
x_ Eq. 3.71
then the derivatives of (x) can be also written as following equations
iii
(x) =
d
dx
_j
(u1)
L
[
2
ii
()_ = j
(u1)
L
[
2
d

({)
dx
= j
(u1)
L
[
2
d

({)
d{
d{
dx
= j
(u1)
L
[
3
iii
()
Eq. 3.74
iiii
(x) =
d
dx
_j
(u1)
L
[
3
iii
()_ = j
(u1)
L
[
3
d

({)
dx
= j
(u1)
L
[
3
d

({)
d{
d{
dx
= j
(u1)
L
[
4
iiii
()
Eq. 3.75
Insertion of equations 3.7175 into equation 3.70 gives
3
iiii
() +6
2
iii
() +6
ii
() j
LU
(u1)
[
4
() = u Eq. 3.76
3
iiii
() +6
2
iii
() +6
ii
()  j
[
2
[
4
() = u
Eq. 3.77
where
(0I)
4
=
pA
0
o
2
L
4
LI
0
and [ =
2LU
(u1)
Eq. 3.78
The solution of the differential equation 3.77 is given by (Murphy, 1960)
and takes the form as follows
i
(x) =
J
J
J
Jx
=
(o 1)
I
J
J
=
(o 1)
I
i
() Eq. 3.72
ii
(x) =
J
Jx
_
(o  1)
I
i
()_ =
(o  1)
I
J
i
()
Jx
=
(o  1)
I
J
i
()
J
J
Jx
= _
(o 1)
I
_
2
ii
()
Eq. 3.73
54
() =

1
2
C
1
[
1
([) + C
2
1
([) + C
S
I
1
([) + C
4
K
1
([)]
Eq. 3.79
where C
i
(i=1~4) are the integration constants, J
1
and Y
1
are the first order of
Bessel function of first and second kinds and I
1
and K
1
are the first order modified
Bessel function of first and second kinds.
For an arbitrary point, equation 3.79 can be written as follows for the vth
segment
) =

1
2
C
1
[
1
([
) + C
2
1
([
) +C
3
I
1
([
) + C
4
K
1
([
)]
Eq. 3.80
where
= _1 +
(o 1)
I
x
_ Eq. 3.81
and the derivatives of equation 3.80 with respect to
v
i
(
) = 
[
2
1
C
1
[
2
([
) +C
2
2
([
)  C
3
I
2
([
) +C
4
K
2
([
)]
Eq. 3.82
ii
(
) = [
[
2

3
2
C
1
[
3
([
) + C
2
3
([
) +C
3
I
3
([
) +C
4
K
3
([
)]
Eq. 3.83
iii
(
) = [
[
2
2
C
1
[
4
([
) + C
2
4
([
) C
3
I
4
([
) +C
4
K
4
([
)]
Eq. 3.84
3.3.2. Coefficient Matrix [B
v
] for the vth Attaching Point
Similar to equations 3.1719, the compatibility equations at the attaching
point for nonuniform beam are given by
L
(
) =
R
(
) Eq. 3.85
iL
(
) =
iR
(
) Eq. 3.86
iiL
(
) =
iiR
(
) Eq. 3.87
55
The force equilibrium at the attaching point is as follows
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2
L
(x)
Jx
2
_ m
=
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2
R
(x)
Jx
2
_ Eq. 3.88
E
JI(x)
Jx
J
2
L
(x)
Jx
2
+EI(x)
J
3
L
(x)
Jx
3
m
=
JI(x)
Jx
J
2
R
(x)
Jx
2
+EI(x)
J
3
R
(x)
Jx
3
Eq. 3.89
If equations 3.7174 are introduced into equation 3.89, one obtains
SEI
0
(u1)
L
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
2
j
(u1)
L
[
2
d
2
L
({
)
d{
2
+EI
0
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
3
j
(u1)
L
[
3
d
3
L
({
)
d{
3

m
= SEI
0
(u1)
L
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
2
j
(u1)
L
[
2
d
2
R
({
)
d{
2
+EI
0
j1 +
(u1)
L
x[
3
j
(u1)
L
[
3
d
3
R
({
)
d{
3
Eq. 3.90
S(o 1)
3
iiL
(
) +(o 1)
3
iiiL
(
) +F
s
= S(o 1)
3
iiR
(
) +
(o 1)
3
iiiR
(
)
Eq. 3.91
The equation of motion for the vth springmass system is given by
m
+k
(z
y
) = u Eq. 3.92
Similar to equation 3.10, free vibration of the vth springmass system is
z
= Z
c
ot
Eq. 3.93
The substitution of equations 3.68 and 3.93 into equation 3.92, one
obtains
m
2
Z
+k
(Z
) = u Eq. 3.94
k
Z
(k
m
2
) = u Eq. 3.95
+Z
(y
2
1) = u Eq. 3.96
Where
y
2
=
2
2
,
Eq. 3.97
Insertion of equation 3.78 into equation 3.97 gives
y
2
=
(0I)
4
EI
0
pA
0
I
4
m
=
p
j
1
2
(o +1)[
k

(0I)
4
Eq. 3.98
where
56
= _
k
Eq. 3.99
p
=
m
m
b
=
m
pA
0
I j
1
2
(o + 1)[
k

=
k
[
EI
0
I
3
,
where
m
b
= p _2nr(x)
L
0
tJx = 2nptr
0
__1 +
(o 1)
I
x_ Jx
L
0
Eq. 3.100
m
b
= A
0
pI _
(o +1)
2
_ Eq. 3.101
After introducing equations 3.78, 3.93, 3.96 and 3.99, the interactive force
F
s
, in equation 3.91, between the beam and the attached springmass system is
given by
F
s
= 
m
[
EI
0
I
3
,
=
m
2
1 
m
2
k
L
(x
)
[
EI
0
I
3
,
=
p
j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
1 
p
j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
k
L
(
)
Eq. 3.102
If equations 3.8084 are inserted into equations 3.8587, 3.91 and 3.96
C
1
[
1
([
) +C
2
1
([
) +C
3
I
1
([
) +C
4
K
1
([
) C
+1,1
[
1
([
) 
C
+1,2
1
([
) C
+1,3
I
1
([
) C
+1,4
K
1
([
) = u
Eq. 3.103
C
1
[
2
([
) +C
2
2
([
) C
3
I
2
([
) +C
4
K
2
([
) C
+1,1
[
2
([
) 
C
+1,2
2
([
) +C
+1,3
I
2
([
) C
+1,4
K
2
([
) = u
Eq. 3.104
C
1
[
3
([
) +C
2
3
([
) +C
3
I
3
([
) +C
4
K
3
([
) C
+1,1
[
3
([
) 
C
+1,2
3
([
) C
+1,3
I
3
([
) C
+1,4
K
3
([
) = u
Eq. 3.105
6[
2
C
1
[
3
([
) + C
2
3
([
) + C
3
I
3
([
) + C
4
K
3
([
)]  [
3
1
2
C
1
[
4
([
) +
57
C
2
4
([
)  C
3
I
4
([
) +C
4
K
4
([
)] + 80
1
C
1
[
1
([
) +C
2
1
([
) +
C
3
I
1
([
) + C
4
K
1
([
)]  6[
2
C
+1,1
[
3
([
) + C
+1,2
3
([
) + C
+1,3
I
3
([
) +
C
+1,4
K
3
([
)] + [
3
1
2
C
+1,1
[
4
([
) +C
+1,2
4
([
)  C
+1,3
I
4
([
) +
C
+1,4
K
4
([
)] = u
Eq. 3.106

1
2
C
1
[
1
([
) +C
2
1
([
) +C
3
I
1
([
) +C
4
K
1
([
)] +Z
(y
2
1) = u
Eq. 3.107
where
0
=
p
j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
1 
p
j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
k

1
(o  1)
3
Eq. 3.108
Equations 3.103108 consist of integration coefficients represented by C
vi
and C
v+1,i
(i=1~4) for the left and right side of the vth attaching point,
respectively. The left side of the attaching point belongs to the segment (v) and
the right side belongs to the segment (v+1).
Similar to equation 3.44, equations 3.103107 can be written in matrix
form as follows
B
]{C
] = u Eq. 3.109
where B
] and {C
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
[
1
(o
)
1
(o
) I
1
(o
) K
1
(o
) [
1
(o
) 
1
(o
) I
1
(o
) K
1
(o
) u
[
2
(o
)
2
(o
) I
2
(o
) K
2
(o
) [
2
(o
) 
2
(o
) I
2
(o
) K
2
(o
) u
[
3
(o
)
3
(o
) I
3
(o
) K
3
(o
) [
3
(o
) 
3
(o
) I
3
(o
) K
3
(o
) u
1
2
3
4

5

6

7

8
u

1
2
[
1
(o

1
2
1
(o

1
2
I
1
(o

1
2
K
1
(o
) u u u u y
2
11
1
1
1
1
1
1
S: 2
S: 1
S:
S: +1
S: +2
Eq. 3.110
{C
] = {C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
+1,1
C
+1,2
C
+1,3
C
+1,4
Z
] Eq. 3.111
= {C
43
C
42
C
41
C
4
C
4+1
C
4+2
C
4+3
C
4+4
C
4+5
] Eq. 3.112
5
8
59
where
1
= 6[
2
[
3
([
) [
3
1
2
[
4
([
) +80
1
[
1
([
)
Eq. 3.113
2
= 6[
2
3
([
) [
3
1
2
4
([
) +80
1
1
([
)
Eq. 3.114
3
= 6[
2
I
3
([
) +[
3
1
2
I
4
([
) + 80
1
I
1
([
)
Eq. 3.115
4
= 6[
2
K
3
([
) [
3
1
2
K
4
([
) +80
1
K
1
([
)
Eq. 3.116
5
= 6[
2
[
3
([
) [
3
1
2
[
4
([
)
Eq. 3.117
6
= 6[
2
3
([
) [
3
1
2
4
([
)
Eq. 3.118
7
= 6[
2
I
3
([
) +[
3
1
2
I
4
([
)
Eq. 3.119
8
= 6[
2
K
3
([
) [
3
1
2
K
4
([
)
Eq. 3.120
o
= [
Eq. 3.121
3.3.3. Coefficient Matrix [B
L
] for the Left End of the Beam
The left end of the cantilever beam belongs to the first segment. The
boundary conditions for the cantilever beam with left end free are given as
follows
x = u  = 1
Therefore
ii
(1) = u Eq. 3.122
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
_ = E
JI(x)
Jx
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
+ EI(x)
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
= u Eq. 3.123
substitution of equation 3.67, 3.73 and 3.74 into equation 3.123
S
1
ii
(1) +
iii
(1) = u Eq. 3.124
If equations 3.83 and 3.84 are inserted into equations 3.122 and 3.124,
respectively
C
11
[
3
([) +C
12
3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([) = u Eq. 3.125
60
6C
11
[
3
([) +C
12
3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([)] [C
11
[
4
([) +C
12
4
([) 
C
13
I
4
([) +C
14
K
4
([)] = u
Eq. 3.126
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
B
L
]{C
L
] = u Eq. 3.127
where
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
_
1
2
Eq. 3.128
{C
L
] = {C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
] = {C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
] Eq. 3.129
where
e
1
= 6[
3
([) [[
4
([) Eq. 3.130
e
2
= 6
3
([) [
4
([) Eq. 3.131
e
3
= 6I
3
([) +[I
4
([) Eq. 3.132
e
4
= 6K
3
([) [K
4
([) Eq. 3.133
3.3.4. Coefficient Matrix [B
R
] for the Right End of the Beam
The right end of the cantilever beam belongs to the (n+1)th segment of the
beam carrying n springspring mass systems. The boundary conditions for the
cantilever beam with right end clamped are given as follows
x = I  = o
therefore
For the deflection (o) = u Eq. 3.134
For the slope
i
(o) = u Eq. 3.135
The substitution of equations 3.80 and 3.82 into equations equation 3.134
and 3.135, one obtains
C
n+1,1
[
1
([o) +C
n+1,2
1
([o) + C
n+1,3
I
1
([o) + C
n+1,4
K
1
([o) = u Eq. 3.136
C
n+1,1
[
2
([o) +C
n+1,2
2
([o)  C
n+1,3
I
2
([o) + C
n+1,4
K
2
([o) = u Eq. 3.137
61
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
B
R
]{C
R
] = u Eq. 3.138
where
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p 1
p
Eq. 3.139
{C
R
] = {C
n+1,1
C
n+1,2
C
n+1,3
C
n+1,4
] = {C
4n+1
C
4n+2
C
4n+3
C
4n+4
] Eq. 3.140
where p is defined as indicated in equation 3.53.
Similar to the definitions for uniform beam, here p represents the total
number of equations. Two boundary conditions for each boundary together with
compatibility equations, force equilibrium and governing equation of motion for
the sprung mass for each attaching point compose 5n+4 equations for the entire
beam in order to obtain integration constants and modal displacements.
As it is indicated for uniform beams, overall coefficient matrix [B] of the
entire beam is composed by using direct stiffness matrix method. Similar to the
equation 3.54 and 3.55, the following equations can be used in order to obtain
the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes for the entire system
B
]{C
] = u Eq. 3.141
The nontrivial solution of the equation 3.54 is
B
 = u Eq. 3.142
Once one obtains the overall coefficient matrix, the solution of equation
3.142 gives the natural frequencies of the entire system and the insertion of that
solution into equation 3.141, one obtains the corresponding mode shapes for
each natural frequency for each segment. The coefficient matrix B
] for a
cantilever beam carrying one spring mass system is given on the next page.
Coefficient matrices for various boundary conditions are shown in
Appendix B. Moreover, the entire coefficient matrices (B
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
5
C
6
C
7
C
8
C
9
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([) u u u u u
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
u u u u u
[
1
(o
1
)
1
(o
1
) I
1
(o
1
) K
1
(o
1
) [
1
(o
1
) 
1
(o
1
) I
1
(o
1
) K
1
(o
1
) u
[
2
(o
1
)
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) K
2
(o
1
) [
2
(o
1
) 
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) K
2
(o
1
) u
[
3
(o
1
)
3
(o
1
) I
3
(o
1
) K
3
(o
1
) [
3
(o
1
) 
3
(o
1
) I
3
(o
1
) K
3
(o
1
) u
11
21
31
41

51

61

71

81
u
1

1
2
[
1
(o
1
)
1

1
2
1
(o
1
)
1

1
2
I
1
(o
1
)
1

1
2
K
1
(o
1
) u u u u y
1
2
1
u u u u [
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o) u
u u u u [
2
([o)
2
([o) I
2
([o) K
2
([o) u
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
S
4
S
6
7
8
9
Eq. 3.143
6
2
63
3.4. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform MultiSpan Beams
Carrying SpringMass Systems
3.4.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Function
As it is indicated in the sections 3.2 and 3.3, the exact solutions of the free
vibration characteristics of uniform and nonuniform single span beams carrying
any number of springmass systems can be obtained through numerical
assembly method determined by Wu and Chou (1999) for uniform beams and
Chen and Wu (2001) for nonuniform beams. Based on these studies and the
numerical assembly method, Lin and Tsai (2007) studied the free vibration
characteristics of the multispan uniform beam carrying any number of spring
mass systems. This study also adopts the same method in order to obtain the
free vibration characteristics of constrained multispan uniform beams.
As it is shown in Figure 3.3, the total length of the beam is L and the multi
span uniform beam is supported by T pinned supports and carrying S spring
mass systems. Each point that T pinned supports or S springmass systems
located is called station and each station is represented by x = x
(:
i
= 1~N).
On the other hand, each springmass system and pin support is located at
x = x
P

(p = 1~S) and x = x
(r = 1~I), respectively.
The equation of motion for a uniform EulerBernoulli beam and the pth
springmass system are given by
EI
o
4
y(x, t)
ox
4
+m
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= u
Eq. 3.144
m
p
z
p
+k
p
(z
p
y
p
) = u Eq. 3.145
where z
p
represents the displacement of the pth springmass relative to its static
equilibrium position and y
p
is the transverse deflection of the beam at the pth
attaching point.
64
The free vibration of the beam and the pth springmass system takes the
form
y(x, t) = (x)c
ot
Eq. 3.146
z
p
= Z
p
c
ot
Eq. 3.147
where Y(x) and Z
p
are the amplitudes and is the natural frequency of the entire
vibrating system.
Figure 3.3 A uniform multispan beam carrying S springmass systems and T
pinned supports (Lin and Tsai, 2007)
The insertion of equation 3.146 into equation 3.144 leads to
EI
4
x
4
((x)c
ot
) +m
2
t
2
((x)c
ot
) = u Eq. 3.148
iiii
(x) [
4
(x) = u Eq. 3.149
65
where
[
4
=
m
2
EI
,
Eq. 3.150
The solution of the differential equation 3.149 is given by (Murphy, 1960)
and takes the form as follows
(x) = C
1
sin([x) +C
2
cos([x) +C
3
sinh([x) +C
4
cosh([x) Eq. 3.151
3.4.2. Coefficient Matrices and Determination of Natural Frequencies and
Mode Shapes
For any of the station point, the solution can be written as follows
(
) = C

,1
sin(0
) +C

,2
cos(0
) +C

,3
sinh(0
) +
C

,4
cosh(0
)
Eq. 3.152
where
 =
x

l
, Eq. 3.153
0 = [l Eq. 3.154
The derivatives of
(
(
) = 0C

,1
cos(0
) C

,2
sin(0
) +C

,3
cosh(0
) +C

,4
sinh(0
)]
Eq. 3.155
ii
 (
 ) = 0
2
C

,1
sin(0
 )  C

,2
cos(0
 ) + C

,3
sinh(0
 ) +C

,4
cosh(0
 )]
Eq. 3.156
iii
 (
 ) = 0
3
C

,1
cos(0
 ) +C

,2
sin(0
 ) + C

,3
cosh(0
 ) + C

,4
sinh(0
 )]
Eq. 3.157
The left end of the beam belongs to station 1
and is pin supported as it is
shown in Figure 3.3. The boundary conditions for the left end of the beam are
given by
x
1
 = u 
1
 = u
therefore
Deflection
1
(u) = u Eq. 3.158
66
Bending
1

ii
(u) = u Eq. 3.159
The substitution of equations 3.152 and 3.156 into equations 3.158 and
3.159 gives
1
(u) = C
1

,2
+C
1

,4
= u Eq. 3.160
1

ii
(u) = 0(C
1

,2
+C
1

,4
) = u  0 = u  C
1

,2
+C
1

,4
= u
Eq. 3.161
The last two expressions can be also represented as
B
1
]{C
1
] = u Eq. 3.162
where
1 2 S 4
B
1
] = _
u 1 u 1
u 1 u 1
_
1
2
Eq. 3.163
{C
1
] = {C
1

,1
C
1

,2
C
1

,3
C
1

,4
] Eq. 3.164
The compatibility and force equilibrium equations for the (p)th springmass
system requires that
p

L
(
p
) =
p

R
(
p
)
Eq. 3.165
p

iL
(
p
) =
p

iR
(
p
)
Eq. 3.166
p

iiL
(
p
) =
p

iiR
(
p
)
Eq. 3.167
p

iiiL
(
p
) 
p

iiiR
(
p
) +
m
p
2
EI
Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.168
where
p
p
=
m
p
m
b
and m
b
= ml
Eq. 3.169
If equations 3.146 and 3.147 are substituted into equation 3.145, one can
obtain
k
p
p
 (k
p
m
p
2
)Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.170
p
 +(z
p
2
1)Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.171
where
z
p
=
p
, and
p
=
_
k
p
m
p
_
Eq. 3.172
where
p
is the natural frequency of the (p)th springmass system.
67
The insertion of equations 3.152157 into equations 3.165168 gives
C
p

1,1
sin(0
p
) +C
p

1,2
cos(0
p
) +C
p

1,3
sinh(0
p
) +C
p

1,4
cosh(0
p
) 
C
p

,1
sin(0
p
) C
p

,2
cos(0
p
) C
p

,3
sinh(0
p
) C
p

,4
cosh(0
p
) = u
Eq. 3.173
C
p

1,1
cos(0
p
) C
p

1,2
sin(0
p
) +C
p

1,3
cosh(0
p
) +C
p

1,4
sinh(0
p
) 
C
p

,1
cos(0
p
) +C
p

,2
sin(0
p
) C
p

,3
cosh(0
p
) C
p

,4
sinh(0
p
) = u
Eq. 3.174
C
p

1,1
sin(0
p
) C
p

1,2
cos(0
p
) +C
p

1,3
sinh(0
p
) +C
p

1,4
cosh(0
p
) +
C
p

,1
sin(0
p
) +C
p

,2
cos(0
p
) C
p

,3
sinh(0
p
) C
p

,4
cosh(0
p
) = u
Eq. 3.175
C
p

1,1
cos(0
p
 ) +C
p

1,2
sin(0
p
 ) + C
p

1,3
cosh(0
p
 ) + C
p

1,4
sinh(0
p
) +
C
p

,1
cos(0
p
 )  C
p

,2
sin(0
p
 )  C
p

,3
cosh(0
p
 )  C
p

,4
sinh(0
p
 )] + p
p
0Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.176
and the substitution of equation 3.152 into equation 3.171 gives
C
p

,1
sin(0
p
) +C
p

,2
cos(0
p
) +C
p

3
sinh(0
p
) +C
p

4
cosh(0
p
) +
(z
p
2
1)Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.177
The last expressions can be written in matrix form
B
p
]{C
p
] = u
Eq. 3.178
where
4p
i
S 4p
i
2 4p
i
1 4p
i
4p
i
+1 4p
i
+2 4p
i
+S 4p
i
+4 4p
i
+S
B
p
 ] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
sin(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
) cosh(0
p
 ) sin(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
 ) cosh(0
p
 ) u
cos(0
p
) sin(0
p
 ) cosh(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
) sin(0
p
 ) cosh(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
 ) u
sin(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
) cosh(0
p
 ) sin(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
 ) cosh(0
p
 ) u
cos(0
p
 ) sin(0
p
 ) cosh(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
 ) sin(0
p
 ) cosh(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
 ) p
p
0
sin(0
p
 ) cos(0
p
 ) sinh(0
p
) cosh(0
p
 ) u u u u z
p
2
 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4p
i
 1
4p
i
4p
i
+ 1
4p
i
+ 2
4p
i
+ S
C
p
 = {
C
p

1,1
C
p

1,2
C
p

1,3
C
p

1,4
C
p

,1
C
p

,2
C
p

,3
C
p

,4
Z
p
] Eq. 3.180
Eq. 3.179
6
8
69
Similar to the (p)th springmass system, compatibility equations for (r)th
intermediate support are given by

L
(
) =

R
(
) = u
Eq. 3.181

iL
(
) =

iR
(
)
Eq. 3.182

iiL
(
) =

iiR
(
)
Eq. 3.183
Similarly, if equations 3.152157 are substituted into equations 3.181182,
one obtains
C

1,1
sin(0
) +C

1,2
cos(0
) +C

1,3
sinh(0
) +C

1,4
cosh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.184
C

,1
sin(0
) +C

,2
cos(0
) +C

,3
sinh(0
) +C

,4
cosh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.185
C

1,1
cos(0
) C

1,2
sin(0
) +C

1,3
cosh(0
) +C

1,4
sinh(0
) 
C

,1
cos(0
) +C

,2
sin(0
) C

,3
cosh(0
) C

,4
sinh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.186
C

1,1
sin(0
) C

1,2
cos(0
) +C

1,3
sinh(0
) +C

1,4
cosh(0
) +
C

,1
sin(0
) +C

,2
cos(0
) C

,3
sinh(0
) C

,4
cosh(0
) = u
Eq. 3.187
If equations 3.184187 are written in matrix form, one obtains
B
]{C
] = u Eq. 3.188
where B
] and {C
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) u u u u
u u u u sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
)
cos(0
) sin(0
) cosh(0
) sinh(0
) cos(0
) sin(0
) cosh(0
) sinh(0
)
sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
) sin(0
) cos(0
) sinh(0
) cosh(0
)1
1
1
1
1
1
4r
i
1
4r
i
4r
i
+1
4r
i
+2
Eq. 3.189
{C
] = {C

1,1
C

1,2
C

1,3
C

1,4
C

,1
C

,2
C

,3
C

,4
] Eq. 3.190
7
0
71
The right end of the beam belongs to station N
and is pin supported as
shown in Figure 3.3. The boundary conditions for the right end of the beam are
given by
x
N
 = l 
N
 = 1
Therefore
Deflection
N
(1) = u Eq. 3.191
Bending
N

ii
(1) = u Eq. 3.192
The substitution of equations 3.152 and 3.156 into equations 3.190 and
3.191 gives
N
(1) = C
N

,1
sin(0) +C
N

,2
cos(0) +C
N

,3
sinh(0) +C
N

,4
cosh(0) = u
Eq. 3.193
ii
N
(1) = C
N

,1
sin(0) C
N

,2
cos(0) +C
N

,3
sinh(0) +C
N

,4
cosh(0)
Eq. 3.194
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
B
N
]{C
N
] = u Eq. 3.195
where
4N
i
+1 4N
i
+2 4N
i
+S 4N
i
+4
B
N
 ] = _
sin(0) cos(0) sinh(0) cosh(0)
sin(0) cos(0) sinh(0) cosh(0)
_
q 1
q
Eq. 3.196
{C
N
 ] = {C
N

,1
C
N

,2
C
N

,3
C
N

,4
] Eq. 3.197
where N
i
and q represents the total number of intermediate supports and total
number of equations, respectively. As indicated before, N
i
shows the total
number of stations and consists of total springmass system and pinned
supports. There are four equations to write for intermediate supports, five
equations for springmass systems and two equations for each boundary.
Therefore the total number of equations is given by
q = 4(I 2) +SS +4 Eq. 3.198
The integration constant matrices for intermediate supports, springmass
systems and each boundaries (B
1
], B
p
], B
], B
N
 ]) compose the overall
coefficient matrix B
]{C
] = u Eq. 3.199
The nontrivial solution of the equation 3.54 is
B
 = u Eq. 3.200
The free vibration characteristics of the entire beam can be obtained by
solving equations 3.199 and 3.200. The nontrivial solution of equation 3.200
gives the natural frequencies of the entire beam and the substitution of the
solution into equation 3.199 gives the corresponding mode shapes for the whole
beam. The associated coefficient matrix B
(x)
=1
p
(x) are the mode shapes that are obtained by using the methods
indicated in the previous sections for different types of beams carrying attached
springmass systems and p
(x)
ox
2
_ pA(x)
J
2
Jx
2
_EI(x)
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
_ p
(t) +pA(x)
(x)
o
2
p
(t)
ot
2
=1
=1
= (x, t) Eq. 3.205
From equations 3.203 and 3.204
pA(x)
(x)p
(t) +pA(x)
(x)
o
2
p
(t)
ot
2
=1
=1
= (x, t) Eq. 3.206
Based on the orthogonality condition, for a beam with total length L
_ pA(x)
(x)
]
(x)
I
0
Jx = o
]
Eq. 3.207
where o
]
is the Kronecker delta that is
o
]
= u  i = ] and o
]
= 1  i = ] Eq. 3.208
If equation 3.206 is multiplied with
]
(x) integrated from 0 to L
p
(t) _ pA(x)
(x)
]
(x)
I
0
Jx +
J
2
p
(t)
Jt
2
_ pA(x)
(x)
]
(x)Jx
I
0
=1
=1
= _
]
(x)(x, t)Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.209
According to equation 3.208, the left side of equation 3.209 is only valid
when i=j,
J
2
p
(t)
Jt
2
+
2
p
(t) =
(t)
Eq. 3.210
where
(t) = _
(x)(x, t)Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.211
The solution of equation 3.210 is given by
p
(t) = A
cos(
t) +B
sin(
t) +
1
() sin(
(t )) Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.212
therefore the solution of equation 3.202 is given by substituting equation 3.212
into equation 3.203
y(x, t) = jA
cos(
t) +B
sin(
t) +
1
o
i
]
() sin(
(t )) Jx
I
0
[
(x)
=1
Eq. 3.213
76
It is important to note that the first two terms inside the brackets in
equation 3.213 indicate the free vibration (homogeneous solution), and the third
term indicates the forced vibration of the beam. A
and B
can be computed
through initial conditions of the beam. In this study, the initial conditions are
assumed to be zero, hence
y(x, u) = u and y (x, u) = u Eq. 3.214
y(t) = A
cos(u) +B
sin(u) +B
and B
() sin(
(t )) Jx
I
0
_
(x)
=1
Eq. 3.217
3.5.2.1. Impact Loading (StepFunction Force) and Harmonic Loading
Figure 3.5 Simplysupported beam subjected to stepfunction force F
0
77
Figure 3.6 Simplysupported beam subjected to harmonic force F
0
sin(t)
The stepfunction force acting on the simply supported beam can be
represented as
(x, t) = F
0
o(x ) Eq. 3.218
and the beam subjected to harmonic force can be written as
(x, t) = F
0
sin(0t) o(x ) Eq. 3.219
therefore the generalized force corresponding to the ith mode can be determined
by using equation 3.211 as below
For stepfunction force
(t) = ] w
(x)F
0
o(x )Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.220
For harmonic force
(t) = ] w
(x)F
0
sin(0t) o(x )Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.221
and the generalized coordinate in the ith mode is represented as below assuming
that initial conditions of the beam are zero
p
(t) =
1
() sin(
(t )) Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.222
Hence, the response of the beam subjected to stepfunction force can be
expressed by
w(x, t) = _
1
() sin(
(t )) Jx
I
0
_
(x)
=1
Eq. 3.223
78
3.5.2.2. Moving and Moving Pulsating Load
Figure 3.7 Simplysupported beam subjected to moving load
Figure 3.8 Simplysupported beam subjected to moving pulsating load
As it is shown in figures 3.7 and 3.8 the concentrated moving and moving
pulsating loads move with a constant speed v
0
. f(x) can be assumed as uniformly
distributed load applied over an elemental length 2x and centered at x=d as it is
shown in figure 3.9. f(x) can be represented as below
79
Figure 3.9 Simplysupported beam subjected to moving pulsating load
(x) = _
u or u < x < J x
F
0
2x
or J x x J +x
u or J +x < x < I
Eq. 3.224
f(x) can be represented as Fourier series and defined over the interval 0 to L by
expanding f(x) for all values of x in terms of only sine terms as shown below
(x) =
n
n=1
sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.225
where f
n
is defined by
n
=
2
I
_ (x) sin(nnxI)
L
0
Jx Eq. 3.226
therefore f
n
can be obtained by substituting equation 3.224 into equation 3.226
as below
n
=
2
I
_
F
0
2x
sin(nnxI)
d+x
dx
Jx Eq. 3.227
n
=
F
0
I
_ sin(nnxI)
d+x
dx
Jx =
2F
0
sin[
nnJ
I
sin[
nnx
I
nnx
Eq. 3.228
80
If x converges to 0 in equation 3.226
lim
x0
sin[
nnx
I
nnx
= 1
Eq. 3.229
therefore for constant moving load f
n
can be defined as
n
=
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
]
Eq. 3.230
and for moving pulsating force
n
=
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
] sin(0t)
Eq. 3.231
then the Fourier series expansion of f(x) can be written as below for constant
moving load
(x) =
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
]
n=1
sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.232
and for moving pulsating load
(x, t) =
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
]
n=1
sin(0t) sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.233
After d is defined as v
0
t, equation 3.232 and equation 3.233 are written as
(x, t) =
2F
0
I
sin _
nn:
0
t
I
]
n=1
sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.234
(x, t) =
2F
0
I
sin_
nn:
0
t
I
]
n=1
sin(0t) sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.235
81
CHAPTER 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS
4.1. Introduction
The free and forced vibration analyses of different types of beams carrying
multiple springmass systems are performed by using an algorithm coded in
MATHEMATICA. Algorithms are developed for each type of the beams based on
the methodologies described in Chapter 3. The results for the beams with
multiple springmass systems are compared with the bare beam. Considering
normal modes with cumulative effective modal mass adding up to 90% of the
total mass is assumed to be sufficient for the forced vibration response analysis
of the structure. The effective modal mass is computed after normalizing the
eigenvectors based on following equations
n
= _ m(x)
L
0
n
(x)Jx Eq. 4.1
where
n
is the participation factor,
n
(x) is the corresponding massnormalized
mode shape (normalized eigenvector) and m(x) is mass per unit length.
The effective modal mass is as follows
m
c]],n
=
j] m(x)
L
0
n
(x)Jx[
2
] m(x)
L
0

n
(x)]
2
Jx
Eq. 4.2
where normalized eigenvectors are required to be
] m(x)
L
0

n
(x)]
2
Jx = 1 Eq. 4.3
Therefore, effective modal mass can be simplified as
m
c]],n
= j] m(x)
L
0
n
(x)Jx[
2
Eq. 4.4
82
4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying One, Two
and Three SpringMass Systems
The boundary conditions of uniform beams studied in this section are
single span pinnedpinned (SS), clampedclamped (CC), clampedpinned (CS)
and clampedfree (CF) at their two ends. The springmass systems are attached
at their mid point for SS, CC and CS and its free end for the CF. The beam
evaluated here has a total length of 16.5 meters and a constant crosssectional
area of 0.375 m
2
. The physical properties of the uniform beam studied in this
section are as follows
Youngs modulus E=30x10
9
N/m
2
Moment of inertia of the crosssectional area I=9x10
3
m
4
Mass density of beam material =2400 kg/m
3
Mass per unit length m= A=900 kg/m
The total mass of the beam m
b
=mL=14850 kg
The free vibration characteristics of uniform beams with one, two and
three springmass systems are compared with each other and with bare uniform
beam as well. If n springmass system is attached to the uniform beam, the first n
mode is under the influence of n springmass system and the (n+1)th mode is
actually the first mode of the uniform beam. Therefore, each additional spring
mass systems natural frequency is tuned to the natural frequency of (n+1)th
mode of the uniform beam carrying one springmass system less than it is
attached. For example, the natural frequency of the springmass system attached
to a bare uniform beam is tuned to first natural frequency of the bare uniform
beam and if one more springmass system is attached to that beam, the
additional springmass system is tuned to the second natural frequency of the
beam carrying one springmass system. This method is performed in this study in
order to reduce the dynamic response of the beam subjected to forced vibration
83
by finding the adequate number of springmass systems to be attached to the
uniform beam.
For the cases of uniform beam carrying one, two and three springmass
systems and for a bare uniform beam, the natural frequencies and mode shapes
are given as follows
Table 4.1 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
SS 18.50 21.31 79.42 178.73 317.70 496.41 714.82 19.86
CC 41.56 48.70 124.08 243.32 402.09 600.68 838.5 44.986
CS 28.85 33.33 100.54 209.77 358.65 547.30 775.63 31.01
CF 6.40 7.82 44.35 124.13 243.24 402.51 602.50 7.08
Table 4.2 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
SS 17.97 21.94 79.42 178.75 317.70 496.42 714.82 19.86
CC 40.21 50.31 124.08 243.41 402.09 600.71 839.5 44.986
CS 28.00 34.33 100.56 209.81 358.66 547.31 775.63 31.01
CF 6.14 8.15 44.38 124.14 243.24 401.03 602.50 7.08
84
Table 4.3 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
SS 16.96 23.23 79.42 178.82 317.70 496.44 714.82 19.86
CC 37.68 53.62 124.08 243.66 402.09 600.53 839.5 44.986
CS 26.38 36.38 100.61 209.93 358.67 547.36 775.64 31.01
CF 5.66 8.82 44.45 124.17 243.35 402.90 602.50 7.08
Table 4.4 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
SS 15.90 24.76 79.42 178.93 317.70 496.48 714.82 19.86
CC 35.04 57.53 124.08 244.09 402.09 600.99 839.5 44.986
CS 24.69 38.80 100.70 210.13 358.69 547.43 775.64 31.01
CF 5.17 9.63 44.56 124.21 243.28 402.12 604.00 7.08
Table 4.5 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
SS 14.53 27.05 79.42 179.15 317.70 496.56 714.82 19.86
CC 31.68 63.35 124.08 244.96 402.09 601.33 839.5 44.986
CS 22.51 42.37 100.88 210.53 358.73 547.58 775.66 31.01
CF 4.57 10.83 44.80 124.29 243.32 402.28 602.50 7.08
85
Table 4.6 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
tmd2
SS 18.16 20.47 22.60 79.42 178.75 317.70 496.42 19.86 21.31
CC 40.69 46.55 52.01 124.08 243.42 402.09 600.72 44.986 48.70
CS 28.30 31.99 35.38 100.56 209.82 358.66 547.31 31.01 33.326
CF 6.23 7.39 8.50 44.38 124.14 243.24 402.09 7.08 7.82
Table 4.7 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
tmd2
SS 17.49 20.72 23.86 79.42 178.80 317.70 496.43 19.86 21.94
CC 39.00 47.17 55.27 124.08 243.62 402.09 600.80 44.986 50.31
CS 27.23 32.38 37.38 100.60 209.91 358.67 547.35 31.01 34.328
CF 5.91 7.51 9.18 44.44 124.16 243.25 402.10 7.08 8.15
Table 4.8 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
tmd2
SS 16.22 21.19 26.60 79.42 178.97 317.70 496.48 19.86 23.23
CC 35.82 48.36 62.35 124.08 244.28 402.09 601.06 44.986 53.62
CS 25.20 33.13 41.70 100.73 210.21 358.70 547.46 31.01 36.38
CF 5.31 7.74 10.68 44.63 124.23 243.29 402.12 7.08 8.82
86
Table 4.9 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
tmd2
SS 14.90 21.70 30.08 79.42 179.28 317.70 496.61 19.86 24.76
CC 32.53 49.62 71.32 124.08 245.54 402.09 601.54 44.986 57.53
CS 23.09 33.93 47.11 101.00 210.77 358.75 547.67 31.01 38.80
CF 4.71 7.98 12.62 45.00 124.35 243.35 402.15 7.08 9.63
Table 4.10 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two springmass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
tmd2
SS 13.22 22.38 35.73 79.42 180.00 317.70 496.86 19.86 27.05
CC 28.45 51.26 85.62 124.08 248.60 402.09 602.70 44.986 63.35
CS 20.42 34.98 55.63 101.67 212.09 358.88 548.16 31.01 42.37
CF 3.996 8.27 15.73 45.95 124.66 243.50 402.24 7.08 10.83
Table 4.11 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three springmass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
tmd1
tmd2
tmd3
SS 17.91 20.36 21.85 23.81 79.64 178.11 317.98 496.97 19.86 21.31 22.59
CC 40.04 46.28 50.09 55.15 124.08 244.70 402.50 602.29 44.986 48.701 52.013
CS 27.90 31.82 34.19 37.31 100.75 209.83 358.30 547.16 31.01 33.326 35.376
CF 6.11 7.33 8.10 9.16 44.47 124.10 243.61 402.09 7.08 7.818 8.488
Table 4.12 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three springmass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
tmd1
tmd2
tmd3
SS 17.13 20.56 22.73 25.74 79.71 179.12 317.98 496.29 19.86 21.94 23.86
CC 38.09 46.77 52.35 60.19 124.08 244.12 402.50 600.67 44.986 50.308 55.269
CS 26.66 32.13 35.59 40.36 100.70 210.91 358.50 547.16 31.01 34.328 37.382
CF 5.73 7.43 8.56 10.23 44.53 125.10 243.24 402.10 7.08 8.147 9.175
8
7
Table 4.13 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three springmass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
tmd1
tmd2
tmd3
SS 15.67 20.94 24.57 30.13 79.87 179.81 318.21 495.62 19.86 23.23 26.60
CC 34.42 47.69 57.06 71.58 124.08 245.42 402.50 603.10 44.986 53.621 62.351
CS 24.32 32.72 38.49 47.22 100.96 209.74 359.54 547.07 31.01 36.38 41.71
CF 5.05 7.60 9.53 12.77 45.00 126.00 246.06 402.12 7.08 8.820 10.678
Table 4.14 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three springmass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
tmd1
tmd2
tmd3
SS 14.15 21.32 26.78 36.07 79.17 180.14 318.00 498.20 19.86 24.76 30.08
CC 30.67 48.63 62.69 86.95 124.08 253.04 402.50 600.45 44.986 57.533 71.321
CS 21.89 33.32 41.96 56.22 101.42 212.03 359.55 549.99 31.01 38.80 47.11
CF 4.36 7.77 10.70 16.15 45.79 126.00 246.07 402.25 7.08 9.625 12.620
8
8
Table 4.15 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three springmass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
tmd1
tmd2
tmd3
SS 12.27 21.80 30.14 46.40 79.62 181.75 318.00 498.01 19.86 27.05 35.73
CC 26.12 49.75 71.15 111.50 124.08 252.20 402.81 602.66 44.986 63.351 85.621
CS 18.89 34.06 47.12 70.36 103.66 214.78 361.40 546.51 31.01 42.37 55.63
CF 3.60 7.96 12.45 21.53 45.77 124.10 243.50 403.04 7.08 10.828 15.735
Table 4.16 The lowest six natural frequencies of the bare uniform beam
Boundary
Conditions
1
2
3
4
5
6
SS 19.86 79.42 178.70 317.70 496.40 714.82
CC 45.01 124.08 243.24 402.09 600.93 839.5
CS 31.02 100.52 209.73 358.65 547.28 775.63
CF 7.07 44.33 124.13 243.24 402.17 602.00
8
9
Figure 4.1 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying One SpringMass System
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.020
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of clampedclamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of clampedpinned beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of clampedfree beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
9
0
Figure 4.2 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying Two SpringMass Systems
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of clampedclamped beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of clampedpinned beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of clampedfree beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
1
st
mode
9
1
Figure 4.3 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying Three SpringMass Systems
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.015
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of clampedclamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of clampedpinned beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of clampedfree beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
8
th
mode
8
th
mode
1
st
mode
9
2
Figure 4.4 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF Uniform Beams
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of bare simply supported uniform beam
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of bare clampedclamped uniform beam
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of bare clampedpinned uniform beam d) Mode shapes of bare clampedfree uniform beam
1
st
mode
9
3
94
4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span NonUniform Beam Carrying
SpringMass Systems
The nonuniform beams studied in this section are single span pinned
pinned (SS), clampedclamped (CC), pinnedclamped (SC) and freeclamped
(FC) at their two ends. The springmass systems are attached at their mid point
for SS, CC and SC boundaries and its free end for the FC boundary. Two
different types of structures are used for this section.
First nonuniform beam has a length of 40 in and the crosssectional area
at the shallow end (A
0
) is 1.5 in
2
. The taper ratio of the beam =r
av
(L)/r
av
(0) is
assumed to be 2. The physical properties of the nonuniform beam with SS, CC,
SC and FC types of boundaries are as follows
Youngs modulus E=2.9x10
7
psi
Moment of inertia of the crosssectional area at the shallow end I
o
=0.28125 in
4
Mass density of beam material =0.283 lb/in
3
The total mass of the beam m
b
= A
0
L ((+1)/2)=25.47 lb
Similar to uniform beams, nonuniform beams with one springmass
system is compared with bare nonuniform beam as well. The same method in
order to tune the springmass system for uniform beams is also performed for
nonuniform beams.
The lowest natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of non
uniform beams carrying one springmass system and a bare nonuniform beam
are given as follows for four types of boundary conditions. The mode shapes are
normalized by making the maximum value of each mode equal to unity.
95
Table 4.17 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
SS 36.36 41.85 158.64 356.07 632.03 986.75 39.00
CC 82.81 96.70 246.50 483.06 798.16 1192.15 89.50
SC 63.93 73.45 209.23 429.84 730.50 1111.23 68.56
FC 19.70 27.70 100.61 259.07 495.65 810.96 20.95
Table 4.18 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
SS 35.31 43.08 158.64 356.11 632.04 986.76 39.00
CC 80.18 99.80 246.54 483.19 798.19 1192.19 89.50
SC 62.10 75.56 209.33 429.89 730.54 1111.24 68.56
FC 18.84 28.88 100.85 259.16 495.69 810.99 20.95
Table 4.19 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
SS 33.34 45.62 158.64 356.22 632.06 986.79 39.00
CC 75.22 106.20 246.67 483.59 798.28 1192.30 89.50
SC 58.64 79.87 209.62 430.05 730.66 1111.27 68.56
FC 17.09 31.55 101.59 259.44 495.84 811.08 20.95
96
Table 4.20 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
SS 31.26 48.61 158.66 356.41 632.08 986.84 39.00
CC 70.05 113.72 246.89 484.26 798.45 1192.48 89.50
SC 54.98 84.89 210.11 430.32 730.87 1111.32 68.56
FC 15.28 34.78 102.83 259.91 496.09 811.23 20.95
Table 4.21 The lowest six natural frequencies of the nonuniform beam carrying
one springmass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
SS 28.58 53.08 158.68 356.80 632.13 986.94 39.00
CC 63.45 124.84 247.35 485.61 798.77 1192.85 89.50
SC 50.25 92.24 211.12 430.86 731.28 1111.41 68.56
FC 13.09 39.40 105.33 260.86 496.58 811.53 20.95
Table 4.22 The lowest five natural frequencies of the bare nonuniform beam
Boundary
Conditions
2
3
4
5
SS 39.02 158.63 356.03 632.03 986.74
CC 89.51 246.46 482.93 798.13 1192.12
SC 68.55 209.14 429.79 730.46 1111.22
FC 20.95 100.36 258.97 495.60 810.93
Figure 4.5 Mode Shapes of NonUniform SS, CC, SC and FC Beams Carrying One SpringMass System
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
b) Mode shapes of clampedclamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of pinnedclamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of freeclamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
9
7
Figure 4.6 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF NonUniform Beams
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
a) Mode shapes of bare simply supported nonuniform beam
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
b) Mode shapes of bare clampedclamped nonuniform beam
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of bare pinnedclamped nonuniform beam d) Mode shapes of bare clampedfree nonuniform beam
1
st
mode
9
8
99
In addition, the sample highmast lighting tower is studied for evaluation of
springmass system effect by modeling the real highmast lighting tower as FC
type of nonuniform beam. The dimensions and physical properties of the
structure were taken from Shermans master thesis (Sherman, 2009) and the
resultant natural frequencies of the present method are compared with that study
in order to verify the developed algorithm.
The outer diameter of the shallow end OD
1
=6 in
The outer diameter of the clamped end OD
2
=24.75 in
Thickness t=0.18 in
Taper ratio =4.222
Length L=140 ft
Mass density of the material =0.283 lb/in
3
The total mass of the structure m
b
= A
0
L ((+1)/2)=4100 lb
A 687 pound luminary is supported by structure.
The highmast lighting tower is a 140foot tall structure with a 687 pound
luminary at the shallow end. 16sided cross sectional area is considered as
cylindrical section. The lowest seven natural frequencies of highmast lighting
tower with one springmass system on the top of the structure and the
comparison of the lowest four natural frequencies of bare highmast lighting
tower in this study with ABAQUS and SAP2000 results which are given by
Sherman (2009) are shown in Tables 4.23 and 4.24, respectively. Figures 4.5
and 4.6 show the corresponding mode shapes which are scaled to unity.
100
Table 4.23 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the highmast lighting tower
carrying one springmass system at the free end
Boundary
Condition
m
1
/m
b
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
tmd1
FC 0.01 1.47 1.79 7.06 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.02 1.42 1.86 7.06 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.05 1.31 2.01 7.07 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.1 1.20 2.18 7.08 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.2 1.06 2.45 7.10 18.81 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0 1.62 7.06 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 132.31 0
Table 4.24 Comparison of the lowest four natural frequencies of the bare high
mast lighting tower
Boundary
Condition
Methods
1
2
3
4
FC This study 1.62 7.05 18.80 37.19
FC
ABAQUS (Sherman,
2009)
1.63 7.15 19.02 37.47
FC
SAP2000 (Sherman,
2009)
1.58 7.01 18.60 39.01
101
Figure 4.7 Mode Shapes of HighMast Lighting Tower Carrying One SpringMass
System on the Top
Figure 4.8 Mode Shapes of Bare HighMast Lighting Tower
0 500 1000 1500
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 500 1000 1500
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
Length (in)
102
4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Uniform MultiSpan Beam Carrying
SpringMass Systems
The dimensions and physical properties of the uniform beam indicated in
section 4.2 are also same for multispan uniform beams in this section. Each
span has a total length of 16.5 m, a constant crosssectional area of 0.375 m
2
and each multispan uniform beam is pinned at its two ends. The physical
properties are as follows
Youngs modulus E=30x10
9
N/m
2
Moment of inertia of the crosssectional area I=9x10
3
m
4
Mass density of beam material =2400 kg/m
3
Mass per unit length m= A=900 kg/m
The total mass of each span m
b
=mL=14850 kg
Similar to single span uniform beams, multispan uniform beams with one
and two springmass systems and one and two intermediate pinned supports are
also compared with each other and with bare multispan uniform beam as well.
The same method for tuning the springmass system for single span uniform
beams is also performed for multispan uniform beams.
4.4.1. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass System
The beam studied in this section is twospan uniform beam pinned at its
two ends and at
1
=x
1
/L=0.5 and carries one intermediate springmass system at
1
*
=0.75 as shown in Figure 4.9.
103
Case 1: Springmass system is attached to second span
Figure 4.9 Twospan beam carrying one springmass system attached to
second span
Table 4.25 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying one
springmass system at second span
m
1
/m
b
1
2
3
4
5
6
tmd
x
1
=0.75L
0.01 18.44 21.22 31.25 79.42 100.53 178.70 19.86
0.02 17.86 21.74 31.48 79.42 100.53 178.83 19.86
0.05 16.73 22.68 32.18 79.42 100.56 178.87 19.86
0.1 15.53 23.52 33.37 79.42 100.59 178.78 19.86
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00
104
Case 2: Springmass system is attached to first span
Figure 4.10 Twospan beam carrying one springmass system attached to
first span
Table 4.26 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying one
springmass system at first span
m
1
/m
b
1
2
3
4
5
6
tmd
x
1
=0.25L
0.01 18.44 21.22 31.25 79.42 100.53 178.73 19.86
0.02 17.86 21.74 31.48 79.42 100.53 178.75 19.86
0.05 16.73 22.68 32.18 79.42 100.56 178.82 19.86
0.1 15.53 23.52 33.37 79.42 100.59 178.93 19.86
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00
105
Figure 4.11 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying one springmass system at
second span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
)
Figure 4.12 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying one springmass system at
first span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.005
0.000
0.005
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
106
4.4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems
Case 1: Both of the springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which
is same with the first natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.13 Twospan beam carrying two springmass systems (Case 1)
Table 4.27 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying two
springmass systems based on case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=0.25L
tmd2
x
2
=0.75L
0.01 17.97 19.57 21.94 31.46 79.42 100.53 19.85 19.85
0.02 17.24 19.31 22.85 31.87 79.42 100.55 19.85 19.85
0.05 15.90 18.62 24.76 33.02 79.42 100.59 19.85 19.85
0.1 14.53 17.69 27.05 34.70 79.42 100.66 19.85 19.85
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00 0.00
107
Case 2: The first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
twospan bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system.
Figure 4.14 Twospan beam carrying two springmass systems (Case 2)
Table 4.28 The lowest six natural frequencies of the twospan beam carrying two
springmass systems based on case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=0.25L
tmd2
x
2
=0.75L
0.01 18.14 20.15 22.50 31.51 79.42 100.54 19.85 21.22
0.02 17.46 20.07 23.66 32.02 79.42 100.55 19.85 21.74
0.05 16.17 19.59 26.00 33.54 79.42 100.60 19.85 22.68
0.1 14.82 18.71 28.66 35.91 79.42 100.69 19.85 23.52
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00 0.00
108
Figure 4.15 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying two springmass systems
tuned based on Case 1(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
Figure 4.16 Mode shapes of twospan beam carrying two springmass systems
tuned based on Case 2(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.005
0.000
0.005
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
109
4.4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass Systems
Case 1: Springmass system is attached to first span
Figure 4.17 Threespan beam carrying one springmass system attached to
first span
Table 4.29 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
one springmass system based on case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
0.01 18.30 21.00 26.03 37.24 79.42 90.52 19.86
0.02 17.62 21.30 26.58 37.33 79.42 90.52 19.86
0.05 16.28 21.66 28.03 37.63 79.42 90.53 19.86
0.1 14.87 21.86 29.83 38.26 79.42 90.55 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00
110
Case 2: Springmass system is attached to second span
Figure 4.18 Threespan beam carrying one springmass system attached to
second span
Table 4.30 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
one springmass system based on case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
0.01 18.42 21.20 25.45 37.48 79.42 90.53 19.86
0.02 17.83 21.72 25.45 37.81 79.42 90.54 19.86
0.05 16.66 22.63 25.45 38.77 79.42 90.58 19.86
0.1 15.40 23.47 25.45 40.34 79.42 90.65 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00
111
Figure 4.19 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying one springmass system
at first span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
)
Figure 4.20 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying one springmass system
at second span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.005
0.000
0.005
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
112
4.4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems
Case 1: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span. Both of the
springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of threespan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.21 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached to first
and second span (Case 1)
Table 4.31 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
tmd2
x
2
=3/6 L
0.01 17.88 19.45 21.75 26.04 37.56 79.42 19.86 19.86
0.02 17.09 19.09 22.42 26.61 37.96 79.42 19.86 19.86
0.05 15.61 18.21 23.45 28.26 39.11 79.42 19.86 19.86
0.1 14.11 17.09 24.20 30.70 40.91 79.42 19.86 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00
113
Case 2: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span. The first
springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of the threespan bare
uniform beam and the second springmass system is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the threespan beam carrying one springmass system which is
attached to first span of the beam.
Figure 4.22 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached to first
and second span (Case 2)
Table 4.32 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
tmd2
x
2
=3/6 L
0.01 18.02 19.93 22.23 26.04 37.62 79.42 19.86 21.00
0.02 17.25 19.66 23.02 26.63 38.10 79.42 19.86 21.30
0.05 15.78 18.84 24.12 28.36 39.52 79.42 19.86 21.66
0.1 14.26 17.69 24.78 30.94 41.71 79.42 19.86 21.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00
114
Case 3: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span. The first
springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of the threespan bare
uniform beam and the second springmass system is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the threespan beam carrying one springmass system which is
attached to second span of the beam.
Figure 4.23 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached to first
and second span (Case 3)
Table 4.33 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 3
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
tmd2
x
2
=3/6 L
0.01 18.04 20.00 22.34 26.04 37.63 79.42 19.86 21.20
0.02 17.28 19.80 23.24 26.63 38.14 79.42 19.86 21.72
0.05 15.83 19.12 24.53 28.43 39.77 79.42 19.86 22.63
0.1 14.33 18.07 25.25 31.16 42.47 79.42 19.86 23.47
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00
115
Case 4: Springmass systems are attached to first and third span. Both of the
springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of threespan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.24 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached to first
and third span (Case 4)
Table 4.34 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
tmd2
x
2
=5/6 L
0.01 17.93 19.06 21.88 26.50 37.32 79.43 19.86 19.86
0.02 17.18 18.45 22.72 27.36 37.49 79.44 19.86 19.86
0.05 15.77 17.13 24.36 29.43 38.03 79.46 19.86 19.86
0.1 14.34 15.66 26.07 32.10 39.02 79.41 19.86 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00
116
Case 5: Springmass systems are attached to first and third span. The first
springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of the threespan bare
uniform beam and the second springmass system is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the threespan beam carrying one springmass system which is
attached to first span of the beam.
Figure 4.25 Threespan beam carrying two springmass systems attached to first
and third span (Case 5)
Table 4.35 The lowest six natural frequencies of the threespan beam carrying
two springmass systems based on case 5
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
2
3
4
5
6
tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
tmd2
x
2
=5/6 L
0.01 18.08 19.51 22.28 26.64 37.34 79.31 19.86 21.00
0.02 17.35 18.95 23.21 27.66 37.53 79.39 19.86 21.30
0.05 15.96 17.61 24.94 30.03 38.17 79.32 19.86 21.66
0.1 14.51 16.07 26.66 32.97 39.37 79.41 19.86 21.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00
117
Figure 4.26 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass systems
at first span and second span tuned based on Case 1 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
Figure 4.27 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass systems
at first and second span tuned based on Case 2 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.005
0.000
0.005
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
118
Figure 4.28 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass systems
at first span and second span tuned based on Case 3 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
Figure 4.29 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass systems
at first and third span tuned based on Case 4 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.005
0.000
0.005
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.010
0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
119
Figure 4.30 Mode shapes of threespan beam carrying two springmass systems
at first span and third span tuned based on Case 5 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 10 20 30 40 50
0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
120
4.5. Forced Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying One, Two
and Three SpringMass Systems
F
0
is assumed to be 350 N for harmonic loading and 700 N for impact
loading, moving load and moving pulsating loads.
4.5.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS bare uniform
beams and x=L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.36 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system  Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.4x10
3
0.28 65 2.97x10
4
3.39x10
3
0.115 35.19
CC 1.2x10
4
3.1x10
3
0.3 82 7.36x10
5
1.89x10
3
0.126 43.23
CS 2.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.27 75 1.29x10
4
2.26x10
3
0.108 34.24
CF 3.8x10
3
1.6x10
2
0.48 130 2.39x10
3
9.50x10
3
0.164 52.67
Case 2: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.25L for SS, CC and CS bare
uniform beams and x=0.5L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.37 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system  Case 2
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.19 45 2.06x10
4
2.39x10
3
0.0816 24.88
CC 6.3x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.23 78 3.78x10
5
1.05x10
3
0.0884 34.03
CS 9.8x10
5
2.2x10
3
0.20 53 5.77x10
5
1.08x10
3
0.0798 21.41
CF 2.5x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.45 120 1.54x10
3
6.72x10
3
0.171 62.01
121
Case 3: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.25L and one springmass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the stepfunction
force is applied to x=0.5L and one springmass system is attached to x=L.
Figure 4.31 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system subjected
to stepfunction force at x=0.25L
Table 4.38 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.19 45 1.89x10
4
1.76x10
3
0.075 24.87
CC 6.1x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.18 45 3.42x10
5
7.56x10
4
0.076 22.33
CS 9.8x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.19 36 5.27x10
5
8.10x10
4
0.074 15.92
CF 2.5x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.34 45 1.37x10
3
5.16x10
3
0.154 28.50
122
Table 4.39 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.19 45 1.87x10
4
1.73x10
3
0.075 24.87
CC 6.1x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.20 47 3.41x10
5
7.73x10
4
0.082 23.47
CS 9.8x10
5
2.1x10
3
0.19 36 5.25x10
5
8.16x10
4
0.074 15.86
CF 2.5x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.38x10
3
4.88x10
3
0.138 23.32
Table 4.40 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.19 45 1.87x10
4
1.68x10
3
0.075 24.88
CC 6.3x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.19 48 3.42x10
5
7.62x10
4
0.082 23.47
CS 9.8x10
5
2.1x10
3
0.19 38 5.29x10
5
8.07x10
4
0.075 15.95
CF 2.5x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.38x10
3
4.92x10
3
0.138 23.37
Table 4.41 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.19 45 1.89x10
4
1.66x10
3
0.075 24.90
CC 6.3x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.195 48 3.43x10
5
7.56x10
4
0.083 23.57
CS 9.8x10
5
2.1x10
3
0.19 38 5.32x10
5
8.08x10
4
0.077 16.56
CF 2.5x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.37x10
3
4.83x10
3
0.138 23.34
123
Table 4.42 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.5x10
3
0.19 45 1.89x10
4
1.62x10
3
0.075 24.90
CC 4.8x10
5
1.6x10
3
0.19 46 3.45x10
5
7.32x10
4
0.078 22.58
CS 9.0x10
5
1.9x10
3
0.19 40 5.33x10
5
7.85x10
4
0.078 16.55
CF 2.5x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.43x10
3
4.65x10
3
0.139 23.37
Case 4: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.5L and one springmass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the stepfunction
force is applied to x=L and one springmass system is attached to x=L.
Figure 4.32 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system subjected
to stepfunction force at x=0.5L
124
Table 4.43 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.4x10
3
0.27 63 2.74x10
4
2.49x10
3
0.106 35.18
CC 1.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.30 85 6.72x10
5
1.33x10
3
0.113 45.56
CS 2.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.27 70 1.18x10
4
1.60x10
3
0.096 34.47
CF 3.8x10
3
1.6x10
2
0.47 90 2.15x10
3
7.08x10
3
0.166 38.79
Table 4.44 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.4x10
3
0.27 63 2.70x10
4
2.45x10
3
0.106 35.19
CC 1.2x10
4
3.1x10
3
0.31 86 6.75x10
5
1.35x10
3
0.118 46.18
CS 2.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.26 65 1.17x10
4
1.61x10
3
0.095 33.61
CF 3.6x10
3
1.5x10
2
0.40 73 2.17x10
3
6.60x10
3
0.141 32.54
Table 4.45 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.27 63 2.71x10
4
2.37x10
3
0.106 35.21
CC 1.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.31 88 6.77x10
5
1.33x10
3
0.118 46.20
CS 2.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.27 65 1.18x10
4
1.59x10
3
0.095 33.75
CF 3.8x10
3
1.5x10
2
0.42 80 2.17x10
3
6.66x10
3
0.145 34.96
125
Table 4.46 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.27 63 2.74x10
4
2.34x10
3
0.106 35.23
CC 1.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.30 88 6.80x10
5
1.31x10
3
0.118 46.43
CS 2.1x10
4
3.5x10
3
0.27 68 1.19x10
4
1.58x10
3
0.098 34.11
CF 3.8x10
3
1.4x10
2
0.45 75 2.16x10
3
6.45x10
3
0.142 32.61
Table 4.47 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.27 63 2.74x10
4
2.27x10
3
0.107 35.43
CC 9.0x10
5
2.6x10
3
0.30 85 6.79x10
5
1.26x10
3
0.115 46.13
CS 2.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.26 70 1.19x10
4
1.52x10
3
0.097 33.78
CF 3.8x10
3
1.3x10
2
0.40 75 2.25x10
3
6.07x10
3
0.144 32.80
126
Case 5: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.25L and two springmass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step
function force is applied to x=0.5L and two springmass systems are attached to
x=L.
Table 4.48 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.19 45 1.84x10
4
1.55x10
3
0.073 24.87
CC 6.0x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.19 48 3.37x10
5
7.24x10
4
0.081 23.26
CS 9.5x10
5
2.1x10
3
0.18 38 5.23x10
5
7.75x10
4
0.077 16.60
CF 2.4x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.36x10
3
4.53x10
3
0.136 23.32
Table 4.49 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.19 45 1.87x10
4
1.58x10
3
0.073 24.88
CC 6.1x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.19 47 3.38x10
5
7.20x10
4
0.081 23.39
CS 9.7x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.18 38 5.30x10
5
7.85x10
4
0.078 16.62
CF 2.4x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.39x10
3
4.70x10
3
0.137 23.32
127
Table 4.50 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.19 45 1.89x10
4
1.58x10
3
0.073 24.90
CC 6.2x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.18 47 3.42x10
5
7.11x10
4
0.081 23.57
CS 9.0x10
5
2.1x10
3
0.18 38 5.30x10
5
7.75x10
4
0.078 16.65
CF 2.0x10
3
1.1x10
2
0.32 38 1.35x10
3
4.62x10
3
0.138 23.35
Table 4.51 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.1x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.19 45 1.92x10
4
1.54x10
3
0.073 24.93
CC 6.2x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.19 49 3.45x10
5
6.92x10
4
0.081 23.63
CS 9.5x10
5
1.9x10
3
0.20 40 5.33x10
5
7.61x10
4
0.078 16.70
CF 2.3x10
3
1.1x10
2
0.32 38 1.43x10
3
4.43x10
3
0.138 23.39
Table 4.52 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.2x10
4
3.2x10
3
0.19 45 1.95x10
4
1.48x10
3
0.074 25.00
CC 6.3x10
5
1.5x10
3
0.19 49 3.51x10
5
6.54x10
4
0.079 23.45
CS 9.8x10
5
1.9x10
3
0.19 40 5.40x10
5
7.26x10
4
0.076 16.30
CF 2.3x10
3
9.0x10
3
0.32 38 1.38x10
3
4.14x10
3
0.139 23.49
128
Case 6: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.5L and two springmass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step
function force is applied to x=L and two springmass systems are attached to
x=L.
Table 4.53 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.4x10
3
0.27 63 2.67x10
4
2.19x10
3
0.103 35.18
CC 1.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.30 88 6.68x10
5
1.26x10
3
0.115 46.28
CS 2.0x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.26 70 1.17x10
4
1.48x10
3
0.096 34.71
CF 3.6x10
3
1.5x10
2
0.40 73 2.15x10
3
6.08x10
3
0.139 32.13
Table 4.54 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.27 63 2.70x10
4
2.24x10
3
0.104 35.20
CC 1.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.31 85 6.71x10
5
1.25x10
3
0.115 46.29
CS 2.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.26 70 1.18x10
4
1.50x10
3
0.096 34.74
CF 3.8x10
3
1.5x10
2
0.40 74 2.19x10
3
6.34x10
3
0.140 32.48
129
Table 4.55 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.7x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.27 63 2.73x10
4
2.23x10
3
0.104 35.24
CC 1.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.30 88 6.78x10
5
1.23x10
3
0.115 46.47
CS 2.0x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.26 70 1.18x10
4
1.48x10
3
0.096 34.85
CF 3.1x10
3
1.4x10
2
0.42 75 2.14x10
3
6.22x10
3
0.141 32.78
Table 4.56 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.4x10
4
4.4x10
3
0.27 63 2.77x10
4
2.18x10
3
0.104 35.33
CC 1.2x10
4
2.6x10
3
0.30 90 6.85x10
5
1.19x10
3
0.116 46.97
CS 2.1x10
4
3.2x10
3
0.26 68 1.19x10
4
1.43x10
3
0.096 35.02
CF 3.5x10
3
1.3x10
2
0.40 75 2.26x10
3
5.83x10
3
0.142 32.87
Table 4.57 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
4
4.4x10
3
0.27 63 2.83x10
4
2.07x10
3
0.105 35.54
CC 1.2x10
4
2.5x10
3
0.30 90 6.95x10
5
1.11x10
3
0.115 47.62
CS 2.0x10
4
2.8x10
3
0.25 70 1.20x10
4
1.34x10
3
0.095 35.19
CF 3.4x10
3
1.3x10
2
0.34 40 2.19x10
3
5.29x10
3
0.127 18.85
130
Case 7: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.25L and three springmass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step
function force is applied to x=0.5L and three springmass systems are attached
to x=L.
Table 4.58 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.2x10
4
3.5x10
3
0.19 45 1.84x10
4
1.52x10
3
0.073 24.92
CC 6.8x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.19 50 3.81x10
5
7.99x10
4
0.086 24.60
CS 1.0x10
4
2.0x10
3
0.20 40 5.56x10
5
8.16x10
4
0.078 16.61
CF 2.4x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.32 38 1.38x10
3
4.62x10
3
0.137 23.37
Table 4.59 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.1x10
4
3.5x10
3
0.19 45 1.87x10
4
1.52x10
3
0.073 24.87
CC 6.6x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.20 49 3.79x10
5
7.88x10
4
0.087 24.58
CS 1.0x10
4
2.0x10
3
0.20 40 5.60x10
5
8.08x10
4
0.078 16.65
CF 2.3x10
3
1.1x10
2
0.30 38 1.40x10
3
4.62x10
3
0.137 23.29
131
Table 4.60 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.18 45 1.89x10
4
1.52x10
3
0.073 24.78
CC 7.0x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.20 50 3.89x10
5
7.66x10
4
0.082 24.34
CS 1.0x10
4
2.0x10
3
0.19 39 5.70x10
5
8.04x10
4
0.078 16.58
CF 2.3x10
3
1.0x10
2
0.31 40 1.39x10
3
4.41x10
3
0.138 23.69
Table 4.61 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
4
3.2x10
3
0.18 45 1.92x10
4
1.47x10
3
0.073 25.21
CC 7.0x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.19 50 3.97x10
5
7.36x10
4
0.082 24.20
CS 1.0x10
4
1.9x10
3
0.19 40 5.84x10
5
7.89x10
4
0.078 16.94
CF 2.4x10
3
9.0x10
3
0.32 40 1.41x10
3
4.18x10
3
0.138 23.78
Table 4.62 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.4x10
4
2.7x10
3
0.18 45 2.01x10
4
1.40x10
3
0.073 25.24
CC 7.0x10
5
1.6x10
3
0.20 52 4.12x10
5
6.87x10
4
0.082 24.94
CS 1.1x10
4
1.9x10
3
0.19 40 6.04x10
5
7.64x10
4
0.080 16.83
CF 2.5x10
3
1.0x10
2
0.32 40 1.53x10
3
3.96x10
3
0.141 23.62
132
Case 8: Stepfunction force is applied to x=0.5L and three springmass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step
function force is applied to x=L and three springmass systems are attached to
x=L.
Table 4.63 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.20 40 2.66x10
4
2.15x10
3
0.082 20.15
CC 1.3x10
4
3.2x10
3
0.26 58 7.51x10
5
1.40x10
3
0.097 27.35
CS 2.1x10
4
3.5x10
3
0.25 55 1.24x10
4
1.58x10
3
0.087 26.28
CF 3.5x10
3
1.5x10
2
0.40 73 2.17x10
3
6.25x10
3
0.139 32.78
Table 4.64 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.4x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.22 40 2.71x10
4
2.15x10
3
0.085 20.42
CC 1.3x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.25 55 7.47x10
5
1.37x10
3
0.096 27.32
CS 2.2x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.20 40 1.25x10
4
1.56x10
3
0.079 16.36
CF 3.6x10
3
1.4x10
2
0.38 73 2.19x10
3
6.22x10
3
0.137 33.50
133
Table 4.65 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.22 40 2.74x10
4
2.16x10
3
0.085 20.45
CC 1.3x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.25 60 7.67x10
5
1.35x10
3
0.100 29.37
CS 2.2x10
4
3.3x10
3
0.24 56 1.27x10
4
1.54x10
3
0.086 26.24
CF 3.5x10
3
1.3x10
2
0.40 75 2.21x10
3
5.91x10
3
0.138 32.78
Table 4.66 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.22 40 2.78x10
4
2.08x10
3
0.086 20.81
CC 1.3x10
4
2.8x10
3
0.26 60 7.83x10
5
1.29x10
3
0.101 29.88
CS 2.2x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.22 40 1.30x10
4
1.49x10
3
0.079 16.94
CF 3.8x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.34 45 2.24x10
3
5.50x10
3
0.134 22.56
Table 4.67 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
4
4x10
3
0.22 42 2.91x10
4
1.96x10
3
0.087 21.19
CC 1.3x10
4
2.6x10
3
0.25 70 8.15x10
5
1.18x10
3
0.104 33.66
CS 2.2x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.23 60 1.34x10
4
1.38x10
3
0.087 27.20
CF 3.7x10
3
1.1x10
2
0.40 80 2.28x10
3
4.88x10
3
0.158 37.45
134
4.5.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS bare uniform
beams and x=L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.68 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system  Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.2x10
2
0.43 8.5 190 9.30x10
3
0.185 3.66 74.82 6.3
CC 3.1x10
3
0.14 6.25 300 1.74x10
3
0.078 3.53 160.36 14.4
CS 3.8x10
3
0.12 3.8 145 1.86x10
3
0.058 1.81 58.99 10
CF 4.2x10
2
0.30 2.4 80 2.13x10
2
0.152 1.09 31.19 2.3
Case 2: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L for SS, CC and CS bare uniform
beams and x=0.5L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.69 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system  Case 2
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.5x10
2
0.30 6.0 135 6.58x10
3
0.131 2.58 52.91 6.3
CC 5.7x10
3
0.26 11.5 550 3.19x10
3
0.144 6.50 294.28 14.4
CS 1.8x10
3
0.05 1.75 75 8.36x10
4
0.026 0.815 27.61 10
CF 2.9x10
2
0.20 1.6 75 1.45x10
2
0.104 0.747 37.87 2.3
135
Case 3: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L and one springmass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=0.5L and one springmass system is attached to x=L.
Figure 4.33 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system subjected
to harmonic force at x=0.25L
Table 4.70 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 6.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.28 26 3.00x10
4
5.97x10
3
0.124 12.70 6.3
CC 1.1x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.28 32 5.06x10
5
2.32x10
3
0.113 12.43 14.4
CS 1.8x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.24 23 8.43x10
5
2.69x10
3
0.094 8.58 10
CF 3.8x10
3
2.8x10
2
0.34 24 1.73x10
3
1.30x10
3
0.123 14.29 2.3
136
Table 4.71 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 4.2x10
4
8.5x10
3
0.21 24 2.13x10
4
4.24x10
3
0.092 12.60 6.3
CC 6.8x10
5
3.4x10
3
0.20 30 3.53x10
5
1.64x10
3
0.086 12.53 14.4
CS 1.3x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.20 22 5.71x10
5
1.84x10
3
0.070 8.32 10
CF 2.4x10
3
2.0x10
2
0.26 20 1.16x10
3
8.75x10
3
0.095 11.70 2.3
Table 4.72 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.6x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.17 24 1.33x10
4
2.69x10
3
0.066 12.54 6.3
CC 4.5x10
5
2.2x10
3
0.15 28 2.22x10
5
1.06x10
3
0.065 12.25 14.4
CS 7.2x10
5
2.6x10
3
0.14 20 3.53x10
5
1.16x10
3
0.053 8.24 10
CF 1.4x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.20 20 7.01x10
4
5.54x10
3
0.081 11.71 2.3
Table 4.73 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.14 24 9.23x10
5
1.92x10
3
0.055 12.52 6.3
CC 3.0x10
5
1.6x10
3
0.14 26 1.54x10
5
7.67x10
4
0.056 12.21 14.4
CS 5.0x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.13 20 2.43x10
5
8.31x10
4
0.048 8.50 10
CF 1.0x10
3
9.0x10
3
0.18 20 4.82x10
4
4.07x10
3
0.077 11.70 2.3
137
Table 4.74 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.3x10
4
2.8x10
3
0.12 23 6.41x10
5
1.40x10
3
0.048 12.51 6.3
CC 1.4x10
5
1.2x10
3
0.12 26 1.07x10
5
5.68x10
4
0.049 11.65 14.4
CS 3.6x10
5
1.5x10
3
0.12 20 1.66x10
5
6.06x10
4
0.044 8.49 10
CF 7.0x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.18 20 3.30x10
4
3.12x10
3
0.075 11.71 2.3
Case 4: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and one springmass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=L and one springmass system is attached to x=L.
Figure 4.34 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system subjected
to harmonic force at x=0.5L
138
Table 4.75 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 8.5x10
4
1.7x10
2
0.40 36 4.26x10
4
8.44x10
3
0.175 17.97 6.3
CC 2.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.45 58 9.29x10
5
4.25x10
3
0.202 24.72 14.4
CS 4.0x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.45 45 1.87x10
4
5.97x10
3
0.196 18.40 10
CF 5.5x10
3
4.0x10
2
0.45 45 2.53x10
3
1.88x10
2
0.162 19.46 2.3
Table 4.76 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 6.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.30 34 3.00x10
4
5.99x10
3
0.130 17.82 6.3
CC 1.3x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.36 55 6.47x10
5
2.98x10
3
0.149 24.23 14.4
CS 2.8x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.34 40 1.27x10
4
4.07x10
3
0.139 17.45 10
CF 3.6x10
3
2.8x10
2
0.34 37 1.68x10
3
1.26x10
2
0.118 16.31 2.3
Table 4.77 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 3.8x10
4
7.8x10
3
0.24 34 1.87x10
4
3.79x10
3
0.093 17.74 6.3
CC 8.0x10
5
4.0x10
3
0.26 50 4.05x10
5
1.89x10
3
0.106 23.76 14.4
CS 1.6x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.24 34 7.83x10
5
2.54x10
3
0.095 17.21 10
CF 2.0x10
3
1.6x10
2
0.26 40 1.02x10
3
7.80x10
3
0.094 17.51 2.3
139
Table 4.78 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.8x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.20 33 1.30x10
4
2.70x10
3
0.077 17.72 6.3
CC 5.5x10
5
2.8x10
3
0.22 48 2.81x10
5
1.35x10
3
0.088 23.72 14.4
CS 1.1x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.20 36 5.39x10
5
1.80x10
3
0.077 17.30 10
CF 1.4x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.23 38 6.91x10
4
5.54x10
3
0.083 16.32 2.3
Table 4.79 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.17 33 9.00x10
5
1.95x10
3
0.067 17.72 6.3
CC 2.6x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.19 47 1.91x10
5
9.65x10
4
0.075 23.48 14.4
CS 7.5x10
5
2.6x10
3
0.17 34 3.68x10
5
1.27x10
3
0.065 17.09 10
CF 9.5x10
4
8.5x10
3
0.24 38 4.65x10
4
4.00x10
3
0.079 16.42 2.3
140
Case 5: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L and two springmass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=0.5L and two springmass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.80 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 5.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.26 25 2.22x10
4
4.26x10
3
0.089 12.58 6.3
CC 9.5x10
5
4.5x10
3
0.25 30 3.81x10
5
1.69x10
3
0.085 12.36 14.4
CS 1.8x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.22 22 7.32x10
5
2.28x10
3
0.081 8.76 10
CF 3.5x10
3
2.6x10
2
0.30 20 1.55x10
3
1.11x10
2
0.105 11.70 2.3
Table 4.81 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 3.4x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.18 24 1.56x10
4
2.96x10
3
0.067 12.53 6.3
CC 5.5x10
5
2.8x10
3
0.17 28 2.62x10
5
1.16x10
3
0.065 12.19 14.4
CS 1.2x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.17 20 4.50x10
5
1.39x10
3
0.058 8.59 10
CF 2.0x10
3
1.7x10
2
0.22 20 9.32x10
4
6.74x10
3
0.084 11.69 2.3
141
Table 4.82 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.2x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.15 24 9.77x10
5
1.85x10
3
0.051 12.51 6.3
CC 3.6x10
5
1.8x10
3
0.14 27 1.60x10
5
7.18x10
4
0.052 12.15 14.4
CS 6.5x10
5
2.3x10
3
0.13 20 2.64x10
5
8.26x10
4
0.047 8.54 10
CF 1.1x10
3
1.0x10
2
0.20 20 5.28x10
4
3.94x10
3
0.075 11.70 2.3
Table 4.83 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.5x10
4
3.0x10
3
0.12 23 6.69x10
5
1.27x10
3
0.044 12.52 6.3
CC 2.6x10
5
1.3x10
3
0.11 16 1.09x10
5
5.06x10
4
0.045 9.19 14.4
CS 4.0x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.12 20 1.78x10
5
5.76x10
4
0.043 8.55 10
CF 8.0x10
4
7.0x10
3
0.17 20 3.35x10
4
2.73x10
3
0.072 11.72 2.3
Table 4.84 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.0x10
4
2.2x10
3
0.11 22 4.51x10
5
8.86x10
4
0.041 12.55 6.3
CC 1.7x10
5
9.8x10
4
0.09 15 7.22x10
6
3.65x10
4
0.041 8.85 14.4
CS 2.8x10
5
1.3x10
3
0.10 20 1.17x10
5
4.14x10
4
0.041 8.34 10
CF 5.0x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.17 20 2.18x10
4
2.06x10
3
0.072 11.77 2.3
142
Case 6: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and two springmass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=L and two springmass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.85 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 6.3x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.36 36 3.15x10
4
6.03x10
3
0.126 17.79 6.3
CC 1.7x10
4
7.5x10
3
0.40 55 7.03x10
5
3.10x10
3
0.148 24.19 14.4
CS 4.0x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.40 43 1.63x10
4
5.05x10
3
0.164 18.16 10
CF 5.0x10
3
3.8x10
2
0.40 37 2.27x10
3
1.62x10
2
0.135 16.10 2.3
Table 4.86 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 4.5x10
4
9.5x10
3
0.26 34 2.21x10
4
4.19x10
3
0.095 17.73 6.3
CC 1.0x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.28 48 4.85x10
5
2.12x10
3
0.109 23.77 14.4
CS 2.6x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.32 37 9.98x10
5
3.06x10
3
0.106 17.74 10
CF 2.9x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.29 37 1.37x10
3
9.75x10
3
0.098 16.26 2.3
143
Table 4.87 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 3.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.20 34 1.39x10
4
2.61x10
3
0.071 17.71 6.3
CC 7.0x10
5
3.2x10
3
0.24 46 2.97x10
5
1.29x10
3
0.080 23.65 14.4
CS 1.4x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.22 36 5.85x10
5
1.78x10
3
0.072 17.62 10
CF 1.7x10
3
1.4x10
2
0.27 38 7.76x10
4
5.49x10
3
0.080 16.40 2.3
Table 4.88 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.0x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.17 33 9.49x10
5
1.79x10
3
0.062 17.74 6.3
CC 4.5x10
5
2.2x10
3
0.15 20 2.01x10
5
8.74x10
4
0.059 10.25 14.4
CS 9.5x10
5
3.1x10
3
0.17 36 3.94x10
5
1.19x10
3
0.060 17.67 10
CF 1.2x10
3
8.5x10
3
0.22 38 4.91x10
4
3.54x10
3
0.075 16.44 2.3
Table 4.89 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.5x10
4
3.1x10
3
0.15 33 6.39x10
5
1.23x10
3
0.058 17.83 6.3
CC 3.0x10
5
1.5x10
3
0.13 18 1.33x10
5
5.87x10
4
0.052 9.93 14.4
CS 6.0x10
5
2.2x10
3
0.15 35 2.59x10
5
7.88x10
4
0.053 17.74 10
CF 7.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.19 20 3.16x10
4
2.37x10
3
0.066 9.45 2.3
144
Case 7: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L and three springmass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=0.5L and three springmass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.90 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 4.2x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.20 23 1.99x10
4
3.75x10
3
0.079 12.57 6.3
CC 8.5x10
5
4.0x10
3
0.23 30 3.78x10
5
1.63x10
3
0.082 12.96 14.4
CS 1.8x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.24 22 7.31x10
5
2.26x10
3
0.080 8.75 10
CF 3.9x10
3
2.8x10
2
0.32 20 1.42x10
3
1.01x10
2
0.099 11.71 2.3
Table 4.91 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 3.2x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.17 24 1.38x10
4
2.56x10
3
0.059 12.50 6.3
CC 6.0x10
5
2.8x10
3
0.18 28 2.56x10
5
1.10x10
3
0.064 12.75 14.4
CS 1.1x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.17 22 4.39x10
5
1.34x10
3
0.056 8.59 10
CF 2.1x10
3
1.6x10
2
0.24 20 9.48x10
4
6.74x10
3
0.084 11.67 2.3
145
Table 4.92 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.13 23 8.43x10
5
1.53x10
3
0.045 12.44 6.3
CC 3.4x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.14 28 1.54x10
5
6.54x10
4
0.049 12.51 14.4
CS 6.0x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.13 20 2.51x10
5
7.59x10
4
0.045 8.49 10
CF 1.2x10
3
9.5x10
3
0.19 20 4.56x10
4
3.34x10
3
0.073 11.86 2.3
Table 4.93 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.2x10
4
2.8x10
3
0.11 23 5.73x10
5
1.03x10
3
0.041 12.65 6.3
CC 2.3x10
5
1.2x10
3
0.12 26 1.03x10
5
4.45x10
4
0.045 12.41 14.4
CS 4.0x10
5
1.6x10
3
0.11 20 1.65x10
5
5.14x10
4
0.042 8.66 10
CF 7.2x10
4
7.0x10
3
0.17 20 3.03x10
4
2.39x10
3
0.072 11.91 2.3
Table 4.94 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 8.0x10
5
1.7x10
3
0.10 23 3.76x10
5
6.90x10
4
0.039 12.66 6.3
CC 1.5x10
5
9.0x10
4
0.10 28 6.62x10
6
3.16x10
4
0.044 12.77 14.4
CS 2.6x10
5
1.1x10
3
0.10 20 1.08x10
5
3.78x10
4
0.042 8.61 10
CF 4.5x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.17 20 1.84x10
4
1.74x10
3
0.072 11.83 2.3
146
Case 8: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and three springmass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=L and three springmass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.95 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 6.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.28 22 2.83x10
4
5.31x10
3
0.108 10.41 6.3
CC 1.5x10
4
7.2x10
3
0.36 38 7.01x10
5
3.01x10
3
0.137 15.05 14.4
CS 4.0x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.45 38 1.62x10
3
5.00x10
3
0.160 14.09 10
CF 5.5x10
3
4.0x10
2
0.40 36 2.08x10
3
1.47x10
2
0.125 16.41 2.3
Table 4.96 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 4.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.22 22 1.96x10
4
3.63x10
3
0.079 10.35 6.3
CC 1.1x10
4
4.6x10
3
0.26 35 4.77x10
5
2.00x10
3
0.096 14.41 14.4
CS 2.4x10
4
8.5x10
3
0.30 24 9.76x10
5
2.95x10
3
0.097 8.77 10
CF 3.0x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.30 40 1.37x10
3
9.57x10
3
0.096 16.76 2.3
147
Table 4.97 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.6x10
4
5.2x10
3
0.17 21 1.20x10
4
2.17x10
3
0.057 10.31 6.3
CC 6.0x10
5
2.8x10
3
0.21 34 2.88x10
5
1.17x10
3
0.068 15.14 14.4
CS 1.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.14 30 5.57x10
5
1.62x10
3
0.063 13.32 10
CF 1.7x10
3
1.2x10
2
0.24 36 6.77x10
4
4.61x10
3
0.077 16.40 2.3
Table 4.98 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.7x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.14 21 8.16x10
5
1.45x10
3
0.050 10.48 6.3
CC 4.0x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.17 34 1.92x10
5
7.66x10
4
0.058 15.32 14.4
CS 8.0x10
5
2.8x10
3
0.14 20 3.66x10
5
1.04x10
3
0.049 8.68 10
CF 1.0x10
3
8.0x10
3
0.18 24 4.43x10
4
3.02x10
3
0.070 11.31 2.3
Table 4.99 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.2x10
4
2.2x10
3
0.13 22 5.35x10
5
9.49x10
4
0.047 10.67 6.3
CC 2.6x10
5
1.3x10
3
0.15 36 1.24x10
5
4.92x10
4
0.055 17.18 14.4
CS 5.0x10
5
1.9x10
3
0.13 30 2.36x10
5
6.51x10
4
0.047 13.74 10
CF 6.0x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.23 40 2.62x10
4
1.98x10
3
0.080 18.74 2.3
148
Case 9: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and one springmass systems is
attached to x=0.5L for SS beam. Forcing frequency is different from the resonant
frequency of the beam.
Table 4.100 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying one
springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 9
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.5x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.19 34 7.33x10
5
1.94x10
3
0.074 17.80 10
0.02 1.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.18 33 6.88x10
5
1.83x10
3
0.072 17.81 10
0.05 1.2x10
4
3.2x10
3
0.17 34 5.85x10
5
1.59x10
3
0.068 17.82 10
0.10 9.5x10
5
2.8x10
3
0.16 33 4.82x10
5
1.35x10
3
0.065 17.78 10
0.20 7.2x10
5
2.2x10
3
0.15 34 3.66x10
5
1.09x10
3
0.062 17.95 10
No TVA 1.5x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.20 34 6.35x10
5
1.82x10
3
0.062 16.59 10
4.5.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and applied to SS, CC, CS
and CF bare uniform beams.
Table 4.101 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system  Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
6.15x10
5
8.53x10
4
0.0169
CC 5.0x10
5
2.6x10
5
6.0x10
4
0.033 3.54x10
5
1.32x10
5
4.16x10
4
0.0190
CS 1.0x10
4
5.0x10
5
7.5x10
4
0.028 6.78x10
5
2.52x10
5
5.44x10
4
0.0170
CF 1.8x10
3
8.8x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.053 1.19x10
3
4.49x10
4
2.28x10
3
0.0239
149
Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and one springmass system
is attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.
Figure 4.35 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system subjected
to moving load
Table 4.102 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving load Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
5.34x10
5
5.99x10
4
0.0120
CC 5.0x10
5
2.6x10
5
6x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.15x10
5
2.94x10
4
0.0136
CS 1.0x10
4
5.0x10
5
7.8x10
4
0.028 6.78x10
5
2.19x10
5
3.84x10
4
0.0121
CF 1.75x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.88x10
4
1.63x10
3
0.0211
150
Table 4.103 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
5.36x10
5
6.01x10
4
0.0121
CC 5.0x10
5
2.6x10
5
6x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.15x10
5
2.93x10
4
0.0136
CS 1.0x10
4
4.8x10
5
7.8x10
4
0.027 6.78x10
5
2.20x10
5
3.83x10
4
0.0121
CF 1.8x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.7x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.89x10
4
1.61x10
3
0.0211
Table 4.104 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving load Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
5.36x10
5
5.95x10
4
0.0121
CC 5.0x10
5
2.6x10
5
6x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.15x10
5
2.90x10
4
0.0137
CS 1.0x10
4
4.8x10
5
7.8x10
4
0.027 6.78x10
5
2.20x10
5
3.79x10
4
0.0122
CF 1.8x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.93x10
4
1.60x10
3
0.0213
Table 4.105 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving load Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
5.39x10
5
5.88x10
4
0.0122
CC 5.0x10
5
2.6x10
5
6x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.16x10
5
2.85x10
4
0.0138
CS 1.0x10
4
4.8x10
5
7.5x10
4
0.027 6.78x10
5
2.21x10
5
3.73x10
4
0.0122
CF 1.75x10
3
8.0x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.94x10
4
1.57x10
3
0.0214
151
Table 4.106 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving load Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.023 1.65x10
4
5.42x10
5
5.73x10
4
0.0124
CC 5.0x10
5
2.6x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.17x10
5
2.75x10
4
0.0139
CS 1.0x10
4
4.8x10
5
7.5x10
4
0.027 6.78x10
5
2.23x10
5
3.63x10
4
0.0123
CF 1.8x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.99x10
4
1.50x10
3
0.0215
Case 3: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and two springmass
systems are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.
Table 4.107 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
5.27x10
5
5.58x10
4
0.0109
CC 5.0x10
5
2.5x10
5
5.9x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.13x10
5
2.72x10
4
0.0124
CS 1.0x10
4
4.7x10
5
7.5x10
4
0.026 6.78x10
5
2.16x10
5
3.56x10
4
0.0111
CF 1.75x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.85x10
4
1.53x10
3
0.0206
Table 4.108 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.65x10
4
5.30x10
5
5.56x10
4
0.0109
CC 5.0x10
5
2.5x10
5
5.9x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.14x10
5
2.70x10
4
0.0123
CS 1.0x10
4
4.7x10
5
7.5x10
4
0.026 6.78x10
5
2.17x10
5
3.54x10
4
0.0110
CF 1.75x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.87x10
4
1.50x10
3
0.0205
152
Table 4.109 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.66x10
4
5.38x10
5
5.51x10
4
0.0109
CC 5.0x10
5
2.5x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.030 3.54x10
5
1.15x10
5
2.65x10
4
0.0123
CS 1.0x10
4
4.5x10
5
7.5x10
4
0.026 6.78x10
5
2.20x10
5
3.49x10
4
0.0109
CF 1.75x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.5x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
3.92x10
4
1.47x10
3
0.0206
Table 4.110 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.1x10
4
1.2x10
3
0.024 1.67x10
4
5.47x10
5
5.40x10
4
0.0110
CC 5.0x10
5
2.5x10
5
5.3x10
4
0.029 3.54x10
5
1.17x10
5
2.56x10
4
0.0122
CS 1.0x10
4
4.7x10
5
7.2x10
4
0.026 6.78x10
5
2.23x10
5
3.38x10
4
0.0108
CF 1.75x10
3
8.5x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
4.00x10
4
1.40x10
3
0.0207
Table 4.111 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
4
1.2x10
4
1.1x10
3
0.024 1.69x10
4
5.65x10
5
5.20x10
4
0.0114
CC 5.0x10
5
2.5x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.028 3.54x10
5
1.20x10
5
2.39x10
4
0.0121
CS 1.0x10
4
4.5x10
5
6.8x10
4
0.024 6.78x10
5
2.27x10
5
3.18x10
4
0.0106
CF 1.75x10
3
7.5x10
4
3.1x10
3
0.05 1.19x10
3
4.11x10
4
1.28x10
3
0.0206
153
4.5.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating force is 1.333 m/sec and applied to SS,
CC, CS and CF bare uniform beams.
Table 4.112 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system  Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
2
0.36 7.0 140 9.18x10
3
0.183 3.63 72.25 6.3
CC 7.8x10
3
0.35 15.5 700 3.52x10
3
0.158 7.09 318.67 14.2
CS 1.6x10
2
0.50 16.0 460 6.35x10
3
0.196 6.10 189.03 9.8
CF 8.0x10
2
0.57 4.0 29 4.12x10
2
0.292 2.08 14.73 2.2
Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and one springmass system
is attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.
Figure 4.36 Simply supported beam carrying one springmass system subjected
to moving pulsating force
154
Table 4.113 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating
force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 5.8x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.22 4.5 2.28x10
4
4.47x10
3
0.088 1.74 6.3
CC 5.6x10
5
2.4x10
3
0.11 5.0 2.55x10
5
1.13x10
3
0.050 2.21 14.2
CS 1.5x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.14 4.3 6.87x10
5
2.09x10
3
0.064 1.95 9.8
CF 1.0x10
2
6.7x10
2
0.45 3.0 4.60x10
3
3.04x10
2
0.200 1.33 2.2
Table 4.114 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating
force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 3.0x10
4
5.8x10
3
0.115 2.2 1.13x10
4
2.21x10
3
0.044 0.87 6.3
CC 2.9x10
5
1.3x10
3
0.058 2.5 1.24x10
5
5.48x10
4
0.024 1.08 14.2
CS 7.5x10
5
2.3x10
3
0.07 2.2 3.35x10
5
1.02x10
3
0.031 0.95 9.8
CF 3.6x10
3
2.3x10
2
0.155 1.05 1.66x10
3
1.09x10
2
0.072 0.486 2.2
Table 4.115 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating
force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.2x10
4
2.4x10
3
0.046 0.9 4.44x10
4
8.63x10
3
0.172 0.35 6.3
CC 1.1x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.022 1.0 4.93x10
6
2.16x10
4
0.0096 0.435 14.2
CS 3.0x10
5
9.0x10
4
0.028 0.9 1.32x10
5
3.99x10
4
0.012 0.383 9.8
CF 1.4x10
3
9.0x10
3
0.060 0.42 5.95x10
4
3.87x10
3
0.026 0.182 2.2
155
Table 4.116 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating
force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 5.8x10
5
1.2x10
3
0.022 0.45 2.24x10
5
4.29x10
4
0.0086 0.182 6.3
CC 5.7x10
6
2.5x10
4
0.011 0.50 2.48x10
6
1.08x10
4
0.0048 0.224 14.2
CS 1. 5x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.014 0.45 6.64x10
6
1.98x10
4
0.0061 0.196 9.8
CF 6.0x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.028 0.21 2.89x10
4
1.85x10
3
0.0127 0.095 2.2
Table 4.117 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating
force  Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.9x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.011 0.24 1.13x10
5
2.11x10
4
0.0043 0.0972 6.3
CC 2.8x10
6
1.2x10
4
0.005 0.26 1.23x10
6
5.32x10
5
0.0024 0.116 14.2
CS 7.5x10
6
2.2x10
4
0.007 0.23 3.34x10
6
9.81x10
5
0.0031 0.104 9.8
CF 3.0x10
4
1.9x10
3
0.014 0.12 1.42x10
4
8.89x10
4
0.0063 0.053 2.2
Case 3: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and two springmass
systems are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.
Table 4.118 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating
force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 5.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.20 4.0 2.03x10
4
3.99x10
3
0.079 1.56 6.3
CC 4.6x10
5
2.1x10
3
0.09 4.0 2.13x10
5
9.38x10
4
0.042 1.84 14.2
CS 1.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.12 3.6 5.56x10
5
1.69x10
3
0.051 1.57 9.8
CF 6.0x10
3
4.0x10
2
0.27 1.85 2.72x10
3
1.79x10
2
0.119 0.79 2.2
156
Table 4.119 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating
force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.8x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.11 2.2 1.03x10
4
2.01x10
3
0.040 0.792 6.3
CC 2.4x10
5
1.1x10
3
0.05 2.1 1.08x10
5
4.76x10
4
0.021 0.940 14.2
CS 6.5x10
5
2.0x10
3
0.06 1.9 2.85x10
5
8.65x10
4
0.026 0.809 9.8
CF 2.8x10
3
1.9x10
2
0.13 0.88 1.19x10
3
7.79x10
3
0.052 0.35 2.2
Table 4.120 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating
force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 1.1x10
4
2.1x10
3
0.04 0.8 4.09x10
5
8.01x10
4
0.016 0.321 6.3
CC 1.0x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.02 0.9 4.44x10
6
1.96x10
4
0.0087 0.39 14.2
CS 2.6x10
5
8.0x10
4
0.024 0.73 1.16x10
5
3.51x10
4
0.011 0.333 9.8
CF 1.1x10
3
7.5x10
3
0.050 0.36 4.60x10
4
3.02x10
3
0.020 0.141 2.2
Table 4.121 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating
force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 5.3x10
5
1.1x10
3
0.022 0.45 2.08x10
5
4.05x10
4
0.0081 0.166 6.3
CC 5.0x10
6
2.2x10
4
0.01 0.47 2.28x10
6
1.01x10
4
0.0047 0.201 14.2
CS 1.4x10
5
4.0x10
4
0.013 0.40 5.97x10
6
1.80x10
4
0.056 0.175 9.8
CF 5.5x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.024 0.18 2.27x10
4
1.48x10
3
0.0101 0.073 2.2
157
Table 4.122 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating
force  Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
SS 2.8x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.011 0.23 1.06x10
5
2.06x10
4
0.0042 0.088 6.3
CC 2.6x10
6
1.2x10
4
0.005 0.24 1.16x10
6
5.15x10
5
0.0024 0.105 14.2
CS 7.2x10
6
2.0x10
4
0.007 0.21 2.99x10
6
8.99x10
5
0.0028 0.091 9.8
CF 2.8x10
4
1.8x10
3
0.012 0.11 1.16x10
4
7.53x10
4
0.0053 0.041 2.2
Case 4: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and one springmass system
is attached to x=0.5L for SS beam. Forcing frequency is different from the
resonant frequency of the beam. Springmass system is tuned to the excitation
frequency.
Table 4.123 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying one
springmass system under moving pulsating force  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 2.0x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.20 6.5 1.02x10
4
3.24x10
3
0.103 3.28 10
0.02 8.0x10
5
2.5x10
3
0.08 2.6 3.40x10
5
1.09x10
3
0.035 1.12 10
0.05 3.0x10
5
9.5x10
4
0.03 0.95 1.22x10
5
3.95x10
4
0.013 0.425 10
0.10 1.5x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.015 0.50 5.75x10
6
1.88x10
4
0.006 0.215 10
0.20 7.5x10
6
2.2x10
4
0.007 0.24 2.77x10
6
8.93x10
5
0.003 0.112 10
No TVA 1.6x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.16 4.75 8.22x10
5
2.58x10
3
0.081 2.55 10
158
4.6. Forced Vibration Analysis of HighMast Lighting Tower under Wind Load
The highmast lighting (HMLT) tower indicated in free vibration of non
uniform beams (Section 4.3) is subjected to wind load by using wind velocity data
given by Prof.Robert J. Connor. The wind profile is obtained by using the
empirical powerlaw profile which is particularly used because of its simplicity
such as in the Canadian code NBC 1990 (Dyrbye and Hansen, 1997). The wind
velocity at any height of the structure can be obtained by using the empirical
equation given as below
u(z) = u(z
c]
)(
z
z
c]
)
u
Eq. 4.5
where z
ref
is a reference height and the parameter is considered as 0.16 which
is used for a terrain category including farmland with boundary hedges,
occasional small farm structures, houses or trees (Dyrbye and Hansen, 1997).
The given wind velocity data is assumed to be at 30 ft which is usually used for
reference height.
The dynamic response of a structure subjected to wind loading cannot be
represented in a definite form. Wind can be expressed in terms of its mean
velocity and turbulence component and HMLT can be considered as linelike
structure. The wind load per unit length for line like structures is obtained by
F(z, t) =
1
2
p [u(z) +u(z, t) 
dc]
(z, t)
2
J(z)C(z)
Eq. 4.6
where U(z)+u(z,t) is the wind velocity which is the sum of mean wind velocity
U(z) and the longitudinal turbulence component u(z,t). The given wind velocity
data in this study is assumed to be U(z)+u(z,t) because the mean wind velocity is
generally much larger than the turbulence component(Dyrbye and Hansen,
1996).
def
(z,t) is the structural velocity which is used in order to find the relative
wind velocity with respect to structure. The structural velocity is ignored in this
study and U(z)+u(z,t) is defined as V(z,t). d(z) is the width of the structure
perpendicular to the wind direction and C(z) is the shape factor which is 0.6 for
circular sections. Therefore equation 4.6 can be written as
159
F(z, t) =
1
2
pI
2
(z, t)J(z)C(z)
Eq. 4.7
The HMLT is subdivided into six segments as it is shown in figure 4.37
and wind velocity variation with respect to time at 14 ft, 42 ft, 70 ft, 98 ft and 126
ft are found respectively based on equation 4.5. Wind load functions with respect
to time are obtained for each point with MATLAB curve fitting tool by using
Fourier series after the corresponding wind load variations at each point with
respect to time are obtained by using equation 4.7. Each forcing function is
applied at corresponding heights and displacement, velocity, acceleration and
jerk responses at any point of the HMLT are found by using the developed
algorithm in MATHEMATICA. The resultant responses for bare HMLT and HMLT
with one springmass system on the top of the structure are given in figures 4.38
and 39.
Figure 4.37 Force and wind velocity profile of HMLT
Figure 4.38 Dynamic responses of bare HMLT under wind load
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
5
10
15
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
10
5
0
5
10
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
20
10
0
10
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
Time (Second)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
i
n
)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
i
n
/
s
)
Time (Second)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
i
n
/
s
2
)
Time (Second)
J
e
r
k
(
i
n
/
s
3
)
Time (Second)
1
6
0
Figure 4.39 Dynamic responses of HMLT carrying one springmass system at the shallow end under wind load
(m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
5
10
15
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
10
5
0
5
10
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
20
10
0
10
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
60
40
20
0
20
40
60
Time (Second)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
(
i
n
)
V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y
(
i
n
/
s
)
Time (Second)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
i
n
/
s
2
)
Time (Second)
J
e
r
k
(
i
n
/
s
3
)
Time (Second)
1
6
1
162
4.7. Forced Vibration Analysis of Multi Span Uniform Beams Carrying One and
Two SpringMass Systems
F
0
is assumed to be 350 N for harmonic loading and 700 N for impact
loading, moving load and moving pulsating loads.
4.7.1. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass System
4.7.1.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the step
function force is applied to x=0.25L.
Figure 4.40 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.25L
163
Table 4.124 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.4x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.26 7.5 2.03x10
4
5.06x10
3
0.156 4.83
0.02 4.2x10
4
8.5x10
3
0.24 7.0 1.98x10
4
4.87x10
3
0.151 4.72
0.05 4.0x10
4
7.8x10
3
0.22 6.75 1.86x10
4
4.39x10
3
0.138 4.41
0.10 4.1x10
4
7.8x10
3
0.22 6.5 1.75x10
4
3.82x10
3
0.121 3.97
No TVA 4.6x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.32 13 2.18x10
4
5.43x10
3
0.167 6.24
Table 4.125 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.3x10
4
4x10
3
0.09 2.4 1.85x10
4
1.64x10
3
0.042 1.16
0.02 3.4x10
4
4x10
3
0.095 2.4 1.85x10
4
1.68x10
3
0.042 1.15
0.05 3.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.092 2.4 1.87x10
4
1.77x10
3
0.043 1.15
0.10 3.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.095 2.4 1.90x10
4
1.93x10
3
0.047 1.19
No TVA 3.6x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.10 2.5 2.05x10
4
2.13x10
3
0.050 1.29
164
Case 2: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the step
function force is applied to x=0.75L.
Figure 4.41 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.75L
Table 4.126 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.3x10
4
3.9x10
3
0.095 2.4 1.85x10
4
1.63x10
3
0.042 1.21
0.02 3.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.095 2.4 1.86x10
4
1.66x10
3
0.043 1.24
0.05 3.35x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.090 2.5 1.86x10
4
1.68x10
3
0.045 1.34
0.10 3.4x10
4
3.7x10
3
0.090 2.6 1.88x10
4
1.71x10
3
0.047 1.49
No TVA 3.2x10
4
3.7x10
3
0.090 2.4 1.83x10
4
1.91x10
3
0.046 1.24
165
Table 4.127 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.28 8.2 2.29x10
4
5.75x10
3
0.175 5.42
0.02 5.3x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.31 9.0 2.47x10
4
6.21x10
3
0.189 5.90
0.05 6.7x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.40 11.5 2.98x10
4
7.57x10
3
0.234 7.45
0.10 8.2x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.50 15.5 3.69x10
4
9.68x10
3
0.311 10.28
No TVA 4.7x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.33 14.5 2.21x10
4
5.40x10
3
0.169 6.98
Case 3: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the step
function force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Figure 4.42 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L
166
Table 4.128 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 8.5x10
4
9x10
3
0.27 8.5 3.44x10
4
6.09x10
3
0.190 5.94
0.02 8.8x10
4
9x10
3
0.275 8.5 3.41x10
4
5.94x10
3
0.187 5.88
0.05 8.5x10
4
8.8x10
3
0.27 8.5 3.33x10
4
5.54x10
3
0.177 5.70
0.10 8.0x10
4
8.5x10
3
0.27 8.5 3.24x10
4
5.00x10
3
0.164 5.42
No TVA 9.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.34 15 3.54x10
4
6.25x10
3
0.200 7.80
Table 4.129 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 7.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.34 10 3.63x10
4
6.70x10
3
0.207 6.43
0.02 7.8x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.37 10.5 3.76x10
4
7.14x10
3
0.220 6.88
0.05 9.3x10
4
1.6x10
2
0.45 13.5 4.17x10
4
8.42x10
3
0.262 8.33
0.10 1.1x10
3
2x10
2
0.60 17.5 4.77x10
4
1.04x10
2
0.334 11.00
No TVA 9.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.34 15 3.54x10
4
6.25x10
3
0.200 7.80
167
4.7.1.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L.
Figure 4.43 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L
Table 4.130 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 7.0x10
4
1.7x10
2
0.40 10 3.24x10
4
7.07x10
3
0.171 4.58 6.3
0.02 6.0x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.32 8.5 2.82x10
4
6.28x10
3
0.156 4.31 6.3
0.05 5.5x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.30 8.0 2.54x10
4
5.64x10
3
0.141 3.94 6.3
0.10 5.0x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.30 8.0 2.46x10
4
5.39x10
3
0.131 3.59 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
3
9.16x10
2
1.813 36.30 6.3
168
Table 4.131 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 6.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.24 5.5 2.61x10
4
5.36x10
3
0.112 2.39 6.3
0.02 4.0x10
4
8.5x10
3
0.19 4.25 2.13x10
4
4.47x10
3
0.095 2.10 6.3
0.05 4.2x10
4
9.0x10
2
0.20 4.6 1.86x10
4
4.00x10
3
0.088 1.97 6.3
0.10 4.0x10
4
8.0x10
2
0.19 4.5 1.80x10
4
3.95x10
3
0.088 2.01 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
3
9.27x10
2
1.832 36.44 6.3
Case 2: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to x=0.75L.
Figure 4.44 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L
169
Table 4.132 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 4.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.20 4.2 2.14x10
4
4.24x10
3
0.086 1.86 6.3
0.02 3.2x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.15 3.4 1.49x10
4
2.95x10
3
0.062 1.45 6.3
0.05 2.0x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.10 2.6 9.39x10
5
1.90x10
3
0.045 1.21 6.3
0.10 1.5x10
4
3.4x10
3
0.08 2.2 6.66x10
5
1.42x10
3
0.038 1.18 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
3
9.27x10
2
1.833 36.47 6.3
Table 4.133 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.2x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.55 13 5.07x10
4
1.05x10
2
0.232 5.72 6.3
0.02 1.1x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.55 13 4.81x10
4
1.01x10
2
0.230 5.88 6.3
0.05 1.1x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.55 14 4.76x10
4
1.03x10
2
0.248 6.79 6.3
0.10 1.1x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.60 17 4.82x10
4
1.10x10
2
0.288 8.53 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
3
9.17x10
2
1.814 36.32 6.3
170
Case 3: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Figure 4.45 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L
Table 4.134 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 5.8x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.36 9.8 2.68x10
4
6.60x10
3
0.179 5.23 6.3
0.02 5.8x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.36 9.8 2.64x10
4
6.48x10
3
0.176 5.14 6.3
0.05 5.8x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.36 9.8 2.59x10
4
6.24x10
3
0.168 4.92 6.3
0.10 5.8x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.34 9.8 2.57x10
4
6.04x10
3
0.158 4.63 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
4
6.29x10
3
0.179 5.84 6.3
171
Table 4.135 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.4x10
3
3.0x10
2
0.70 16.5 5.88x10
4
1.24x10
2
0.279 6.92 6.3
0.02 1.4x10
3
3.0x10
2
0.70 17 5.87x10
4
1.25x10
2
0.284 7.16 6.3
0.05 1.4x10
3
3.1x10
2
0.72 18 5.99x10
4
1.29x10
2
0.305 8.05 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
3
3.1x10
2
0.78 20 6.11x10
4
1.36x10
2
0.340 9.61 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
4
6.29x10
3
0.179 5.84 6.3
Case 4: Springmass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L. Forcing frequency is different from the
resonant frequency of the beam. Springmass system is tuned to the excitation
frequency.
Table 4.136 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.0x10
3
3.2x10
2
1.0 30 4.70x10
4
1.42x10
2
0.434 13.32 10
0.02 9.0x10
4
2.6x10
2
0.8 24 3.87x10
4
1.15x10
2
0.348 10.57 10
0.05 7.0x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.6 20 3.26x10
4
9.54x10
3
0.282 8.51 10
0.10 6.0x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.55 17 3.00x10
4
8.69x10
3
0.255 7.63 10
No TVA 9.0x10
3
0.28 8.5 270 4.20x10
3
1.31x10
2
4.105 128.05 10
172
4.7.1.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass system
is attached to second span at x=0.75L.
Figure 4.46 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to moving load
Table 4.137 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.0x10
4
0.013 7.51x10
5
1.26x10
5
2.8x10
4
0.0087
0.02 1.0x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.0x10
4
0.013 7.51x10
5
1.24x10
5
2.7x10
4
0.0085
0.05 1.0x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.0x10
4
0.013 7.51x10
5
1.20x10
5
2.5x10
4
0.0081
0.10 1.0x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.0x10
4
0.013 7.51x10
5
1.14x10
5
2.3x10
4
0.0074
No TVA 1.1x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.017 7.76x10
5
1.31x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0094
173
Table 4.138 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.1x10
4
3.0x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.015 7.62x10
5
1.34x10
5
3.1x10
4
0.0095
0.02 1.1x10
4
3.3x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.016 7.73x10
5
1.40x10
5
3.2x10
4
0.010
0.05 1.1x10
4
3.8x10
5
6.8x10
4
0.020 8.07x10
5
1.56x10
5
3.7x10
4
0.012
0.10 1.2x10
4
4.5x10
5
8.5x10
4
0.025 8.63x10
5
1.80x10
5
4.6x10
4
0.015
No TVA 1.1x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.017 7.76x10
5
1.31x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0094
4.7.1.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring
mass system is attached to second span at x=0.75L.
Figure 4.47 Twospan simply supported beam carrying one springmass system
subjected to moving pulsating force
174
Table 4.139 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating forceCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 2.4x10
4
4.6x10
3
0.092 1.9 1.21x10
4
2.39x10
3
0.047 0.94 6.3
0.02 2.4x10
4
4.6x10
3
0.092 1.9 1.21x10
4
2.39x10
3
0.047 0.94 6.3
0.05 2.4x10
4
4.6x10
3
0.092 1.85 1.21x10
4
2.39x10
3
0.047 0.94 6.3
0.10 2.4x10
4
4.6x10
3
0.092 1.85 1.21x10
4
2.39x10
3
0.047 0.94 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
3
8.0x10
2
1.6 33 2.15x10
4
4.25x10
2
0.842 16.73 6.3
Table 4.140 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating forceCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 4.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.180 3.6 2.28x10
4
4.51x10
3
0.089 1.77 6.3
0.02 4.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.180 3.6 2.28x10
4
4.52x10
3
0.089 1.77 6.3
0.05 4.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.175 3.4 2.30x10
4
4.55x10
3
0.090 1.78 6.3
0.10 4.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.175 3.5 2.34x10
4
4.63x10
3
0.092 1.81 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
3
8.0x10
2
1.6 33 2.15x10
4
4.25x10
2
0.842 16.73 6.3
175
Case 2: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring
mass system is attached to second span at x=0.75L. Forcing frequency is
different from the resonant frequency of the beam. Springmass system is tuned
to the excitation frequency.
Table 4.141 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 2.4x10
4
7.5x10
3
0.23 7.5 1.11x10
4
3.46x10
3
0.108 3.40 10
0.02 2.2x10
4
6.7x10
3
0.21 6.75 1.08x10
4
3.40x10
3
0.107 3.34 10
0.05 2.0x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.20 6.5 1.08x10
4
3.38x10
3
0.106 3.32 10
0.10 2.0x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.20 6.2 1.07x10
4
3.37x10
3
0.106 3.32 10
No TVA 5.7x10
3
0.18 5.5 175 2.69x10
3
8.42x10
2
2.637 82.47 10
176
4.7.2. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems
4.7.2.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span. Both of the
springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam and the stepfunction force is
applied to x=0.75L.
Figure 4.48 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass systems
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.75L
Table 4.142 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.7x10
4
9.5x10
3
0.27 8.0 2.23x10
4
5.54x10
3
0.170 5.30
0.02 5.3x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.30 8.8 2.36x10
4
5.83x10
3
0.179 5.66
0.05 6.5x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.38 11 2.71x10
4
6.66x10
3
0.209 6.79
0.10 8.0x10
4
1.7x10
2
0.48 15 3.21x10
4
7.97x10
3
0.260 8.80
No TVA 4.7x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.33 14.5 2.21x10
4
5.40x10
3
0.169 6.98
177
Table 4.143 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.09 2.4 1.84x10
4
1.60x10
3
0.042 1.18
0.02 3.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.09 2.4 1.84x10
4
1.57x10
3
0.041 1.18
0.05 3.4x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.09 2.45 1.84x10
4
1.52x10
3
0.040 1.20
0.10 3.4x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.09 2.6 1.84x10
4
1.45x10
3
0.040 1.23
No TVA 3.2x10
4
3.7x10
3
0.090 2.4 1.83x10
4
1.91x10
3
0.046 1.24
Case 2: The first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
twospan bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system. The
stepfunction force is applied to x=0.75L.
Table 4.144 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.29 8.2 2.24x10
4
5.63x10
3
0.173 5.41
0.02 5.5x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.33 9.3 2.40x10
4
6.07x10
3
0.188 5.98
0.05 7.0x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.42 13 2.87x10
4
7.52x10
3
0.243 8.09
0.10 8.7x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.60 20 3.61x10
4
1.01x10
2
0.352 12.55
No TVA 4.7x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.33 14.5 2.21x10
4
5.40x10
3
0.169 6.98
178
Table 4.145 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.09 2.4 1.83x10
4
1.51x10
3
0.040 1.15
0.02 3.4x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.09 2.3 1.83x10
4
1.49x10
3
0.040 1.17
0.05 3.3x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.09 2.5 1.83x10
4
1.45x10
3
0.040 1.22
0.10 3.4x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.09 2.6 1.83x10
4
1.42x10
3
0.040 1.35
No TVA 3.2x10
4
3.7x10
3
0.090 2.4 1.83x10
4
1.91x10
3
0.046 1.24
Case 3: Both of the springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which
is same with the first natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam and the
stepfunction force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Figure 4.49 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass systems
subjected to stepfunction force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L
179
Table 4.146 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for two
span uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading 
Case 3
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 7.0x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.33 10 3.57x10
4
6.51x10
3
0.203 6.36
0.02 7.2x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.35 10.5 3.66x10
4
6.77x10
3
0.213 6.74
0.05 8.0x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.42 13 3.92x10
4
7.58x10
3
0.243 7.91
0.10 9.8x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.55 17.5 4.32x10
4
8.86x10
3
0.294 9.98
No TVA 9.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.34 15 3.54x10
4
6.25x10
3
0.200 7.80
Case 4: The first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
twospan bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system. The
stepfunction force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Table 4.147 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 6.7x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.33 10 3.58x10
4
6.58x10
3
0.206 6.46
0.02 7.5x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.37 11 3.70x10
4
6.97x10
3
0.220 7.01
0.05 8.7x10
4
1.6x10
2
0.48 15 4.05x10
4
8.32x10
3
0.273 9.07
0.10 1.0x10
3
2.0x10
2
0.65 22 4.65x10
4
1.08x10
2
0.378 13.43
No TVA 9.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.34 15 3.54x10
4
6.25x10
3
0.200 7.80
180
Table 4.148 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 6.8x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.32 9.8 3.56x10
4
6.46x10
3
0.201 6.33
0.02 7.3x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.35 10.5 3.64x10
4
6.63x10
3
0.209 6.63
0.05 8.5x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.42 13 3.87x10
4
7.14x10
3
0.228 7.49
0.10 1.0x10
3
1.8x10
2
0.53 17.5 4.26x10
4
8.15x10
3
0.265 9.00
No TVA 9.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.34 15 3.54x10
4
6.25x10
3
0.200 7.80
4.7.2.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span. Both of the
springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam and the harmonic force is
applied to x=0.75L.
Figure 4.50 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass systems
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L
181
Table 4.149 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.1x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.50 12.5 4.99x10
4
1.03x10
2
0.229 5.62 6.3
0.02 1.0x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.50 12 4.59x10
4
9.63x10
3
0.220 5.63 6.3
0.05 1.0x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.50 14 4.53x10
4
9.72x10
3
0.231 6.23 6.3
0.10 1.0x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.60 16 4.58x10
4
1.01x10
2
0.255 7.39 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
3
9.17x10
2
1.814 36.32 6.3
Table 4.150 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 4.0x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.18 4 1.60x10
4
3.25x10
3
0.069 1.58 6.3
0.02 3.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.13 3.2 1.13x10
4
2.35x10
3
0.053 1.30 6.3
0.05 1.9x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.10 2.5 7.36x10
5
1.62x10
3
0.040 1.11 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
4
3.2x10
3
0.078 2.2 5.33x10
5
1.23x10
3
0.034 1.02 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
3
9.27x10
2
1.833 36.47 6.3
182
Case 2: The first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
twospan bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system. The
harmonic force is applied to x=0.75L.
Table 4.151 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.0x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.50 12 3.86x10
4
8.28x10
3
0.196 5.18 6.3
0.02 1.1x10
3
2.6x10
2
0.55 14 5.13x10
4
1.08x10
2
0.245 6.17 6.3
0.05 3.5x10
3
7.0x10
2
1.50 33 1.73x10
3
3.43x10
2
0.693 14.57 6.3
0.10 1.6x10
3
3.4x10
2
0.80 22 6.69x10
4
1.44x10
2
0.351 10.23 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
3
9.17x10
2
1.814 36.32 6.3
Table 4.152 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 8.0x10
4
1.7x10
2
0.34 7.25 3.12x10
4
6.22x10
3
0.125 2.60 6.3
0.02 1.1x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.45 9.8 5.25x10
4
1.05x10
2
0.210 4.24 6.3
0.05 1.8x10
3
3.5x10
2
0.70 14 9.35x10
4
1.84x10
2
0.363 7.20 6.3
0.10 4.0x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.17 4 1.81x10
4
3.52x10
3
0.072 1.60 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
3
9.27x10
2
1.833 36.47 6.3
183
Case 3: Both of the springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which
is same with the first natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam and the
harmonic force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Figure 4.51 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass systems
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L
Table 4.153 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for two
span uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading 
Case 3
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.1x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.55 14 4.62x10
4
1.00x10
2
0.238 6.25 6.3
0.02 1.0x10
3
2.3x10
2
0.55 14 4.51x10
4
9.91x10
3
0.239 6.40 6.3
0.05 1.0x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.60 15 4.55x10
4
1.02x10
2
0.253 7.07 6.3
0.10 1.0x10
3
2.5x10
2
0.65 18 4.62x10
4
1.06x10
2
0.278 8.25 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
4
6.29x10
3
0.179 5.84 6.3
184
Case 4: The first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
twospan bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system. The
harmonic force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Table 4.154 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 9.0x10
4
2.1x10
2
0.50 13 3.35x10
4
7.91x10
3
0.206 5.83 6.3
0.02 1.2x10
3
2.5x10
2
0.60 15 5.02x10
4
1.10x10
2
0.261 6.86 6.3
0.05 3.4x10
3
7.0x10
2
1.5 34 1.72x10
3
3.43x10
2
0.698 14.90 6.3
0.10 1.6x10
3
3.4x10
2
0.90 24 6.66x10
4
1.46x10
2
0.365 10.83 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
4
6.29x10
3
0.179 5.84 6.3
Table 4.155 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.5x10
3
3.2x10
2
0.70 17 6.39x10
4
1.33x10
2
0.293 7.09 6.3
0.02 2.0x10
3
4.0x10
2
0.90 20 8.80x10
4
1.79x10
2
0.380 8.64 6.3
0.05 1.5x10
3
3.4x10
2
0.75 19 6.74x10
4
1.39x10
2
0.308 7.67 6.3
0.10 9.0x10
4
2.2x10
2
0.60 17 3.68x10
4
8.75x10
3
0.238 7.28 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
4
6.29x10
3
0.179 5.84 6.3
185
4.7.2.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. Both
of the springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with
the first natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.52 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass systems
subjected to moving load
Table 4.156 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
4
3.0x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.015 7.62x10
5
1.32x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0093
0.02 1.1x10
4
3.1x10
5
5.3x10
4
0.016 7.73x10
5
1.35x10
5
3.1x10
4
0.0097
0.05 1.1x10
4
3.6x10
5
6.3x10
4
0.019 8.07x10
5
1.44x10
5
3.4x10
4
0.0109
0.10 1.2x10
4
4.0x10
5
7.8x10
4
0.023 8.63x10
5
1.59x10
5
3.9x10
4
0.0130
No TVA 1.1x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.017 7.76x10
5
1.31x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0094
186
Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. The
first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of twospan bare
uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural frequency of
the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system.
Table 4.157 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
4
3.0x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.015 7.62x10
5
1.31x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0092
0.02 1.1x10
4
3.1x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.016 7.73x10
5
1.34x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0095
0.05 1.1x10
4
3.6x10
5
6.3x10
4
0.019 8.07x10
5
1.41x10
5
3.2x10
4
0.0102
0.10 1.2x10
4
4.0x10
5
7.9x10
4
0.023 8.62x10
5
1.55x10
5
3.5x10
4
0.0117
No TVA 1.1x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.017 7.76x10
5
1.31x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0094
Table 4.158 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
4
3.0x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.015 7.64x10
5
1.32x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0094
0.02 1.1x10
4
3.1x10
5
4.9x10
4
0.016 7.78x10
5
1.37x10
5
3.2x10
4
0.0100
0.05 1.1x10
4
3.6x10
5
6.7x10
4
0.020 8.24x10
5
1.50x10
5
3.7x10
4
0.0122
0.10 1.3x10
4
4.3x10
5
8.8x10
4
0.028 9.09x10
5
1.75x10
5
4.7x10
4
0.0168
No TVA 1.1x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.017 7.76x10
5
1.31x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0094
187
4.7.2.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. Both
of the springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with
the first natural frequency of twospan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.53 Twospan simply supported beam carrying two springmass systems
subjected to moving pulsating load
Table 4.159 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for twospan
uniform beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating force
Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 3.6x10
4
7.0x10
3
0.14 2.8 1.85x10
4
3.66x10
3
0.072 1.43 6.3
0.02 3.6x10
4
7.0x10
3
0.14 2.7 1.80x10
4
3.57x10
3
0.071 1.40 6.3
0.05 3.5x10
4
6.7x10
3
0.14 2.7 1.82x10
4
3.61x10
3
0.071 1.41 6.3
0.10 3.5x10
4
7.0x10
3
0.14 2.8 1.86x10
4
3.68x10
3
0.073 1.44 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
3
8.0x10
2
1.6 33 2.15x10
4
4.25x10
2
0.842 16.73 6.3
188
Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. The
first springmass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of twospan bare
uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural frequency of
the twospan uniform beam carrying one springmass system.
Table 4.160 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating forceCase 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 5.8x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.22 4.5 2.73x10
4
5.41x10
3
0.107 2.13 6.3
0.02 7.5x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.30 6.0 3.76x10
4
7.47x10
3
0.148 2.95 6.3
0.05 8.5x10
4
1.6x10
2
0.32 6.25 4.28x10
4
8.39x10
3
0.165 3.23 6.3
0.10 2.7x10
4
5.3x10
3
0.105 2.1 1.38x10
4
2.73x10
3
0.054 1.07 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
3
8.0x10
2
1.6 33 2.15x10
4
4.25x10
2
0.842 16.73 6.3
Table 4.161 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for twospan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating forceCase 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.8x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.07 1.4 9.11x10
5
1.80x10
3
0.036 0.708 6.3
0.02 3.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.12 2.4 1.39x10
4
2.79x10
3
0.056 1.11 6.3
0.05 1.9x10
3
3.6x10
2
0.70 14 8.30x10
4
1.63x10
2
0.321 6.31 6.3
0.10 4.7x10
4
9.5x10
3
0.19 3.7 2.48x10
4
4.90x10
3
0.097 1.92 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
3
8.0x10
2
1.6 33 2.15x10
4
4.25x10
2
0.842 16.73 6.3
189
4.7.3. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One SpringMass Systems
4.7.3.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Springmass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the step
function force is applied to x=(1/6)L.
Figure 4.54 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x= (1/6) L
Table 4.162 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.6x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.12 3.4 2.01x10
4
1.82x10
3
0.051 1.56
0.02 3.7x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.12 3.5 2.02x10
4
1.85x10
3
0.052 1.61
0.05 3.7x10
4
4.2x10
3
0.12 3.6 2.02x10
4
1.82x10
3
0.052 1.68
0.10 3.5x10
4
4.1x10
3
0.12 3.6 2.00x10
4
1.76x10
3
0.052 1.78
No TVA 3.7x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.12 3.4 2.03x10
4
1.93x10
3
0.052 1.53
190
Table 4.163 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 8.5x10
4
1.6x10
2
0.53 18 4.05x10
4
8.29x10
3
0.298 10.89
0.02 9.5x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.60 20 4.32x10
4
8.97x10
3
0.319 11.63
0.05 1.1x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.70 24 4.86x10
4
1.06x10
2
0.375 13.73
0.10 1.3x10
3
2.7x10
2
0.90 31 5.66x10
4
1.32x10
2
0.476 17.80
No TVA 7.5x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.47 16.5 3.81x10
4
7.70x10
3
0.278 10.23
Table 4.164 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.7x10
2
1.0 34 1200 3.23x10
2
0.576 21.16 782.3
0.02 6.1x10
2
1.05 36 1300 3.46x10
2
0.616 22.61 836.9
0.05 7.3x10
2
1.3 45 1600 4.05x10
2
0.729 26.91 1002.4
0.10 9.0x10
2
1.65 60 2200 5.08x10
2
0.946 35.59 1349.4
No TVA 5.2x10
2
0.90 31 1100 3.00x10
2
0.539 19.80 732.0
191
Case 2: Springmass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the step
function force is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.165 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 9.5x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.67 25 5.21x10
4
1.25x10
2
0.466 17.34
0.02 9.5x10
4
1.9x10
2
0.67 24 5.00x10
4
1.21x10
2
0.450 16.80
0.05 8.5x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.60 22 4.32x10
4
1.06x10
2
0.398 14.96
0.10 7.2x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.50 18.5 3.36x10
4
8.46x10
3
0.320 12.22
No TVA 9.8x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.70 25 5.43x10
4
1.30x10
2
0.482 17.88
Table 4.166 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.20 7 2.27x10
4
3.39x10
3
0.123 4.57
0.02 3.9x10
4
5.9x10
3
0.20 6.5 2.20x10
4
3.23x10
3
0.117 4.35
0.05 3.5x10
4
5.3x10
3
0.17 6 2.00x10
4
2.72x10
3
0.100 3.68
0.10 3.1x10
3
4.4x10
3
0.15 4.7 1.72x10
4
2.06x10
3
0.074 2.74
No TVA 4.2x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.21 7.3 2.37x10
4
3.63x10
3
0.130 4.79
192
Table 4.167 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 9.5x10
4
1.9x10
2
0.68 24 5.15x10
4
1.24x10
2
0.459 17.08
0.02 9.3x10
4
1.9x10
2
0.67 24 4.89x10
4
1.18x10
2
0.437 16.27
0.05 8.0x10
4
1.7x10
2
0.60 21 4.07x10
4
9.88x10
3
0.367 13.76
0.10 6.7x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.50 17.5 3.03x10
4
7.36x10
3
0.272 10.26
No TVA 9.8x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.70 25 5.43x10
4
1.30x10
2
0.482 17.88
Case 3: Springmass system is attached to mid span at x= (3/6) L and the step
function force is applied to x=(1/6)L.
Figure 4.55 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x= (3/6) L
193
Table 4.168 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.5x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.12 3.2 1.96x10
4
1.74x10
3
0.047 1.42
0.02 3.5x10
4
4.1x10
3
0.11 3.2 1.93x10
4
1.72x10
3
0.046 1.35
0.05 3.5x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.11 3.0 1.88x10
4
1.68x10
3
0.044 1.23
0.10 3.3x10
4
3.9x10
3
0.10 2.7 1.85x10
4
1.71x10
3
0.043 1.15
No TVA 3.7x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.12 3.4 2.03x10
4
1.93x10
3
0.052 1.53
Table 4.169 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 7.0x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.43 15 3.48x10
4
6.98x10
3
0.254 9.42
0.02 7.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.40 14.5 3.24x10
4
6.44x10
3
0.236 8.78
0.05 5.8x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.35 13 2.77x10
4
5.32x10
3
0.196 7.43
0.10 5.2x10
4
9.8x10
3
0.30 10 2.34x10
4
4.23x10
3
0.155 6.00
No TVA 7.5x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.47 16.5 3.81x10
4
7.70x10
3
0.278 10.23
Table 4.170 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.9x10
2
0.8 30 1050 2.81x10
2
0.497 18.38 684.8
0.02 4.6x10
2
0.8 28 1000 2.65x10
2
0.464 17.25 647.8
0.05 4.2x10
2
0.7 25 900 2.33x10
2
0.394 14.93 573.0
0.10 3.7x10
2
0.65 22 800 2.03x10
2
0.323 12.52 496.7
No TVA 5.2x10
2
0.90 31 1100 3.00x10
2
0.539 19.80 732.0
194
Case 4: Springmass system is attached to mid span at x= (3/6) L and the step
function force is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.171 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three
span uniform beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading 
Case 4
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.1x10
3
2.1x10
2
0.75 27 5.59x10
4
1.37x10
2
0.510 19.11
0.02 1.1x10
3
2.3x10
2
0.80 29 5.77x10
4
1.44x10
2
0.540 20.41
0.05 1.3x10
3
2.7x10
2
0.97 36 6.30x10
4
1.65x10
2
0.633 24.52
0.10 1.5x10
3
3.2x10
2
1.2 45 6.95x10
4
1.95x10
2
0.777 31.30
No TVA 9.8x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.70 25 5.43x10
4
1.30x10
2
0.482 17.88
Table 4.172 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under impact loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.20 7.0 2.24x10
4
3.33x10
3
0.122 4.56
0.02 3.8x10
4
5.8x10
3
0.19 6.5 2.16x10
4
3.18x10
3
0.117 4.40
0.05 3.6x10
4
5.2x10
3
0.17 6.0 2.00x10
4
2.84x10
3
0.106 4.10
0.10 3.3x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.15 5.5 1.82x10
4
2.45x10
3
0.094 3.78
No TVA 4.2x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.21 7.3 2.37x10
4
3.63x10
3
0.130 4.79
195
4.7.3.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Springmass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(1/6)L.
Figure 4.56 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L
Table 4.173 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 3.6x10
4
7.8x10
3
0.18 4.3 1.56x10
4
3.18x10
3
0.069 1.68 6.3
0.02 2.7x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.15 3.6 1.17x10
4
2.43x10
3
0.057 1.50 6.3
0.05 1.8x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.11 3.0 7.86x10
5
1.72x10
3
0.045 1.36 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
4
3.1x10
3
0.09 2.7 5.65x10
5
1.31x10
3
0.039 1.31 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
3
0.15 2.9 56 3.13x10
3
0.0623 1.23 24.49 6.3
196
Table 4.174 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.4x10
3
3.0x10
2
0.78 20 5.80x10
4
1.24x10
2
0.301 8.79 6.3
0.02 1.3x10
3
3.0x10
2
0.78 20 5.69x10
4
1.23x10
2
0.309 9.22 6.3
0.05 1.3x10
3
3.1x10
2
0.80 23.5 5.66x10
4
1.28x10
2
0.336 10.53 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
3
3.4x10
2
0.90 28 5.84x10
4
1.38x10
2
0.391 13.04 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
3
0.15 3.0 65 3.03x10
3
0.0605 1.21 24.79 6.3
Table 4.175 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 5.0x10
2
1.30 36 1100 2.29x10
2
0.570 16.92 572.0 6.3
0.02 5.5x10
2
1.35 40 1200 2.40x10
2
0.603 18.01 611.1 6.3
0.05 6.0x10
2
1.55 45 1400 2.66x10
2
0.684 20.96 723.5 6.3
0.10 7.0x10
2
1.90 58 1800 3.13x10
2
0.835 26.70 952.3 6.3
No TVA 4.5x10
2
1.2 34 1000 2.00x10
2
0.511 15.52 531.7 6.3
197
Case 2: Springmass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.176 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.0x10
3
2.6x10
2
0.70 22 4.57x10
4
1.16x10
2
0.358 12.45 6.3
0.02 1.0x10
3
2.2x10
2
0.70 21 4.32x10
4
1.11x10
2
0.344 12.02 6.3
0.05 9.0x10
4
2.4x10
2
0.65 20 3.90x10
4
9.93x10
3
0.306 10.69 6.3
0.10 8.0x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.50 17 3.41x10
4
8.39x10
3
0.251 8.71 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
3
0.15 3.1 70 3.03x10
3
0.061 1.236 26.76 6.3
Table 4.177 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 5.5x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.31 8.2 2.35x10
4
5.13x10
3
0.127 3.70 6.3
0.02 5.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.29 7.8 2.15x10
4
4.74x10
3
0.118 3.50 6.3
0.05 4.3x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.24 6.75 1.91x10
4
4.19x10
3
0.103 3.00 6.3
0.10 4.0x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.21 6.0 1.75x10
4
3.75x10
3
0.088 2.40 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
3
0.15 2.9 60 3.12x10
3
0.062 1.230 24.64 6.3
198
Table 4.178 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 7.8x10
4
2.1x10
2
0.65 20 3.39x10
4
1.00x10
2
0.338 12.12 6.3
0.02 7.0x10
4
1.9x10
2
0.60 19 3.21x10
4
9.56x10
3
0.321 11.54 6.3
0.05 6.5x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.55 17.5 2.96x10
4
8.46x10
3
0.276 9.81 6.3
0.10 6.5x10
4
1.7x10
2
0.50 15 2.76x10
4
7.22x10
3
0.218 7.46 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
3
0.15 3.1 70 3.03x10
3
0.061 1.236 26.76 6.3
Case 3: Springmass system is attached to mid span at x= (3/6) L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(1/6)L.
Figure 4.57 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (3/6) L
199
Table 4.179 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 4.8x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.23 5.5 2.06x10
4
4.29x10
3
0.092 2.08 6.3
0.02 4.2x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.21 5.0 1.80x10
4
3.80x10
3
0.083 1.91 6.3
0.05 3.4x10
4
7.5x10
3
0.17 4.1 1.64x10
4
3.51x10
3
0.078 1.79 6.3
0.10 3.8x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.19 4.2 1.59x10
4
3.44x10
3
0.077 1.76 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
3
0.15 2.9 56 3.13x10
3
0.0623 1.23 24.49 6.3
Table 4.180 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 8.0x10
4
2.0x10
2
0.50 15 3.59x10
4
8.22x10
3
0.222 7.11 6.3
0.02 7.8x10
4
1.8x10
2
0.50 13.8 3.29x10
4
7.55x10
3
0.205 6.59 6.3
0.05 6.8x10
4
1.6x10
2
0.42 12 2.94x10
4
6.64x10
3
0.176 5.58 6.3
0.10 6.0x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.37 11 2.71x10
4
5.97x10
3
0.150 4.61 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
3
0.15 3.0 65 3.03x10
3
0.0605 1.21 24.79 6.3
Table 4.181 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 3
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 4.5x10
2
1.1 33 950 2.00x10
2
0.495 14.65 498.1 6.3
0.02 4.5x10
2
1.1 32 900 1.90x10
2
0.469 13.80 469.7 6.3
0.05 3.8x10
2
0.98 27 800 1.74x10
2
0.418 12.08 412.1 6.3
0.10 3.6x10
2
0.9 25 750 1.59x10
2
0.371 10.41 354.2 6.3
No TVA 4.5x10
2
1.2 34 1000 2.00x10
2
0.511 15.52 531.7 6.3
200
Case 4: Springmass system is attached to mid span at x=(3/6)L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.182 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three
span uniform beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading 
Case 4
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.5x10
3
3.6x10
2
0.90 27 6.52x10
4
1.51x10
2
0.421 13.99 6.3
0.02 1.5x10
3
3.6x10
2
0.95 27 6.42x10
4
1.51x10
2
0.434 14.73 6.3
0.05 1.5x10
3
3.6x10
2
1.0 31 6.50x10
4
1.59x10
2
0.483 17.16 6.3
0.10 1.5x10
3
3.7x10
2
1.1 36 6.57x10
4
1.70x10
2
0.557 21.07 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
3
0.15 3.1 70 3.03x10
3
0.061 1.236 26.76 6.3
Table 4.183 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under harmonic loading  Case 4
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 3.7x10
4
8.2x10
3
0.22 6.25 1.57x10
4
3.60x10
3
0.101 3.34 6.3
0.02 2.8x10
4
6.7x10
3
0.18 5.8 1.17x10
4
2.88x10
3
0.089 3.12 6.3
0.05 2.0x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.15 4.75 7.98x10
5
2.18x10
3
0.075 2.80 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
4
3.6x10
3
0.11 4.0 5.80x10
5
1.70x10
3
0.063 2.50 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
3
0.15 2.9 60 3.12x10
3
0.062 1.230 24.64 6.3
201
4.7.3.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass system
is attached to first span at x=(1/6)L.
Figure 4.58 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving load
Table 4.184 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.2x10
3
7.0x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.40 2.84x10
3
3.20x10
4
0.0068 0.251
0.02 4.0x10
3
6.5x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.40 2.75x10
3
3.07x10
4
0.0065 0.238
0.05 3.6x10
3
6.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.35 2.45x10
3
2.68x10
4
0.0054 0.199
0.10 3.0x10
3
5.0x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.30 2.09x10
3
2.21x10
4
0.0041 0.148
No TVA 4.3x10
3
7.1x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.41 2.93x10
3
3.33x10
4
0.0072 0.264
202
Table 4.185 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.7x10
4
3.0x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.018 1.17x10
4
1.34x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0109
0.02 1.7x10
4
3.0x10
5
5.3x10
4
0.018 1.17x10
4
1.34x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0108
0.05 1.5x10
4
3.0x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.018 1.11x10
4
1.29x10
5
2.9x10
4
0.0105
0.10 1.5x10
4
2.8x10
5
5.5x10
4
0.020 1.05x10
4
1.25x10
5
2.8x10
4
0.0106
No TVA 1.8x10
4
2.9x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.018 1.18x10
4
1.35x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0109
Table 4.186 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.6x10
3
8.0x10
4
0.017 0.45 3.16x10
3
3.60x10
4
0.0078 0.285
0.02 5.0x10
3
8.2x10
4
0.015 0.50 3.38x10
3
3.85x10
4
0.0084 0.307
0.05 5.8x10
3
1.0x10
3
0.018 0.60 3.96x10
3
4.53x10
4
0.0101 0.373
0.10 7.1x10
3
1.2x10
3
0.022 0.80 4.91x10
3
5.68x10
4
0.0132 0.499
No TVA 4.3x10
3
7.1x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.41 2.93x10
3
3.33x10
4
0.0072 0.264
203
Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass system
is attached to mid span at x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.187 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three
span uniform beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
3
6.7x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.40 2.77x10
3
3.11x10
4
0.0067 0.245
0.02 3.8x10
3
6.5x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.38 2.63x10
3
2.94x10
4
0.0062 0.229
0.05 3.4x10
3
6.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.35 2.36x10
3
2.60x10
4
0.0053 0.199
0.10 3.0x10
3
5.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.30 2.10x10
3
2.28x10
4
0.0044 0.167
No TVA 4.3x10
3
7.1x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.41 2.93x10
3
3.33x10
4
0.0072 0.264
Table 4.188 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving loadCase 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.6x10
4
2.7x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.017 1.11x10
4
1.26x10
5
2.7x10
4
0.0101
0.02 1.5x10
4
2.5x10
5
4.5x10
4
0.015 1.05x10
4
1.18x10
5
2.5x10
4
0.0094
0.05 1.4x10
4
2.3x10
5
4.0x10
4
0.014 9.34x10
5
1.03x10
5
2.1x10
4
0.0080
0.10 1.2x10
4
2.0x10
5
3.4x10
4
0.012 8.20x10
5
8.80x10
6
1.7x10
4
0.0065
No TVA 1.8x10
4
2.9x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.018 1.18x10
4
1.35x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0109
204
4.7.3.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring
mass system is attached to first span at x=(1/6)L.
Figure 4.59 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving pulsating force
Table 4.189 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating force Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 8.8x10
3
0.17 3.4 67.5 4.21x10
3
8.34x10
2
1.65 32.67 6.3
0.02 8.5x10
3
0.17 3.4 65 4.12x10
3
8.16x10
2
1.61 31.97 6.3
0.05 8.0x10
3
0.15 3.0 60 3.81x10
3
7.54x10
2
1.49 29.57 6.3
0.10 7.0x10
3
0.14 2.8 55 3.45x10
3
6.84x10
2
1.35 26.80 6.3
No TVA 0.013 0.25 5.0 100 6.28x10
3
0.124 2.46 48.76 6.3
205
Table 4.190 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating force Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 4.0x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.16 3.2 1.99x10
4
3.95x10
3
0.078 1.55 6.3
0.02 4.0x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.16 3.2 1.98x10
4
3.92x10
3
0.078 1.54 6.3
0.05 4.0x10
4
7.5x10
3
0.15 3.0 1.92x10
4
3.80x10
3
0.075 1.49 6.3
0.10 3.8x10
4
7.5x10
3
0.15 3.0 1.85x10
4
3.66x10
3
0.072 1.43 6.3
No TVA 3.1x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.12 2.4 1.50x10
4
2.98x10
3
0.059 1.17 6.3
Table 4.191 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating force Case 1
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 7.5x10
3
0.15 3.0 60 3.72x10
3
7.36x10
2
1.457 28.85 6.3
0.02 8.0x10
3
0.16 3.1 63 3.92x10
3
7.75x10
2
1.534 30.38 6.3
0.05 9.0x10
3
0.18 3.6 70 4.38x10
3
8.67x10
2
1.717 33.98 6.3
0.10 1.1x10
2
0.20 4.0 70 5.14x10
3
1.02x10
1
2.016 39.91 6.3
No TVA 0.016 0.32 6.25 125 7.82x10
3
0.155 3.06 60.65 6.3
206
Case 2: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring
mass system is attached to mid span at x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.192 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three
span uniform beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating
force Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 8.8x10
3
0.17 3.5 67.5 4.24x10
3
8.40x10
2
1.663 32.92 6.3
0.02 8.2x10
3
0.17 3.3 65 4.10x10
3
8.12x10
2
1.607 31.81 6.3
0.05 8.0x10
3
0.15 3.0 60 3.82x10
3
7.56x10
2
1.496 29.62 6.3
0.10 7.5x10
3
0.145 2.9 58 3.55x10
3
7.04x10
2
1.393 27.58 6.3
No TVA 0.013 0.25 5.0 100 6.28x10
3
0.124 2.46 48.76 6.3
Table 4.193 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying one springmass system under moving pulsating force Case 2
m
1
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 3.2x10
4
6.2x10
3
0.125 2.5 1.56x10
4
3.09x10
3
0.061 1.209 6.3
0.02 3.0x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.120 2.4 1.50x10
4
2.96x10
3
0.059 1.162 6.3
0.05 2.8x10
4
5.5x10
3
0.110 2.2 1.38x10
4
2.72x10
3
0.054 1.067 6.3
0.10 2.6x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.100 2.0 1.26x10
4
2.50x10
3
0.049 0.979 6.3
No TVA 3.1x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.12 2.4 1.50x10
4
2.98x10
3
0.059 1.17 6.3
207
4.7.4. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two SpringMass Systems
4.7.4.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L
and x=(3/6) L and the stepfunction force is applied to x=(1/6)L. Both of the
springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of threespan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.60 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to stepfunction force at x= (1/6) L
208
Table 4.194 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.5x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.11 3.3 1.97x10
4
1.76x10
3
0.048 1.47
0.02 3.5x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.11 3.2 1.95x10
4
1.76x10
3
0.048 1.47
0.05 3.4x10
4
4.0x10
3
0.11 3.2 1.92x10
4
1.72x10
3
0.048 1.47
0.10 3.3x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.10 3.0 1.88x10
4
1.62x10
3
0.046 1.50
No TVA 3.7x10
4
4.5x10
3
0.12 3.4 2.03x10
4
1.93x10
3
0.052 1.53
Table 4.195 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 8.0x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.50 17.0 3.77x10
4
7.68x10
3
0.276 10.16
0.02 8.5x10
4
1.6x10
2
0.52 17.5 3.79x10
4
7.82x10
3
0.277 10.19
0.05 9.5x10
4
1.9x10
2
0.60 20.0 4.03x10
4
8.71x10
3
0.301 11.06
0.10 1.05x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.75 26.0 4.53x10
4
1.05x10
2
0.364 13.44
No TVA 7.5x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.47 16.5 3.81x10
4
7.70x10
3
0.278 10.23
Table 4.196 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under impact loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.4x10
2
0.90 32 1150 3.04x10
2
0.537 19.87 739.9
0.02 5.6x10
2
1.00 32 1200 3.11x10
2
0.541 20.05 752.2
0.05 6.4x10
2
1.10 40 1400 3.46x10
2
0.593 22.17 845.3
0.10 7.5x10
2
1.40 50 1900 4.20x10
2
0.725 27.56 1076.1
No TVA 5.2x10
2
0.90 31 1100 3.00x10
2
0.539 19.80 732.0
209
4.7.4.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Springmass systems are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L
and x=(3/6) L and the harmonic load is applied to x=(1/6)L. Both of the spring
mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of threespan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.61 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L
Table 4.197 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 3.0x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.16 3.8 1.20x10
4
2.55x10
3
0.059 1.51 6.3
0.02 2.3x10
4
5.0x10
3
0.13 3.2 9.45x10
5
2.09x10
3
0.051 1.39 6.3
0.05 1.6x10
4
3.8x10
3
0.10 2.7 6.78x10
5
1.61x10
3
0.043 1.27 6.3
0.10 1.2x10
4
2.8x10
3
0.08 2.3 4.95x10
5
1.25x10
3
0.037 1.19 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
3
0.15 2.9 56 3.13x10
3
0.0623 1.23 24.49 6.3
210
Table 4.198 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 1.2x10
3
2.4x10
2
0.65 19 5.37x10
4
1.15x10
2
0.28 8.19 6.3
0.02 1.2x10
3
2.6x10
2
0.70 19 5.27x10
4
1.14x10
2
0.28 8.20 6.3
0.05 1.1x10
3
2.8x10
2
0.7 20 5.19x10
4
1.15x10
2
0.29 8.75 6.3
0.10 1.15x10
3
2.9x10
2
0.78 23 5.22x10
4
1.20x10
2
0.32 10.24 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
3
0.15 3.0 65 3.03x10
3
0.0605 1.21 24.79 6.3
Table 4.199 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under harmonic loading  Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 5.0x10
2
1.25 35 1000 2.17x10
2
0.538 15.91 539.04 6.3
0.02 5.0x10
2
1.23 34 1100 2.20x10
2
0.545 16.10 546.75 6.3
0.05 5.0x10
2
1.30 40 1200 2.35x10
2
0.586 17.54 605.68 6.3
0.10 6.0x10
2
1.60 48 1500 2.66x10
2
0.682 21.11 753.16 6.3
No TVA 4.5x10
2
1.2 34 1000 2.00x10
2
0.511 15.52 531.7 6.3
211
4.7.4.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the springmass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L and x=(3/6) L. Both of the
springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of threespan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.62 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving load
Table 4.200 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
3
6.5x10
4
1.1x10
2
0.40 2.70x10
3
3.02x10
4
0.0064 0.236
0.02 3.6x10
3
6.0x10
4
1.0x10
2
0.36 2.52x10
3
2.77x10
4
0.0057 0.213
0.05 3.2x10
3
5.5x10
4
9.0x10
3
0.32 2.21x10
3
2.39x10
4
0.0046 0.174
0.10 2.8x10
3
4.8x10
4
8.0x10
3
0.28 1.96x10
3
2.14x10
4
0.0039 0.143
No TVA 4.3x10
3
7.1x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.41 2.93x10
3
3.33x10
4
0.0072 0.264
212
Table 4.201 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.6x10
4
2.8x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.017 1.11x10
4
1.26x10
5
2.8x10
4
0.0101
0.02 1.5x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.016 1.05x10
4
1.19x10
5
2.6x10
4
0.0095
0.05 1.4x10
4
2.6x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.016 9.61x10
5
1.09x10
5
2.3x10
4
0.0086
0.10 1.3x10
4
2.4x10
5
4.8x10
4
0.016 9.00x10
5
1.03x10
5
2.2x10
4
0.0083
No TVA 1.8x10
4
2.9x10
5
5.0x10
4
0.018 1.18x10
4
1.35x10
5
3.0x10
4
0.0109
Table 4.202 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving loadCase 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.4x10
3
7.4x10
4
1.3x10
2
0.45 3.00x10
3
3.39x10
4
0.0073 0.268
0.02 4.5x10
3
7.5x10
4
1.4x10
2
0.45 3.07x10
3
3.46x10
4
0.0074 0.272
0.05 5.0x10
3
8.5x10
4
1.5x10
2
0.53 3.42x10
3
3.84x10
4
0.0082 0.306
0.10 6.0x10
3
1.0x10
3
2.0x10
2
0.70 4.14x10
3
4.64x10
4
0.010 0.385
No TVA 4.3x10
3
7.1x10
4
1.2x10
2
0.41 2.93x10
3
3.33x10
4
0.0072 0.264
213
4.7.4.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring
mass systems are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L and x=(3/6) L.
Both of the springmass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same
with the first natural frequency of threespan bare uniform beam.
Figure 4.63 Threespan simply supported beam carrying one springmass
system subjected to moving pulsating force
Table 4.203 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating force Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 8.5 x10
3
0.17 3.4 65 4.17x10
3
8.26x10
2
1.64 32.37 6.3
0.02 8.0 x10
3
0.16 3.2 63 3.98x10
3
7.88x10
2
1.56 30.87 6.3
0.05 7.5x10
3
0.15 3.0 60 3.66x10
3
7.24x10
2
1.43 28.38 6.3
0.10 7.0 x10
3
0.14 2.7 55 3.41x10
3
6.75x10
2
1.34 26.46 6.3
No TVA 0.013 0.25 5.0 100 6.28x10
3
0.124 2.46 48.76 6.3
214
Table 4.204 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating force Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 3.6x10
4
7.2x10
3
0.14 2.8 1.78x10
4
3.53x10
3
0.070 1.38 6.3
0.02 3.5x10
4
7.0x10
3
0.14 2.8 1.72x10
4
3.40x10
3
0.067 1.33 6.3
0.05 3.3x10
4
6.5x10
3
0.13 2.5 1.62x10
4
3.20x10
3
0.063 1.25 6.3
0.10 3.2x10
4
6.2x10
3
0.12 2.4 1.54x10
4
3.05x10
3
0.060 1.20 6.3
No TVA 3.1x10
4
6.0x10
3
0.12 2.4 1.50x10
4
2.98x10
3
0.059 1.17 6.3
Table 4.205 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for threespan uniform
beam carrying two springmass systems under moving pulsating force Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b
w
max
(m)
v
max
(m/s)
a
max
(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)
v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
(rad/s)
0.01 8.0x10
3
0.16 3.2 65 4.04x10
3
7.99x10
2
1.581 31.30 6.3
0.02 8.0x10
3
0.16 3.2 65 4.07x10
3
8.06x10
2
1.595 31.57 6.3
0.05 8.5x10
3
0.18 3.4 67.5 4.31x10
3
8.53x10
2
1.688 33.43 6.3
0.10 1.0x10
2
0.19 3.8 75 4.83x10
3
9.57x10
2
1.894 37.50 6.3
No TVA 0.016 0.32 6.25 125 7.82x10
3
0.155 3.06 60.65 6.3
215
CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1. Summary
The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of springmass
systems (Tuned Vibration Absorbers, or TVAs) attached to EulerBernoulli
beams in order to control the response due to excessive vibrations. Effectiveness
of tuned vibration absorbers has been studied and their performance evaluated
through comparisons on an extensive combination of loading dynamic types,
span configurations, and TVA distributions. The proposed method includes the
exact solutions of natural frequencies and mode shapes of uniform and non
uniform beams carrying any number of passive tuned mass dampers (TMD) and
forced vibration of these beams based on their free vibration data. A
mathematical formulation has been presented for free and forced vibration of
beams. An algorithm has been developed through MATHEMATICA and
numerical results have been obtained for various forcing systems and boundary
conditions.
Several numerical examples have been provided in order to evaluate the
performance of TMDs under free and forced vibration of uniform and nonuniform
beams carrying single or multiple springmass systems with various boundary
conditions. Free vibration characteristics of beams carrying elastically attached
point masses are obtained through numerical assembly method (Wu and Chou,
1999). Overall coefficient matrix is generated by combining the coefficient
matrices of each boundaries of the beam and each attaching points for a spring
mass system through conventional assembly technique for finite element
method. Numerical assembly method is used in order to derive the eigenvalue
equation and then the developed algorithm is used for the solution of the
216
eigenvalues and the corresponding mode shapes. The accuracy of the
developed algorithm in this study is evaluated by comparing its numerical results
with existing literature.
The first part of the present study deals with the determination of natural
frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of singlespan uniform beams,
singlespan nonuniform beams and multispan uniform beams carrying any
number of springmass systems and the second part calculates the forced
vibration responses of uniform beams under the excitation of stepfunction forces
(Impact Loading), harmonic forces, moving loads and moving pulsating forces.
First and second part also includes the free and forced vibration of a high mast
lighting tower (HMLT) which is subjected to wind induced dynamic load and
represented as nonuniform cantilever beam. The beams are considered as
continuous structural elements and both free and forced vibration solutions are
analyzed using thin beam (EulerBernoulli) theory. For singlespan beams, four
boundary conditions are studied including simply supportedsimply supported,
clampedclamped, clampedsimply supported and clampedfree boundaries. On
the other hand, each intermediate support is assumed as simply supported for
multispan beams. For the force vibration response of the structural elements,
90% of modal mass contribution is considered to be sufficient. Forced vibration of
the entire beam is obtained by using normal mode approach and linear
combination of the normal modes. Displacement, velocity, acceleration and jerk
responses of the entire beam with TMDs are calculated and the resultant
responses are compared with the beam without TMDs.
The illustrative numerical examples presented in this study are based on
human induced loads for singlespan and multispan uniform beams. Moreover,
singlespan nonuniform beams are subjected to windinduced loads to evaluate
the passive vibration control of HMLTs. Harmonic forces are considered as
repeated forces caused by human activities such as walking or dancing and
217
represented as timedependent sinusoidal forcing. Harmonic moving loads are
also represented as concentrated loads with sinusoidally varying amplitude and
moving with a constant speed v
0
which is the average human walking speed,
80m/min. Moreover, footstep impulse vibration has defined as stepfunction force
and nonharmonic moving load is considered to simulate pedestrian walking load
with a constant speed. The stepfunction and harmonic forces are represented by
using Dirac delta function and moving load and moving pulsating force are
expressed by using Fourier series. To evaluate the performance of TMDs, the
frequency component of the exciting forces is selected to match with the natural
frequency of the beams in order to simulate and approximate the condition for
resonance which could be the worst scenario causing significant vibration
amplification.
In addition, the performance of TMD under wind induced vibration has been
investigated through an analysis performed for a HMLT structure which is
assumed to be a nonuniform cantilever beam to carry out the proposed method
in this study. Wind induced dynamic loads are estimated using available wind
velocity data obtained at a certain height of the HMLT. The wind velocity profile
has been generated with empirical powerlaw method based on five selected
points throughout the height of HMLT and the corresponding forcing functions
with respect to time are defined by Fourier series using obtained wind profiles for
each selected points. A TMD is attached to top of the structure and dynamic
response at that point has been compared with the results obtained from bare
HMLT under windinduced vibration.
5.2. Conclusion
This study presents the free and forced vibration of beams carrying any
number of springmass systems and the resultant responses were compared
with the bare uniform and nonuniform beams. Based on the observations from
218
numerical results for single span uniform, single span nonuniform and multi
span uniform beams, the following conclusions are made;
1. It is observed that TMDs are very effective when they are properly
tuned to the excitation frequency. The effectiveness level of TMD
increases if the excitation frequency converges to the any normal
mode frequency causing the condition for resonance.
2. When TMD is tuned to the exact excitation frequency, it can be
concluded that single TMD application is more effective than multiple
TMDs of the same total mass ratio based on the peak resultant
responses or RMS values obtained from the main structure for
harmonic excitations. On the other hand, it is difficult to estimate the
exact excitation frequency in practice. Therefore it may be more
effective to implement multiple TMDs within a small frequency range in
order to overcome randomly varying excitations such as wind induced
or human induced vibrations.
3. TMD loses its effectiveness when the structure is subjected to non
harmonic excitations such as stepfunction forces or constant moving
loads.
4. If the natural frequency of the TMD diverges further from the excitation
frequency or fundamental frequency of the structure, the performance
of TMD significantly decreases.
5. Single or multiple TMD application is more effective and robust when
the attached mass is increased without changing natural frequency of
properly tuned TMD under harmonic excitations.
219
6. Based on the results obtained from wind induced vibration analysis of
HMLT structure, it can be confirmed that a passive TMD can be
effective in reducing the dynamic response of HMLTs when it is
properly tuned to the fundamental frequency of the HMLT it is installed
in.
7. It is also observed that a TMD attached to top of the HMLT structure
having 1% mass of the total mass of the structure decreases the wind
induced dynamic response by about 50%.
8. The results for HMLT structure also show that the dynamic response of
the main structure does not change with the increase of the mass of
TMD under wind induced vibration. The relative motion of TMD is also
in practical limit and able to be accommodated in the actual structure.
9. For multispan beams, when TMDs are used for each span, one of the
normal mode frequencies being dominated by any of the TMDs may
converge to the fundamental frequency of the structure and this may
cause undesirable responses. Therefore, this case requires a careful
consideration on selecting the final dynamic characteristics of the
TMDs for multispan beams.
10. Although the first four lowest natural frequencies and corresponding
mode shapes of the structures are found without having any problem
by solving the eigenvalue equation using the developed algorithm in
MATHEMATICA, some numerical difficulties are encountered in finding
the roots of determinant expression of coefficient matrix in the
eigenvalue equation. The precise starting values for finding the roots of
determinant expression increase the computational time in case of
more than two TMDs particularly.
220
5.3. Future Work
No damping characteristics of the structure or the TMDs have been
included in the proposed method of this study. Based on the numerous examples
given in this study, the use of single or multiple TMDs is significantly effective in
reducing the dynamic response of the main structure under harmonic excitations
and wind induced vibration. However, the study may be extended by considering
the effects of damping characteristics of the structure and TMD in order to
generalize the results of this study.
Experimental study is needed to extend this research and to obtain more
information in order to understand the performance of TMD in actuality.
Moreover, experimental results are necessary to study the level of reliability of
the analytical and numerical method proposed in this study.
This study may also be extended for the free and forced vibration of
uniform rectangular plates with attached TMDs located at arbitrary points and the
performance of TMDs can be also evaluated for floor vibration control of
structures subjected to human induced vibration particularly.
In this study, it is also indicated that the use of single TMD has a
disadvantage when the excitation frequency is not known exactly. However,
multiple TMDs within a small frequency range may perform better for randomly
varying excitations. As a result of this, it is recommended to investigate the
optimum parameters of multiple TMDs having different dynamic characteristics in
order to improve the effectiveness of vibration control.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
221
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Allen, D. E. (June,1990). Building Vibrations from Human Activities.
Allen, D. E., & Pernica, G. (1984). A simple absorber for walking. Canadian
Journal of Civil Engineering , 11, 112117.
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APPENDICES
228
Appendix A.
A.1. Detailed formulation for the responses of SDOFTMD system
Figure A.1 SDOFTMD system
Parameters of primary structure and TMD;
2
=
k
m
,
Eq. A.1
c = 2m Eq. A.2
d
2
=
k
d
m
d
Eq. A.3
c
d
= 2
d
d
m
d
Eq. A.4
The mass ratio, , is defined as;
p =
m
d
m
,
Eq. A.5
The governing equations of motion for the SDOFTMD system are as
follows;
mu +ku +cu k
d
u
d
c
d
u
d
p(t) = u Eq. A.6
m
d
(u +u
d
) +k
d
u
d
+c
d
u
d
= u Eq. A.7
From equations A.6 and A.7 one obtains;
mu +ku +cu +m
d
(u +u
d
) = p(t) Eq. A.8
Dividing equations A.6 and A.7 by m
d
the governing equations of motions
are as follows;
229
Primary mass,
(1 +p)u +2u +
2
u =
p(t)
m
pu
d
Eq. A.9
Tuned mass,
u
d
+2
d
d
u
d
+
d
2
u
d
= u Eq. A.10
The optimal approximation for the damper is assumed as,
d
= Eq. A.11
The stiffness relation between damper and structure is defined as,
k
d
= pk Eq. A.12
And the periodic excitation can be shown as follows,
p(t) = p sin(0t) Eq. A.13
The responses of the structure and the damper is given by,
p(t) = p sin(0t) Eq. A.14
u
d
(t) = u
d
sin(0t +o
1
+o
2
) Eq. A.15
The critical scenario is the equality of and which is resonant condition
and the solutions for this case are as follows,
u(t) = Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t) Eq. A.16
u
d
(t) = C sin(0t) +cos(0t) Eq. A.17
A = u cos(o
1
) B = u sin(o
1
) Eq. A.18
C = u
d
cos(o
2
) = u
d
sin(o
2
) Eq. A.19
u = (A
2
+B
2
)
Eq. A.20
u
d
= (C
2
+
2
)
Eq. A.21
u(t) = u sin(0t +o
1
) Eq. A.22
u
d
(t) = u
d
sin(0t +o
2
) Eq. A.23
When equations A.16 and A.17 are introduced into equations A.9 and
A.10, one obtains,
0
2
(1 +p)(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t)) +20(Acos(0t) Bsin(0t)) +
2
(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t)) =
p
m
sin(0t) +0
2
p(C sin(0t) +cos(0t))
Eq. A.24
230
0
2
m
d
(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t) +C sin(0t) +cos(0t)) +k
d
(C sin(0t) +
cos(0t)) +c
d
0(C cos(0t) sin(0t)) = u
Eq. A.25
If equations A.24 and A.25 are simplified, one obtains,
0
2
(1 +p)A 20B +
2
A =
p
m
+0
2
pC
Eq. A.26
0
2
(1 +p)B +20A +
2
B = 0
2
p Eq. A.27
0
2
m
d
(A +C) +k
d
C c
d
0 = u Eq. A.28
0
2
m
d
(B +) +k
d
+c
d
0C = u Eq. A.29
where,
0 = Eq. A.30
o
1
= tan
1
(
B
A
, ) Eq. A.31
o
2
= tan
1
(
C
, ) Eq. A.32
c = 2m Eq. A.33
c
d
= 2
d
d
m
d
Eq. A.34
If equation A.30 is substituted into equations A.26, A.27, A28 and A29,
one obtains,

2
pA 2
2
B 
2
pC =
p
m
Eq. A.35
2
2
A 
2
pB 
2
p = u Eq. A.36

2
m
d
A 2
d
2
m
d
= u Eq. A.37

2
m
d
B +2
d
2
m
d
C = u Eq. A.38
The simplified forms of equations A.35, A.36, A.37 and A.38,
pA 2B pC =
p
k
Eq. A.39
2A pB p = u Eq. A.40
A 2
d
= u Eq. A.41
B +2
d
C = u Eq. A.42
A, B, C and D are as follows after solving equations A.39, A.40, A.41 and
A.42;
231
A = 
4mp
d
2
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2
d
2
+16
2
d
2
)
Eq. A.43
B = 
2(pp
d
+4p
d
2
)
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2
d
2
+16
2
d
2
)
Eq. A.44
C = 
pp +4p
d
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2
d
2
+16
2
d
2
)
Eq. A.45
= 
2pp
d
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2
d
2
+16
2
d
2
)
Eq. A.46
And the responses are given by;
u =
_
_

2p
d
k_[8p
d
+16
2
d
2
+p
2
(1 +4
d
2
)
_
_
Eq. A.47
The simplified form of equation A.47 is given by,
u =
p
kp
_
1
1 +[
2
p
+
1
2
d
2
Eq. A.48
u
d
=
_
_

p
k_[8p
d
+16
2
d
2
+p
2
(1 +4
d
2
)
_
_
Eq. A.49
u
d
=
1
2
d
u Eq. A.50
The response for no damper is as follows;
p = u Eq. A.51
u +2u +
2
u =
p
m
sin(0t)
Eq. A.52
u(t) = Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t) = u sin(0t +o
1
) Eq. A.53
u = (A
2
+B
2
) A = u cos(o
1
) B = u sin(o
1
)
Eq. A.54
232
When equation A.53 is introduced into equation A.52, one obtains,
0
2
(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t)) +20(Acos(0t) Bsin(0t)) +
2
(Asin(0t) +
Bcos(0t)) =
p
m
sin(0t)
Eq. A.55
The simplified form of equation A.55 is given by,
B0
2
+2A0 +
2
B = u Eq. A.56
A0
2
+2B0 +
2
A =
p
m
Eq. A.57
where 0 = , and A and B are as follows after solving equations A.56 and
A.57,
A = u Eq. A.58
B = 
p
m
1
2
2
= 
p
m
1
2
k
m
= 
p
2k
Eq. A.59
And the response for no damper is given by;
u = (A
2
+B
2
) = _
p
2k
_ =
p
k
_
1
2
] Eq. A.60
Equation A.60 can be expressed in terms of equivalent damping ratio in
order to compare the cases with and without damper.
u =
p
k
_
1
2
c
] Eq. A.61
where,
c
=
p
2
_
1 +_
2
p
+
1
2
d
]
2
Eq. A.62
If equation A.54 substituted in equation A.53, one obtains,
(t) = u sin(0t) cos(o
1
) +u cos(0t) sin(o
1
) Eq. A.63
B
A
, = tan(o
1
) Eq. A.64
o
1
= tan
1
(
B
A
, ) Eq. A.65
o
1
= 
n
2
,
Eq. A.66
233
Example
Assume that = u and
c
= u.1, the relation between p and
c
is as
follows
p
2
_
1 +_
2
p
+
1
2
d
]
2
= u.1
Eq. A.67
where
u
d
=
1
2
d
u Eq. A.68
Inserting equation Eq.A.68 into equation Eq.A.67 and assuming that
= u as indicated above gives,
p
2
_
1 +_
u
d
u
]
2
= u.1
Eq. A.69
Since
u
d
u
is greater than 1, equation A.69 can be written as,
p
2
_
u
d
u
] = u.1
Eq. A.70
If
u
d
u
is assumed to be 10, then equation A.70 gives an estimate for p =
m
d
m
,
,
p =
m
d
m
,
=
2(u.1)
1u
= u.u2
Eq. A.71
and from equation A.68 and A.12,
d
=
1
2
_
u
u
d
] =
u.1
2
= u.uS Eq. A.72
k
d
= pk = u.u2k Eq. A.73
Therefore, 2% of the primary mass provides an effective damping ratio of
10% as it is shown in the above. On the other hand, the large relative motion of
the damper mass should be considered during design stage in order to control
this motion in a real structure.
234
Appendix B.
B.1. Determination of B
L
] and B
R
] for Different Boundary Conditions for
Uniform Beams
a) ClampedClamped beam
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2
Eq.B.1
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
cos([l) sin([l) cosh([l) sinh([l)
_
p 1
p
Eq.B.2
b) Simply supportedSimply Supported beam
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
u 1 u 1
_
1
2
Eq.B.3
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
_
p 1
p
Eq.B.4
c) ClampedSimply Supported beam
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2
Eq.B.5
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
_
p 1
p
Eq.B.6
235
d) ClampedFree End with Attached Mass (M) beam
(u) = u
i
(u) = u Eq.B.7
ii
(l) = u EI
iii
(l) = H
2
(l) Eq.B.8
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2
Eq.B.9
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
_
p 1
p
Eq.B.10
where
e
1
= EI cos([l) +H
2
sin([l) Eq.B.11
e
2
= EI sin([l) +H
2
cos([l) Eq.B.12
e
3
= EI cosh([l) +H
2
sinh([l) Eq.B.13
e
4
= EI sinh([l) +H
2
cosh([l) Eq.B.14
B.2. Coefficient Matrix B] for Uniform Simply Supported Beams Carrying Multiple SpringMass Systems
Case 1Uniform Simply Supported Beam Carrying Two SpringMass Systems
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u p
1
([l) u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u y
1
2
1 u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u p
2
([l)
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u y
2
2
1
u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u
u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
6
Case 2Uniform Simply Supported Beam Carrying Three SpringMass Systems
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u p
1
([l) u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u y
1
2
 1 u u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u u u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u u u u u p
2
([l) u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u u u u u y
2
2
 1 u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u u p
S
([l)
u u u u u u u u sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) u u u u u u y
S
2
1
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3
7
238
Appendix C.
C.1. Determination of B
L
] and B
R
] for Different Boundary Conditions for Non
Uniform Beams
a) ClampedClamped beam
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
[
1
([)
1
([) I
1
([) K
1
([)
[
2
([)
2
([) I
2
([) K
2
([)
_
1
2
Eq.C.1
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p 1
p
Eq.C.2
b) Simply supportedSimply Supported beam
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
[
1
([)
1
([) I
1
([) K
1
([)
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
_
1
2
Eq.C.3
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
3
([o)
3
([o) I
3
([o) K
3
([o)
_
p 1
p
Eq.C.4
c) Simply SupportedClamped beam
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
[
1
([)
1
([) I
1
([) K
1
([)
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
_
1
2
Eq.C.5
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p 1
p
Eq.C.6
239
d) Free End with Attached Mass (M)Clamped beam
For free end
x = u  = 1
therefore
Shear,
ii
(1) = u Eq.C.7
Bending,
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
_ = E
JI(x)
Jx
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
+EI(x)
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
= H
2
(x) Eq.C.8
C
11
[
3
([) +C
12
3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([) = u Eq.C.9
6[
2
C
11
[
3
([) +C
12
3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([)] [
3
C
11
[
4
([) +
C
12
4
([) C
13
I
4
([) +C
14
K
4
([)] =
8Mo
2
L
3
LI
0
(u1)
3
C
1
[
1
([) +C
2
1
([) +
C
3
I
1
([) +C
4
K
1
([)]
Eq.C.10
1 2 S 4
B
L
] = _
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
_
1
2
Eq.C.11
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p 1
p
Eq.C.12
where
e
1
= 6[
2
[
3
([) [
3
[
4
([) 
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o 1)
3
[
1
([) Eq.C.13
e
2
= 6[
2
3
([) [
3
4
([) 
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o 1)
3
([) Eq.C.14
e
3
= 6[
2
I
3
([) +I
4
([) 
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o 1)
3
I([) Eq.C.15
e
4
= 6[
2
K
3
([) [
3
K
4
([) 
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o 1)
3
K([) Eq.C.16
C.2. Coefficient Matrix B] for NonUniform FreeClamped Beams Carrying Multiple SpringMass Systems
Case 1NonUniform FreeClamped Beam Carrying Two SpringMass Systems
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
[
S
([)
S
([) I
S
([) K
S
([) u u u u u u u u u u
e
1
e
2
e
S
e
4
u u u u u u u u u u
[
1
(o
1
)
1
(o
1
) I
1
(o
1
) K
1
(o
1
) [
1
(o
1
) 
1
(o
1
) I
1
(o
1
) K
1
(o
1
) u u u u u u
[
2
(o
1
)
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) K
2
(o
1
) [
2
(o
1
) 
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) K
2
(o
1
) u u u u u u
[
S
(o
1
)
S
(o
1
) I
S
(o
1
) K
S
(o
1
) [
S
(o
1
) 
S
(o
1
) I
S
(o
1
) K
S
(o
1
) u u u u u u
11
21
S1
41

S1

61

71

81
u u u u u u
1

1
2
[
1
(o
1
)
1

1
2
1
(o
1
)
1

1
2
I
1
(o
1
)
1

1
2
K
1
(o
1
) u u u u u u u u y
1
2
1 u
u u u u [
1
(o
2
)
1
(o
2
) I
1
(o
2
) K
1
(o
2
) [
1
(o
2
) 
1
(o
2
) I
1
(o
2
) K
1
(o
2
) u u
u u u u [
2
(o
2
)
2
(o
2
) I
2
(o
2
) K
2
(o
2
) [
2
(o
2
) 
2
(o
2
) I
2
(o
2
) K
2
(o
2
) u u
u u u u [
S
(o
2
)
S
(o
2
) I
S
(o
2
) K
S
(o
2
) [
S
(o
2
) 
S
(o
2
) I
S
(o
2
) K
S
(o
2
) u u
u u u u
12
22
S2
42

S2

62

72

82
u u
u u u u
2

1
2
[
1
(o
2
)
2

1
2
1
(o
2
)
2

1
2
I
1
(o
2
)
2

1
2
K
1
(o
2
) u u u u u y
2
2
1
u u u u u u u u [
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o) u u
u u u u u u u u [
2
([o)
2
([o) I
2
([o) K
2
([o) u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
0
Appendix D.
D.1. Coefficient Matrix B] for MultiSpan Uniform Beams Carrying Multiple SpringMass Systems
Case 1TwoSpan Uniform Beam Carrying Two SpringMass Systems
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u p
1
([l) u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u y
1
2
 1 u
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) u u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) u p
2
([l)
u u u u u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u y
2
2
 1
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
4
1
Case 2ThreeSpan Uniform Beam Carrying One SpringMass System attached to First Span
B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u p
1
([l)
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u y
1
2
1
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin(0
:2
) cos(0
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Case 3ThreeSpan Uniform Beam Carrying One SpringMass System attached to Mid Span
B
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3