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DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF BEAMS WITH PASSIVE TUNED MASS DAMPERS

A Thesis

Submitted to the Faculty

of

Purdue University

by

Mustafa Kemal Ozkan





In Partial Fulfillment of the

Requirements for the Degree

of

Master of Science in Civil Engineering





May 2010

Purdue University

West Lafayette, Indiana
ii














To the memory of my grandfather, Ali Bicer.
To my parents for their endless love, support and encouragement.














iii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would here like to express my thanks to the people who have been very
helpful to me during the time it took me to write this thesis.

I would like to express the deepest appreciation to my advisor and mentor,
Professor Ayhan Irfanoglu for giving me the opportunity to work in a very
interesting area and for his support and guidance throughout my graduate
studies at Purdue University.

I also would like to thank the members of my graduate committee,
Professor Mete A. Sozen and Professor Michael E. Kreger, for their time and
suggestions on this thesis.

I wish also to thank Professor Robert J. Connor and Ryan J. Sherman for
kindly sharing data for the high-mast lighting towers.

I would like to express my sincere thanks to my friends and colleagues,
particularly Fabian Consuegra and Bismarck Luna, for providing a very enjoyable
working environment.

I thank to the faculty and staff of the Structural Engineering department,
especially to Molly Stetler, for their kindness and support.

The last, and the most, I want to thank my family for their love, support
and encouragement.
iv
To my sister Aysenur Ozkan, I appreciate that you are just my sister and
thank you for being there always. I owe so much thanks to my grandmother,
Sabire Bicer, who has always supported me since the start of my life.

I am greatly indebted to my mother, Nurten Ozkan, and my father, Taki
Ozkan, thank you for providing me with the opportunity to be where I am.







v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................... viii
LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................ xxii
LIST OF SYMBOLS ......................................................................................... xxvii
ABSTRACT ...................................................................................................... xxix
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ 1
1.1. General ....................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1. Sources of Dynamic Excitation ............................................................. 1
1.1.2. Dynamic Loadings ................................................................................ 2
1.1.3. Consequences of Vibration ................................................................... 2
1.1.4. Vibration Control ................................................................................... 3
1.2. Object and Scope ....................................................................................... 4
1.3. Organization ............................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH ............................. 6
2.1. Human-Structure Dynamic Interaction and Human Induced Vibration ....... 6
2.2. Vibration Criteria ....................................................................................... 12
2.2.1. ISO International Standard ................................................................. 12
2.2.2. Murrays Criterion ............................................................................... 14
2.2.3. Other Recommendations and Criteria ................................................ 14
2.2.4. Recommended Criteria for Sensitive Laboratory and Healthcare
Facility Floors ...................................................................................... 18
2.3. Vibration Mitigation Techniques ................................................................ 23
2.3.1. Passive Vibration Mitigation Techniques ............................................ 23
2.3.2. Active Vibration Mitigation Techniques ............................................... 29
2.3.3. Semi-Active Vibration Mitigation Techniques ...................................... 31
2.4. Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) Overview .................................................. 32
2.4.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 32
2.4.2. An Introductory Example of a TMD for an Undamped
SDOF System ..................................................................................... 37
CHAPTER 3. FREE AND FORCED VIBRATION OF BEAMS WITH ANY
NUMBER OF ATTACHED SPRING MASS SYSTEMS
SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF
DYNAMIC LOADS ........................................................................ 40
3.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 40
3.2. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform Beams
Carrying Spring-Mass Systems ................................................................. 42
3.2.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Functions .............................. 42


vi
Page
3.2.2. Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the Constrained Beam ..................... 43
3.3. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Non-Uniform Beams
Carrying Spring-Mass Systems ................................................................. 51
3.3.1. Equations of Motion and Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the
Constrained Beam .............................................................................. 51
3.3.2. Coefficient Matrix [B
v
] for the v-th Attaching Point .............................. 54
3.3.3. Coefficient Matrix [B
L
] for the Left End of the Beam............................ 59
3.3.4. Coefficient Matrix [B
R
] for the Right End of the Beam ......................... 60
3.4. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform
Multi-Span Beams Carrying Spring-Mass Systems ................................... 63
3.4.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Function ................................ 63
3.4.2. Coefficient Matrices and Determination of Natural Frequencies
and Mode Shapes ............................................................................... 65
3.5. Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams ............................................... 74
3.5.1. Introduction ......................................................................................... 74
3.5.2. Formulation of Forced Vibration for Beams ........................................ 74
CHAPTER 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS ............................................................... 81
4.1. Introduction ............................................................................................... 81
4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying
One, Two and Three Spring-Mass Systems.............................................. 82
4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span Non-Uniform Beam Carrying
Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................................... 94
4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Uniform Multi-Span Beam Carrying
Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................................. 102
4.4.1. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass System ................................................................. 102
4.4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................... 106
4.4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................... 109
4.4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................... 112
4.5. Forced Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying
One, Two and Three Spring-Mass Systems ........................................... 120
4.5.1. Impact Loading ................................................................................. 120
4.5.2. Harmonic Loading ............................................................................ 134
4.5.3. Moving Load ..................................................................................... 148
4.5.4. Moving Pulsating Force .................................................................... 153
4.6. Forced Vibration Analysis of High-Mast Lighting Tower under
Wind Load ............................................................................................... 158
4.7. Forced Vibration Analysis of Multi Span Uniform Beams Carrying
One and Two Spring-Mass Systems ....................................................... 162
4.7.1. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass System ................................................................. 162


vii
Page
4.7.2. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................... 176
4.7.3. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................... 189
4.7.4. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems ............................................................... 207
CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................................. 215
5.1. Summary ................................................................................................ 215
5.2. Conclusion .............................................................................................. 217
5.3. Future Work ............................................................................................ 220
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................... 221
APPENDICES
Appendix A. ................................................................................................... 228
Appendix B. ................................................................................................... 234
Appendix C. ................................................................................................... 238
Appendix D. ................................................................................................... 241



viii
LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
2.1 Recommended values for i (Murray et al., 1997) ................................... 8
2.2 Recommended acceleration limits for vibration due to rhythmic
activities (Allen, 1990) ............................................................................ 17
2.3 Suggested design parameters for rhythmic activities
(Allen et al., 1985) .................................................................................. 18
2.4 Minimum recommended natural assembly floor frequencies, Hz
(Allen et al., 1985) .................................................................................. 18
2.5 Application and Interpretation of Generic Vibration Criteria
(Pan et al.2008) ...................................................................................... 21
4.1 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ................................................... 83
4.2 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ................................................... 83
4.3 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ................................................... 84
4.4 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ..................................................... 84
4.5 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ..................................................... 84
4.6 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ...................................... 85
4.7 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ...................................... 85
4.8 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ...................................... 85
4.9 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) ........................................ 86
4.10 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) ........................................ 86
4.11 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ....................... 87
4.12 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ....................... 87
4.13 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ....................... 88



ix
Table Page
4.14 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) ......................... 88
4.15 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
three spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) ......................... 89
4.16 The lowest six natural frequencies of the bare uniform beam ................ 89
4.17 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ................................................... 95
4.18 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ................................................... 95
4.19 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ................................................... 95
4.20 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ..................................................... 96
4.21 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ..................................................... 96
4.22 The lowest five natural frequencies of the bare non-uniform beam ........ 96
4.23 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the high-mast lighting tower
carrying one spring-mass system at the free end ................................. 100
4.24 Comparison of the lowest four natural frequencies of the bare
high-mast lighting tower ........................................................................ 100
4.25 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying
one spring-mass system at second span ............................................. 103
4.26 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying
one spring-mass system at first span ................................................... 104
4.27 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 1 .......................................... 106
4.28 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 2 .......................................... 107
4.29 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
one spring-mass system based on case 1 ........................................... 109
4.30 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
one spring-mass system based on case 2 ........................................... 110
4.31 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 1 .......................................... 112
4.32 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 2 .......................................... 113
4.33 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 3 .......................................... 114
4.34 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 4 .......................................... 115
4.35 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 5 .......................................... 116
4.36 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system-Case 1 ........ 120


x
Table Page
4.37 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system-Case 2 ........ 120
4.38 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ........................................ 121
4.39 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ........................................ 122
4.40 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ........................................ 122
4.41 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) .......................................... 122
4.42 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) .......................................... 123
4.43 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ........................................ 124
4.44 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ........................................ 124
4.45 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ........................................ 124
4.46 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ......................................... 125
4.47 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under impact loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) .......................................... 125
4.48 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ............................ 126
4.49 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ............................ 126
4.50 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ............................ 127
4.51 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .............................. 127


xi
Table Page
4.52 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .............................. 127
4.53 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ............................ 128
4.54 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ............................ 128
4.55 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ............................ 129
4.56 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .............................. 129
4.57 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .............................. 129
4.58 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ................ 130
4.59 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ................ 130
4.60 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ................ 131
4.61 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) .................. 131
4.62 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) .................. 131
4.63 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ................ 132
4.64 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ................ 132
4.65 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ................ 133




xii
Table Page
4.66 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) .................. 133
4.67 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems
under impact loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) .................. 133
4.68 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system-Case 1 ........ 134
4.69 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system-Case 2 ........ 134
4.70 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) .............................................. 135
4.71 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) .............................................. 136
4.72 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) .............................................. 136
4.73 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ................................................ 136
4.74 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ................................................ 137
4.75 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) .............................................. 138
4.76 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) .............................................. 138
4.77 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) .............................................. 138
4.78 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ................................................ 139
4.79 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ................................................ 139
4.80 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) .................................. 140



xiii
Table Page
4.81 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) .................................. 140
4.82 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) .................................. 141
4.83 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .................................... 141
4.84 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .................................... 141
4.85 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) .................................. 142
4.86 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) .................................. 142
4.87 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) .................................. 143
4.88 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .................................... 143
4.89 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .................................... 143
4.90 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ...................... 144
4.91 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ...................... 144
4.92 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ...................... 145
4.93 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) ........................ 145
4.94 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) ........................ 145




xiv
Table Page
4.95 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) ...................... 146
4.96 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02) ...................... 146
4.97 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05) ...................... 147
4.98 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1) ........................ 147
4.99 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2) ........................ 147
4.100 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying
one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 9 .................. 148
4.101 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system-Case 1 ........ 148
4.102 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under moving load -Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ............................................ 149
4.103 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system
under moving loadCase 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ............................................. 150
4.104 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load -Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ....................................................... 150
4.105 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load -Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ......................................................... 150
4.106 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load -Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ......................................................... 151
4.107 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ............................................ 151
4.108 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ............................................ 151
4.109 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ............................................ 152



xv
Table Page
4.110 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) .............................................. 152
4.111 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) .............................................. 152
4.112 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system-Case 1 ........ 153
4.113 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ..................................... 154
4.114 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02) ..................................... 154
4.115 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05) ..................................... 154
4.116 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1) ....................................... 155
4.117 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2) ....................................... 155
4.118 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01) ......................... 155
4.119 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02) ......................... 156
4.120 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05) ......................... 156
4.121 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1) ........................... 156
4.122 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams
and at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2) ........................... 157
4.123 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying
one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force - Case 4 ......... 157
4.124 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 163



xvi
Table Page
4.125 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 163
4.126 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 164
4.127 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 165
4.128 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 3 ........................................................................ 166
4.129 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 3 ........................................................................ 166
4.130 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 167
4.131 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 168
4.132 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 169
4.133 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 169
4.134 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 .................................................................... 170
4.135 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 .................................................................... 171
4.136 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 .................................................................... 171
4.137 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 172
4.138 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 173




xvii
Table Page
4.139 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force-Case 1 ............................................................. 174
4.140 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force-Case 1 ............................................................. 174
4.141 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 175
4.142 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 176
4.143 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 177
4.144 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 177
4.145 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 178
4.146 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
two-span uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 3 ........................................................................ 179
4.147 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 4 ........................................................................ 179
4.148 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 4 ........................................................................ 180
4.149 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 181
4.150 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 181
4.151 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 182
4.152 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 182




xviii
Table Page
4.153 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
two-span uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 3 .................................................................... 183
4.154 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 4 .................................................................... 184
4.155 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 4 .................................................................... 184
4.156 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
two-span uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 185
4.157 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 2 .............................................................................. 186
4.158 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 2 .............................................................................. 186
4.159 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for
two-span uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force-Case 1 ............................................................. 187
4.160 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force-Case 2 ............................................................. 188
4.161 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force-Case 2 ............................................................. 188
4.162 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 189
4.163 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 190
4.164 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 190
4.165 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 191
4.166 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 191




xix
Table Page
4.167 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 2 ........................................................................ 192
4.168 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 3 ........................................................................ 193
4.169 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 3 ........................................................................ 193
4.170 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 3 ........................................................................ 193
4.171 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
three-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 4 ........................................................................ 194
4.172 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
impact loading - Case 4 ........................................................................ 194
4.173 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 195
4.174 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 196
4.175 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 196
4.176 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 197
4.177 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 197
4.178 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 2 .................................................................... 198
4.179 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 .................................................................... 199
4.180 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 .................................................................... 199




xx
Table Page
4.181 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 3 .................................................................... 199
4.182 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
three-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 .................................................................... 200
4.183 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
harmonic loading - Case 4 .................................................................... 200
4.184 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 201
4.185 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 202
4.186 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 202
4.187 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
three-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 2 .............................................................................. 203
4.188 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving load-Case 2 .............................................................................. 203
4.189 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force -Case 1 ............................................................ 204
4.190 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force -Case 1 ............................................................ 205
4.191 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force -Case 1 ............................................................ 205
4.192 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for
three-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force -Case 2 ............................................................ 206
4.193 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under
moving pulsating force -Case 2 ............................................................ 206
4.194 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 208




xxi
Table Page
4.195 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 208
4.196 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
impact loading - Case 1 ........................................................................ 208
4.197 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 209
4.198 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 210
4.199 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
harmonic loading - Case 1 .................................................................... 210
4.200 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 211
4.201 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 212
4.202 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving load-Case 1 .............................................................................. 212
4.203 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force -Case 1 ............................................................ 213
4.204 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force -Case 1 ............................................................ 214
4.205 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under
moving pulsating force -Case 1 ............................................................ 214




xxii
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1.1 Types of Dynamic Loadings (Murray et al.1997) ..................................... 2
2.1 Directions of coordinate systems for vibrations influencing humans
(Naeim, 1991). ...................................................................................... 10
2.2 Average plot of force versus time for heel impact (Naeim, 1991) .......... 11
2.3 Typical floor response to heel impact (Naeim, 1991) ............................ 11
2.4 Recommended peak acceleration for human comfort for vibrations
(Allen and Murray, 1993; ISO 2631/2, 1989). ........................................ 13
2.5 Modified Reiher-Meister perceptibility chart (Naeim, 1991) ................... 15
2.6 CSA annoyance criteria chart for floor vibrations (Naeim, 1991)........... 16
2.7 Generic Vibration Criteria of Gordon (Pan et al.2008) ........................... 20
2.8 Perception criteria (Ungar, 2007) .......................................................... 21
2.9 Viscous damper fitted between chevron braces beneath the deck
of the London Millennium bridge (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ........ 26
2.10 Free-layer damping and constrained-layer damping systems
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 27
2.11 Friction damper device components and principle of action
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 27
2.12 Illustration of a tuned sloshing damper
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 29
2.13 Operating principles of an active control system
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 30
2.14 Active mass dampers (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ......................... 30
2.15 Uncontrolled and actively controlled velocity response of
an office floor (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ...................................... 31
2.16 Semi-active TMD on a vibrating system ................................................ 32
2.17 Undamped and damped vibration absorbers ........................................ 34
2.18 Tuned Mass Dampers beneath the London Millennium Bridge
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007) ............................................................ 35
2.19 Example of the effect of damping ratio of the vibration absorber
on the frequency response of a primary system
(Bachmann et al., 1994) ........................................................................ 37
2.20 SDOF-TMD system (Connor, 2003) ...................................................... 37
3.1 A cantilever beam carrying n spring-mass systems
(Wu and Chou, 1999) ............................................................................ 42
3.2 A non-uniform cantilever beam carrying n spring-mass systems .......... 51



xxiii
Figure Page
3.3 A uniform multi-span beam carrying S spring-mass systems and
T pinned supports (Lin and Tsai, 2007) ................................................. 64
3.4 Two-span uniform beam with one intermediate support and
one spring-mass system ....................................................................... 73
3.5 Simply-supported beam subjected to step-function force F
0
................. 76
3.6 Simply-supported beam subjected to harmonic force F
0
sin(t) ............ 77
3.7 Simply-supported beam subjected to moving load ................................ 78
3.8 Simply-supported beam subjected to moving pulsating load ................ 78
3.9 Simply-supported beam subjected to moving pulsating load ................ 79
4.1 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying
One Spring-Mass System ..................................................................... 90
4.2 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems.................................................................... 91
4.3 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying
Three Spring-Mass Systems ................................................................. 92
4.4 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF Uniform Beams ................. 93
4.5 Mode Shapes of Non-Uniform SS, CC, SC and FC Beams
Carrying One Spring-Mass System ....................................................... 97
4.6 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF
Non-Uniform Beams .............................................................................. 98
4.7 Mode Shapes of High-Mast Lighting Tower Carrying
One Spring-Mass System on the Top ................................................. 101
4.8 Mode Shapes of Bare High-Mast Lighting Tower ................................ 101
4.9 Two-span beam carrying one spring-mass system
attached to second span ..................................................................... 103
4.10 Two-span beam carrying one spring-mass system
attached to first span ........................................................................... 104
4.11 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying one spring-mass
system at second span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
) ................................................ 105
4.12 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying one spring-mass
system at first span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
) ...................................................... 105
4.13 Two-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems (Case 1) ............. 106
4.14 Two-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems (Case 2) ............. 107
4.15 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems tuned based on Case 1(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) ...................... 108
4.16 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems tuned based on Case 2(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) ...................... 108
4.17 Three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system
attached to first span ........................................................................... 109
4.18 Three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system
attached to second span ..................................................................... 110
4.19 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying one spring-mass
system at first span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
) .................................................... 111



xxiv
Figure Page
4.20 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying one spring-mass
system at second span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
) .............................................. 111
4.21 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached
to first and second span (Case 1) ....................................................... 112
4.22 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached
to first and second span (Case 2) ....................................................... 113
4.23 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached
to first and second span (Case 3) ....................................................... 114
4.24 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached
to first and third span (Case 4) ............................................................ 115
4.25 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached
to first and third span (Case 5) ............................................................ 116
4.26 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems at first span and second span tuned based on Case 1
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 117
4.27 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems at first and second span tuned based on Case 2
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 117
4.28 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems at first span and second span tuned based on Case 3
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 118
4.29 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems at first and third span tuned based on Case 4
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 118
4.30 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass
systems at first span and third span tuned based on Case 5
(m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
) .......................................................................... 119
4.31 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to step-function force at x=0.25L ......................................... 121
4.32 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to step-function force at x=0.5L ........................................... 123
4.33 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L .............................................. 135
4.34 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.5L ................................................ 137
4.35 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to moving load .................................................................... 149
4.36 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to moving pulsating force .................................................... 153
4.37 Force and wind velocity profile of HMLT ............................................. 159
4.38 Dynamic responses of bare HMLT under wind load ............................ 160
4.39 Dynamic responses of HMLT carrying one spring-mass
system at the shallow end under wind load (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) ................... 161



xxv
Figure Page
4.40 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x=0.25L ............................ 162
4.41 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x=0.75L ............................ 164
4.42 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ........ 165
4.43 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L .................................. 167
4.44 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L .................................. 168
4.45 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ............. 170
4.46 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving load ........................................................ 172
4.47 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving pulsating force ........................................ 173
4.48 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass
systems subjected to step-function force at x=0.75L .......................... 176
4.49 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass
systems subjected to step-function force
at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ...................................................................... 178
4.50 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass
systems subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L ................................ 180
4.51 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass
systems subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L ........... 183
4.52 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass
systems subjected to moving load ...................................................... 185
4.53 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass
systems subjected to moving pulsating load ....................................... 187
4.54 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x= (1/6) L .......................... 189
4.55 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x= (3/6) L .......................... 192
4.56 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L ................................ 195
4.57 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (3/6) L ................................ 198
4.58 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving load ........................................................ 201
4.59 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving pulsating force ........................................ 204
4.60 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x= (1/6) L .......................... 207



xxvi
Figure Page
4.61 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L ................................ 209
4.62 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving load ........................................................ 211
4.63 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving pulsating force ........................................ 213
Appendix Figure
A.1 SDOF-TMD system ............................................................................. 228




xxvii
LIST OF SYMBOLS
Natural frequency of primary system
c Viscous damping coefficient of primary system
Damping ratio of primary system
k Stiffness of primary system

d
Natural frequency of tuned mass damper
c
d
Viscous damping coefficient of tuned mass damper

d
Damping ratio of tuned mass damper
k
d
Stiffness of tuned mass damper
Forcing frequency
Mass ratio

e
Equivalent damping ratio
u Displacement of SDOF system
u Velocity of SDOF system
u Acceleration of SDOF system
u
d
Displacement of tuned mass damper
u
d
Velocity of tuned mass damper
u
d
Acceleration of tuned mass damper
Phase angle
E Modulus of elasticity
I Moment of inertia
m Beam mass per unit length
m
v
Point mass of the vth spring-mass system
k
v
Spring constant of the vth spring-mass system
z
v
Instantaneous displacement of vth spring-mass system


xxviii
z

Acceleration of vth spring-mass system


y
v
Displacement of constrained beam at the vth attaching point
y

i
Slope of constrained beam at the vth attaching point
y

ii
Curvature of constrained beam at the vth attaching point
Y
v
(x) Amplitude of y
v

Z
v
Amplitude of z
v
L Represents the left as superscript
R Represents the right as superscript
y(x,t) Instantaneous displacement of the beam

v
Natural frequency of spring-mass system
[B
v
] Coefficient matrix for the vth attaching point
[B
L
] Coefficient matrix for the left end of the beam
[B
R
] Coefficient matrix for the right end of the beam
C
vi
Integration constants
n Number of spring-mass systems


[B] Overall coefficient matrix
Mass per unit volume
A Cross sectional area
A
0
Cross sectional area at x=0
I
0
Moment of inertia at x=0
r Radius
Taper ratio of the beam
t Thickness

i
(t) Generalized coordinates
Y
i
(x) ith normal mode shape of a beam
Q
i
(t) Generalized force corresponding to
i
(t)
w(x,t) Transverse deflection of a beam
f(x,t) External force per unit length

ij
Kronecker delta

xxix


ABSTRACT
Ozkan, Mustafa Kemal. M.S.C.E., Purdue University, May 2010. Dynamic
Response of Beams with Passive Tuned Mass Dampers. Major Professor:
Ayhan Irfanoglu.



Passive tuned mass damper (TMD) is a stand-alone vibrating system
attached to a primary structure and designed to reduce vibration of the structure
at selected frequency. This study focuses on the application of single or multiple
TMDs on Euler-Bernoulli beams and examines their effectiveness based on free
and forced vibration characteristics of the beams, i.e., the primary structures.
There is a gap in the existing literature in terms of free and forced vibration
analysis of beams carrying any number of concentrated elements. There are
methods developed for the free vibration analysis but they are not practical due
to the complex mathematical expressions. Numerical assembly method (Wu and
Chou, 1999) is used to determine free vibration characteristics of beams in order
to get over the drawbacks of other approaches in the literature and forced
vibration response is obtained based on modal analysis approach and
orthogonality condition.

The free-vibration formulations for uniform, non-uniform single-span and
multi-span continuous beams carrying any number of elastically mounted
masses are derived for various boundary conditions. Numerical solutions for
dynamic responses of these beams subjected to impulsive, harmonic, moving
and moving pulsating loads are presented. A numerical eigenvalue solution is
used to obtain the modal properties of the entire beam at its fundamental and
lower normal modes. The modal analysis approach allows calculating
xxx


displacement, velocity, acceleration and jerk responses at any point on the
beam. The resultant dynamic responses of beams with and without TMDs are
compared with each other in order to observe the performance of TMDs.

Numerical examples are given to confirm the validity and efficiency of the
proposed method. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of several structures
studied in literature are calculated and compared with those in existing literature
to verify the accuracy of the developed algorithm. The illustrative forcing
functions are considered as human-induced dynamic loads for uniform single and
multiple span beams. The results demonstrate that passive TMDs are efficient in
reducing the dynamic responses of beams subjected to harmonic excitations.
However, passive TMDs do not show the same level of performance under non-
harmonic loads. Additionally, wind load analysis is performed for a sample high
mast lighting tower (HMLT) represented as a cantilever non-uniform beam in this
study and the efficiency of attached TMD is analyzed. Experimental wind velocity
data is used to generate the wind induced dynamic load on the HMLT. Results
indicate that properly tuned passive TMDs may be an option to reduce dynamic
response in wind-excited HMLTs.
1


CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. General
Annoying motions and audible resonant behavior are two common
concerns in structures under service-level dynamic loads. In more serious cases,
excessive vibrations or fatigue which may cause structural failure may exist.
These unwanted vibrations should be eliminated or at least reduced below
corresponding threshold levels to avoid serious structural problems or simply to
meet system performance requirements. It may be easier to modify the design of
a yet to be built structure to mitigate against possible unwanted vibrations
compared to modifying an actual, existing structure. The latter case may be
called for if the existing structure has insufficient design or, is subjected to
change in functionality, or due to changes in environmental conditions.
1.1.1. Sources of Dynamic Excitation
In practical engineering design one of the most important requirements is
to define the sources of dynamic excitation and to analyze their magnitude and
significance by comparing them with the static loads. It is usually much easier to
deal with static loads rather than dynamic loads. Some of the structures,
especially the flexible and lightly damped ones, may exhibit large amplifications
against dynamic loads. The use of a structure, such as a laboratory housing
sensitive equipments or hospitals with sensitive operating rooms such as those
for neurosurgery or microsurgery, is another issue to consider in vibration
analysis. Therefore, the relation between the sources of dynamic excitation, the
structural form and the purpose of the structure should be considered at the
design stage.
2


1.1.2. Dynamic Loadings
Dynamic loads can be categorized as harmonic, periodic, transient and
impulsive as illustrated in Figure 1.1. Rotating machinery can be identified as
harmonic or sinusoidal loads. Rhythmic human activities such as dancing and
aerobics and impactive machinery cause periodic loads. Transient loads consist
of movement of people including walking and running. Single jumps and heel-
drop impacts can be given examples of impulsive loads.


Figure 1.1 Types of Dynamic Loadings (Murray et al.1997)
1.1.3. Consequences of Vibration
Vibration of structures is undesirable for a number of reasons. For
example, overstressing and collapse of structures or simply cracking or other
damages requiring repair can be given as consequences of earthquake-induced
vibrations. To give another example, damage to safety-related equipment is
another problem occurring in nuclear plants during earthquakes. Excessive
structural vibrations in hospitals and other medical facilities can interfere with the
performance of medical procedures, impair the operation of sensitive equipment
and have adverse effects on patient comfort. Adverse human response is also a
3


phenomenon in structures such as health clubs, gymnasiums, stadiums, dance
floors and even office buildings due to the human activities.

Human beings are highly sensitive to vibration. Therefore, adverse human
response should be seriously thought at the design stage although vibrations that
are disturbing for occupants of buildings usually cause small stresses. However,
if the structure is subjected to large number of cycles of loads above certain
thresholds, fatigue fracture problem may occur as another phenomenon. Fatigue
fracture usually occurs in welded steel structures where tiny cracks, which are
initially difficult to see, grow in size under the repetitions of stress until they are
large enough to be seen or cause rupture. For example, high-mast lighting
towers are subjected to wind load which, over time, may cause millions of cycles
of significant stress and could result in structural failure.
1.1.4. Vibration Control
The first step to design the structure which is sensitive to vibrations is to
identify the dynamic loads in terms of frequency and amplitude or measured
variation in time. Analyzing the response of the structure to obtain dynamic
deflections, stresses, frequencies and accelerations come next. Finally, it is
essential to check the calculated or measured performance by using specified
criteria to guarantee that there are no adverse consequences of vibration.

It is important to think ahead during the early stage of conceptual design
and make necessary design adjustments in order to minimize the vibration
susceptibility. Some structures, such as dancing floors, are affected over a
confined frequency range. It may be feasible to increase the structural depth in
dance floors in order to improve stiffness of the structure so as to keep the
frequency of the structure above predominant dancing frequency.

4


Active control over the natural frequency of buildings may be provided by
increasing the stiffness or reducing the mass but this method is usually difficult or
uneconomic to obtain the optimum value. It may be more efficient to design and
use special vibration-absorbing devices, called passive tuned mass dampers
(TMDs) or tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs), as part of the structure to reduce
effects of dynamic loads. Some of the construction techniques, such as welded
steelwork, may be more delicate to vibration because of their lack of inherent
damping capacity. Therefore, it may sometimes be more effective to choose
materials with high damping or to install artificial damping devices.
1.2. Object and Scope
The main motivation of this study is to investigate the effects of tuned
vibration absorbers (TVAs), also called tuned mass dampers (TMDs), in terms of
controlling the dynamic deflections, stresses, frequencies and accelerations of
structural elements or structures which are subjected to different types of
dynamic loadings.

The scope of the study includes (a) analytical and numerical procedures to
solve the free and forced vibration of uniform and non-uniform single and multi-
span beams, which are subjected to different types of dynamic loadings, with
attached spring-mass systems, in particular, passive TMDs (b) some applications
of these analytical procedures in real structural elements.

The free vibration analysis of structural elements, such as beams, is
commonly found in existing literature. A critical aspect of the presented study is
to analyze the forced vibration of these structural elements with attached spring-
mass systems and to check that whether these spring-mass systems, which can
also be called as TVA or TMD, work towards reducing the consequences of
adverse vibration.
5


1.3. Organization
Chapter 2 reviews and describes the existing research on practical
approaches for vibration reduction together with detailed explanation of vibration
excitation sources which are human-induced vibration, machinery induced
vibration and wind-induced vibration.

Chapter 3 discusses the analytical approaches to determine natural
frequencies, mode shapes and responses of beams with attached spring mass
systems under different types of dynamic loads. Applications of passive TVAs to
uniform and non-uniform beams are presented. The effect of single TVA versus
multiple TVAs is discussed.

Chapter 4 includes the numerical results for free and forced vibration of
beams carrying single or multiple spring mass systems. Illustrative numerical
examples are presented for step-function forces (i.e., impact loading), harmonic
forces, moving loads and moving pulsating forces.

Summary and conclusions are presented in Chapter 5.
6


CHAPTER 2. BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH
2.1. Human-Structure Dynamic Interaction and Human Induced Vibration
Human-induced forces, such as walking, running, jumping, dancing and
other similar activities, cause unwanted vibrations in civil engineering structures,
such as floors, footbridges, grandstands, stairs. These kinds of rhythmical human
activities can generate significant resonant, transient, steady-state or impulsive
responses (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). According to Nyawako and Reynolds
(2007), pacing frequency for walking can be considered in the range of 1.5-3.0
Hz and it is above 3 Hz for activities such as running or jogging. However, this
range can decrase to the range of 1.25-1.5 Hz for offices based on Smiths
(1998) and Murrays (1998) studies.
Human-structure interaction concept is a considerably important issue for
slender structures which are subjected to human-induced forces (R.Sachse et al.
2003). Todays new construction techniques provide us to design light, slender,
long-spanned structures, however these opportunities have increased the
susceptibility level of structures to detrimental vibrations (Firth, 2002; Naeim,
1991; Tuan and Saul, 1985; Setareh et al. 2006a). When these lighter and longer
floor systems together with their less damping are considered with the rhythmical
activities of the occupants, there is a significant increase in attention to the
vibration level during the design stage to reduce floor vibration problems because
of the greater possibility of increased vibration annoyance in occupants (Naeim,
1991). Moreover, human-induced vibrations may cause serviceability and safety
problems, in terms of annoying level of vibrations for occupants and fatigue
behavior of structures, respectively (Smith, 1998; Bachmann, 1992). The major
reasons of annoying vibrations in civil engineering structures can be explained
with three main factors which are increased human activities, such as aerobics or
7


audience participation, reduced natural frequency due to longer floor systems
and reduced damping and mass provided by new construction techniques (Allen,
1990). Pedestrian structures, office buildings, footbridges, gymnasiums and sport
halls, shopping malls, airport terminals, dance halls and concert halls can be
given as an example for civil engineering structures which tend to be susceptible
to human-induced vibration (Bachmann, 1992; Kerr and Bishop, 2001; Pavic et
al. 2002a; Hanagan et al. 2003; Ebrahimpour and Sack, 2005).
Another case that designers need to pay attention is to consider the
usability of civil engineering structures for different types of occupation for both
economic and serviceability reasons. For instance, building owners or occupants
might need to convert an office floor into a gymnasium or a dance facility in the
future (Webster and Levy, 1992).
It is also necessary to know how human induced forces can be identified
in order to figure out the response of the structure under human induced
vibration. Human induced force-time histories have been obtained for the last
three decades and these experimental results have been analyzed by Fourier
series. Because of this approximation for many experimental results, most of the
researchers came up with the common idea that human induced forces are
perfectly periodic (Sachse et al., 2003). On the other hand, there are some
opposite assumptions questioning that human induced forces are perfectly
periodic because of the fact that these forces are inherently narrow-band
(Eriksson, 1994). Sometimes, auto-spectral density functions are used to
represent human-induced forces in the frequency domain (Tuan and Saul, 1985;
Mouring and Ellingwood, 1994; Eriksson, 1994). Moreover, according to Murray
et al. (1997), dynamic forces which cause floor vibration problems are generally
repeated forces, such as machinery or human induced forces, and they are
usually sinusoidal or nearly sinusoidal. Thereby, such repeated forces can be
defined as sum of sinusoidal forces. Their forcing frequencies can be considered
as multiples of the fundamental frequency of the force repetition such as step
frequency for human activities. Murray et al. (1997) defined time-dependent
8


harmonic force component matching the fundamental frequency of the floor by
using Fourier series as given in Equation 2.1.
F = P o

cos(2ni
stcp
t +

) Eq. 2.1
where P (persons weight) can be taken as 0.7 kN (157 pounds) and
recommended values for o

are given in Table 2.1.


Table 2.1 Recommended values for
I
(Murray et al., 1997)
Common Forcing Frequencies (f) and Dynamic Coefficients* (
i
)
Harmonic
i
Person Walking Aerobic Class Group Dancing
f, Hz (
i
) f, Hz (
i
) f, Hz (
i
)
1 1.6-2.2 0.5 2.2-2.8 1.5 1.8-2.8 0.5
2 3.2-4.4 0.2 4.4-5.6 0.6 3.6-5.6 0.1
3 4.8-6.6 0.1 6.6-8.4 0.1 - -
4 6.4-8.8 0.05 - - - -
*Dynamic Coefficients = Peak Sinusoidal force/weight of person(s).

Previous researches show that the number of people has an effect on
dynamic loads. Activities of a group of people generate more dynamic loads than
individuals. However, it does not mean that dynamic loads are increasing with
the number of people linearly (Sachse et al., 2003). In addition, synchronization
of people is also an important issue that influences dynamic loads and it can be
classified as deliberate and unintentional. Coordinated human activities such as
in aerobic classes can be given as an example for deliberate synchronization and
these types of human activities has been studied for a long time (Sachse et al.,
2003). However, unintentional synchronization is a recent subject that
researchers have considered to be important. This type of synchronization can
cause serviceability problems due to considerably strong vibration level and
safety problems due to panic (Dallard et al. 2000). There have been many cases
9


observed and reported in civil engineering structures due to unintentional
synchronization (Bachmann, 1992; Fujino et al., 1993; Dallard et al., 2000,
Curtis, 2001, New Civil Engineer, 2001).
Excessive structural vibration is also very important problem for healthcare
facility floors. It might negatively affect the performance of medical procedures,
make highly vibration sensitive equipments unusable and cause negative effects
on patient comfort. These problems pose newer vibration criteria that force
structural engineers to accomplish more strict requirements to provide
serviceability for highly vibration sensitive high-tech equipments than before. Pan
et al. (2008) studied a long-spanned biotechnology laboratory floor which is
supported by reinforced concrete beams and evaluated the performance of the
laboratory instruments while the floor is subjected to human induced vibration,
specifically walking. Footfall forces are applied to finite element model of beams
and floors, and then time history analysis results are compared with the
appropriate vibration criteria. According to results, the floor performed well
enough to satisfy the required vibration criteria. Yazdanniyaz et al. (2004) studied
footfall induced vibrations and discussed different vibration criteria and prediction
methods including AISC method, BBN method and analytical modal analysis.
This study also compares these prediction methods with measured floor vibration
levels for both composite and concrete laboratory floor. According to
Yazdanniyaz et al. (2004), designers should avoid predicting a vibration level
greater than it is or applying more strict vibration criteria than it is needed by
considering possible increase for building cost.
Vibration perceptibility is another subject of human-structure dynamic
interaction and needs to be considered to understand what kind of factors
influence the level of perception and sensitivity of people. This issue provides
some improvement during design stage by considering sensitivity of people and
preventing some possible increase in structural vibration. According to Naeim
(1991), vibration perceptibility mostly depends on position of human body,
characteristics of excitation sources and floor systems, exposure time, level of
10


expectancy and type of activity that people perform. As it is shown in Figure 2.1
human-body coordinate system has three different axes which are x, y and z
showing back to chest direction, right side to left side direction and foot to head
direction, respectively. According to International Standard ISO-2631/1-1985(E)
and International Standard ISO-2631/2-1989(E), humans sensitivity to
acceleration is experienced significantly when the frequency range is between 4
to 8 Hz for vibration along the z-axis and 0 to 2 Hz for vibration along the x or y
axes. Human activities being influenced by the vibration along the x or y axes,
such as sleeping, make these two axes as important as the z axis which is more
important than others for the design of office buildings.

Figure 2.1 Directions of coordinate systems for vibrations influencing humans
(Naeim, 1991).
11


Standard heel drop impact test is a practical way to model impulsive
forces caused by walking and to approximate to the real. In this test, a person
raises his heel about 2.5 inches and drops his weight through his heels to the
floor. Before initiating the impulse, the person, who weighs 170 pounds, supports
his weight on his toes. The result of the heel drop impact and a typical floor
response to heel impact are in Figure 2.2 and Figure 2.3 (Naeim, 1991).


Figure 2.2 Average plot of force versus time for heel impact (Naeim, 1991)

Figure 2.3 Typical floor response to heel impact (Naeim, 1991)
12


2.2. Vibration Criteria
2.2.1. ISO International Standard
Naeim (1991) indicates the classification of human response to vibrations
by referring International Standard Organization (ISO-2631/1). ISO-2631/1
categorizes human response with respect to the limitations which increase step
by step by considering the perception levels of humans. These categories can be
defined as the limit for reduced comfort, the limit that affects the working
conditions negatively and the limit that cause health or safety problems. These
categories were conceived depending on the studies related with transportation
industries which provide higher level of tolerance than the acceptable level for
buildings. The magnitudes of these limits are slightly exceeding the minimum
levels of human tolerance and they are determined with respect to minimum
adverse comment level of occupants.
Murray et al. (1997) also states that the perception level of people and
how they react to vibration considerably depend on what they are doing.
According to Murray et al. (1997), the vibration level that disturbs people in
offices and residences is 0.5 percent of the acceleration of gravity, g. On the
other hand, this limit might be approximately 10 times higher than that (5 percent
of g) when people are taking part in an activity. In addition, duration of vibration
and distance from the vibration source are other factors that affect the sensitivity
of the occupants. If people are very close to vibration excitation source, the limit
of annoyance level will be about 1.5 percent of g. The frequency range for these
limits indicated in the above is between 4Hz and 8 Hz. Higher vibration
acceleration levels are accepted for the outside of this frequency range. ISO-
2631/2 provides the recommended peak acceleration limits for different types of
structures and occupancies in terms of root mean square (RMS) acceleration
as it is shown in Figure 2.4. The limitations can vary depending on duration and
frequency of vibration by the range between 0.8 and 1.5 times the suggested
values.
13


According to ISO, vibrations can be classified as transient and continuous
(steady-state) in terms of human response depending on the type of excitation
and its duration. If a structural system is subjected to a continuous harmonic
force, the resulting motion has constant frequency and constant maximum
amplitude. This type of vibration is defined as continuous vibration. On the other
hand, transient vibration is defined as an instantaneous increase to a peak
followed by a damped decay in a short time. For example, floors subjected to
operating machines have continuous vibration because machines usually run
continuously for a long period of time. On the contrary, the floor vibration for the
residential and office buildings can be categorized in transient vibration because
of the intermittent movement of a small number of occupants. There are also
some cases that walking-induced excitation is rhythmic with an approximately
constant frequency and this type of vibration can be defined as mostly steady-
state.

Figure 2.4 Recommended peak acceleration for human comfort for vibrations
(Allen and Murray, 1993; ISO 2631/2, 1989).
14


2.2.2. Murrays Criterion
According to Naeim (1991), the primary aim of Murrays categorization of
human response is to be more design oriented. Therefore, this factor makes his
categorization more useful than others. There are four categories of human
response defined with respect to perception and discomfort levels of occupants.
For the first category, vibration is not perceived by the occupants and for the
second one, vibration is perceived but does not annoy. These two categories are
acceptable for design. For the third category, vibration just disturbs but for the
fourth one, it also makes occupants ill.
Murrays method evaluates the potential floor vibration problems by
providing a step by step procedure. Field measurements and human response
studies for approximately 100 floor systems conceived the basis of this method.
Murrays criteria is a very common and recommended for especially residential
and office buildings (Naeim, 1991).
2.2.3. Other Recommendations and Criteria
Ellingwood et al. (1986) recommended a vibration criterion for commercial
floor systems such as shopping malls. According to this criterion, if the maximum
deflection for anywhere on the floor, which is subjected to 450 lb force, does not
exceed 0.2 inches, the criterion is satisfied. In addition, Canadian Standards
Association and Murray also recommend that the natural frequency of
commercial floor systems should be greater than 8 Hz in order to reduce the
possibility of resonance due to walking (Naeim, 1991).
Another criterion called Wiss-Parmelee (1974) rating factor was based on
a laboratory study which was conceived to investigate human perception to
transient floor vibrations. The perception levels of 40 people were observed by
using platform motions corresponding to walking induced floor vibration. This
criterion was adopted by United States Department of Housing and Urban
Development to verify whether the floor system is in acceptable limits or not.
15


Reiher and Meister (1949) also studied human perceptibility to steady
state vibration in early 1930s. The forcing frequency range and the displacement
amplitude range of this study were 3 to 100 Hz and 0.0004 inches to 0.4 inches,
respectively. In early 1960s, Lenzen (1966) stated that if Reiher and Meisters
amplitude scale was extended with a factor of 10, the resulting scale would be
applicable to correlate human perceptibility with natural frequency and
displacement amplitude for lightly damped floor systems. The new scale, called
Modified Reiher-Meister scale, shown in Figure 2.5 is usually used with an
additional method, like Murrays acceptability criterion, in the design environment
to satisfy critical situations. The scale is being criticized negatively due to lack of
explicit consideration of damping which is considered to be quite important
(Naeim, 1991).

Figure 2.5 Modified Reiher-Meister perceptibility chart (Naeim, 1991)
Another annoyance criterion that is related with Allen and Rainers studies
about floor vibrations was adopted by Canadian Standards Association (CSA) for
residential, office and school rooms. This criterion has peak acceleration limit for
16


each floor system in terms of its natural frequency and damping ratio. As it is
shown in figure 2.6, there are three limit curves and their corresponding damping
ratios for walking vibration and a base curve for continuous vibration. Any floor
system below the corresponding limit curve is considered to be satisfactory
(Naeim, 1991).
Tolaymat (1988) also conceived his acceptability criteria by using the
results of 96 composite floor systems studied by Murray. Instead of studying just
a single heel drop impact, Tolaymat used heel drop impacts following one after
another to simulate walking induced vibration more sensitive. Therefore, his new
criterion is providing better results in terms of correlation between test results and
reported human perceptibility levels (Naeim, 1991).


Figure 2.6 CSA annoyance criteria chart for floor vibrations (Naeim, 1991)
17


According to Naeim (1991), the reason of human annoyance on the floors
subjected to rhythmic human activities is usually resonance or near resonance
situation which generates significant dynamic amplification. There should be
enough difference, for the most applicable design, between natural frequency of
the floor and the dominant frequencies caused by human activities to be sure
that there will not be any resonance. Because of that reason, to design a
multipurpose floor system, being used for both rhythmic activities such as
aerobics class and office space, is a difficult task to consider. Allen (1990)
presented a design guide which is also adopted as a serviceability criterion by
National Building Code of Canada. In addition, this design guideline is
considered to be the most comprehensive one to design multipurpose facilities.
Allens recommendations include the tables of the maximum acceptable
acceleration limits for floor vibration (Table 2.2), dominant range of forcing
frequency (Table 2.3) and minimum recommended natural assembly floor
frequencies (Table 2.4).
Table 2.2 Recommended acceleration limits for vibration due to rhythmic
activities (Allen, 1990)
Occupancies affected by the vibration Acceleration Limit, percent gravity
Office and residential 0.4 to 0.7
Dining, Dancing, Weight-lifting 1.5 to 2.5
Aerobics, rhythmic activities only 4 to 7
Mixed use occupancies housing aerobics 2


18


Table 2.3 Suggested design parameters for rhythmic activities (Allen et al., 1985)
Activity
Forcing
frequency
ff, Hz
Weight of
participants*
wp, psf
Dynamic load
factor**

Dynamic load
wp, psf
Dancing 1.5-3.0 12.5 (27 ft2/couple) 0.5 6.25
Lively concert
or sport event
1.5-3.0 31.3 (5 ft2/person) 0.25 7.83
Aerobics
1st Harmonic
2nd Harmonic
3rd Harmonic

2-2.75
4.5.80
6-8.25

4.2 (42 ft2/person)***
4.2 (42 ft2/person)***
4.2 (42 ft2/person)***

1.5
0.6
0.1

6.30
2.52
0.42
*Density of participants is for commonly encountered conditions. For special events the
density of participants can be greater.
**Values of are based on commonly encountered events involving a minimum of about
20 participants. Values of should be increased for well-coordinated events (e.g. jump
dances) or for fewer than 20 participants.
***Suggested revision to the 1985 supplement of CSA code.
Table 2.4 Minimum recommended natural assembly floor frequencies, Hz
(Allen et al., 1985)
Type of floor construction
Dance floors*,
Gymnasia**
Stadia,
arenas**
Composite (steel-concrete) 9 6
Solid Concrete 7 5
Wood 12 8
*Limiting peak acceleration 0.02 g
**Limiting peak acceleration 0.05 g
2.2.4. Recommended Criteria for Sensitive Laboratory and Healthcare
Facility Floors
Because of the highly vibration sensitive high-tech equipments operated in
healthcare facilities or biotechnology laboratories, vibration criteria for these
19


critical areas are much more restrictive than before. This phenomenon was
carried out after the first vibration problem experienced in advanced technology
facilities by Intel in Livermore and Aloha, in late 1970s. Therefore, more
restrictive criteria were adopted by industry with the rapid development of
science and technology and these strict requirements posed new challenges on
structural engineers (Pan et al.2008). Total system approach in a single
analytical model, including both the support system and the equipment, is an
appropriate way to get more accurate response if a particular piece of equipment
was accommodated in a specific space (Medearis, 1995). The vibration criteria
provided by the manufacturer are then compared with the response results of the
equipment. However, sometimes the equipment hasnt been selected yet or the
supporting structure might be required for more flexible usage. Therefore,
structural engineers want to use more comprehensive criteria which cover the
requirements of all equipments in just one particular category (Pan et al.2008).
Spectrum based generic criterion is one of the criteria that can be
classified into two groups in terms of expression. One of them is discrete
frequencies and the other is frequency bands. Design Guide 11 (AISC 1997) can
be given as an example of discrete frequencies. One-third octave bandwidth
spectra is one of the frequency bands that is commonly adopted by industries.
The one third octave band criteria were first presented in 1983 and then Gordon
and Ungar developed and republished them (Ungar et al. 1990; Gordon 1991).
Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES) also accepted these criteria and
published them in 1993 and 1998 (IES 1998).
As it is shown in Figure 2.7, there is a set of root mean square (RMS)
velocity spectra defined as vibration criteria curves VC-A VC-E and table 2.5
shows the explanation of each curve of generic vibration criteria (IES 1998).
These criteria were posed by reviewing many particular equipment criteria which
were provided by equipment manufacturers (Pan et al.2008).

20



Figure 2.7 Generic Vibration Criteria of Gordon (Pan et al.2008)
The criteria for healthcare facilities are based on American National
Standard Institute (ANSI) Standard S3.29-1983 titled as Guide to the Evaluation
of Human Exposure to Vibration in Buildings which shows base-response curve
values related with human perception. According to ANSI, the base response
curve values correspond to the approximate threshold of perception for the most
sensitive humans and approximately one half of the mean threshold of
perception. This standard has similarities with International Standard ISO 2631-
2:1989(E), Evaluation of Human Exposure to Whole-Body Vibration-Part 2:
Continuous and Shock-Induced Vibration in Buildings (Ungar, 2007). The
frequency variations of two base-response-curve RMS accelerations which are in
units of micro-g are shown in Figure 2.8.

21


Table 2.5 Application and Interpretation of Generic Vibration Criteria
(Pan et al.2008)
Criterion
curve
RMS
amplitude*
(m)
Detail
size
(m)
Description of use
Office
(ISO)
400 N/A**
Perceptible vibration. Appropriate for offices and
non-sensitive areas.
VC-A 50 8
Adequate in most instances for optical microscopes
to 400x, microbalances, optical balances, proximity
and projection aligners, etc.
VC-B 25 3
Appropriate standard for optical microscopes to
1000x, inspection and lithography equipment
(including steppers) to 3 m line widths.
VC-C 12.5 1
A good standard for most lithography and inspection
equipment (including electron microscopes) to 1 m
detail size.
VC-D 6 0.3
Suitable in most instances for the most demanding
equipment, including electron microscopes (TEMs
and SEMs) and e-beam systems, operating to the
limits of their capability.
VC-E 3 0.1
A difficult criterion to achieve in most instances.
Assumed to be adequate for the most demanding of
sensitive systems including long-path, laser-based
small target systems and other systems requiring
extraordinary dynamic stability.


Figure 2.8 Perception criteria (Ungar, 2007)
22


ANSI S3.29-1983 also recommends that the vibrations of operating room
floors should not be more than between 0.7 and 1.0 times the base-response
curve values. However, ISO which has many similarities with ANSI standard
suggests that vibrations of operating rooms should not exceed the base
response values. One-fourth of the limiting values for ordinary operating rooms
have been used for sensitive operating rooms such as neurosurgery and
microsurgery.
For the floor vibration in rooms where the patients, who are very
susceptible to vibration and should not be disturbed, are located, vibrations
should also be within the limits of criterion as indicated in the above. Greater
vibrations may be acceptable in rooms for less sensitive patients. For the footfall-
induced floor vibrations, the RMS footfall-induced vibrations and the peak footfall-
induced vibrations should not exceed 4000 in/sec and 5600 in/sec
respectively. The corresponding limiting values for sensitive operating rooms are
1000 in/sec and 1400 in/sec respectively (Ungar, 2007).
Floor vibration above the operating rooms can affect sensitive instruments
which are supported from the operating room ceiling. Vibration sensitivity of the
equipment and the transmission characteristics of the instruments which are
used in order to mount the equipment are the main factors to be considered in
order to satisfy adopted criteria. There are not any specific criteria for vibrations
taking place on areas above operating rooms but it is suggested to meet
requirements of criteria for sensitive operating rooms. If these instruments do not
contact with the ceiling directly, there is no need to use such criteria (Ungar,
2007).
For MRI Systems, there are different criteria for different suppliers. Ungar
(2007), summarized some of the MRI suppliers criteria and corresponding MRI
systems criteria shown in his study.


23


2.3. Vibration Mitigation Techniques

Advancements in civil engineering, especially the development of high
strength light-weight materials together with highly developed computer aided
design, have provided to design more light-weight and longer spanned floor
structures. Therefore, decreasing structural mass and damping cause some
serviceability problems in structures. There are some conventional methods that
can be used for mitigation. For example, changing mass and stiffness might be a
solution in order to overcome excessive floor vibration problems. However, there
might not be enough space for new structural elements in order to increase the
stiffness, and also additional mass might create overstress in structural
members. Moreover, it is not usually possible to use these additional
nonstructural elements because of architectural requirements (Setareh et al.
2006).
Vibration mitigation techniques are used in order to improve the
performance of the structures which are susceptible to excessive vibration.
These improvements cover reduction of annoyance level of occupants,
prevention of safety problems or providing convenient spaces for highly vibration
sensitive equipments. Vibration mitigation techniques can be applied in order to
improve vibration serviceability problems of existing structures or considered
during the design stage of new structures tending to be susceptible to vibrations
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). According to Nyawako and Reynolds, vibration
mitigation techniques can generally be classified into three main categories as
passive, active and semi-active.
2.3.1. Passive Vibration Mitigation Techniques
Passive vibration mitigation techniques decrease energy dissipation demands on
primary structures. Instead of dissipating all energy by itself, most of the energy
is absorbed by using these techniques (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007).
Additional damping devices absorb most of the input energy. These systems
24


improve the performance of primary structures by providing additional flexibility
and energy absorption capability through reduction in energy levels transmitted
to primary structures (Yang, 2001). The most important reason that these
devices differ from others is that there is no change in their dynamic
characteristics and also there is no need for external energy to operate them
(Housner et al., 1997; Tentor, 2001; Setareh, 2002). This factor is one of the
limitations of these devices because of their lack of control the characteristics of
external loading, for example when the excitation frequency changes. Viscous
dampers, friction dampers, viscoelastic treatments, tuned mass
dampers/vibration absorbers, pendulum tuned mass dampers, tuned liquid
dampers, yield plates, unbonded braces, constrained layer damping, impact
dampers and some other simple methods such as the use of wall partitions,
props, pendulum tuned mass dampers and additional concrete, damping posts
may be given as an example of passive vibration mitigation techniques (Nyawako
and Reynolds, 2007).
Viscous dampers are one of the passive mitigation techniques that are
generally known as fluid dampers or viscous fluid dampers in structural
engineering environment. These devices dissipate energy with dampers mounted
between two vibrating parts. Hence, increased damping improves performance of
the structure by creating extension and compression forces due to relative
motions. There isnt any significant contribution to strength or stiffness of primary
structures. However, they achieve to improve their vibration performance
(Jarukovski et al., 1986; Gibson and Austin 1993; Uetani et al., 2003; Weber et
al., 2006). Fluid dampers have been mostly used for mitigation of wind and
seismic induced vibration. The first utilization of fluid dampers for seismic
induced vibration was in 1993 and the most comprehensive implementation of
fluid dampers is the one in five buildings of the San Bernardino County Medical
Center with 233 dampers (Taylor and Constantinou, 2005). Taylor and
Constantinou (2005) studied the applications of fluid dampers which are used as
seismic energy dissipation systems for buildings and bridges. The experimental
25


study includes shake table testing of one-story and three-story building models
and also bridge models. Experimental results have shown that there is a
significant improvement in the energy dissipation capability of structures with fluid
dampers and a substantial reduction in story drifts and story shears. There are
also some other implementations to mitigate human-induced vibrations in civil
engineering structures. The use of 37 viscous dampers in order to suppress the
problematic low-frequency modes of the London Millennium footbridge is one of
the good example that improve the dynamic performance of the structure
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). One of the dampers used in London Millennium
footbridge is shown in Figure 2.9.
Another passive vibration mitigation technique is viscoelastic treatments.
Damping is provided by strain energy that is transmitted through viscoelastic
materials. The use of viscoelastic materials can be classified in three different
ways which are free-layer damping treatment (FLD), constrained-layer damping
treatment (CLD) and tuned viscoelastic dampers (Rao,2001; Renninger, 2005;
Joyal,2006). For FLD, energy is dissipated with extension and compression
forces occurring in viscoelastic/damping material through flexural stress of the
primary structure. The degree of damping depends on the thickness and weight
of the material (Rao, 2001; Renninger, 2005). FLD is applied by attaching it to
the surface of the structure with a strong bonding implement. On the other hand,
CLD systems dissipate energy through shear deformation of the material which
arises from shear strains in the damping layer during vibration. FLD and CLD are
both shown in Figure 2.10. Tuned viscoelastic dampers are much like dynamic
absorbers. Utilization of viscoleastic material makes the difference among them
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007).

26



Figure 2.9 Viscous damper fitted between chevron braces beneath the deck of
the London Millennium bridge (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)
Friction dampers are another common passive vibration control systems
which dissipate energy through friction forces. These forces are generated with
moving parts by sliding over each other. The energy dissipated by a friction
damper reduces the energy demand on the structure and damps the structural
response. The friction damper system includes the friction unit and a structural
system in order to integrate the friction unit with the structure. The structural
system can be either steel braces bolted to corner regions of the open bay space
in the frame or an infill wall with gaps around the edges to prevent stiffness
interaction of the wall with the frame members. Friction dampers are used as
sacrificial or non-sacrificial elements. Their utilization as sacrificial elements is a
very common attitude in civil engineering environment. In earthquake
engineering applications, some of the structural members might be sacrificed in
order to prevent the collapse of entire structure. These structural members
absorb and dissipate the transmitted energy through plastic deformation in
specially detailed regions (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). Location of the friction
27


damper and stiffness of the braces which are used in order to install dampers are
the main factors that affect the design parameters of the damper. Figure 2.11
shows an example of friction damper device and the principle of action.


Figure 2.10 Free-layer damping and constrained-layer damping systems
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)

Figure 2.11 Friction damper device components and principle of action
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)
Most applications of friction dampers have focused on absorption and
dissipation of large amount of energies such as wind or earthquake induced
vibrations. Therefore, these structural members are designed as sacrificial
members to yield or fail during dissipation of such energies. This action provides
28


primary structure to limit their response within elastic range. Hence, friction
damper systems might not be appropriate for mitigation of human induced
vibrations. However, they may be utilized to suppress human-induced vibration
when extreme human activities occurs (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007).
Passive vibration absorber, also known as tuned mass damper (TMD), is
a device which is mounted in structures in order to reduce the dynamic response
of structures and it comprises a mass, a spring and a damper (Hunt, 1979;
Nishimura et al., 1998; CSA Engineering, 2005; Weber et al., 2006). TMDs have
been very successful implementations to mitigate vibration problems in civil
engineering structures. The frequency of the TMD is tuned to a resonant
frequency of a particular mode of structure and energy is dissipated through
inertia force of TMD which is attached to the primary structure. This principle is
first discovered and applied by Frahm (1911) who also conceived the frequency
splitter (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). More study and research about TMDs
will be discussed in section 2.4.
Tuned liquid dampers (TLD) can also be classified in passive control
devices. These devices are basically a different type of TMDs. Liquid is used
instead of mass and it is likewise tuned to a critical frequency of the structure
which is required to be controlled (So and Semercigil, 2004). Tuned sloshing
dampers (TSDs) and tuned liquid column dampers (TLCDs) are the different
types of TLDs. They introduce additional damping to primary structures and
improve the dynamic performance of the structure (Kareem et al., 2005). Figure
2.12 shows an illustration of tuned sloshing damper. TLDs are considerably
successful for mitigation of human, wind and earthquake induced vibration in civil
engineering structures. Moreover, the maintenance is easy and inexpensive
together with their rare failure. The major disadvantage is the use of liquid more
than needed because of the fact that not all liquid is utilized in order to suppress
structural motion (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007).

29



Figure 2.12 Illustration of a tuned sloshing damper
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)
2.3.2. Active Vibration Mitigation Techniques
Passive vibration mitigation techniques are preferred because of their
simplicity, reliability and also their ability to remain functional without any external
source. On the other hand, these systems cannot maintain their functionality
when environmental factors, such as excitation source, change. Therefore, active
control systems, which are more efficient and more capable of adopting such
changes, were posed in order to overcome the limitations of passive vibration
control systems. These systems are capable of responding to changes almost
instantaneously in order to provide continuous vibration reduction (Hanagan,
1994; Housner et al., 1996; Symans and Constantinou, 1999; Preumont, 2002;
Petkovski, 2004).
Active control systems consist of sensors, a controller and actuators. The
sensors are utilized in order to identify the particular characteristics of the
vibration and measure the structural responses, and then the information is sent
to the controller which computes the control forces based on the given
information by using composed algorithm. After that controller processes the
information and sends the counteracting signal to the actuators which generate
the required control forces. This loop goes on in order to suppress unwanted
30


vibration and it is shown in Figure 2.13 (Soong and Spencer, 2002; Preumont,
2002).
Active mass dampers (AMDs) were initially conceived in order to improve
vibration control performance of TMDs by adding an active control system
generating the required control forces. As indicated in the above, instead of
damping and spring devices of TMDs, AMDs comprise actuators as shown in
Figure 2.14 (Morison and Karnopp, 1973; Nishimura et al., 1992; Nishimura et
al., 1998; Lametrie, 2001). Based on previous research studies, AMDs are quite
successful of reducing structural responses under wind-induced excitations and
also providing some improvement for structures subjected to seismic induced
vibrations (Cao and Li, 2004; Kareem et al., 2005).


Figure 2.13 Operating principles of an active control system
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)

Figure 2.14 Active mass dampers (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)
31


There are successful examples of AMD implementations for an office floor
and a chemistry laboratory in order to reduce structural response due to human
induced vibration. Almost 70% vibration reduction was provided for the controlled
office floor with respect to uncontrolled case. Moreover, the vibration reduction
level was greater than 75% for the controlled chemistry floor (Hanagan and
Murray, 1998; Hanagan et al., 2003). Figure 2.15 shows the velocity responses
of uncontrolled and actively controlled office floor to point out such
improvements.


Figure 2.15 Uncontrolled and actively controlled velocity response of an office
floor (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)
2.3.3. Semi-Active Vibration Mitigation Techniques
Semi-active vibration control systems comprise passive and active control
systems. Passive vibration system provides the reliability and active control
system can be used due to their capability for varying excitation cases or
structural dynamic characteristics. These systems can also be called as
controllable passive dampers because of their lack of ability to generate arbitrary
forces which is the most important factor distinguishing them from active control
systems. Moreover, the device has adjustable damping and stiffness so that it
can be tuned to the excitation frequency (Housner et al., 1997; Preumont, 2002;
Weber, 2002).
Semi-active TMDs are capable of changing their dynamical parameters
through given algorithm. Therefore, semi-active TMDs can likewise maintain their
32


functionality by adapting to variations in structural characteristics and provide
vibration control over a wide range of frequencies. These devices are preferred
because of their simple hardware requirements and low operational costs.
Actively controlled dampers are used instead of passive fixed dampers in order
to mitigate human induced floor vibrations and therefore, they are able to
overcome the variations in human loading (Setareh,2002; Jiang et al., 2006).
Figure 2.16 shows equivalent single degree of freedom system and TMD
with semi active variable damping. Here, f(t) is the representation of the actively
controlled friction damper force. According to Jiang et al. (2006) studies, the
utilization of semi-active TMD improved the performance and provided 98% and
87% reductions in velocity responses for two floors subjected to walking-induced
vibration by simulating heel-drop test. These studies also showed that semi-
active TMDs performed well for the resonant steady state responses of each two
floor subjected to pedestrian induced vibration.

Figure 2.16 Semi-active TMD on a vibrating system
2.4. Tuned Mass Dampers (TMDs) Overview
2.4.1. Introduction
Tuned mass dampers which are mentioned shortly in section 2.3.1 will be
discussed in detail here. A tuned mass damper is a vibratory device which is
33


attached to the larger primary structure and it consists of a mass, a spring and a
damper. The frequency of the damper is tuned to a particular structural frequency
so that TMD generates inertia forces which resist the forces applied to the
primary structure. Energy is dissipated through generated inertia forces (Connor,
2003).
The first application of TMD was applied by Frahm in 1909 in order to
reduce the rolling motion of ships and also ship hull vibration. The vibration
control devices that Frahm used for his applications were small vibrating springs
attached to the highly-vibrated points of the hull of the ship and didnt have any
inherent damping. These devices were effective only when absorbers natural
frequency was very close to the excitation frequency. Ormondroyd and Den
Hartog (1928) ,later on, introduced optimal tuning and damping parameters in
addition to Frahms absorber and response at resonance, which was very large
in Frahms absorber when excitation frequency approximates any of the two
natural frequency of structure-absorber system, could also be reduced
significantly with utilization of damping (Connor,2003; Setareh et al. 2006). The
most important characteristic that distinguishes damped and undamped vibration
absorbers from each other is their capability to absorb energy. Undamped
vibration absorbers doesnt absorb any energy, on the other hand, damped
vibration absorbers are designed to absorb energy through increased damping
level of the primary structure (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007). The damped and
undamped vibration absorbers are shown in Figure 2.17.

34



Figure 2.17 Undamped and damped vibration absorbers
TMDs have been used for mitigation of wind, earthquake, human and
machinery induced vibrations. There have been several successful
implementations of TMDs since Frahm applied the first TMD concept to reduce
the ship hull vibration. Different types of applications of TMDs exist in the
literature for floor vibration control. Lenzen (1966) implemented small TMDs
made of steel and supported by springs hanging from the floor beams. The total
mass of all TMDs was about 2% of the floor mass and damping was provided by
dashpots. According to Lenzens studies, significant and satisfactory vibration
reduction was achieved for the floors susceptible to excessive vibration. Allen
and Swallow (1975) used TMDs in order to reduce floor vibration by using steel
boxes containing concrete blocks as mass and attached to each point at the
corners of the floor through springs. Matsumoto et al. (1978) and Allen and
Pernica (1984) also used TMDs in order to reduce excessive vibrations of
structures subjected to walking induced vibration and Setareh and Hanson
(1992) designed TMDs made of steel boxes in order to control floor vibrations
due to dancing on the floor of an auditorium.
35


In addition to previous applications of TMDs, 8 TMDs were used in
London Millennium Bridge in order to prevent excessive vertical vibrations due to
pedestrian induced excitations and provide additional damping. One of the
dampers is shown in Figure 2.18.


Figure 2.18 Tuned Mass Dampers beneath the London Millennium Bridge
(Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007)
The floor vibration due to dancing in the ballroom of Park Building in New
York was suppressed by 60% and also a successful implementation which
reduced the floor vibration by 30-60% due to various human activities was noted
for an auditorium in Osaka International Convention Center (Nyawako and
Reynolds, 2007).
TMDs are also considered to suppress wind and earthquake induced
vibrations as well as human induced vibrations. Widespread implementations can
be found for high-rise buildings, airports and long-spanned bridges. TMDs have
been successfully implemented in order to reduce wind induced vibrations for 7-
36


star Hotel Burj-al-Arab Dubai, Washington National Airport Control Tower,
Petronas Towers and Taipei 101 (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007).
The effectiveness of a single TMD is restricted to control only a particular
mode. TMDs are generally designed to control fundamental frequency of
structures. However, there might be significant vibration in both the fundamental
and higher modes of structures. Therefore, a single TMD tuned to the
fundamental frequency of a structure is not able to suppress the vibration of
higher modes. It has been shown that the use of multiple TMDs which have
same total mass with a single TMD can be more effective and robust design than
a conventional single TMD. Moreover, multiple TMDs might be more convenient
for uncertainties in the parameter of the system (Nyawako and Reynolds, 2007).
Spring stiffness, mass and damping ratio are the fundamental properties
that define TMD devices. Den Hartog (1947) developed a formula of optimum
damper parameters f and
d
which reduce the steady state response of primary
mass subjected to harmonic excitation. These formulas are used in order to
determine initial properties of TMD for a given mass ratio. After damping ratio is
determined, spring stiffness and damping coefficient can be easily found.
However, if excitation frequency remains constant, damping is not necessarily
defined. Figure 2.19 shows the effect of damping ratio of the vibration absorber.
The optimum parameters are given as;

opt
=
1
1 +p
,
Eq. 2.2

d
opt
= _
3
8(1+)
3
Eq. 2.3
where is the mass ratio.

37



Figure 2.19 Example of the effect of damping ratio of the vibration absorber on
the frequency response of a primary system (Bachmann et al., 1994)
2.4.2. An Introductory Example of a TMD for an Undamped SDOF System
As it is shown in Figure 2.20, the structure and TMD are represented as
two-mass system and a SDOF system is used in order to characterize the whole
structure. TMD parameters are given with subscript d by following equations
(Connor, 2003).

Figure 2.20 SDOF-TMD system (Connor, 2003)
38

2
=
k
m
,

Eq. 2.4
c = 2m Eq. 2.5

d
2
=
k
d
m
d
,
Eq. 2.6
c
d
= 2
d

d
m
d
Eq. 2.7
p = moss rotio =
m
d
m
,

Eq. 2.8
Governing equations of motions can be written as;
For primary mass,
(1 +p)u +2u +
2
u =
p
m
-pu
d
Eq. 2.9
For tuned mass,
u
d
+2
d

d
u
d
+
d
2
u
d
= u Eq. 2.10
The optimal natural frequency of tuned mass damper can be assumed as
in this design procedure which means that TMD is tuned to fundamental
frequency of the primary structure and therefore, stiffness of the damper and the
primary mass can be correlated by following equation;
k
d
= pk Eq. 2.11
Forcing function and the corresponding response of TMD and primary
structure can be given as;
p = p sin0t Eq. 2.12
u = usin(0t +o
1
) Eq. 2.13
u
d
= u
d
sin(0t +o
1
+o
2
) Eq. 2.14
where u is the displacement amplitude and o is the phase shift.
The worst case here is the equal frequencies of forcing and the
structure which is the resonant condition. The responses for this case are as
follows;
u =
p
kp _
1
1 +[
2
p
+
1
2
d

2

Eq. 2.15
39


u
d
=
1
2
d
u Eq. 2.16
And the response without damper is;
u =
p
k
_
1
2
] Eq. 2.17
Eq.2.15 can be expressed in terms of equivalent damping ratio in order to
compare the cases with and without damper.
u =
p
k
_
1
2
c
] Eq. 2.18

c
=
p
2
_
1 +_
2
p
+
1
2
d
]
2

Eq. 2.19
As it is shown in equation 2.19, any increase in mass ratio increases the
total damping. Moreover, decreasing the damping ratio of the damper increases
the damping as well. However, decreasing the damping ratio also increase the
relative motion of the damper according to equation 2.16. Therefore, it is
important to consider this motion during the design stage and select TMD
parameters based on available circumstances. The detailed procedures to obtain
the responses of TMD and primary structure are shown in Appendix A.
40


CHAPTER 3. FREE AND FORCED VIBRATION OF BEAMS WITH ANY
NUMBER OF ATTACHED SPRING MASS SYSTEMS
SUBJECTED TO DIFFERENT TYPES OF DYNAMIC LOADS
3.1. Introduction
This chapter describes the free and the forced transverse vibrations of
uniform and non-uniform beams carrying single or multiple spring-mass systems.
Tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) are represented as spring-mass systems in
this study. The beam and attached TVAs are considered as a single system
together in order to show how TVAs contribute to the mitigation of vibration in
terms of controlling the responses of the primary structure by comparing the
cases with and without TVAs. The equations of motion of a beam are derived
according to Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. Hence, rotary inertia and shear
deflection are neglected. Also plane sections are assumed to remain plane and
normal to the longitudinal axis. In this chapter, the free vibration analysis of
uniform, non-uniform single-span and multi-span continuous beams with single or
multiple attached spring mass systems is performed first and then the forced
vibration of these beams is discussed with numerical examples.
The free vibration characteristics of a uniform beam can be easily
obtained but the problem gets more difficult when the beam carries concentrated
elements such as elastically mounted point masses which refer TVAs in this
study. Although there are various techniques presented to solve the eigenvalue
problem for beams carrying any number of concentrated masses, these
techniques are not practical to apply due to complex mathematical expressions
and excessive computing time. Most of the existing research consists of no more
than two concentrated masses because of these reasons. However, Wu and
Chou (1999) found the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform single
41


span beam carrying any number of elastically attached point masses through a
numerical assembly method. This study adopts the same method to obtain the
exact solutions for the free vibration characteristics of any type of beams with
attached spring-mass systems mentioned here.
The numerical assembly method is used in order to obtain the eigenvalue
equation |B

]{C

] = u for a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam carrying multiple spring-


mass systems. The eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors are
obtained by MATHEMATICA via symbolic computation. A coefficient matrix is
composed for the left and right side of the points to which spring-mass system is
attached. Moreover, two more coefficient matrices are generated for each end of
the beam and the conventional assembly technique for finite element method is
used in order to obtain overall coefficient matrix,|B

]. On the other hand, the


integration constants and the mode displacement of spring-masses compose {C

]
vector. Any value of , angular frequency, which makes determinant of the
coefficient matrix equal to zero indicates one of the natural frequency of the
beam together with all the attached spring-mass systems. Moreover, when the
obtained natural frequency is introduced into the coefficient matrix, the {C

] vector
that satisfies the eigenvalue equation represents the corresponding mode shape
as well (Wu and Chou, 1999). The same procedure is also used for the free
vibration of non-uniform and multi-span uniform beams carrying spring-mass
systems. After that, forced vibration response of beam subjected to different
types of dynamic loads is obtained and the resultant responses are compared for
the cases with and without spring-mass systems.
42


3.2. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform Beams Carrying
Spring-Mass Systems
3.2.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Functions
Based on Wu and Chou (1999)s study, figure 3.1 shows the sketch of a
uniform cantilever beam carrying n spring-mass systems. The whole beam with
length L is divided into n+1 segments. v enclosed in circle and v in parentheses
represent the attaching point and the corresponding segment, respectively.
Moreover, the left and the right ends of the beam are shown by the letters L and
R, respectively.
The equation of motion for a bare uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam and the v-
th spring-mass are given by
EI
o
4
y(x, t)
ox
4
+m
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= u
Eq. 3.1
m

+k

(z

-y

) = u Eq. 3.2


Figure 3.1 A cantilever beam carrying n spring-mass systems
(Wu and Chou, 1999)
43


The continuity of the deformations at the attaching point requires that
For the deflection y

L
(x

, t) = y

R
(x

, t) Eq. 3.3
For the slope y

iL
(x

, t) = y

iR
(x

, t) Eq. 3.4
For the curvature y

iiL
(x

, t) = y

iiR
(x

, t) Eq. 3.5
The force equilibrium at the attaching point requires that
EIy

iiiL
(x

, t) -EIy

iiiR
(x

, t) = m


Eq. 3.6
The boundary conditions for the fixed and free ends of the beam are given
by
y(u, t) = u y
i
(u, t) = u Eq. 3.7
y
ii
(l, t) = u y
iii
(l, t) = u Eq. 3.8
3.2.2. Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the Constrained Beam
The free vibration of the beam and v-th spring-mass take the form
y(x, t) = (x)c
ot
Eq. 3.9
z

= Z

c
ot
Eq. 3.10
The insertion of equation 3.9 into equation 3.1 leads to
EI
o
4
ox
4
((x)c
ot
) +m
o
2
ot
2
((x)c
ot
) = u
Eq. 3.11

iiii
(x) -[
4
(x) = u Eq. 3.12
where
[
4
=
m
2
EI
,
Eq. 3.13
and the substitution of equation 3.9 and 3.10 into equation 3.2 gives
k

-(k

-m

2
)Z

= u Eq. 3.14

+(y

2
-1)Z

= u Eq. 3.15
where
y

, and

=
_
k

,
Eq. 3.16
44


If equations 3.9 and 3.10 are substituted into equations 3.3-6, the
compatibility equations and force equilibrium at the attaching point are given by

L
(x

) =

R
(x

)
Eq. 3.17

iL
(x

) =

iR
(x

)
Eq. 3.18

iiL
(x

) =

iiR
(x

)
Eq. 3.19

iiiL
(x

) -

iiiR
(x

) +
p

l
3
([l)
4
Z

= u
Eq. 3.20
where
p

=
m

m
b
, and m
b
= ml
Eq. 3.21
After introducing equation 3.9 into equations 3.7 and 3.8, the boundary
conditions of the cantilever beam become
(u) = u
i
(u) = u Eq. 3.22

ii
(l) = u
iii
(l) = u Eq. 3.23
The solution of the differential equation 3.12 is given by (Murphy, 1960)
and takes the form as follows
(x) = C
1
sin([x) +C
2
cos([x) +C
3
sinh([x) +C
4
cosh([x) Eq. 3.24
For the vth segment, the solution can be written as follows

() = C
1
sin([l) +C
2
cos([l) +C
3
sinh([l) +C
4
cosh([l) Eq. 3.25
where
=
x
l
,
Eq. 3.26
The derivatives of (x) can be also written as following equations

i
(x) =
J
J
J
Jx
=
1
l
J
J
=
1
l

i
() Eq. 3.27

ii
(x) =
J
Jx
_
1
l

i
()_ =
1
l
J
i
()
Jx
=
1
l
J
i
()
J
J
Jx
=
1
l
2

ii
() Eq. 3.28

iii
(x) =
J
Jx
_
1
l
2

ii
()_ =
1
l
2
J
ii
()
Jx
=
1
l
2
J
ii
()
J
J
Jx
=
1
l
3

iii
() Eq. 3.29




45


Therefore, the following equations can be written from equations 3.24-29

i
(x) =
1
l

i
() = [|C
1
cos([l) - C
2
sin([l) +C
3
cosh([l) + C
4
sinh([l)]
Eq. 3.30

ii
(x) =
1
l
2

ii
() = [
2
|-C
1
sin([l) - C
2
cos([l) + C
3
sinh([l) + C
4
cosh([l)]
Eq. 3.31

iii
(x) =
1
l
3

iii
() = [
3
|-C
1
cos([l) + C
2
sin([l) + C
3
cosh([l) + C
4
sinh([l)]
Eq. 3.32
As it is shown in Figure 3.1, the left end of the beam is corresponding with
the first segment of the beam. If boundary conditions (Equation 3.22) of the left
end of the beam are introduced into equations 3.25 and 3.30, one obtains
(u) = C
12
+C
14
= u Eq. 3.33

i
(u) = [(C
11
+C
13
) = u - [ = u - C
11
+C
13
= u Eq. 3.34
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
|B
L
]{C
L
] = u Eq. 3.35
where
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2

Eq. 3.36
{C
L
] = {C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
] = {C

1
C

2
C

3
C

4
] Eq. 3.37
The following equations are obtained by introducing equations 3.3-6 into
equations 3.24-29. The segments on the left and the right side of the v-th
attaching point located at x=x
v
are represented by v and v+1, respectively,
because of the segments that they belong. Therefore, the related coefficients are
shown by C
vj
and C
v+1,j
(j=1~4), respectively.
C
1
sin(0

) +C
2
cos(0

) +C
3
sinh(0

) +C
4
cosh(0

) -C
+1,1
sin(0

) -
C
+1,2
cos(0

) -C
+1,3
sinh(0

) -C
+1,4
cosh(0

) = u
Eq. 3.38

46


C
1
cos(0

) -C
2
sin(0

) +C
3
cosh(0

) +C
4
sinh(0

) -C
+1,1
cos(0

) +
C
+1,2
sin(0

) -C
+1,3
cosh(0

) -C
+1,4
sinh(0

) = u
Eq. 3.39
-C
1
sin(0

) -C
2
cos(0

) +C
3
sinh(0

) +C
4
cosh(0

) +C
+1,1
sin(0

) +
C
+1,2
cos(0

) -C
+1,3
sinh(0

) -C
+1,4
cosh(0

) = u
Eq. 3.40
|-C
1
cos(0

) +C
2
sin(0

) +C
3
cosh(0

) +C
4
sinh(0

) +C
+1,1
cos(0

) -
C
+1,2
sin(0

) -C
+1,3
cosh(0

) -C
+1,4
sinh(0

)] +p

([l)Z

= u
Eq. 3.41

Moreover, the substitution of equation 3.25 into equation 3.15 gives
C
1
sin(0

) +C
2
cos(0

) +C
3
sinh(0

) +C
4
cosh(0

) +(y

2
-1)Z

= u
Eq. 3.42
where
0

= [l Eq. 3.43
If equations 3.38-42 are written in matrix form, one obtains
|B

]{C

] = u Eq. 3.44
where |B

] and {C

] are shown on the next page



4: -S 4: -2 4: -1 4: 4: +1 4: +2 4: +S 4: +4 4: +S
|B

] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
sin(0

) cos(0

) sinh(0

) cosh(0

) -sin(0

) -cos(0

) -sinh(0

) -cosh(0

) u
cos(0

) -sin(0

) cosh(0

) sinh(0

) -cos(0

) sin(0

) -cosh(0

) -sinh(0

) u
-sin(0

) -cos(0

) sinh(0

) cosh(0

) sin(0

) cos(0

) -sinh(0

) -cosh(0

) u
-cos(0

) sin(0

) cosh(0

) sinh(0

) cos(0

) -sin(0

) -cosh(0

) -sinh(0

) p

([l)
sin(0

) cos(0

) sinh(0

) cosh(0

) u u u u y

2
-11
1
1
1
1
1
1
S: -2
S: -1
S:
S: +1
S: +2

Eq. 3.45

{C

] = {C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
+1,1
C
+1,2
C
+1,3
C
+1,4
Z

] Eq. 3.46
= {C

4-3
C

4-2
C

4-1
C

4
C

4+1
C

4+2
C

4+3
C

4+4
C

4+5
] Eq. 3.47



4
7

48


The right end of the beam belongs to the (n+1)th segment as it is shown in
Figure 3.1. If boundary conditions (Equation 3.23) of the right end of the beam
are introduced into equations 3.31 and 3.32, one obtains
-C
n+1,1
sin([l) -C
n+1,2
cos([l) +C
n+1,3
sinh([l) +C
n+1,4
cosh([l) = u
Eq. 3.48
-C
n+1,1
cos([l) +C
n+1,2
sin([l) +C
n+1,3
cosh([l) +C
n+1,4
sinh([l) = u
Eq. 3.49
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
|B
R
]{C
R
] = u Eq. 3.50
where
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
-sin([l) -cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
-cos([l) sin([l) cosh([l) sinh([l)
_
p -1
p

Eq. 3.51
{C
R
] = {C
n+1,1
C
n+1,2
C
n+1,3
C
n+1,4
] = {C

4n+1
C

4n+2
C

4n+3
C

4n+4
]
Eq. 3.52
where
p = Sn +4 Eq. 3.53
Here, p represents the total number of equations. There are five equations
for any attaching point for a spring-mass system, including three compatibility
equations, one force equilibrium equation and one governing equation for the
sprung mass. Moreover, there are two more equations for each boundary of the
beam. Therefore, there are 5n+4 equations in all for the whole beam to obtain
integration constants C
vi
and modal displacements Z
v
where v=1~n and i=1~4. In
other words, based on equation 3.25 and the governing equation of spring-mass,
there are four unknown integration constants for each beam segment and there
is one additional unknown Z
v
. If there is n spring-mass system, it means that
there is n+1 segment in the whole beam. Therefore, the total number of
unknowns for the beam carrying n spring-mass systems is equal to
4(n+1)+n=5n+4 (n unknown for Z
v
and 4(n+1) unknown for integration constants).
49


Hence, if all of the unknowns (C
vi
and Z
v
) indicated in equations 3.37, 3.47
and 3.52 can be written as column vector {C

] and the matrices|B


L
], |B

] and |B
R
]
are assembled by using the conventional assembly technique for direct stiffness
matrix method. Then, the following equation can be written for the entire system
in order to obtain required natural frequencies and mode shapes
|B

]{C

] = u Eq. 3.54
The non-trivial solution of the equation 3.54 is
|B

| = u Eq. 3.55
The natural frequencies of the entire vibrating system

(i=1, 2,) are


obtained by solving the equation 3.55. The integration constants are also
obtained by substituting each value of the natural frequencies into equation 3.54.
Once the integration constants are obtained, they are introduced into the
equation 3.24 and the corresponding mode shapes for each segment can be
defined. The coefficient matrix |B

] for a cantilever beam carrying one spring


mass system is given on the next page.
|B
L
] and |B
R
] are shown for beams which have various boundary
conditions in Appendix B. Moreover, the entire coefficient matrices (|B

]) for these
beams carrying more than one spring-mass system are also indicated in
Appendix B.

C

1
C

2
C

3
C

4
C

5
C

6
C

7
C

8
C

9

|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u
1 u 1 u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u
cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u
-sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u
-cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) p
1
([l)
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u y
1
2
-1
u u u u -sin([l) -cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l) u
u u u u -cos([l) sin([l) cosh([l) sinh([l) u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
S
4
S
6
7
8
9

Eq. 3.56

5
0

51


3.3. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Non-Uniform Beams Carrying
Spring-Mass Systems
3.3.1. Equations of Motion and Derivation of Eigenfunctions for the
Constrained Beam
The free vibration problem of uniform beams carrying various
concentrated elements has been studied by many researchers. On the other
hand, the literature regarding the free vibration characteristics of non-uniform
beams carrying any number of spring-mass systems is very rare. However, Chen
and Wu (2002) applied numerical assembly method for non-uniform beams
carrying spring-mass systems. Based on their studies, the same procedure that
is used in order to obtain the free vibration characteristics of uniform beams is
applied to non-uniform beams in this study. As it is shown in Figure 3.2, a non-
uniform beam carrying n spring-mass systems is divided into (n+1) segments.
The total length is L; v on the top represents the attaching point and the
corresponding segment. The left and the right ends of the beam are shown by
the letters L and R, respectively.

Figure 3.2 A non-uniform cantilever beam carrying n spring-mass systems
52


The equation of motion for a bare non-uniform beam is given by
o
2
ox
2
_EI(x)
o
2
y(x, t)
ox
2
_ +pA(x)
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= u Eq. 3.57
where A(x) and I(x) are the cross-sectional area at position x and moment of
inertia of A(x). A(x) and I(x) are given as follows
A(x) = 2nr(x)t Eq. 3.58
I(x) =
n
4
|r
0
4
(x) -r

4
(x)] Eq. 3.59
where
r
o
(x) = r(x) +
t
2
, Eq. 3.60
r

(x) = r(x) -
t
2
, Eq. 3.61
r(x) = r(u) +
r(I) -r(u)
I
x = r(u) _1 +
(o -1)
I
x_ Eq. 3.62
where
o =
r
u
(I)
r
u
(u)
_
Eq. 3.63
When equation 3.61 and 3.62 are introduced into equation 3.59, I(x) can
be written as
I(x) =
n
4
|4r
3
(x)t +r(x)t
3
] Eq. 3.64
Because of the fact that t
3
is much smaller than r(x), the term, r(x) t
3
, can
be neglected. Hence, the moment of inertia is given by
I(x) = nr
3
(x)t Eq. 3.65
and the substitution of equation 3.62 into equations 3.58 and 3.65 gives
A(x) = 2nr(u)t _1 +
(o -1)
I
x_ = A
0
_1 +
(o -1)
I
x_ Eq. 3.66
I(x) = nr
3
(u)t _1 +
(o -1)
I
x_
3
= I
0
_1 +
(o -1)
I
x_
3
Eq. 3.67
Similar to equation 3.9, the free vibration of the beam takes the form
y(x, t) = (x)c
ot
Eq. 3.68

53


If equations 3.66-68 are substituted into equation 3.57, one obtains
EI(x)
J
4
(x)
Jx
4
+ E
JI(x)
Jx
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
+E
J
2
I(x)
Jx
2
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
+ E
JI(x)
Jx
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
- pA(x)
2
(x) = u
Eq. 3.69
EI
0
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
3
d
4
(x)
dx
4
+SEI
0
(u-1)
L
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
2
d
3
(x)
dx
3
+ 6EI
0
j
(u-1)
L
[
2
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
d
2
(x)
dx
2
+
SEI
0
(u-1)
L
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
2
d
3
(x)
dx
3
- pA
0
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
2
(x) = u
Eq. 3.70
The coefficient is given by
= _1 +
(o -1)
I
x_ Eq. 3.71
then the derivatives of (x) can be also written as following equations

iii
(x) =
d
dx
_j
(u-1)
L
[
2

ii
()_ = j
(u-1)
L
[
2
d
||
({)
dx
= j
(u-1)
L
[
2
d
||
({)
d{
d{
dx
= j
(u-1)
L
[
3

iii
()
Eq. 3.74

iiii
(x) =
d
dx
_j
(u-1)
L
[
3

iii
()_ = j
(u-1)
L
[
3
d
|||
({)
dx
= j
(u-1)
L
[
3
d
|||
({)
d{
d{
dx
= j
(u-1)
L
[
4

iiii
()
Eq. 3.75
Insertion of equations 3.71-75 into equation 3.70 gives

3

iiii
() +6
2

iii
() +6
ii
() -j
LU
(u-1)
[
4
() = u Eq. 3.76

3

iiii
() +6
2

iii
() +6
ii
() - j
[
2
[
4
() = u
Eq. 3.77
where
(0I)
4
=
pA
0
o
2
L
4
LI
0
and [ =
2LU
(u-1)
Eq. 3.78
The solution of the differential equation 3.77 is given by (Murphy, 1960)
and takes the form as follows

i
(x) =
J
J
J
Jx
=
(o -1)
I
J
J
=
(o -1)
I

i
() Eq. 3.72

ii
(x) =
J
Jx
_
(o - 1)
I

i
()_ =
(o - 1)
I
J
i
()
Jx
=
(o - 1)
I
J
i
()
J
J
Jx
= _
(o -1)
I
_
2

ii
()
Eq. 3.73
54


() =
-
1
2
|C
1
[
1
([) + C
2

1
([) + C
S
I
1
([) + C
4
K
1
([)]
Eq. 3.79
where C
i
(i=1~4) are the integration constants, J
1
and Y
1
are the first order of
Bessel function of first and second kinds and I
1
and K
1
are the first order modified
Bessel function of first and second kinds.
For an arbitrary point, equation 3.79 can be written as follows for the v-th
segment

) =

-
1
2
|C
1
[
1
([

) + C
2

1
([

) +C
3
I
1
([

) + C
4
K
1
([

)]
Eq. 3.80
where

= _1 +
(o -1)
I
x

_ Eq. 3.81
and the derivatives of equation 3.80 with respect to
v

i
(

) = -
[
2

-1
|C
1
[
2
([

) +C
2

2
([

) - C
3
I
2
([

) +C
4
K
2
([

)]
Eq. 3.82

ii
(

) = [
[
2

-
3
2
|C
1
[
3
([

) + C
2

3
([

) +C
3
I
3
([

) +C
4
K
3
([

)]
Eq. 3.83

iii
(

) = [-
[
2

-2
|C
1
[
4
([

) + C
2

4
([

) -C
3
I
4
([

) +C
4
K
4
([

)]
Eq. 3.84
3.3.2. Coefficient Matrix [B
v
] for the v-th Attaching Point
Similar to equations 3.17-19, the compatibility equations at the attaching
point for non-uniform beam are given by

L
(

) =

R
(

) Eq. 3.85

iL
(

) =

iR
(

) Eq. 3.86

iiL
(

) =

iiR
(

) Eq. 3.87



55


The force equilibrium at the attaching point is as follows
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2

L
(x)
Jx
2
_ -m

=
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2

R
(x)
Jx
2
_ Eq. 3.88
E
JI(x)
Jx
J
2

L
(x)
Jx
2
+EI(x)
J
3

L
(x)
Jx
3
-m

=
JI(x)
Jx
J
2

R
(x)
Jx
2
+EI(x)
J
3

R
(x)
Jx
3

Eq. 3.89
If equations 3.71-74 are introduced into equation 3.89, one obtains
SEI
0
(u-1)
L
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
2
j
(u-1)
L
[
2
d
2

L
({

)
d{

2
+EI
0
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
3
j
(u-1)
L
[
3
d
3

L
({

)
d{

3
-
m

= SEI
0
(u-1)
L
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
2
j
(u-1)
L
[
2
d
2

R
({

)
d{

2
+EI
0
j1 +
(u-1)
L
x[
3
j
(u-1)
L
[
3
d
3

R
({

)
d{

3

Eq. 3.90
S(o -1)
3

iiL
(

) +(o -1)
3

iiiL
(

) +F
s
= S(o -1)
3

iiR
(

) +
(o -1)
3

iiiR
(

)
Eq. 3.91
The equation of motion for the v-th spring-mass system is given by
m

+k

(z

-y

) = u Eq. 3.92
Similar to equation 3.10, free vibration of the v-th spring-mass system is
z

= Z

c
ot
Eq. 3.93
The substitution of equations 3.68 and 3.93 into equation 3.92, one
obtains
-m

2
Z

+k

(Z

) = u Eq. 3.94
k

-Z

(k

-m

2
) = u Eq. 3.95

+Z

(y

2
-1) = u Eq. 3.96
Where
y

2
=

2

2
,
Eq. 3.97
Insertion of equation 3.78 into equation 3.97 gives
y

2
=
(0I)
4
EI
0
pA
0
I
4
m

=
p

j
1
2
(o +1)[
k

-
(0I)
4

Eq. 3.98
where
56

= _
k



Eq. 3.99

p

=
m

m
b
=
m

pA
0
I j
1
2
(o + 1)[

k

-
=
k

[
EI
0
I
3
,

where
m
b
= p _2nr(x)
L
0
tJx = 2nptr
0
__1 +
(o -1)
I
x_ Jx
L
0
Eq. 3.100
m
b
= A
0
pI _
(o +1)
2
_ Eq. 3.101
After introducing equations 3.78, 3.93, 3.96 and 3.99, the interactive force
F
s
, in equation 3.91, between the beam and the attached spring-mass system is
given by
F
s
= -
m

[
EI
0
I
3
,
=
m

2
1 -
m

2
k

L
(x

)
[
EI
0
I
3
,
=
p

j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
1 -
p

j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
k

L
(

)
Eq. 3.102
If equations 3.80-84 are inserted into equations 3.85-87, 3.91 and 3.96
C
1
[
1
([

) +C
2

1
([

) +C
3
I
1
([

) +C
4
K
1
([

) -C
+1,1
[
1
([

) -
C
+1,2

1
([

) -C
+1,3
I
1
([

) -C
+1,4
K
1
([

) = u
Eq. 3.103
C
1
[
2
([

) +C
2

2
([

) -C
3
I
2
([

) +C
4
K
2
([

) -C
+1,1
[
2
([

) -
C
+1,2

2
([

) +C
+1,3
I
2
([

) -C
+1,4
K
2
([

) = u
Eq. 3.104
C
1
[
3
([

) +C
2

3
([

) +C
3
I
3
([

) +C
4
K
3
([

) -C
+1,1
[
3
([

) -
C
+1,2

3
([

) -C
+1,3
I
3
([

) -C
+1,4
K
3
([

) = u
Eq. 3.105
6[
2
|C
1
[
3
([

) + C
2

3
([

) + C
3
I
3
([

) + C
4
K
3
([

)] - [
3

1
2
|C
1
[
4
([

) +
57


C
2

4
([

) - C
3
I
4
([

) +C
4
K
4
([

)] + 80

-1
|C
1
[
1
([

) +C
2

1
([

) +
C
3
I
1
([

) + C
4
K
1
([

)] - 6[
2
|C
+1,1
[
3
([

) + C
+1,2

3
([

) + C
+1,3
I
3
([

) +
C
+1,4
K
3
([

)] + [
3

1
2
|C
+1,1
[
4
([

) +C
+1,2

4
([

) - C
+1,3
I
4
([

) +
C
+1,4
K
4
([

)] = u
Eq. 3.106

-
1
2
|C
1
[
1
([

) +C
2

1
([

) +C
3
I
1
([

) +C
4
K
1
([

)] +Z

(y

2
-1) = u
Eq. 3.107
where
0

=
p

j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
1 -
p

j
1
2
(o + 1)[ (0I)
4
k

-
1
(o - 1)
3

Eq. 3.108
Equations 3.103-108 consist of integration coefficients represented by C
vi

and C
v+1,i
(i=1~4) for the left and right side of the v-th attaching point,
respectively. The left side of the attaching point belongs to the segment (v) and
the right side belongs to the segment (v+1).
Similar to equation 3.44, equations 3.103-107 can be written in matrix
form as follows
|B

]{C

] = u Eq. 3.109
where |B

] and {C

] are shown on the next page.


4: -S 4: -2 4: -1 4: 4: +1 4: +2 4: +S 4: +4 4: +S
|B

] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
[
1
(o

)
1
(o

) I
1
(o

) K
1
(o

) -[
1
(o

) -
1
(o

) -I
1
(o

) -K
1
(o

) u
[
2
(o

)
2
(o

) -I
2
(o

) K
2
(o

) -[
2
(o

) -
2
(o

) I
2
(o

) -K
2
(o

) u
[
3
(o

)
3
(o

) I
3
(o

) K
3
(o

) -[
3
(o

) -
3
(o

) -I
3
(o

) -K
3
(o

) u

1

2

3

4
-
5
-
6
-
7
-
8
u

-
1
2
[
1
(o

-
1
2

1
(o

-
1
2
I
1
(o

-
1
2
K
1
(o

) u u u u y

2
-11
1
1
1
1
1
1
S: -2
S: -1
S:
S: +1
S: +2

Eq. 3.110

{C

] = {C
1
C
2
C
3
C
4
C
+1,1
C
+1,2
C
+1,3
C
+1,4
Z

] Eq. 3.111
= {C

4-3
C

4-2
C

4-1
C

4
C

4+1
C

4+2
C

4+3
C

4+4
C

4+5
] Eq. 3.112
5
8

59


where

1
= 6[
2
[
3
([

) -[
3

1
2
[
4
([

) +80

-1
[
1
([

)
Eq. 3.113

2
= 6[
2

3
([

) -[
3

1
2

4
([

) +80

-1

1
([

)
Eq. 3.114

3
= 6[
2
I
3
([

) +[
3

1
2
I
4
([

) + 80

-1
I
1
([

)
Eq. 3.115

4
= 6[
2
K
3
([

) -[
3

1
2
K
4
([

) +80

-1
K
1
([

)
Eq. 3.116

5
= 6[
2
[
3
([

) -[
3

1
2
[
4
([

)
Eq. 3.117

6
= 6[
2

3
([

) -[
3

1
2

4
([

)
Eq. 3.118

7
= 6[
2
I
3
([

) +[
3

1
2
I
4
([

)
Eq. 3.119

8
= 6[
2
K
3
([

) -[
3

1
2
K
4
([

)
Eq. 3.120
o

= [

Eq. 3.121
3.3.3. Coefficient Matrix [B
L
] for the Left End of the Beam
The left end of the cantilever beam belongs to the first segment. The
boundary conditions for the cantilever beam with left end free are given as
follows
x = u - = 1
Therefore

ii
(1) = u Eq. 3.122
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
_ = E
JI(x)
Jx
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
+ EI(x)
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
= u Eq. 3.123
substitution of equation 3.67, 3.73 and 3.74 into equation 3.123
S
-1

ii
(1) +
iii
(1) = u Eq. 3.124
If equations 3.83 and 3.84 are inserted into equations 3.122 and 3.124,
respectively
C
11
[
3
([) +C
12

3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([) = u Eq. 3.125


60


6|C
11
[
3
([) +C
12

3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([)] -[|C
11
[
4
([) +C
12

4
([) -
C
13
I
4
([) +C
14
K
4
([)] = u
Eq. 3.126
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
|B
L
]{C
L
] = u Eq. 3.127
where
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
_
1
2

Eq. 3.128
{C
L
] = {C
11
C
12
C
13
C
14
] = {C

1
C

2
C

3
C

4
] Eq. 3.129
where
e
1
= 6[
3
([) -[[
4
([) Eq. 3.130
e
2
= 6
3
([) -[
4
([) Eq. 3.131
e
3
= 6I
3
([) +[I
4
([) Eq. 3.132
e
4
= 6K
3
([) -[K
4
([) Eq. 3.133
3.3.4. Coefficient Matrix [B
R
] for the Right End of the Beam
The right end of the cantilever beam belongs to the (n+1)th segment of the
beam carrying n spring-spring mass systems. The boundary conditions for the
cantilever beam with right end clamped are given as follows
x = I - = o
therefore
For the deflection (o) = u Eq. 3.134
For the slope
i
(o) = u Eq. 3.135
The substitution of equations 3.80 and 3.82 into equations equation 3.134
and 3.135, one obtains
C
n+1,1
[
1
([o) +C
n+1,2

1
([o) + C
n+1,3
I
1
([o) + C
n+1,4
K
1
([o) = u Eq. 3.136
C
n+1,1
[
2
([o) +C
n+1,2

2
([o) - C
n+1,3
I
2
([o) + C
n+1,4
K
2
([o) = u Eq. 3.137

61


The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
|B
R
]{C
R
] = u Eq. 3.138
where
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) -I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p -1
p

Eq. 3.139
{C
R
] = {C
n+1,1
C
n+1,2
C
n+1,3
C
n+1,4
] = {C

4n+1
C

4n+2
C

4n+3
C

4n+4
] Eq. 3.140
where p is defined as indicated in equation 3.53.
Similar to the definitions for uniform beam, here p represents the total
number of equations. Two boundary conditions for each boundary together with
compatibility equations, force equilibrium and governing equation of motion for
the sprung mass for each attaching point compose 5n+4 equations for the entire
beam in order to obtain integration constants and modal displacements.
As it is indicated for uniform beams, overall coefficient matrix [B] of the
entire beam is composed by using direct stiffness matrix method. Similar to the
equation 3.54 and 3.55, the following equations can be used in order to obtain
the natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes for the entire system
|B

]{C

] = u Eq. 3.141
The non-trivial solution of the equation 3.54 is
|B

| = u Eq. 3.142
Once one obtains the overall coefficient matrix, the solution of equation
3.142 gives the natural frequencies of the entire system and the insertion of that
solution into equation 3.141, one obtains the corresponding mode shapes for
each natural frequency for each segment. The coefficient matrix |B

] for a
cantilever beam carrying one spring mass system is given on the next page.
Coefficient matrices for various boundary conditions are shown in
Appendix B. Moreover, the entire coefficient matrices (|B

]) for these beams


carrying more than one spring-mass system are also indicated in Appendix B for
non-uniform beams.
C

1
C

2
C

3
C

4
C

5
C

6
C

7
C

8
C

9

|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([) u u u u u
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
u u u u u
[
1
(o
1
)
1
(o
1
) I
1
(o
1
) K
1
(o
1
) -[
1
(o
1
) -
1
(o
1
) -I
1
(o
1
) -K
1
(o
1
) u
[
2
(o
1
)
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) K
2
(o
1
) -[
2
(o
1
) -
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) -K
2
(o
1
) u
[
3
(o
1
)
3
(o
1
) I
3
(o
1
) K
3
(o
1
) -[
3
(o
1
) -
3
(o
1
) -I
3
(o
1
) -K
3
(o
1
) u

11

21

31

41
-
51
-
61
-
71
-
81
u

1
-
1
2
[
1
(o
1
)
1
-
1
2

1
(o
1
)
1
-
1
2
I
1
(o
1
)
1
-
1
2
K
1
(o
1
) u u u u y
1
2
-1
u u u u [
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o) u
u u u u [
2
([o)
2
([o) -I
2
([o) K
2
([o) u
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
S
4
S
6
7
8
9

Eq. 3.143
6
2

63


3.4. Formulation of the Free Vibration Problem for Uniform Multi-Span Beams
Carrying Spring-Mass Systems
3.4.1. Equations of Motion and Displacement Function
As it is indicated in the sections 3.2 and 3.3, the exact solutions of the free
vibration characteristics of uniform and non-uniform single span beams carrying
any number of spring-mass systems can be obtained through numerical
assembly method determined by Wu and Chou (1999) for uniform beams and
Chen and Wu (2001) for non-uniform beams. Based on these studies and the
numerical assembly method, Lin and Tsai (2007) studied the free vibration
characteristics of the multi-span uniform beam carrying any number of spring-
mass systems. This study also adopts the same method in order to obtain the
free vibration characteristics of constrained multi-span uniform beams.
As it is shown in Figure 3.3, the total length of the beam is L and the multi-
span uniform beam is supported by T pinned supports and carrying S spring-
mass systems. Each point that T pinned supports or S spring-mass systems
located is called station and each station is represented by x = x

|(:
i
= 1~N).
On the other hand, each spring-mass system and pin support is located at
x = x
P
-
(p = 1~S) and x = x

(r = 1~I), respectively.
The equation of motion for a uniform Euler-Bernoulli beam and the pth
spring-mass system are given by
EI
o
4
y(x, t)
ox
4
+m
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= u
Eq. 3.144
m
p
z
p
+k
p
(z
p
-y
p
) = u Eq. 3.145
where z
p
represents the displacement of the pth spring-mass relative to its static
equilibrium position and y
p
is the transverse deflection of the beam at the pth
attaching point.



64


The free vibration of the beam and the pth spring-mass system takes the
form
y(x, t) = (x)c
ot
Eq. 3.146
z
p
= Z
p
c
ot
Eq. 3.147
where Y(x) and Z
p
are the amplitudes and is the natural frequency of the entire
vibrating system.


Figure 3.3 A uniform multi-span beam carrying S spring-mass systems and T
pinned supports (Lin and Tsai, 2007)
The insertion of equation 3.146 into equation 3.144 leads to
EI

4
x
4
((x)c
ot
) +m

2
t
2
((x)c
ot
) = u Eq. 3.148

iiii
(x) -[
4
(x) = u Eq. 3.149
65


where
[
4
=
m
2
EI
,
Eq. 3.150
The solution of the differential equation 3.149 is given by (Murphy, 1960)
and takes the form as follows
(x) = C
1
sin([x) +C
2
cos([x) +C
3
sinh([x) +C
4
cosh([x) Eq. 3.151
3.4.2. Coefficient Matrices and Determination of Natural Frequencies and
Mode Shapes
For any of the station point, the solution can be written as follows

|(

|) = C

|
,1
sin(0

|) +C

|
,2
cos(0

|) +C

|
,3
sinh(0

|) +
C

|
,4
cosh(0

|)
Eq. 3.152
where

| =
x

|
l
, Eq. 3.153
0 = [l Eq. 3.154
The derivatives of

|(

|) can be written as following equations

|(

|) = 0|C

|
,1
cos(0

|) -C

|
,2
sin(0

|) +C

|
,3
cosh(0

|) +C

|
,4
sinh(0

|)]
Eq. 3.155

ii

| (

| ) = 0
2
|-C

|
,1
sin(0

| ) - C

|
,2
cos(0

| ) + C

|
,3
sinh(0

| ) +C

|
,4
cosh(0

| )]
Eq. 3.156

iii

| (

| ) = 0
3
|-C

|
,1
cos(0

| ) +C

|
,2
sin(0

| ) + C

|
,3
cosh(0

| ) + C

|
,4
sinh(0

| )]
Eq. 3.157
The left end of the beam belongs to station 1

and is pin supported as it is
shown in Figure 3.3. The boundary conditions for the left end of the beam are
given by
x
1
| = u -
1
| = u
therefore
Deflection
1
|(u) = u Eq. 3.158
66


Bending
1
|
ii
(u) = u Eq. 3.159
The substitution of equations 3.152 and 3.156 into equations 3.158 and
3.159 gives

1
|(u) = C
1
|
,2
+C
1
|
,4
= u Eq. 3.160

1
|
ii
(u) = 0(-C
1
|
,2
+C
1
|
,4
) = u - 0 = u - -C
1
|
,2
+C
1
|
,4
= u
Eq. 3.161
The last two expressions can be also represented as
|B
1
|]{C
1
|] = u Eq. 3.162
where
1 2 S 4
|B
1
|] = _
u 1 u 1
u -1 u 1
_
1
2

Eq. 3.163
{C
1
|] = {C
1
|
,1
C
1
|
,2
C
1
|
,3
C
1
|
,4
] Eq. 3.164
The compatibility and force equilibrium equations for the (p)th spring-mass
system requires that

p
|
L
(
p
|) =
p
|
R
(
p
|)
Eq. 3.165

p
|
iL
(
p
|) =
p
|
iR
(
p
|)
Eq. 3.166

p
|
iiL
(
p
|) =
p
|
iiR
(
p
|)
Eq. 3.167

p
|
iiiL
(
p
|) -
p
|
iiiR
(
p
|) +
m
p

2
EI
Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.168
where
p
p
=
m
p
m
b
and m
b
= ml
Eq. 3.169
If equations 3.146 and 3.147 are substituted into equation 3.145, one can
obtain
k
p

p
| -(k
p
-m
p

2
)Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.170

p
| +(z
p
2
-1)Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.171
where
z
p
=


p
, and
p
=
_
k
p
m
p
_

Eq. 3.172
where
p
is the natural frequency of the (p)th spring-mass system.
67


The insertion of equations 3.152-157 into equations 3.165-168 gives
C
p
|
-1,1
sin(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,2
cos(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,3
sinh(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,4
cosh(0
p
|) -
C
p
|
,1
sin(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,2
cos(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,3
sinh(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,4
cosh(0
p
|) = u
Eq. 3.173
C
p
|
-1,1
cos(0
p
|) -C
p
|
-1,2
sin(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,3
cosh(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,4
sinh(0
p
|) -
C
p
|
,1
cos(0
p
|) +C
p
|
,2
sin(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,3
cosh(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,4
sinh(0
p
|) = u
Eq. 3.174
-C
p
|
-1,1
sin(0
p
|) -C
p
|
-1,2
cos(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,3
sinh(0
p
|) +C
p
|
-1,4
cosh(0
p
|) +
C
p
|
,1
sin(0
p
|) +C
p
|
,2
cos(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,3
sinh(0
p
|) -C
p
|
,4
cosh(0
p
|) = u
Eq. 3.175
|-C
p
|
-1,1
cos(0
p
| ) +C
p
|
-1,2
sin(0
p
| ) + C
p
|
-1,3
cosh(0
p
| ) + C
p
|
-1,4
sinh(0
p
|) +
C
p
|
,1
cos(0
p
| ) - C
p
|
,2
sin(0
p
| ) - C
p
|
,3
cosh(0
p
| ) - C
p
|
,4
sinh(0
p
| )] + p
p
0Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.176
and the substitution of equation 3.152 into equation 3.171 gives
C
p
|
,1
sin(0
p
|) +C
p
|
,2
cos(0
p
|) +C
p
|
3
sinh(0
p
|) +C
p
|
4
cosh(0
p
|) +
(z
p
2
-1)Z
p
= u
Eq. 3.177
The last expressions can be written in matrix form
|B
p
|]{C
p
|] = u
Eq. 3.178

where
4p
i
-S 4p
i
-2 4p
i
-1 4p
i
4p
i
+1 4p
i
+2 4p
i
+S 4p
i
+4 4p
i
+S

|B
p
| ] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
sin(0
p
| ) cos(0
p
| ) sinh(0
p
|) cosh(0
p
| ) -sin(0
p
| ) -cos(0
p
| ) -sinh(0
p
| ) -cosh(0
p
| ) u
cos(0
p
|) -sin(0
p
| ) cosh(0
p
| ) sinh(0
p
| ) -cos(0
p
|) sin(0
p
| ) -cosh(0
p
| ) -sinh(0
p
| ) u
-sin(0
p
| ) -cos(0
p
| ) sinh(0
p
|) cosh(0
p
| ) sin(0
p
| ) cos(0
p
| ) -sinh(0
p
| ) -cosh(0
p
| ) u
-cos(0
p
| ) sin(0
p
| ) cosh(0
p
| ) sinh(0
p
| ) cos(0
p
| ) -sin(0
p
| ) -cosh(0
p
| ) -sinh(0
p
| ) p
p
0
sin(0
p
| ) cos(0
p
| ) sinh(0
p
|) cosh(0
p
| ) u u u u z
p
2
- 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
4p
i
- 1
4p
i
4p
i
+ 1
4p
i
+ 2
4p
i
+ S



|C
p
|| = {
C
p
|
-1,1
C
p
|
-1,2
C
p
|
-1,3
C
p
|
-1,4
C
p
|
,1
C
p
|
,2
C
p
|
,3
C
p
|
,4
Z
p
] Eq. 3.180


Eq. 3.179
6
8

69


Similar to the (p)th spring-mass system, compatibility equations for (r)th
intermediate support are given by

|
L
(

|) =

|
R
(

|) = u
Eq. 3.181

|
iL
(

|) =

|
iR
(

|)
Eq. 3.182

|
iiL
(

|) =

|
iiR
(

|)
Eq. 3.183
Similarly, if equations 3.152-157 are substituted into equations 3.181-182,
one obtains
C

|
-1,1
sin(0

|) +C

|
-1,2
cos(0

|) +C

|
-1,3
sinh(0

|) +C

|
-1,4
cosh(0

|) = u
Eq. 3.184
C

|
,1
sin(0

|) +C

|
,2
cos(0

|) +C

|
,3
sinh(0

|) +C

|
,4
cosh(0

|) = u
Eq. 3.185
C

|
-1,1
cos(0

|) -C

|
-1,2
sin(0

|) +C

|
-1,3
cosh(0

|) +C

|
-1,4
sinh(0

|) -
C

|
,1
cos(0

|) +C

|
,2
sin(0

|) -C

|
,3
cosh(0

|) -C

|
,4
sinh(0

|) = u
Eq. 3.186
-C

|
-1,1
sin(0

|) -C

|
-1,2
cos(0

|) +C

|
-1,3
sinh(0

|) +C

|
-1,4
cosh(0

|) +
C

|
,1
sin(0

|) +C

|
,2
cos(0

|) -C

|
,3
sinh(0

|) -C

|
,4
cosh(0

|) = u
Eq. 3.187
If equations 3.184-187 are written in matrix form, one obtains
|B

|]{C

|] = u Eq. 3.188
where |B

|] and {C

|] are shown on the next page.



4r
i
-S 4r
i
-2 4r
i
-1 4r
i
4r
i
+1 4r
i
+2 4r
i
+S 4r
i
+4
|B

|] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
sin(0

|) cos(0

|) sinh(0

|) cosh(0

|) u u u u
u u u u sin(0

|) cos(0

|) sinh(0

|) cosh(0

|)
cos(0

|) -sin(0

|) cosh(0

|) sinh(0

|) -cos(0

|) sin(0

|) -cosh(0

|) -sinh(0

|)
-sin(0

|) -cos(0

|) sinh(0

|) cosh(0

|) sin(0

|) cos(0

|) -sinh(0

|) -cosh(0

|)1
1
1
1
1
1
4r
i
-1
4r
i
4r
i
+1
4r
i
+2

Eq. 3.189

{C

|] = {C

|
-1,1
C

|
-1,2
C

|
-1,3
C

|
-1,4
C

|
,1
C

|
,2
C

|
,3
C

|
,4
] Eq. 3.190

7
0

71


The right end of the beam belongs to station N

and is pin supported as
shown in Figure 3.3. The boundary conditions for the right end of the beam are
given by
x
N
| = l -
N
| = 1
Therefore
Deflection
N
|(1) = u Eq. 3.191
Bending
N
|
ii
(1) = u Eq. 3.192
The substitution of equations 3.152 and 3.156 into equations 3.190 and
3.191 gives

N
|(1) = C
N
|
,1
sin(0) +C
N
|
,2
cos(0) +C
N
|
,3
sinh(0) +C
N
|
,4
cosh(0) = u
Eq. 3.193

ii
N
|(1) = -C
N
|
,1
sin(0) -C
N
|
,2
cos(0) +C
N
|
,3
sinh(0) +C
N
|
,4
cosh(0)
Eq. 3.194
The last two expressions can be written in matrix form as follows
|B
N
|]{C
N
|] = u Eq. 3.195
where
4N

i
+1 4N

i
+2 4N

i
+S 4N

i
+4
|B
N
| ] = _
sin(0) cos(0) sinh(0) cosh(0)
-sin(0) -cos(0) sinh(0) cosh(0)
_
q -1
q

Eq. 3.196
{C
N
| ] = {C
N
|
,1
C
N
|
,2
C
N
|
,3
C
N
|
,4
] Eq. 3.197
where N

i
and q represents the total number of intermediate supports and total
number of equations, respectively. As indicated before, N
i
shows the total
number of stations and consists of total spring-mass system and pinned
supports. There are four equations to write for intermediate supports, five
equations for spring-mass systems and two equations for each boundary.
Therefore the total number of equations is given by
q = 4(I -2) +SS +4 Eq. 3.198
The integration constant matrices for intermediate supports, spring-mass
systems and each boundaries (|B
1
|], |B
p
|], |B

|], |B
N
| ]) compose the overall
coefficient matrix |B

] for the entire beam through numerical assembly method.


72


|B

]{C

] = u Eq. 3.199
The non-trivial solution of the equation 3.54 is
|B

| = u Eq. 3.200
The free vibration characteristics of the entire beam can be obtained by
solving equations 3.199 and 3.200. The non-trivial solution of equation 3.200
gives the natural frequencies of the entire beam and the substitution of the
solution into equation 3.199 gives the corresponding mode shapes for the whole
beam. The associated coefficient matrix |B

] for a multi-span uniform pinned


supported beam carrying one spring-mass system and consisting of one
intermediate support is given on the next page.

Figure 3.4 Two-span uniform beam with one intermediate support and one spring-mass system
|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u
u -1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u
cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u
-sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
1
-
) cos(0
1
-
) sinh(0
1
-
) cosh(0
1
-
) -sin(0
1
-
) -cos(0
1
-
) -sinh(0
1
-
) -cosh(0
1
-
) u
u u u u cos(0
1
-
) -sin(0
1
-
) cosh(0
1
-
) sinh(0
1
-
) -cos(0
1
-
) sin(0
1
-
) -cosh(0
1
-
) -sinh(0
1
-
) u
u u u u -sin(0
1
-
) -cos(0
1
-
) sinh(0
1
-
) cosh(0
1
-
) sin(0
1
-
) cos(0
1
-
) -sinh(0
1
-
) -cosh(0
1
-
) u
u u u u -cos(0
1
-
) sin(0
1
-
) cosh(0
1
-
) sinh(0
1
-
) cos(0
1
-
) -sin(0
1
-
) -cosh(0
1
-
) -sinh(0
1
-
) p
1
0
u u u u sin(0
1
-
) cos(0
1
-
) sinh(0
1
-
) cosh(0
1
-
) u u u u z
1
2
- 1
u u u u u u u u sin(0) cos(0) sinh(0) cosh(0) u
u u u u u u u u -sin(0) -cos(0) sinh(0) cosh(0) u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Eq. 3.201
7
3

74


3.5. Forced Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams
3.5.1. Introduction
The forced vibration of the beams which are subdivided into segments in
the previous sections is analyzed for each segment separately by using
corresponding mode shape and then forced vibration response for the entire
beam is obtained by combining each response for each segment through
MATHEMATICA via symbolic computation. Rao (2007) discussed solution of the
forced vibration of beams through modal analysis approach and orthogonality
condition. This study adopts the same method in order to obtain the exact
solutions for the forced vibration of any types of beams with attached spring-
mass systems indicated in the previous sections.
3.5.2. Formulation of Forced Vibration for Beams
The equation of motion for Euler-Bernoulli beam subjected to distributed
transverse force takes the form
o
2
ox
2
_EI(x)
o
2
y(x, t)
ox
2
_ +pA(x)
o
2
y(x, t)
ot
2
= (x, t) Eq. 3.202
The solution of equation 3.202 can be defined as linear combination of normal
modes of the beam as follows
y(x, t) =

(x)

=1
p

(t) Eq. 3.203


where

(x) are the mode shapes that are obtained by using the methods
indicated in the previous sections for different types of beams carrying attached
spring-mass systems and p

(t) are the modal participation coefficients.


J
2
Jx
2
_EI(x)
o
2

(x)
ox
2
_ -pA(x)

(x) = u Eq. 3.204




75


If equation 3.203 is inserted into equation 3.202, one obtains

J
2
Jx
2
_EI(x)
J
2

(x)
Jx
2
_ p

(t) +pA(x)

(x)
o
2
p

(t)
ot
2

=1

=1
= (x, t) Eq. 3.205
From equations 3.203 and 3.204
pA(x)

(x)p

(t) +pA(x)

(x)
o
2
p

(t)
ot
2

=1

=1
= (x, t) Eq. 3.206
Based on the orthogonality condition, for a beam with total length L
_ pA(x)

(x)
]
(x)
I
0
Jx = o
]
Eq. 3.207
where o
]
is the Kronecker delta that is
o
]
= u - i = ] and o
]
= 1 - i = ] Eq. 3.208
If equation 3.206 is multiplied with
]
(x) integrated from 0 to L
p

(t) _ pA(x)

(x)
]
(x)
I
0
Jx +
J
2
p

(t)
Jt
2
_ pA(x)

(x)
]
(x)Jx
I
0

=1

=1
= _
]
(x)(x, t)Jx
I
0

Eq. 3.209
According to equation 3.208, the left side of equation 3.209 is only valid
when i=j,
J
2
p

(t)
Jt
2
+

2
p

(t) =

(t)
Eq. 3.210
where

(t) = _

(x)(x, t)Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.211
The solution of equation 3.210 is given by
p

(t) = A

cos(

t) +B

sin(

t) +
1

() sin(

(t -)) Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.212
therefore the solution of equation 3.202 is given by substituting equation 3.212
into equation 3.203
y(x, t) = jA

cos(

t) +B

sin(

t) +
1
o
i
]

() sin(

(t -)) Jx
I
0
[

(x)

=1

Eq. 3.213
76


It is important to note that the first two terms inside the brackets in
equation 3.213 indicate the free vibration (homogeneous solution), and the third
term indicates the forced vibration of the beam. A

and B

can be computed
through initial conditions of the beam. In this study, the initial conditions are
assumed to be zero, hence
y(x, u) = u and y (x, u) = u Eq. 3.214
y(t) = A

cos(u) +B

sin(u) = u Eq. 3.215


y (t) = -A

sin(u) +B

cos(u) = u Eq. 3.216


from equations 3.215 and 3.216, A

and B

are equal to zero. Therefore the


equation 3.213 can be simplified as
y(x, t) = _
1

() sin(

(t -)) Jx
I
0
_

(x)

=1
Eq. 3.217
3.5.2.1. Impact Loading (Step-Function Force) and Harmonic Loading


Figure 3.5 Simply-supported beam subjected to step-function force F
0


77



Figure 3.6 Simply-supported beam subjected to harmonic force F
0
sin(t)
The step-function force acting on the simply supported beam can be
represented as
(x, t) = F
0
o(x -) Eq. 3.218
and the beam subjected to harmonic force can be written as
(x, t) = F
0
sin(0t) o(x -) Eq. 3.219
therefore the generalized force corresponding to the ith mode can be determined
by using equation 3.211 as below
For step-function force

(t) = ] w

(x)F
0
o(x -)Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.220
For harmonic force

(t) = ] w

(x)F
0
sin(0t) o(x -)Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.221
and the generalized coordinate in the ith mode is represented as below assuming
that initial conditions of the beam are zero
p

(t) =
1

() sin(

(t -)) Jx
I
0
Eq. 3.222
Hence, the response of the beam subjected to step-function force can be
expressed by
w(x, t) = _
1

() sin(

(t -)) Jx
I
0
_

(x)

=1
Eq. 3.223
78


3.5.2.2. Moving and Moving Pulsating Load


Figure 3.7 Simply-supported beam subjected to moving load

Figure 3.8 Simply-supported beam subjected to moving pulsating load
As it is shown in figures 3.7 and 3.8 the concentrated moving and moving
pulsating loads move with a constant speed v
0
. f(x) can be assumed as uniformly
distributed load applied over an elemental length 2x and centered at x=d as it is
shown in figure 3.9. f(x) can be represented as below

79



Figure 3.9 Simply-supported beam subjected to moving pulsating load
(x) = _
u or u < x < J -x
F
0
2x
or J -x x J +x
u or J +x < x < I
Eq. 3.224
f(x) can be represented as Fourier series and defined over the interval 0 to L by
expanding f(x) for all values of x in terms of only sine terms as shown below
(x) =
n

n=1
sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.225
where f
n
is defined by

n
=
2
I
_ (x) sin(nnxI)
L
0
Jx Eq. 3.226
therefore f
n
can be obtained by substituting equation 3.224 into equation 3.226
as below

n
=
2
I
_
F
0
2x
sin(nnxI)
d+x
d-x
Jx Eq. 3.227

n
=
F
0
I
_ sin(nnxI)
d+x
d-x
Jx =
2F
0
sin[
nnJ
I
sin[
nnx
I

nnx

Eq. 3.228
80


If x converges to 0 in equation 3.226
lim
x-0
sin[
nnx
I

nnx
= 1
Eq. 3.229
therefore for constant moving load f
n
can be defined as

n
=
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
]
Eq. 3.230
and for moving pulsating force

n
=
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
] sin(0t)
Eq. 3.231
then the Fourier series expansion of f(x) can be written as below for constant
moving load
(x) =
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
]

n=1
sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.232
and for moving pulsating load
(x, t) =
2F
0
I
sin_
nnJ
I
]

n=1
sin(0t) sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.233
After d is defined as v
0
t, equation 3.232 and equation 3.233 are written as
(x, t) =
2F
0
I
sin _
nn:
0
t
I
]

n=1
sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.234
(x, t) =
2F
0
I
sin_
nn:
0
t
I
]

n=1
sin(0t) sin(nnxI) Eq. 3.235






81


CHAPTER 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS
4.1. Introduction
The free and forced vibration analyses of different types of beams carrying
multiple spring-mass systems are performed by using an algorithm coded in
MATHEMATICA. Algorithms are developed for each type of the beams based on
the methodologies described in Chapter 3. The results for the beams with
multiple spring-mass systems are compared with the bare beam. Considering
normal modes with cumulative effective modal mass adding up to 90% of the
total mass is assumed to be sufficient for the forced vibration response analysis
of the structure. The effective modal mass is computed after normalizing the
eigenvectors based on following equations

n
= _ m(x)
L
0

n
(x)Jx Eq. 4.1
where
n
is the participation factor,
n
(x) is the corresponding mass-normalized
mode shape (normalized eigenvector) and m(x) is mass per unit length.
The effective modal mass is as follows
m
c]],n
=
j] m(x)
L
0

n
(x)Jx[
2
] m(x)
L
0
|
n
(x)]
2
Jx

Eq. 4.2
where normalized eigenvectors are required to be
] m(x)
L
0
|
n
(x)]
2
Jx = 1 Eq. 4.3
Therefore, effective modal mass can be simplified as
m
c]],n
= j] m(x)
L
0

n
(x)Jx[
2

Eq. 4.4
82


4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying One, Two
and Three Spring-Mass Systems
The boundary conditions of uniform beams studied in this section are
single span pinned-pinned (SS), clamped-clamped (CC), clamped-pinned (CS)
and clamped-free (CF) at their two ends. The spring-mass systems are attached
at their mid point for SS, CC and CS and its free end for the CF. The beam
evaluated here has a total length of 16.5 meters and a constant cross-sectional
area of 0.375 m
2
. The physical properties of the uniform beam studied in this
section are as follows

Youngs modulus E=30x10
9
N/m
2

Moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area I=9x10
-3
m
4

Mass density of beam material =2400 kg/m
3

Mass per unit length m= A=900 kg/m
The total mass of the beam m
b
=mL=14850 kg

The free vibration characteristics of uniform beams with one, two and
three spring-mass systems are compared with each other and with bare uniform
beam as well. If n spring-mass system is attached to the uniform beam, the first n
mode is under the influence of n spring-mass system and the (n+1)th mode is
actually the first mode of the uniform beam. Therefore, each additional spring-
mass systems natural frequency is tuned to the natural frequency of (n+1)th
mode of the uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system less than it is
attached. For example, the natural frequency of the spring-mass system attached
to a bare uniform beam is tuned to first natural frequency of the bare uniform
beam and if one more spring-mass system is attached to that beam, the
additional spring-mass system is tuned to the second natural frequency of the
beam carrying one spring-mass system. This method is performed in this study in
order to reduce the dynamic response of the beam subjected to forced vibration
83


by finding the adequate number of spring-mass systems to be attached to the
uniform beam.
For the cases of uniform beam carrying one, two and three spring-mass
systems and for a bare uniform beam, the natural frequencies and mode shapes
are given as follows
Table 4.1 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1
SS 18.50 21.31 79.42 178.73 317.70 496.41 714.82 19.86
CC 41.56 48.70 124.08 243.32 402.09 600.68 838.5 44.986
CS 28.85 33.33 100.54 209.77 358.65 547.30 775.63 31.01
CF 6.40 7.82 44.35 124.13 243.24 402.51 602.50 7.08
Table 4.2 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1
SS 17.97 21.94 79.42 178.75 317.70 496.42 714.82 19.86
CC 40.21 50.31 124.08 243.41 402.09 600.71 839.5 44.986
CS 28.00 34.33 100.56 209.81 358.66 547.31 775.63 31.01
CF 6.14 8.15 44.38 124.14 243.24 401.03 602.50 7.08






84


Table 4.3 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)

Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1
SS 16.96 23.23 79.42 178.82 317.70 496.44 714.82 19.86
CC 37.68 53.62 124.08 243.66 402.09 600.53 839.5 44.986
CS 26.38 36.38 100.61 209.93 358.67 547.36 775.64 31.01
CF 5.66 8.82 44.45 124.17 243.35 402.90 602.50 7.08
Table 4.4 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1
SS 15.90 24.76 79.42 178.93 317.70 496.48 714.82 19.86
CC 35.04 57.53 124.08 244.09 402.09 600.99 839.5 44.986
CS 24.69 38.80 100.70 210.13 358.69 547.43 775.64 31.01
CF 5.17 9.63 44.56 124.21 243.28 402.12 604.00 7.08
Table 4.5 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying one
spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1
SS 14.53 27.05 79.42 179.15 317.70 496.56 714.82 19.86
CC 31.68 63.35 124.08 244.96 402.09 601.33 839.5 44.986
CS 22.51 42.37 100.88 210.53 358.73 547.58 775.66 31.01
CF 4.57 10.83 44.80 124.29 243.32 402.28 602.50 7.08


85


Table 4.6 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1

tmd2
SS 18.16 20.47 22.60 79.42 178.75 317.70 496.42 19.86 21.31
CC 40.69 46.55 52.01 124.08 243.42 402.09 600.72 44.986 48.70
CS 28.30 31.99 35.38 100.56 209.82 358.66 547.31 31.01 33.326
CF 6.23 7.39 8.50 44.38 124.14 243.24 402.09 7.08 7.82
Table 4.7 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1

tmd2
SS 17.49 20.72 23.86 79.42 178.80 317.70 496.43 19.86 21.94
CC 39.00 47.17 55.27 124.08 243.62 402.09 600.80 44.986 50.31
CS 27.23 32.38 37.38 100.60 209.91 358.67 547.35 31.01 34.328
CF 5.91 7.51 9.18 44.44 124.16 243.25 402.10 7.08 8.15
Table 4.8 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1

tmd2
SS 16.22 21.19 26.60 79.42 178.97 317.70 496.48 19.86 23.23
CC 35.82 48.36 62.35 124.08 244.28 402.09 601.06 44.986 53.62
CS 25.20 33.13 41.70 100.73 210.21 358.70 547.46 31.01 36.38
CF 5.31 7.74 10.68 44.63 124.23 243.29 402.12 7.08 8.82



86


Table 4.9 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying two
spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1

tmd2
SS 14.90 21.70 30.08 79.42 179.28 317.70 496.61 19.86 24.76
CC 32.53 49.62 71.32 124.08 245.54 402.09 601.54 44.986 57.53
CS 23.09 33.93 47.11 101.00 210.77 358.75 547.67 31.01 38.80
CF 4.71 7.98 12.62 45.00 124.35 243.35 402.15 7.08 9.63
Table 4.10 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying
two spring-mass systems (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1

tmd2
SS 13.22 22.38 35.73 79.42 180.00 317.70 496.86 19.86 27.05
CC 28.45 51.26 85.62 124.08 248.60 402.09 602.70 44.986 63.35
CS 20.42 34.98 55.63 101.67 212.09 358.88 548.16 31.01 42.37
CF 3.996 8.27 15.73 45.95 124.66 243.50 402.24 7.08 10.83













Table 4.11 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three spring-mass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

tmd1

tmd2

tmd3

SS 17.91 20.36 21.85 23.81 79.64 178.11 317.98 496.97 19.86 21.31 22.59
CC 40.04 46.28 50.09 55.15 124.08 244.70 402.50 602.29 44.986 48.701 52.013
CS 27.90 31.82 34.19 37.31 100.75 209.83 358.30 547.16 31.01 33.326 35.376
CF 6.11 7.33 8.10 9.16 44.47 124.10 243.61 402.09 7.08 7.818 8.488
Table 4.12 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three spring-mass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

tmd1

tmd2

tmd3

SS 17.13 20.56 22.73 25.74 79.71 179.12 317.98 496.29 19.86 21.94 23.86
CC 38.09 46.77 52.35 60.19 124.08 244.12 402.50 600.67 44.986 50.308 55.269
CS 26.66 32.13 35.59 40.36 100.70 210.91 358.50 547.16 31.01 34.328 37.382
CF 5.73 7.43 8.56 10.23 44.53 125.10 243.24 402.10 7.08 8.147 9.175
8
7

Table 4.13 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three spring-mass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

tmd1

tmd2

tmd3

SS 15.67 20.94 24.57 30.13 79.87 179.81 318.21 495.62 19.86 23.23 26.60
CC 34.42 47.69 57.06 71.58 124.08 245.42 402.50 603.10 44.986 53.621 62.351
CS 24.32 32.72 38.49 47.22 100.96 209.74 359.54 547.07 31.01 36.38 41.71
CF 5.05 7.60 9.53 12.77 45.00 126.00 246.06 402.12 7.08 8.820 10.678
Table 4.14 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three spring-mass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

tmd1

tmd2

tmd3

SS 14.15 21.32 26.78 36.07 79.17 180.14 318.00 498.20 19.86 24.76 30.08
CC 30.67 48.63 62.69 86.95 124.08 253.04 402.50 600.45 44.986 57.533 71.321
CS 21.89 33.32 41.96 56.22 101.42 212.03 359.55 549.99 31.01 38.80 47.11
CF 4.36 7.77 10.70 16.15 45.79 126.00 246.07 402.25 7.08 9.625 12.620
8
8

Table 4.15 The lowest eight natural frequencies of the uniform beam carrying three spring-mass systems
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

tmd1

tmd2

tmd3

SS 12.27 21.80 30.14 46.40 79.62 181.75 318.00 498.01 19.86 27.05 35.73
CC 26.12 49.75 71.15 111.50 124.08 252.20 402.81 602.66 44.986 63.351 85.621
CS 18.89 34.06 47.12 70.36 103.66 214.78 361.40 546.51 31.01 42.37 55.63
CF 3.60 7.96 12.45 21.53 45.77 124.10 243.50 403.04 7.08 10.828 15.735
Table 4.16 The lowest six natural frequencies of the bare uniform beam
Boundary
Conditions

1

2

3

4

5

6

SS 19.86 79.42 178.70 317.70 496.40 714.82
CC 45.01 124.08 243.24 402.09 600.93 839.5
CS 31.02 100.52 209.73 358.65 547.28 775.63
CF 7.07 44.33 124.13 243.24 402.17 602.00
8
9






Figure 4.1 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying One Spring-Mass System
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.020
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of clamped-clamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of clamped-pinned beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of clamped-free beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
9
0






Figure 4.2 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying Two Spring-Mass Systems
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of clamped-clamped beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of clamped-pinned beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of clamped-free beam (m
1
/m
b
= m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
1
st
mode
9
1






Figure 4.3 Mode Shapes of Uniform SS, CC, CS and CF Beams Carrying Three Spring-Mass Systems
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.015
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of clamped-clamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
7
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of clamped-pinned beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of clamped-free beam (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
8
th
mode
8
th
mode
1
st
mode
9
2






Figure 4.4 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF Uniform Beams
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0 5 10 15
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
0.015
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
a) Mode shapes of bare simply supported uniform beam
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
b) Mode shapes of bare clamped-clamped uniform beam
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (m)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of bare clamped-pinned uniform beam d) Mode shapes of bare clamped-free uniform beam
1
st
mode
9
3

94


4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Single Span Non-Uniform Beam Carrying
Spring-Mass Systems
The non-uniform beams studied in this section are single span pinned-
pinned (SS), clamped-clamped (CC), pinned-clamped (SC) and free-clamped
(FC) at their two ends. The spring-mass systems are attached at their mid point
for SS, CC and SC boundaries and its free end for the FC boundary. Two
different types of structures are used for this section.
First non-uniform beam has a length of 40 in and the cross-sectional area
at the shallow end (A
0
) is 1.5 in
2
. The taper ratio of the beam =r
av
(L)/r
av
(0) is
assumed to be 2. The physical properties of the non-uniform beam with SS, CC,
SC and FC types of boundaries are as follows

Youngs modulus E=2.9x10
7
psi
Moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area at the shallow end I
o
=0.28125 in
4
Mass density of beam material =0.283 lb/in
3

The total mass of the beam m
b
= A
0
L ((+1)/2)=25.47 lb

Similar to uniform beams, non-uniform beams with one spring-mass
system is compared with bare non-uniform beam as well. The same method in
order to tune the spring-mass system for uniform beams is also performed for
non-uniform beams.
The lowest natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of non-
uniform beams carrying one spring-mass system and a bare non-uniform beam
are given as follows for four types of boundary conditions. The mode shapes are
normalized by making the maximum value of each mode equal to unity.

95


Table 4.17 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1

SS 36.36 41.85 158.64 356.07 632.03 986.75 39.00
CC 82.81 96.70 246.50 483.06 798.16 1192.15 89.50
SC 63.93 73.45 209.23 429.84 730.50 1111.23 68.56
FC 19.70 27.70 100.61 259.07 495.65 810.96 20.95
Table 4.18 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
SS 35.31 43.08 158.64 356.11 632.04 986.76 39.00
CC 80.18 99.80 246.54 483.19 798.19 1192.19 89.50
SC 62.10 75.56 209.33 429.89 730.54 1111.24 68.56
FC 18.84 28.88 100.85 259.16 495.69 810.99 20.95
Table 4.19 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
SS 33.34 45.62 158.64 356.22 632.06 986.79 39.00
CC 75.22 106.20 246.67 483.59 798.28 1192.30 89.50
SC 58.64 79.87 209.62 430.05 730.66 1111.27 68.56
FC 17.09 31.55 101.59 259.44 495.84 811.08 20.95

96


Table 4.20 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
SS 31.26 48.61 158.66 356.41 632.08 986.84 39.00
CC 70.05 113.72 246.89 484.26 798.45 1192.48 89.50
SC 54.98 84.89 210.11 430.32 730.87 1111.32 68.56
FC 15.28 34.78 102.83 259.91 496.09 811.23 20.95
Table 4.21 The lowest six natural frequencies of the non-uniform beam carrying
one spring-mass system (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
SS 28.58 53.08 158.68 356.80 632.13 986.94 39.00
CC 63.45 124.84 247.35 485.61 798.77 1192.85 89.50
SC 50.25 92.24 211.12 430.86 731.28 1111.41 68.56
FC 13.09 39.40 105.33 260.86 496.58 811.53 20.95
Table 4.22 The lowest five natural frequencies of the bare non-uniform beam
Boundary
Conditions

2

3

4

5

SS 39.02 158.63 356.03 632.03 986.74
CC 89.51 246.46 482.93 798.13 1192.12
SC 68.55 209.14 429.79 730.46 1111.22
FC 20.95 100.36 258.97 495.60 810.93








Figure 4.5 Mode Shapes of Non-Uniform SS, CC, SC and FC Beams Carrying One Spring-Mass System
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
a) Mode shapes of simply supported beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
b) Mode shapes of clamped-clamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of pinned-clamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01) d) Mode shapes of free-clamped beam (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
9
7






Figure 4.6 Mode Shapes of Bare SS, CC, CS and CF Non-Uniform Beams
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 10 20 30 40
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
a) Mode shapes of bare simply supported non-uniform beam
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
b) Mode shapes of bare clamped-clamped non-uniform beam
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
c) Mode shapes of bare pinned-clamped non-uniform beam d) Mode shapes of bare clamped-free non-uniform beam
1
st
mode
9
8

99


In addition, the sample high-mast lighting tower is studied for evaluation of
spring-mass system effect by modeling the real high-mast lighting tower as FC
type of non-uniform beam. The dimensions and physical properties of the
structure were taken from Shermans master thesis (Sherman, 2009) and the
resultant natural frequencies of the present method are compared with that study
in order to verify the developed algorithm.

The outer diameter of the shallow end OD
1
=6 in
The outer diameter of the clamped end OD
2
=24.75 in
Thickness t=0.18 in
Taper ratio =4.222
Length L=140 ft
Mass density of the material =0.283 lb/in
3

The total mass of the structure m
b
= A
0
L ((+1)/2)=4100 lb
A 687 pound luminary is supported by structure.

The high-mast lighting tower is a 140-foot tall structure with a 687 pound
luminary at the shallow end. 16-sided cross sectional area is considered as
cylindrical section. The lowest seven natural frequencies of high-mast lighting
tower with one spring-mass system on the top of the structure and the
comparison of the lowest four natural frequencies of bare high-mast lighting
tower in this study with ABAQUS and SAP2000 results which are given by
Sherman (2009) are shown in Tables 4.23 and 4.24, respectively. Figures 4.5
and 4.6 show the corresponding mode shapes which are scaled to unity.


100


Table 4.23 The lowest seven natural frequencies of the high-mast lighting tower
carrying one spring-mass system at the free end
Boundary
Condition
m
1
/m
b

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

tmd1
FC 0.01 1.47 1.79 7.06 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.02 1.42 1.86 7.06 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.05 1.31 2.01 7.07 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.1 1.20 2.18 7.08 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0.2 1.06 2.45 7.10 18.81 37.19 62.23 93.94 1.62
FC 0 1.62 7.06 18.80 37.19 62.23 93.94 132.31 0
Table 4.24 Comparison of the lowest four natural frequencies of the bare high-
mast lighting tower
Boundary
Condition
Methods
1

2

3

4

FC This study 1.62 7.05 18.80 37.19
FC
ABAQUS (Sherman,
2009)
1.63 7.15 19.02 37.47
FC
SAP2000 (Sherman,
2009)
1.58 7.01 18.60 39.01

101




Figure 4.7 Mode Shapes of High-Mast Lighting Tower Carrying One Spring-Mass
System on the Top


Figure 4.8 Mode Shapes of Bare High-Mast Lighting Tower
0 500 1000 1500
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
0 500 1000 1500
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
1
st
mode
2
nd
mode
3
rd
mode
4
th
mode
5
th
mode
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

Length (in)
102


4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Uniform Multi-Span Beam Carrying
Spring-Mass Systems
The dimensions and physical properties of the uniform beam indicated in
section 4.2 are also same for multi-span uniform beams in this section. Each
span has a total length of 16.5 m, a constant cross-sectional area of 0.375 m
2

and each multi-span uniform beam is pinned at its two ends. The physical
properties are as follows

Youngs modulus E=30x10
9
N/m
2

Moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area I=9x10
-3
m
4

Mass density of beam material =2400 kg/m
3

Mass per unit length m= A=900 kg/m
The total mass of each span m
b
=mL=14850 kg

Similar to single span uniform beams, multi-span uniform beams with one
and two spring-mass systems and one and two intermediate pinned supports are
also compared with each other and with bare multi-span uniform beam as well.
The same method for tuning the spring-mass system for single span uniform
beams is also performed for multi-span uniform beams.
4.4.1. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass System
The beam studied in this section is two-span uniform beam pinned at its
two ends and at
1
=x
1
/L=0.5 and carries one intermediate spring-mass system at

1
*
=0.75 as shown in Figure 4.9.





103


Case 1: Spring-mass system is attached to second span


Figure 4.9 Two-span beam carrying one spring-mass system attached to
second span
Table 4.25 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying one
spring-mass system at second span
m
1
/m
b

1

2

3

4

5

6

tmd
x
1
=0.75L
0.01 18.44 21.22 31.25 79.42 100.53 178.70 19.86
0.02 17.86 21.74 31.48 79.42 100.53 178.83 19.86
0.05 16.73 22.68 32.18 79.42 100.56 178.87 19.86
0.1 15.53 23.52 33.37 79.42 100.59 178.78 19.86
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00






104


Case 2: Spring-mass system is attached to first span


Figure 4.10 Two-span beam carrying one spring-mass system attached to
first span
Table 4.26 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying one
spring-mass system at first span
m
1
/m
b

1

2

3

4

5

6

tmd
x
1
=0.25L
0.01 18.44 21.22 31.25 79.42 100.53 178.73 19.86
0.02 17.86 21.74 31.48 79.42 100.53 178.75 19.86
0.05 16.73 22.68 32.18 79.42 100.56 178.82 19.86
0.1 15.53 23.52 33.37 79.42 100.59 178.93 19.86
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00






105




Figure 4.11 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying one spring-mass system at
second span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
)



Figure 4.12 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying one spring-mass system at
first span (m
tmd
=0.01m
b
)
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

106


4.4.2. Free Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems
Case 1: Both of the spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which
is same with the first natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.13 Two-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems (Case 1)
Table 4.27 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying two
spring-mass systems based on case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=0.25L

tmd2
x
2
=0.75L
0.01 17.97 19.57 21.94 31.46 79.42 100.53 19.85 19.85
0.02 17.24 19.31 22.85 31.87 79.42 100.55 19.85 19.85
0.05 15.90 18.62 24.76 33.02 79.42 100.59 19.85 19.85
0.1 14.53 17.69 27.05 34.70 79.42 100.66 19.85 19.85
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00 0.00



107


Case 2: The first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
two-span bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system.


Figure 4.14 Two-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems (Case 2)
Table 4.28 The lowest six natural frequencies of the two-span beam carrying two
spring-mass systems based on case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=0.25L

tmd2
x
2
=0.75L
0.01 18.14 20.15 22.50 31.51 79.42 100.54 19.85 21.22
0.02 17.46 20.07 23.66 32.02 79.42 100.55 19.85 21.74
0.05 16.17 19.59 26.00 33.54 79.42 100.60 19.85 22.68
0.1 14.82 18.71 28.66 35.91 79.42 100.69 19.85 23.52
0 19.86 31.02 79.42 100.52 178.70 210.11 0.00 0.00



108




Figure 4.15 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
tuned based on Case 1(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)



Figure 4.16 Mode shapes of two-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
tuned based on Case 2(m
1tmd
= m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)

0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
-0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

109


4.4.3. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass Systems

Case 1: Spring-mass system is attached to first span


Figure 4.17 Three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system attached to
first span
Table 4.29 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
one spring-mass system based on case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
0.01 18.30 21.00 26.03 37.24 79.42 90.52 19.86
0.02 17.62 21.30 26.58 37.33 79.42 90.52 19.86
0.05 16.28 21.66 28.03 37.63 79.42 90.53 19.86
0.1 14.87 21.86 29.83 38.26 79.42 90.55 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00



110


Case 2: Spring-mass system is attached to second span


Figure 4.18 Three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system attached to
second span
Table 4.30 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
one spring-mass system based on case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L
0.01 18.42 21.20 25.45 37.48 79.42 90.53 19.86
0.02 17.83 21.72 25.45 37.81 79.42 90.54 19.86
0.05 16.66 22.63 25.45 38.77 79.42 90.58 19.86
0.1 15.40 23.47 25.45 40.34 79.42 90.65 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00






111




Figure 4.19 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system
at first span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
)



Figure 4.20 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system
at second span (m
1tmd
=0.01m
b
)

0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0.010
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

112


4.4.4. Free Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems

Case 1: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span. Both of the
spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of three-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.21 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached to first
and second span (Case 1)
Table 4.31 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L

tmd2
x
2
=3/6 L
0.01 17.88 19.45 21.75 26.04 37.56 79.42 19.86 19.86
0.02 17.09 19.09 22.42 26.61 37.96 79.42 19.86 19.86
0.05 15.61 18.21 23.45 28.26 39.11 79.42 19.86 19.86
0.1 14.11 17.09 24.20 30.70 40.91 79.42 19.86 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00

113


Case 2: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span. The first
spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of the three-span bare
uniform beam and the second spring-mass system is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system which is
attached to first span of the beam.


Figure 4.22 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached to first
and second span (Case 2)
Table 4.32 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L

tmd2
x
2
=3/6 L
0.01 18.02 19.93 22.23 26.04 37.62 79.42 19.86 21.00
0.02 17.25 19.66 23.02 26.63 38.10 79.42 19.86 21.30
0.05 15.78 18.84 24.12 28.36 39.52 79.42 19.86 21.66
0.1 14.26 17.69 24.78 30.94 41.71 79.42 19.86 21.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00

114


Case 3: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span. The first
spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of the three-span bare
uniform beam and the second spring-mass system is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system which is
attached to second span of the beam.


Figure 4.23 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached to first
and second span (Case 3)
Table 4.33 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 3
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L

tmd2
x
2
=3/6 L
0.01 18.04 20.00 22.34 26.04 37.63 79.42 19.86 21.20
0.02 17.28 19.80 23.24 26.63 38.14 79.42 19.86 21.72
0.05 15.83 19.12 24.53 28.43 39.77 79.42 19.86 22.63
0.1 14.33 18.07 25.25 31.16 42.47 79.42 19.86 23.47
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00

115


Case 4: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and third span. Both of the
spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of three-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.24 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached to first
and third span (Case 4)
Table 4.34 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L

tmd2
x
2
=5/6 L
0.01 17.93 19.06 21.88 26.50 37.32 79.43 19.86 19.86
0.02 17.18 18.45 22.72 27.36 37.49 79.44 19.86 19.86
0.05 15.77 17.13 24.36 29.43 38.03 79.46 19.86 19.86
0.1 14.34 15.66 26.07 32.10 39.02 79.41 19.86 19.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00



116


Case 5: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and third span. The first
spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of the three-span bare
uniform beam and the second spring-mass system is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the three-span beam carrying one spring-mass system which is
attached to first span of the beam.


Figure 4.25 Three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems attached to first
and third span (Case 5)
Table 4.35 The lowest six natural frequencies of the three-span beam carrying
two spring-mass systems based on case 5
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

2

3

4

5

6

tmd1
x
1
=1/6 L

tmd2
x
2
=5/6 L
0.01 18.08 19.51 22.28 26.64 37.34 79.31 19.86 21.00
0.02 17.35 18.95 23.21 27.66 37.53 79.39 19.86 21.30
0.05 15.96 17.61 24.94 30.03 38.17 79.32 19.86 21.66
0.1 14.51 16.07 26.66 32.97 39.37 79.41 19.86 21.86
0 19.86 25.45 37.16 79.42 90.54 110.30 0.00 0.00


117




Figure 4.26 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
at first span and second span tuned based on Case 1 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)



Figure 4.27 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
at first and second span tuned based on Case 2 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)


0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

118




Figure 4.28 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
at first span and second span tuned based on Case 3 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)



Figure 4.29 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
at first and third span tuned based on Case 4 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)


0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.005
0.000
0.005
0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.010
-0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

119




Figure 4.30 Mode shapes of three-span beam carrying two spring-mass systems
at first span and third span tuned based on Case 5 (m
1tmd
=m
2tmd
=0.01m
b
)















0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.005
0.000
0.005
1
st
mode
4
th
mode
3
rd
mode
2
nd
mode
5
th
mode
6
th
mode
Length (m)
M
o
d
a
l

D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

120


4.5. Forced Vibration Analysis of Single Span Uniform Beam Carrying One, Two
and Three Spring-Mass Systems
F
0
is assumed to be 350 N for harmonic loading and 700 N for impact
loading, moving load and moving pulsating loads.
4.5.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Step-function force is applied to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS bare uniform
beams and x=L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.36 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system - Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.4x10
-3
0.28 65 2.97x10
-4
3.39x10
-3
0.115 35.19
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.1x10
-3
0.3 82 7.36x10
-5
1.89x10
-3
0.126 43.23
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.27 75 1.29x10
-4
2.26x10
-3
0.108 34.24
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.6x10
-2
0.48 130 2.39x10
-3
9.50x10
-3
0.164 52.67

Case 2: Step-function force is applied to x=0.25L for SS, CC and CS bare
uniform beams and x=0.5L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.37 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system - Case 2
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.19 45 2.06x10
-4
2.39x10
-3
0.0816 24.88
CC 6.3x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.23 78 3.78x10
-5
1.05x10
-3
0.0884 34.03
CS 9.8x10
-5
2.2x10
-3
0.20 53 5.77x10
-5
1.08x10
-3
0.0798 21.41
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.45 120 1.54x10
-3
6.72x10
-3
0.171 62.01

121


Case 3: Step-function force is applied to x=0.25L and one spring-mass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step-function
force is applied to x=0.5L and one spring-mass system is attached to x=L.


Figure 4.31 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system subjected
to step-function force at x=0.25L
Table 4.38 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.19 45 1.89x10
-4
1.76x10
-3
0.075 24.87
CC 6.1x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.18 45 3.42x10
-5
7.56x10
-4
0.076 22.33
CS 9.8x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.19 36 5.27x10
-5
8.10x10
-4
0.074 15.92
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.34 45 1.37x10
-3
5.16x10
-3
0.154 28.50

122


Table 4.39 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.19 45 1.87x10
-4
1.73x10
-3
0.075 24.87
CC 6.1x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.20 47 3.41x10
-5
7.73x10
-4
0.082 23.47
CS 9.8x10
-5
2.1x10
-3
0.19 36 5.25x10
-5
8.16x10
-4
0.074 15.86
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.38x10
-3
4.88x10
-3
0.138 23.32
Table 4.40 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.19 45 1.87x10
-4
1.68x10
-3
0.075 24.88
CC 6.3x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.19 48 3.42x10
-5
7.62x10
-4
0.082 23.47
CS 9.8x10
-5
2.1x10
-3
0.19 38 5.29x10
-5
8.07x10
-4
0.075 15.95
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.38x10
-3
4.92x10
-3
0.138 23.37
Table 4.41 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.19 45 1.89x10
-4
1.66x10
-3
0.075 24.90
CC 6.3x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.195 48 3.43x10
-5
7.56x10
-4
0.083 23.57
CS 9.8x10
-5
2.1x10
-3
0.19 38 5.32x10
-5
8.08x10
-4
0.077 16.56
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.37x10
-3
4.83x10
-3
0.138 23.34
123


Table 4.42 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.5x10
-3
0.19 45 1.89x10
-4
1.62x10
-3
0.075 24.90
CC 4.8x10
-5
1.6x10
-3
0.19 46 3.45x10
-5
7.32x10
-4
0.078 22.58
CS 9.0x10
-5
1.9x10
-3
0.19 40 5.33x10
-5
7.85x10
-4
0.078 16.55
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.43x10
-3
4.65x10
-3
0.139 23.37

Case 4: Step-function force is applied to x=0.5L and one spring-mass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step-function
force is applied to x=L and one spring-mass system is attached to x=L.

Figure 4.32 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system subjected
to step-function force at x=0.5L

124


Table 4.43 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max
(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.4x10
-3
0.27 63 2.74x10
-4
2.49x10
-3
0.106 35.18
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.30 85 6.72x10
-5
1.33x10
-3
0.113 45.56
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.27 70 1.18x10
-4
1.60x10
-3
0.096 34.47
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.6x10
-2
0.47 90 2.15x10
-3
7.08x10
-3
0.166 38.79
Table 4.44 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.4x10
-3
0.27 63 2.70x10
-4
2.45x10
-3
0.106 35.19
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.1x10
-3
0.31 86 6.75x10
-5
1.35x10
-3
0.118 46.18
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.26 65 1.17x10
-4
1.61x10
-3
0.095 33.61
CF 3.6x10
-3
1.5x10
-2
0.40 73 2.17x10
-3
6.60x10
-3
0.141 32.54
Table 4.45 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.27 63 2.71x10
-4
2.37x10
-3
0.106 35.21
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.31 88 6.77x10
-5
1.33x10
-3
0.118 46.20
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.27 65 1.18x10
-4
1.59x10
-3
0.095 33.75
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.5x10
-2
0.42 80 2.17x10
-3
6.66x10
-3
0.145 34.96
125


Table 4.46 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.27 63 2.74x10
-4
2.34x10
-3
0.106 35.23
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.30 88 6.80x10
-5
1.31x10
-3
0.118 46.43
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.5x10
-3
0.27 68 1.19x10
-4
1.58x10
-3
0.098 34.11
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.4x10
-2
0.45 75 2.16x10
-3
6.45x10
-3
0.142 32.61
Table 4.47 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.27 63 2.74x10
-4
2.27x10
-3
0.107 35.43
CC 9.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-3
0.30 85 6.79x10
-5
1.26x10
-3
0.115 46.13
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.26 70 1.19x10
-4
1.52x10
-3
0.097 33.78
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.3x10
-2
0.40 75 2.25x10
-3
6.07x10
-3
0.144 32.80












126


Case 5: Step-function force is applied to x=0.25L and two spring-mass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step-
function force is applied to x=0.5L and two spring-mass systems are attached to
x=L.
Table 4.48 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.19 45 1.84x10
-4
1.55x10
-3
0.073 24.87
CC 6.0x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.19 48 3.37x10
-5
7.24x10
-4
0.081 23.26
CS 9.5x10
-5
2.1x10
-3
0.18 38 5.23x10
-5
7.75x10
-4
0.077 16.60
CF 2.4x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.36x10
-3
4.53x10
-3
0.136 23.32
Table 4.49 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.19 45 1.87x10
-4
1.58x10
-3
0.073 24.88
CC 6.1x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.19 47 3.38x10
-5
7.20x10
-4
0.081 23.39
CS 9.7x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.18 38 5.30x10
-5
7.85x10
-4
0.078 16.62
CF 2.4x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.39x10
-3
4.70x10
-3
0.137 23.32

127


Table 4.50 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.19 45 1.89x10
-4
1.58x10
-3
0.073 24.90
CC 6.2x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.18 47 3.42x10
-5
7.11x10
-4
0.081 23.57
CS 9.0x10
-5
2.1x10
-3
0.18 38 5.30x10
-5
7.75x10
-4
0.078 16.65
CF 2.0x10
-3
1.1x10
-2
0.32 38 1.35x10
-3
4.62x10
-3
0.138 23.35
Table 4.51 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.1x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.19 45 1.92x10
-4
1.54x10
-3
0.073 24.93
CC 6.2x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.19 49 3.45x10
-5
6.92x10
-4
0.081 23.63
CS 9.5x10
-5
1.9x10
-3
0.20 40 5.33x10
-5
7.61x10
-4
0.078 16.70
CF 2.3x10
-3
1.1x10
-2
0.32 38 1.43x10
-3
4.43x10
-3
0.138 23.39
Table 4.52 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.2x10
-4
3.2x10
-3
0.19 45 1.95x10
-4
1.48x10
-3
0.074 25.00
CC 6.3x10
-5
1.5x10
-3
0.19 49 3.51x10
-5
6.54x10
-4
0.079 23.45
CS 9.8x10
-5
1.9x10
-3
0.19 40 5.40x10
-5
7.26x10
-4
0.076 16.30
CF 2.3x10
-3
9.0x10
-3
0.32 38 1.38x10
-3
4.14x10
-3
0.139 23.49
128


Case 6: Step-function force is applied to x=0.5L and two spring-mass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step-
function force is applied to x=L and two spring-mass systems are attached to
x=L.
Table 4.53 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.4x10
-3
0.27 63 2.67x10
-4
2.19x10
-3
0.103 35.18
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.30 88 6.68x10
-5
1.26x10
-3
0.115 46.28
CS 2.0x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.26 70 1.17x10
-4
1.48x10
-3
0.096 34.71
CF 3.6x10
-3
1.5x10
-2
0.40 73 2.15x10
-3
6.08x10
-3
0.139 32.13
Table 4.54 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.27 63 2.70x10
-4
2.24x10
-3
0.104 35.20
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.31 85 6.71x10
-5
1.25x10
-3
0.115 46.29
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.26 70 1.18x10
-4
1.50x10
-3
0.096 34.74
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.5x10
-2
0.40 74 2.19x10
-3
6.34x10
-3
0.140 32.48


129


Table 4.55 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.7x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.27 63 2.73x10
-4
2.23x10
-3
0.104 35.24
CC 1.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.30 88 6.78x10
-5
1.23x10
-3
0.115 46.47
CS 2.0x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.26 70 1.18x10
-4
1.48x10
-3
0.096 34.85
CF 3.1x10
-3
1.4x10
-2
0.42 75 2.14x10
-3
6.22x10
-3
0.141 32.78
Table 4.56 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.4x10
-4
4.4x10
-3
0.27 63 2.77x10
-4
2.18x10
-3
0.104 35.33
CC 1.2x10
-4
2.6x10
-3
0.30 90 6.85x10
-5
1.19x10
-3
0.116 46.97
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.2x10
-3
0.26 68 1.19x10
-4
1.43x10
-3
0.096 35.02
CF 3.5x10
-3
1.3x10
-2
0.40 75 2.26x10
-3
5.83x10
-3
0.142 32.87
Table 4.57 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
-4
4.4x10
-3
0.27 63 2.83x10
-4
2.07x10
-3
0.105 35.54
CC 1.2x10
-4
2.5x10
-3
0.30 90 6.95x10
-5
1.11x10
-3
0.115 47.62
CS 2.0x10
-4
2.8x10
-3
0.25 70 1.20x10
-4
1.34x10
-3
0.095 35.19
CF 3.4x10
-3
1.3x10
-2
0.34 40 2.19x10
-3
5.29x10
-3
0.127 18.85
130


Case 7: Step-function force is applied to x=0.25L and three spring-mass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step-
function force is applied to x=0.5L and three spring-mass systems are attached
to x=L.
Table 4.58 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.2x10
-4
3.5x10
-3
0.19 45 1.84x10
-4
1.52x10
-3
0.073 24.92
CC 6.8x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.19 50 3.81x10
-5
7.99x10
-4
0.086 24.60
CS 1.0x10
-4
2.0x10
-3
0.20 40 5.56x10
-5
8.16x10
-4
0.078 16.61
CF 2.4x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.32 38 1.38x10
-3
4.62x10
-3
0.137 23.37
Table 4.59 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.1x10
-4
3.5x10
-3
0.19 45 1.87x10
-4
1.52x10
-3
0.073 24.87
CC 6.6x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.20 49 3.79x10
-5
7.88x10
-4
0.087 24.58
CS 1.0x10
-4
2.0x10
-3
0.20 40 5.60x10
-5
8.08x10
-4
0.078 16.65
CF 2.3x10
-3
1.1x10
-2
0.30 38 1.40x10
-3
4.62x10
-3
0.137 23.29


131


Table 4.60 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.18 45 1.89x10
-4
1.52x10
-3
0.073 24.78
CC 7.0x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.20 50 3.89x10
-5
7.66x10
-4
0.082 24.34
CS 1.0x10
-4
2.0x10
-3
0.19 39 5.70x10
-5
8.04x10
-4
0.078 16.58
CF 2.3x10
-3
1.0x10
-2
0.31 40 1.39x10
-3
4.41x10
-3
0.138 23.69
Table 4.61 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.3x10
-4
3.2x10
-3
0.18 45 1.92x10
-4
1.47x10
-3
0.073 25.21
CC 7.0x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.19 50 3.97x10
-5
7.36x10
-4
0.082 24.20
CS 1.0x10
-4
1.9x10
-3
0.19 40 5.84x10
-5
7.89x10
-4
0.078 16.94
CF 2.4x10
-3
9.0x10
-3
0.32 40 1.41x10
-3
4.18x10
-3
0.138 23.78
Table 4.62 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 3.4x10
-4
2.7x10
-3
0.18 45 2.01x10
-4
1.40x10
-3
0.073 25.24
CC 7.0x10
-5
1.6x10
-3
0.20 52 4.12x10
-5
6.87x10
-4
0.082 24.94
CS 1.1x10
-4
1.9x10
-3
0.19 40 6.04x10
-5
7.64x10
-4
0.080 16.83
CF 2.5x10
-3
1.0x10
-2
0.32 40 1.53x10
-3
3.96x10
-3
0.141 23.62
132


Case 8: Step-function force is applied to x=0.5L and three spring-mass systems
are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the step-
function force is applied to x=L and three spring-mass systems are attached to
x=L.
Table 4.63 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.20 40 2.66x10
-4
2.15x10
-3
0.082 20.15
CC 1.3x10
-4
3.2x10
-3
0.26 58 7.51x10
-5
1.40x10
-3
0.097 27.35
CS 2.1x10
-4
3.5x10
-3
0.25 55 1.24x10
-4
1.58x10
-3
0.087 26.28
CF 3.5x10
-3
1.5x10
-2
0.40 73 2.17x10
-3
6.25x10
-3
0.139 32.78
Table 4.64 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.4x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.22 40 2.71x10
-4
2.15x10
-3
0.085 20.42
CC 1.3x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.25 55 7.47x10
-5
1.37x10
-3
0.096 27.32
CS 2.2x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.20 40 1.25x10
-4
1.56x10
-3
0.079 16.36
CF 3.6x10
-3
1.4x10
-2
0.38 73 2.19x10
-3
6.22x10
-3
0.137 33.50


133


Table 4.65 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.22 40 2.74x10
-4
2.16x10
-3
0.085 20.45
CC 1.3x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.25 60 7.67x10
-5
1.35x10
-3
0.100 29.37
CS 2.2x10
-4
3.3x10
-3
0.24 56 1.27x10
-4
1.54x10
-3
0.086 26.24
CF 3.5x10
-3
1.3x10
-2
0.40 75 2.21x10
-3
5.91x10
-3
0.138 32.78
Table 4.66 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.6x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.22 40 2.78x10
-4
2.08x10
-3
0.086 20.81
CC 1.3x10
-4
2.8x10
-3
0.26 60 7.83x10
-5
1.29x10
-3
0.101 29.88
CS 2.2x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.22 40 1.30x10
-4
1.49x10
-3
0.079 16.94
CF 3.8x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.34 45 2.24x10
-3
5.50x10
-3
0.134 22.56
Table 4.67 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 4.8x10
-4
4x10
-3
0.22 42 2.91x10
-4
1.96x10
-3
0.087 21.19
CC 1.3x10
-4
2.6x10
-3
0.25 70 8.15x10
-5
1.18x10
-3
0.104 33.66
CS 2.2x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.23 60 1.34x10
-4
1.38x10
-3
0.087 27.20
CF 3.7x10
-3
1.1x10
-2
0.40 80 2.28x10
-3
4.88x10
-3
0.158 37.45
134


4.5.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS bare uniform
beams and x=L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.68 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system - Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.2x10
-2
0.43 8.5 190 9.30x10
-3
0.185 3.66 74.82 6.3
CC 3.1x10
-3
0.14 6.25 300 1.74x10
-3
0.078 3.53 160.36 14.4
CS 3.8x10
-3
0.12 3.8 145 1.86x10
-3
0.058 1.81 58.99 10
CF 4.2x10
-2
0.30 2.4 80 2.13x10
-2
0.152 1.09 31.19 2.3

Case 2: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L for SS, CC and CS bare uniform
beams and x=0.5L for CF uniform beam.
Table 4.69 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system - Case 2
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.5x10
-2
0.30 6.0 135 6.58x10
-3
0.131 2.58 52.91 6.3
CC 5.7x10
-3
0.26 11.5 550 3.19x10
-3
0.144 6.50 294.28 14.4
CS 1.8x10
-3
0.05 1.75 75 8.36x10
-4
0.026 0.815 27.61 10
CF 2.9x10
-2
0.20 1.6 75 1.45x10
-2
0.104 0.747 37.87 2.3




135


Case 3: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L and one spring-mass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=0.5L and one spring-mass system is attached to x=L.


Figure 4.33 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system subjected
to harmonic force at x=0.25L
Table 4.70 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 6.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.28 26 3.00x10
-4
5.97x10
-3
0.124 12.70 6.3
CC 1.1x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.28 32 5.06x10
-5
2.32x10
-3
0.113 12.43 14.4
CS 1.8x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.24 23 8.43x10
-5
2.69x10
-3
0.094 8.58 10
CF 3.8x10
-3
2.8x10
-2
0.34 24 1.73x10
-3
1.30x10
-3
0.123 14.29 2.3
136


Table 4.71 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 4.2x10
-4
8.5x10
-3
0.21 24 2.13x10
-4
4.24x10
-3
0.092 12.60 6.3
CC 6.8x10
-5
3.4x10
-3
0.20 30 3.53x10
-5
1.64x10
-3
0.086 12.53 14.4
CS 1.3x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.20 22 5.71x10
-5
1.84x10
-3
0.070 8.32 10
CF 2.4x10
-3
2.0x10
-2
0.26 20 1.16x10
-3
8.75x10
-3
0.095 11.70 2.3
Table 4.72 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.6x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.17 24 1.33x10
-4
2.69x10
-3
0.066 12.54 6.3
CC 4.5x10
-5
2.2x10
-3
0.15 28 2.22x10
-5
1.06x10
-3
0.065 12.25 14.4
CS 7.2x10
-5
2.6x10
-3
0.14 20 3.53x10
-5
1.16x10
-3
0.053 8.24 10
CF 1.4x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.20 20 7.01x10
-4
5.54x10
-3
0.081 11.71 2.3
Table 4.73 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.14 24 9.23x10
-5
1.92x10
-3
0.055 12.52 6.3
CC 3.0x10
-5
1.6x10
-3
0.14 26 1.54x10
-5
7.67x10
-4
0.056 12.21 14.4
CS 5.0x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.13 20 2.43x10
-5
8.31x10
-4
0.048 8.50 10
CF 1.0x10
-3
9.0x10
-3
0.18 20 4.82x10
-4
4.07x10
-3
0.077 11.70 2.3
137


Table 4.74 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.3x10
-4
2.8x10
-3
0.12 23 6.41x10
-5
1.40x10
-3
0.048 12.51 6.3
CC 1.4x10
-5
1.2x10
-3
0.12 26 1.07x10
-5
5.68x10
-4
0.049 11.65 14.4
CS 3.6x10
-5
1.5x10
-3
0.12 20 1.66x10
-5
6.06x10
-4
0.044 8.49 10
CF 7.0x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.18 20 3.30x10
-4
3.12x10
-3
0.075 11.71 2.3

Case 4: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and one spring-mass system is
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=L and one spring-mass system is attached to x=L.


Figure 4.34 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system subjected
to harmonic force at x=0.5L



138


Table 4.75 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 8.5x10
-4
1.7x10
-2
0.40 36 4.26x10
-4
8.44x10
-3
0.175 17.97 6.3
CC 2.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.45 58 9.29x10
-5
4.25x10
-3
0.202 24.72 14.4
CS 4.0x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.45 45 1.87x10
-4
5.97x10
-3
0.196 18.40 10
CF 5.5x10
-3
4.0x10
-2
0.45 45 2.53x10
-3
1.88x10
-2
0.162 19.46 2.3
Table 4.76 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 6.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.30 34 3.00x10
-4
5.99x10
-3
0.130 17.82 6.3
CC 1.3x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.36 55 6.47x10
-5
2.98x10
-3
0.149 24.23 14.4
CS 2.8x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.34 40 1.27x10
-4
4.07x10
-3
0.139 17.45 10
CF 3.6x10
-3
2.8x10
-2
0.34 37 1.68x10
-3
1.26x10
-2
0.118 16.31 2.3
Table 4.77 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 3.8x10
-4
7.8x10
-3
0.24 34 1.87x10
-4
3.79x10
-3
0.093 17.74 6.3
CC 8.0x10
-5
4.0x10
-3
0.26 50 4.05x10
-5
1.89x10
-3
0.106 23.76 14.4
CS 1.6x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.24 34 7.83x10
-5
2.54x10
-3
0.095 17.21 10
CF 2.0x10
-3
1.6x10
-2
0.26 40 1.02x10
-3
7.80x10
-3
0.094 17.51 2.3
139


Table 4.78 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.8x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.20 33 1.30x10
-4
2.70x10
-3
0.077 17.72 6.3
CC 5.5x10
-5
2.8x10
-3
0.22 48 2.81x10
-5
1.35x10
-3
0.088 23.72 14.4
CS 1.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.20 36 5.39x10
-5
1.80x10
-3
0.077 17.30 10
CF 1.4x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.23 38 6.91x10
-4
5.54x10
-3
0.083 16.32 2.3
Table 4.79 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 4 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.17 33 9.00x10
-5
1.95x10
-3
0.067 17.72 6.3
CC 2.6x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.19 47 1.91x10
-5
9.65x10
-4
0.075 23.48 14.4
CS 7.5x10
-5
2.6x10
-3
0.17 34 3.68x10
-5
1.27x10
-3
0.065 17.09 10
CF 9.5x10
-4
8.5x10
-3
0.24 38 4.65x10
-4
4.00x10
-3
0.079 16.42 2.3












140


Case 5: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L and two spring-mass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=0.5L and two spring-mass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.80 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 5.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.26 25 2.22x10
-4
4.26x10
-3
0.089 12.58 6.3
CC 9.5x10
-5
4.5x10
-3
0.25 30 3.81x10
-5
1.69x10
-3
0.085 12.36 14.4
CS 1.8x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.22 22 7.32x10
-5
2.28x10
-3
0.081 8.76 10
CF 3.5x10
-3
2.6x10
-2
0.30 20 1.55x10
-3
1.11x10
-2
0.105 11.70 2.3
Table 4.81 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 3.4x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.18 24 1.56x10
-4
2.96x10
-3
0.067 12.53 6.3
CC 5.5x10
-5
2.8x10
-3
0.17 28 2.62x10
-5
1.16x10
-3
0.065 12.19 14.4
CS 1.2x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.17 20 4.50x10
-5
1.39x10
-3
0.058 8.59 10
CF 2.0x10
-3
1.7x10
-2
0.22 20 9.32x10
-4
6.74x10
-3
0.084 11.69 2.3


141


Table 4.82 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.2x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.15 24 9.77x10
-5
1.85x10
-3
0.051 12.51 6.3
CC 3.6x10
-5
1.8x10
-3
0.14 27 1.60x10
-5
7.18x10
-4
0.052 12.15 14.4
CS 6.5x10
-5
2.3x10
-3
0.13 20 2.64x10
-5
8.26x10
-4
0.047 8.54 10
CF 1.1x10
-3
1.0x10
-2
0.20 20 5.28x10
-4
3.94x10
-3
0.075 11.70 2.3
Table 4.83 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.5x10
-4
3.0x10
-3
0.12 23 6.69x10
-5
1.27x10
-3
0.044 12.52 6.3
CC 2.6x10
-5
1.3x10
-3
0.11 16 1.09x10
-5
5.06x10
-4
0.045 9.19 14.4
CS 4.0x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.12 20 1.78x10
-5
5.76x10
-4
0.043 8.55 10
CF 8.0x10
-4
7.0x10
-3
0.17 20 3.35x10
-4
2.73x10
-3
0.072 11.72 2.3
Table 4.84 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 5 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.0x10
-4
2.2x10
-3
0.11 22 4.51x10
-5
8.86x10
-4
0.041 12.55 6.3
CC 1.7x10
-5
9.8x10
-4
0.09 15 7.22x10
-6
3.65x10
-4
0.041 8.85 14.4
CS 2.8x10
-5
1.3x10
-3
0.10 20 1.17x10
-5
4.14x10
-4
0.041 8.34 10
CF 5.0x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.17 20 2.18x10
-4
2.06x10
-3
0.072 11.77 2.3

142


Case 6: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and two spring-mass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=L and two spring-mass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.85 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 6.3x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.36 36 3.15x10
-4
6.03x10
-3
0.126 17.79 6.3
CC 1.7x10
-4
7.5x10
-3
0.40 55 7.03x10
-5
3.10x10
-3
0.148 24.19 14.4
CS 4.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.40 43 1.63x10
-4
5.05x10
-3
0.164 18.16 10
CF 5.0x10
-3
3.8x10
-2
0.40 37 2.27x10
-3
1.62x10
-2
0.135 16.10 2.3
Table 4.86 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 4.5x10
-4
9.5x10
-3
0.26 34 2.21x10
-4
4.19x10
-3
0.095 17.73 6.3
CC 1.0x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.28 48 4.85x10
-5
2.12x10
-3
0.109 23.77 14.4
CS 2.6x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.32 37 9.98x10
-5
3.06x10
-3
0.106 17.74 10
CF 2.9x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.29 37 1.37x10
-3
9.75x10
-3
0.098 16.26 2.3



143


Table 4.87 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 3.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.20 34 1.39x10
-4
2.61x10
-3
0.071 17.71 6.3
CC 7.0x10
-5
3.2x10
-3
0.24 46 2.97x10
-5
1.29x10
-3
0.080 23.65 14.4
CS 1.4x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.22 36 5.85x10
-5
1.78x10
-3
0.072 17.62 10
CF 1.7x10
-3
1.4x10
-2
0.27 38 7.76x10
-4
5.49x10
-3
0.080 16.40 2.3
Table 4.88 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.0x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.17 33 9.49x10
-5
1.79x10
-3
0.062 17.74 6.3
CC 4.5x10
-5
2.2x10
-3
0.15 20 2.01x10
-5
8.74x10
-4
0.059 10.25 14.4
CS 9.5x10
-5
3.1x10
-3
0.17 36 3.94x10
-5
1.19x10
-3
0.060 17.67 10
CF 1.2x10
-3
8.5x10
-3
0.22 38 4.91x10
-4
3.54x10
-3
0.075 16.44 2.3
Table 4.89 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 6 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.5x10
-4
3.1x10
-3
0.15 33 6.39x10
-5
1.23x10
-3
0.058 17.83 6.3
CC 3.0x10
-5
1.5x10
-3
0.13 18 1.33x10
-5
5.87x10
-4
0.052 9.93 14.4
CS 6.0x10
-5
2.2x10
-3
0.15 35 2.59x10
-5
7.88x10
-4
0.053 17.74 10
CF 7.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.19 20 3.16x10
-4
2.37x10
-3
0.066 9.45 2.3

144


Case 7: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L and three spring-mass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=0.5L and three spring-mass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.90 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 4.2x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.20 23 1.99x10
-4
3.75x10
-3
0.079 12.57 6.3
CC 8.5x10
-5
4.0x10
-3
0.23 30 3.78x10
-5
1.63x10
-3
0.082 12.96 14.4
CS 1.8x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.24 22 7.31x10
-5
2.26x10
-3
0.080 8.75 10
CF 3.9x10
-3
2.8x10
-2
0.32 20 1.42x10
-3
1.01x10
-2
0.099 11.71 2.3
Table 4.91 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 3.2x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.17 24 1.38x10
-4
2.56x10
-3
0.059 12.50 6.3
CC 6.0x10
-5
2.8x10
-3
0.18 28 2.56x10
-5
1.10x10
-3
0.064 12.75 14.4
CS 1.1x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.17 22 4.39x10
-5
1.34x10
-3
0.056 8.59 10
CF 2.1x10
-3
1.6x10
-2
0.24 20 9.48x10
-4
6.74x10
-3
0.084 11.67 2.3



145


Table 4.92 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.13 23 8.43x10
-5
1.53x10
-3
0.045 12.44 6.3
CC 3.4x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.14 28 1.54x10
-5
6.54x10
-4
0.049 12.51 14.4
CS 6.0x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.13 20 2.51x10
-5
7.59x10
-4
0.045 8.49 10
CF 1.2x10
-3
9.5x10
-3
0.19 20 4.56x10
-4
3.34x10
-3
0.073 11.86 2.3
Table 4.93 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.2x10
-4
2.8x10
-3
0.11 23 5.73x10
-5
1.03x10
-3
0.041 12.65 6.3
CC 2.3x10
-5
1.2x10
-3
0.12 26 1.03x10
-5
4.45x10
-4
0.045 12.41 14.4
CS 4.0x10
-5
1.6x10
-3
0.11 20 1.65x10
-5
5.14x10
-4
0.042 8.66 10
CF 7.2x10
-4
7.0x10
-3
0.17 20 3.03x10
-4
2.39x10
-3
0.072 11.91 2.3
Table 4.94 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 7 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 8.0x10
-5
1.7x10
-3
0.10 23 3.76x10
-5
6.90x10
-4
0.039 12.66 6.3
CC 1.5x10
-5
9.0x10
-4
0.10 28 6.62x10
-6
3.16x10
-4
0.044 12.77 14.4
CS 2.6x10
-5
1.1x10
-3
0.10 20 1.08x10
-5
3.78x10
-4
0.042 8.61 10
CF 4.5x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.17 20 1.84x10
-4
1.74x10
-3
0.072 11.83 2.3



146


Case 8: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and three spring-mass systems are
attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams. For CF beam, the harmonic force
is applied to x=L and three spring-mass systems are attached to x=L.
Table 4.95 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 6.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.28 22 2.83x10
-4
5.31x10
-3
0.108 10.41 6.3
CC 1.5x10
-4
7.2x10
-3
0.36 38 7.01x10
-5
3.01x10
-3
0.137 15.05 14.4
CS 4.0x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.45 38 1.62x10
-3
5.00x10
-3
0.160 14.09 10
CF 5.5x10
-3
4.0x10
-2
0.40 36 2.08x10
-3
1.47x10
-2
0.125 16.41 2.3
Table 4.96 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 4.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.22 22 1.96x10
-4
3.63x10
-3
0.079 10.35 6.3
CC 1.1x10
-4
4.6x10
-3
0.26 35 4.77x10
-5
2.00x10
-3
0.096 14.41 14.4
CS 2.4x10
-4
8.5x10
-3
0.30 24 9.76x10
-5
2.95x10
-3
0.097 8.77 10
CF 3.0x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.30 40 1.37x10
-3
9.57x10
-3
0.096 16.76 2.3



147


Table 4.97 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.6x10
-4
5.2x10
-3
0.17 21 1.20x10
-4
2.17x10
-3
0.057 10.31 6.3
CC 6.0x10
-5
2.8x10
-3
0.21 34 2.88x10
-5
1.17x10
-3
0.068 15.14 14.4
CS 1.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.14 30 5.57x10
-5
1.62x10
-3
0.063 13.32 10
CF 1.7x10
-3
1.2x10
-2
0.24 36 6.77x10
-4
4.61x10
-3
0.077 16.40 2.3
Table 4.98 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.7x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.14 21 8.16x10
-5
1.45x10
-3
0.050 10.48 6.3
CC 4.0x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.17 34 1.92x10
-5
7.66x10
-4
0.058 15.32 14.4
CS 8.0x10
-5
2.8x10
-3
0.14 20 3.66x10
-5
1.04x10
-3
0.049 8.68 10
CF 1.0x10
-3
8.0x10
-3
0.18 24 4.43x10
-4
3.02x10
-3
0.070 11.31 2.3
Table 4.99 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying three spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 8 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=m
3
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.2x10
-4
2.2x10
-3
0.13 22 5.35x10
-5
9.49x10
-4
0.047 10.67 6.3
CC 2.6x10
-5
1.3x10
-3
0.15 36 1.24x10
-5
4.92x10
-4
0.055 17.18 14.4
CS 5.0x10
-5
1.9x10
-3
0.13 30 2.36x10
-5
6.51x10
-4
0.047 13.74 10
CF 6.0x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.23 40 2.62x10
-4
1.98x10
-3
0.080 18.74 2.3

148


Case 9: Harmonic force is applied to x=0.5L and one spring-mass systems is
attached to x=0.5L for SS beam. Forcing frequency is different from the resonant
frequency of the beam.
Table 4.100 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying one
spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 9
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.5x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.19 34 7.33x10
-5
1.94x10
-3
0.074 17.80 10
0.02 1.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.18 33 6.88x10
-5
1.83x10
-3
0.072 17.81 10
0.05 1.2x10
-4
3.2x10
-3
0.17 34 5.85x10
-5
1.59x10
-3
0.068 17.82 10
0.10 9.5x10
-5
2.8x10
-3
0.16 33 4.82x10
-5
1.35x10
-3
0.065 17.78 10
0.20 7.2x10
-5
2.2x10
-3
0.15 34 3.66x10
-5
1.09x10
-3
0.062 17.95 10
No TVA 1.5x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.20 34 6.35x10
-5
1.82x10
-3
0.062 16.59 10
4.5.3. Moving Load

Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and applied to SS, CC, CS
and CF bare uniform beams.
Table 4.101 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system - Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
6.15x10
-5
8.53x10
-4
0.0169
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-5
6.0x10
-4
0.033 3.54x10
-5
1.32x10
-5
4.16x10
-4
0.0190
CS 1.0x10
-4
5.0x10
-5
7.5x10
-4
0.028 6.78x10
-5
2.52x10
-5
5.44x10
-4
0.0170
CF 1.8x10
-3
8.8x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.053 1.19x10
-3
4.49x10
-4
2.28x10
-3
0.0239

149


Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and one spring-mass system
is attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.


Figure 4.35 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system subjected
to moving load
Table 4.102 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load -Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
5.34x10
-5
5.99x10
-4
0.0120
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-5
6x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.15x10
-5
2.94x10
-4
0.0136
CS 1.0x10
-4
5.0x10
-5
7.8x10
-4
0.028 6.78x10
-5
2.19x10
-5
3.84x10
-4
0.0121
CF 1.75x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.88x10
-4
1.63x10
-3
0.0211

150


Table 4.103 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving loadCase 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
5.36x10
-5
6.01x10
-4
0.0121
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-5
6x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.15x10
-5
2.93x10
-4
0.0136
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.8x10
-5
7.8x10
-4
0.027 6.78x10
-5
2.20x10
-5
3.83x10
-4
0.0121
CF 1.8x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.7x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.89x10
-4
1.61x10
-3
0.0211
Table 4.104 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load -Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
5.36x10
-5
5.95x10
-4
0.0121
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-5
6x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.15x10
-5
2.90x10
-4
0.0137
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.8x10
-5
7.8x10
-4
0.027 6.78x10
-5
2.20x10
-5
3.79x10
-4
0.0122
CF 1.8x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.93x10
-4
1.60x10
-3
0.0213
Table 4.105 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load -Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
5.39x10
-5
5.88x10
-4
0.0122
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-5
6x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.16x10
-5
2.85x10
-4
0.0138
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.8x10
-5
7.5x10
-4
0.027 6.78x10
-5
2.21x10
-5
3.73x10
-4
0.0122
CF 1.75x10
-3
8.0x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.94x10
-4
1.57x10
-3
0.0214
151


Table 4.106 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load -Case 2
(m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.023 1.65x10
-4
5.42x10
-5
5.73x10
-4
0.0124
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.6x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.17x10
-5
2.75x10
-4
0.0139
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.8x10
-5
7.5x10
-4
0.027 6.78x10
-5
2.23x10
-5
3.63x10
-4
0.0123
CF 1.8x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.99x10
-4
1.50x10
-3
0.0215

Case 3: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and two spring-mass
systems are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.
Table 4.107 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
5.27x10
-5
5.58x10
-4
0.0109
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.5x10
-5
5.9x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.13x10
-5
2.72x10
-4
0.0124
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.7x10
-5
7.5x10
-4
0.026 6.78x10
-5
2.16x10
-5
3.56x10
-4
0.0111
CF 1.75x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.85x10
-4
1.53x10
-3
0.0206
Table 4.108 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.65x10
-4
5.30x10
-5
5.56x10
-4
0.0109
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.5x10
-5
5.9x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.14x10
-5
2.70x10
-4
0.0123
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.7x10
-5
7.5x10
-4
0.026 6.78x10
-5
2.17x10
-5
3.54x10
-4
0.0110
CF 1.75x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.87x10
-4
1.50x10
-3
0.0205
152


Table 4.109 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.66x10
-4
5.38x10
-5
5.51x10
-4
0.0109
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.5x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.030 3.54x10
-5
1.15x10
-5
2.65x10
-4
0.0123
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.5x10
-5
7.5x10
-4
0.026 6.78x10
-5
2.20x10
-5
3.49x10
-4
0.0109
CF 1.75x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.5x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
3.92x10
-4
1.47x10
-3
0.0206
Table 4.110 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.1x10
-4
1.2x10
-3
0.024 1.67x10
-4
5.47x10
-5
5.40x10
-4
0.0110
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.5x10
-5
5.3x10
-4
0.029 3.54x10
-5
1.17x10
-5
2.56x10
-4
0.0122
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.7x10
-5
7.2x10
-4
0.026 6.78x10
-5
2.23x10
-5
3.38x10
-4
0.0108
CF 1.75x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
4.00x10
-4
1.40x10
-3
0.0207
Table 4.111 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 3
(m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
SS 2.4x10
-4
1.2x10
-4
1.1x10
-3
0.024 1.69x10
-4
5.65x10
-5
5.20x10
-4
0.0114
CC 5.0x10
-5
2.5x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.028 3.54x10
-5
1.20x10
-5
2.39x10
-4
0.0121
CS 1.0x10
-4
4.5x10
-5
6.8x10
-4
0.024 6.78x10
-5
2.27x10
-5
3.18x10
-4
0.0106
CF 1.75x10
-3
7.5x10
-4
3.1x10
-3
0.05 1.19x10
-3
4.11x10
-4
1.28x10
-3
0.0206
153


4.5.4. Moving Pulsating Force

Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating force is 1.333 m/sec and applied to SS,
CC, CS and CF bare uniform beams.
Table 4.112 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam without any spring mass system - Case 1
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.8x10
-2
0.36 7.0 140 9.18x10
-3
0.183 3.63 72.25 6.3
CC 7.8x10
-3
0.35 15.5 700 3.52x10
-3
0.158 7.09 318.67 14.2
CS 1.6x10
-2
0.50 16.0 460 6.35x10
-3
0.196 6.10 189.03 9.8
CF 8.0x10
-2
0.57 4.0 29 4.12x10
-2
0.292 2.08 14.73 2.2

Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and one spring-mass system
is attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.


Figure 4.36 Simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system subjected
to moving pulsating force
154


Table 4.113 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating
force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 5.8x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.22 4.5 2.28x10
-4
4.47x10
-3
0.088 1.74 6.3
CC 5.6x10
-5
2.4x10
-3
0.11 5.0 2.55x10
-5
1.13x10
-3
0.050 2.21 14.2
CS 1.5x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.14 4.3 6.87x10
-5
2.09x10
-3
0.064 1.95 9.8
CF 1.0x10
-2
6.7x10
-2
0.45 3.0 4.60x10
-3
3.04x10
-2
0.200 1.33 2.2
Table 4.114 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating
force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 3.0x10
-4
5.8x10
-3
0.115 2.2 1.13x10
-4
2.21x10
-3
0.044 0.87 6.3
CC 2.9x10
-5
1.3x10
-3
0.058 2.5 1.24x10
-5
5.48x10
-4
0.024 1.08 14.2
CS 7.5x10
-5
2.3x10
-3
0.07 2.2 3.35x10
-5
1.02x10
-3
0.031 0.95 9.8
CF 3.6x10
-3
2.3x10
-2
0.155 1.05 1.66x10
-3
1.09x10
-2
0.072 0.486 2.2
Table 4.115 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating
force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.2x10
-4
2.4x10
-3
0.046 0.9 4.44x10
-4
8.63x10
-3
0.172 0.35 6.3
CC 1.1x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.022 1.0 4.93x10
-6
2.16x10
-4
0.0096 0.435 14.2
CS 3.0x10
-5
9.0x10
-4
0.028 0.9 1.32x10
-5
3.99x10
-4
0.012 0.383 9.8
CF 1.4x10
-3
9.0x10
-3
0.060 0.42 5.95x10
-4
3.87x10
-3
0.026 0.182 2.2
155


Table 4.116 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating
force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 5.8x10
-5
1.2x10
-3
0.022 0.45 2.24x10
-5
4.29x10
-4
0.0086 0.182 6.3
CC 5.7x10
-6
2.5x10
-4
0.011 0.50 2.48x10
-6
1.08x10
-4
0.0048 0.224 14.2
CS 1. 5x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.014 0.45 6.64x10
-6
1.98x10
-4
0.0061 0.196 9.8
CF 6.0x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.028 0.21 2.89x10
-4
1.85x10
-3
0.0127 0.095 2.2
Table 4.117 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating
force - Case 2 (m
1
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.9x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.011 0.24 1.13x10
-5
2.11x10
-4
0.0043 0.0972 6.3
CC 2.8x10
-6
1.2x10
-4
0.005 0.26 1.23x10
-6
5.32x10
-5
0.0024 0.116 14.2
CS 7.5x10
-6
2.2x10
-4
0.007 0.23 3.34x10
-6
9.81x10
-5
0.0031 0.104 9.8
CF 3.0x10
-4
1.9x10
-3
0.014 0.12 1.42x10
-4
8.89x10
-4
0.0063 0.053 2.2

Case 3: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and two spring-mass
systems are attached to x=0.5L for SS, CC and CS beams and x=L for CF beam.

Table 4.118 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating
force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.01)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 5.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.20 4.0 2.03x10
-4
3.99x10
-3
0.079 1.56 6.3
CC 4.6x10
-5
2.1x10
-3
0.09 4.0 2.13x10
-5
9.38x10
-4
0.042 1.84 14.2
CS 1.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.12 3.6 5.56x10
-5
1.69x10
-3
0.051 1.57 9.8
CF 6.0x10
-3
4.0x10
-2
0.27 1.85 2.72x10
-3
1.79x10
-2
0.119 0.79 2.2
156


Table 4.119 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating
force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.02)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.8x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.11 2.2 1.03x10
-4
2.01x10
-3
0.040 0.792 6.3
CC 2.4x10
-5
1.1x10
-3
0.05 2.1 1.08x10
-5
4.76x10
-4
0.021 0.940 14.2
CS 6.5x10
-5
2.0x10
-3
0.06 1.9 2.85x10
-5
8.65x10
-4
0.026 0.809 9.8
CF 2.8x10
-3
1.9x10
-2
0.13 0.88 1.19x10
-3
7.79x10
-3
0.052 0.35 2.2
Table 4.120 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating
force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.05)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 1.1x10
-4
2.1x10
-3
0.04 0.8 4.09x10
-5
8.01x10
-4
0.016 0.321 6.3
CC 1.0x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.02 0.9 4.44x10
-6
1.96x10
-4
0.0087 0.39 14.2
CS 2.6x10
-5
8.0x10
-4
0.024 0.73 1.16x10
-5
3.51x10
-4
0.011 0.333 9.8
CF 1.1x10
-3
7.5x10
-3
0.050 0.36 4.60x10
-4
3.02x10
-3
0.020 0.141 2.2
Table 4.121 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating
force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.1)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 5.3x10
-5
1.1x10
-3
0.022 0.45 2.08x10
-5
4.05x10
-4
0.0081 0.166 6.3
CC 5.0x10
-6
2.2x10
-4
0.01 0.47 2.28x10
-6
1.01x10
-4
0.0047 0.201 14.2
CS 1.4x10
-5
4.0x10
-4
0.013 0.40 5.97x10
-6
1.80x10
-4
0.056 0.175 9.8
CF 5.5x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.024 0.18 2.27x10
-4
1.48x10
-3
0.0101 0.073 2.2
157


Table 4.122 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS, CC, CS beams and
at x=L for CF beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating
force - Case 3 (m
1
/m
b
=m
2
/m
b
=0.2)
Boundary
Conditions
w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
SS 2.8x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.011 0.23 1.06x10
-5
2.06x10
-4
0.0042 0.088 6.3
CC 2.6x10
-6
1.2x10
-4
0.005 0.24 1.16x10
-6
5.15x10
-5
0.0024 0.105 14.2
CS 7.2x10
-6
2.0x10
-4
0.007 0.21 2.99x10
-6
8.99x10
-5
0.0028 0.091 9.8
CF 2.8x10
-4
1.8x10
-3
0.012 0.11 1.16x10
-4
7.53x10
-4
0.0053 0.041 2.2

Case 4: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and one spring-mass system
is attached to x=0.5L for SS beam. Forcing frequency is different from the
resonant frequency of the beam. Spring-mass system is tuned to the excitation
frequency.
Table 4.123 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.5L for SS beam carrying one
spring-mass system under moving pulsating force - Case 4
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 2.0x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.20 6.5 1.02x10
-4
3.24x10
-3
0.103 3.28 10
0.02 8.0x10
-5
2.5x10
-3
0.08 2.6 3.40x10
-5
1.09x10
-3
0.035 1.12 10
0.05 3.0x10
-5
9.5x10
-4
0.03 0.95 1.22x10
-5
3.95x10
-4
0.013 0.425 10
0.10 1.5x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.015 0.50 5.75x10
-6
1.88x10
-4
0.006 0.215 10
0.20 7.5x10
-6
2.2x10
-4
0.007 0.24 2.77x10
-6
8.93x10
-5
0.003 0.112 10
No TVA 1.6x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.16 4.75 8.22x10
-5
2.58x10
-3
0.081 2.55 10



158


4.6. Forced Vibration Analysis of High-Mast Lighting Tower under Wind Load
The high-mast lighting (HMLT) tower indicated in free vibration of non-
uniform beams (Section 4.3) is subjected to wind load by using wind velocity data
given by Prof.Robert J. Connor. The wind profile is obtained by using the
empirical power-law profile which is particularly used because of its simplicity
such as in the Canadian code NBC 1990 (Dyrbye and Hansen, 1997). The wind
velocity at any height of the structure can be obtained by using the empirical
equation given as below
u(z) = u(z
c]
)(
z
z
c]
)
u

Eq. 4.5
where z
ref
is a reference height and the parameter is considered as 0.16 which
is used for a terrain category including farmland with boundary hedges,
occasional small farm structures, houses or trees (Dyrbye and Hansen, 1997).
The given wind velocity data is assumed to be at 30 ft which is usually used for
reference height.
The dynamic response of a structure subjected to wind loading cannot be
represented in a definite form. Wind can be expressed in terms of its mean
velocity and turbulence component and HMLT can be considered as line-like
structure. The wind load per unit length for line like structures is obtained by
F(z, t) =
1
2
p [u(z) +u(z, t) -
dc]
(z, t)
2
J(z)C(z)
Eq. 4.6
where U(z)+u(z,t) is the wind velocity which is the sum of mean wind velocity
U(z) and the longitudinal turbulence component u(z,t). The given wind velocity
data in this study is assumed to be U(z)+u(z,t) because the mean wind velocity is
generally much larger than the turbulence component(Dyrbye and Hansen,
1996).
def
(z,t) is the structural velocity which is used in order to find the relative
wind velocity with respect to structure. The structural velocity is ignored in this
study and U(z)+u(z,t) is defined as V(z,t). d(z) is the width of the structure
perpendicular to the wind direction and C(z) is the shape factor which is 0.6 for
circular sections. Therefore equation 4.6 can be written as

159


F(z, t) =
1
2
pI
2
(z, t)J(z)C(z)
Eq. 4.7
The HMLT is subdivided into six segments as it is shown in figure 4.37
and wind velocity variation with respect to time at 14 ft, 42 ft, 70 ft, 98 ft and 126
ft are found respectively based on equation 4.5. Wind load functions with respect
to time are obtained for each point with MATLAB curve fitting tool by using
Fourier series after the corresponding wind load variations at each point with
respect to time are obtained by using equation 4.7. Each forcing function is
applied at corresponding heights and displacement, velocity, acceleration and
jerk responses at any point of the HMLT are found by using the developed
algorithm in MATHEMATICA. The resultant responses for bare HMLT and HMLT
with one spring-mass system on the top of the structure are given in figures 4.38
and 39.

Figure 4.37 Force and wind velocity profile of HMLT





Figure 4.38 Dynamic responses of bare HMLT under wind load
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
5
10
15
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-10
-5
0
5
10
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-20
-10
0
10
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
Time (Second)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
)

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
i
n
/
s
)

Time (Second)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
i
n
/
s
2
)

Time (Second)
J
e
r
k

(
i
n
/
s
3
)

Time (Second)
1
6
0






Figure 4.39 Dynamic responses of HMLT carrying one spring-mass system at the shallow end under wind load
(m
1
/m
b
=0.01)
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
0
5
10
15
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-10
-5
0
5
10
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-20
-10
0
10
20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
-60
-40
-20
0
20
40
60
Time (Second)
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t

(
i
n
)

V
e
l
o
c
i
t
y

(
i
n
/
s
)

Time (Second)
A
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n

(
i
n
/
s
2
)

Time (Second)
J
e
r
k

(
i
n
/
s
3
)

Time (Second)
1
6
1

162


4.7. Forced Vibration Analysis of Multi Span Uniform Beams Carrying One and
Two Spring-Mass Systems
F
0
is assumed to be 350 N for harmonic loading and 700 N for impact
loading, moving load and moving pulsating loads.
4.7.1. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass System
4.7.1.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the step-
function force is applied to x=0.25L.


Figure 4.40 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to step-function force at x=0.25L

163


Table 4.124 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.4x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.26 7.5 2.03x10
-4
5.06x10
-3
0.156 4.83
0.02 4.2x10
-4
8.5x10
-3
0.24 7.0 1.98x10
-4
4.87x10
-3
0.151 4.72
0.05 4.0x10
-4
7.8x10
-3
0.22 6.75 1.86x10
-4
4.39x10
-3
0.138 4.41
0.10 4.1x10
-4
7.8x10
-3
0.22 6.5 1.75x10
-4
3.82x10
-3
0.121 3.97
No TVA 4.6x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.32 13 2.18x10
-4
5.43x10
-3
0.167 6.24
Table 4.125 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.3x10
-4
4x10
-3
0.09 2.4 1.85x10
-4
1.64x10
-3
0.042 1.16
0.02 3.4x10
-4
4x10
-3
0.095 2.4 1.85x10
-4
1.68x10
-3
0.042 1.15
0.05 3.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.092 2.4 1.87x10
-4
1.77x10
-3
0.043 1.15
0.10 3.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.095 2.4 1.90x10
-4
1.93x10
-3
0.047 1.19
No TVA 3.6x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.10 2.5 2.05x10
-4
2.13x10
-3
0.050 1.29











164


Case 2: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the step-
function force is applied to x=0.75L.


Figure 4.41 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to step-function force at x=0.75L
Table 4.126 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.3x10
-4
3.9x10
-3
0.095 2.4 1.85x10
-4
1.63x10
-3
0.042 1.21
0.02 3.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.095 2.4 1.86x10
-4
1.66x10
-3
0.043 1.24
0.05 3.35x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.090 2.5 1.86x10
-4
1.68x10
-3
0.045 1.34
0.10 3.4x10
-4
3.7x10
-3
0.090 2.6 1.88x10
-4
1.71x10
-3
0.047 1.49
No TVA 3.2x10
-4
3.7x10
-3
0.090 2.4 1.83x10
-4
1.91x10
-3
0.046 1.24

165


Table 4.127 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.28 8.2 2.29x10
-4
5.75x10
-3
0.175 5.42
0.02 5.3x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.31 9.0 2.47x10
-4
6.21x10
-3
0.189 5.90
0.05 6.7x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.40 11.5 2.98x10
-4
7.57x10
-3
0.234 7.45
0.10 8.2x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.50 15.5 3.69x10
-4
9.68x10
-3
0.311 10.28
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.33 14.5 2.21x10
-4
5.40x10
-3
0.169 6.98

Case 3: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the step-
function force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.


Figure 4.42 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to step-function force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L


166


Table 4.128 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 8.5x10
-4
9x10
-3
0.27 8.5 3.44x10
-4
6.09x10
-3
0.190 5.94
0.02 8.8x10
-4
9x10
-3
0.275 8.5 3.41x10
-4
5.94x10
-3
0.187 5.88
0.05 8.5x10
-4
8.8x10
-3
0.27 8.5 3.33x10
-4
5.54x10
-3
0.177 5.70
0.10 8.0x10
-4
8.5x10
-3
0.27 8.5 3.24x10
-4
5.00x10
-3
0.164 5.42
No TVA 9.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.34 15 3.54x10
-4
6.25x10
-3
0.200 7.80
Table 4.129 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 7.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.34 10 3.63x10
-4
6.70x10
-3
0.207 6.43
0.02 7.8x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.37 10.5 3.76x10
-4
7.14x10
-3
0.220 6.88
0.05 9.3x10
-4
1.6x10
-2
0.45 13.5 4.17x10
-4
8.42x10
-3
0.262 8.33
0.10 1.1x10
-3
2x10
-2
0.60 17.5 4.77x10
-4
1.04x10
-2
0.334 11.00
No TVA 9.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.34 15 3.54x10
-4
6.25x10
-3
0.200 7.80









167


4.7.1.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L.


Figure 4.43 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L
Table 4.130 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 7.0x10
-4
1.7x10
-2
0.40 10 3.24x10
-4
7.07x10
-3
0.171 4.58 6.3
0.02 6.0x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.32 8.5 2.82x10
-4
6.28x10
-3
0.156 4.31 6.3
0.05 5.5x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.30 8.0 2.54x10
-4
5.64x10
-3
0.141 3.94 6.3
0.10 5.0x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.30 8.0 2.46x10
-4
5.39x10
-3
0.131 3.59 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
-3
9.16x10
-2
1.813 36.30 6.3

168


Table 4.131 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 6.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.24 5.5 2.61x10
-4
5.36x10
-3
0.112 2.39 6.3
0.02 4.0x10
-4
8.5x10
-3
0.19 4.25 2.13x10
-4
4.47x10
-3
0.095 2.10 6.3
0.05 4.2x10
-4
9.0x10
-2
0.20 4.6 1.86x10
-4
4.00x10
-3
0.088 1.97 6.3
0.10 4.0x10
-4
8.0x10
-2
0.19 4.5 1.80x10
-4
3.95x10
-3
0.088 2.01 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
-3
9.27x10
-2
1.832 36.44 6.3

Case 2: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to x=0.75L.


Figure 4.44 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L


169


Table 4.132 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 4.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.20 4.2 2.14x10
-4
4.24x10
-3
0.086 1.86 6.3
0.02 3.2x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.15 3.4 1.49x10
-4
2.95x10
-3
0.062 1.45 6.3
0.05 2.0x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.10 2.6 9.39x10
-5
1.90x10
-3
0.045 1.21 6.3
0.10 1.5x10
-4
3.4x10
-3
0.08 2.2 6.66x10
-5
1.42x10
-3
0.038 1.18 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
-3
9.27x10
-2
1.833 36.47 6.3
Table 4.133 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.2x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.55 13 5.07x10
-4
1.05x10
-2
0.232 5.72 6.3
0.02 1.1x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.55 13 4.81x10
-4
1.01x10
-2
0.230 5.88 6.3
0.05 1.1x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.55 14 4.76x10
-4
1.03x10
-2
0.248 6.79 6.3
0.10 1.1x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.60 17 4.82x10
-4
1.10x10
-2
0.288 8.53 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
-3
9.17x10
-2
1.814 36.32 6.3











170


Case 3: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.


Figure 4.45 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L
Table 4.134 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 5.8x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.36 9.8 2.68x10
-4
6.60x10
-3
0.179 5.23 6.3
0.02 5.8x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.36 9.8 2.64x10
-4
6.48x10
-3
0.176 5.14 6.3
0.05 5.8x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.36 9.8 2.59x10
-4
6.24x10
-3
0.168 4.92 6.3
0.10 5.8x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.34 9.8 2.57x10
-4
6.04x10
-3
0.158 4.63 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
-4
6.29x10
-3
0.179 5.84 6.3


171


Table 4.135 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.4x10
-3
3.0x10
-2
0.70 16.5 5.88x10
-4
1.24x10
-2
0.279 6.92 6.3
0.02 1.4x10
-3
3.0x10
-2
0.70 17 5.87x10
-4
1.25x10
-2
0.284 7.16 6.3
0.05 1.4x10
-3
3.1x10
-2
0.72 18 5.99x10
-4
1.29x10
-2
0.305 8.05 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
-3
3.1x10
-2
0.78 20 6.11x10
-4
1.36x10
-2
0.340 9.61 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
-4
6.29x10
-3
0.179 5.84 6.3

Case 4: Spring-mass system is attached to second span (x=0.75L) and the
harmonic force is applied to x=0.25L. Forcing frequency is different from the
resonant frequency of the beam. Spring-mass system is tuned to the excitation
frequency.
Table 4.136 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.0x10
-3
3.2x10
-2
1.0 30 4.70x10
-4
1.42x10
-2
0.434 13.32 10
0.02 9.0x10
-4
2.6x10
-2
0.8 24 3.87x10
-4
1.15x10
-2
0.348 10.57 10
0.05 7.0x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.6 20 3.26x10
-4
9.54x10
-3
0.282 8.51 10
0.10 6.0x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.55 17 3.00x10
-4
8.69x10
-3
0.255 7.63 10
No TVA 9.0x10
-3
0.28 8.5 270 4.20x10
-3
1.31x10
-2
4.105 128.05 10





172


4.7.1.3. Moving Load

Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass system
is attached to second span at x=0.75L.


Figure 4.46 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to moving load
Table 4.137 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.0x10
-4
0.013 7.51x10
-5
1.26x10
-5
2.8x10
-4
0.0087
0.02 1.0x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.0x10
-4
0.013 7.51x10
-5
1.24x10
-5
2.7x10
-4
0.0085
0.05 1.0x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.0x10
-4
0.013 7.51x10
-5
1.20x10
-5
2.5x10
-4
0.0081
0.10 1.0x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.0x10
-4
0.013 7.51x10
-5
1.14x10
-5
2.3x10
-4
0.0074
No TVA 1.1x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.017 7.76x10
-5
1.31x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0094
173


Table 4.138 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.1x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.015 7.62x10
-5
1.34x10
-5
3.1x10
-4
0.0095
0.02 1.1x10
-4
3.3x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.016 7.73x10
-5
1.40x10
-5
3.2x10
-4
0.010
0.05 1.1x10
-4
3.8x10
-5
6.8x10
-4
0.020 8.07x10
-5
1.56x10
-5
3.7x10
-4
0.012
0.10 1.2x10
-4
4.5x10
-5
8.5x10
-4
0.025 8.63x10
-5
1.80x10
-5
4.6x10
-4
0.015
No TVA 1.1x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.017 7.76x10
-5
1.31x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0094
4.7.1.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-
mass system is attached to second span at x=0.75L.


Figure 4.47 Two-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass system
subjected to moving pulsating force

174


Table 4.139 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 2.4x10
-4
4.6x10
-3
0.092 1.9 1.21x10
-4
2.39x10
-3
0.047 0.94 6.3
0.02 2.4x10
-4
4.6x10
-3
0.092 1.9 1.21x10
-4
2.39x10
-3
0.047 0.94 6.3
0.05 2.4x10
-4
4.6x10
-3
0.092 1.85 1.21x10
-4
2.39x10
-3
0.047 0.94 6.3
0.10 2.4x10
-4
4.6x10
-3
0.092 1.85 1.21x10
-4
2.39x10
-3
0.047 0.94 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
-3
8.0x10
-2
1.6 33 2.15x10
-4
4.25x10
-2
0.842 16.73 6.3
Table 4.140 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 4.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.180 3.6 2.28x10
-4
4.51x10
-3
0.089 1.77 6.3
0.02 4.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.180 3.6 2.28x10
-4
4.52x10
-3
0.089 1.77 6.3
0.05 4.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.175 3.4 2.30x10
-4
4.55x10
-3
0.090 1.78 6.3
0.10 4.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.175 3.5 2.34x10
-4
4.63x10
-3
0.092 1.81 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
-3
8.0x10
-2
1.6 33 2.15x10
-4
4.25x10
-2
0.842 16.73 6.3











175


Case 2: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-
mass system is attached to second span at x=0.75L. Forcing frequency is
different from the resonant frequency of the beam. Spring-mass system is tuned
to the excitation frequency.
Table 4.141 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 2.4x10
-4
7.5x10
-3
0.23 7.5 1.11x10
-4
3.46x10
-3
0.108 3.40 10
0.02 2.2x10
-4
6.7x10
-3
0.21 6.75 1.08x10
-4
3.40x10
-3
0.107 3.34 10
0.05 2.0x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.20 6.5 1.08x10
-4
3.38x10
-3
0.106 3.32 10
0.10 2.0x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.20 6.2 1.07x10
-4
3.37x10
-3
0.106 3.32 10
No TVA 5.7x10
-3
0.18 5.5 175 2.69x10
-3
8.42x10
-2
2.637 82.47 10
















176


4.7.2. Forced Vibration Analysis of Two Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems
4.7.2.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span. Both of the
spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam and the step-function force is
applied to x=0.75L.

Figure 4.48 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass systems
subjected to step-function force at x=0.75L
Table 4.142 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.7x10
-4
9.5x10
-3
0.27 8.0 2.23x10
-4
5.54x10
-3
0.170 5.30
0.02 5.3x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.30 8.8 2.36x10
-4
5.83x10
-3
0.179 5.66
0.05 6.5x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.38 11 2.71x10
-4
6.66x10
-3
0.209 6.79
0.10 8.0x10
-4
1.7x10
-2
0.48 15 3.21x10
-4
7.97x10
-3
0.260 8.80
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.33 14.5 2.21x10
-4
5.40x10
-3
0.169 6.98
177


Table 4.143 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.09 2.4 1.84x10
-4
1.60x10
-3
0.042 1.18
0.02 3.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.09 2.4 1.84x10
-4
1.57x10
-3
0.041 1.18
0.05 3.4x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.09 2.45 1.84x10
-4
1.52x10
-3
0.040 1.20
0.10 3.4x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.09 2.6 1.84x10
-4
1.45x10
-3
0.040 1.23
No TVA 3.2x10
-4
3.7x10
-3
0.090 2.4 1.83x10
-4
1.91x10
-3
0.046 1.24

Case 2: The first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
two-span bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system. The
step-function force is applied to x=0.75L.
Table 4.144 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.29 8.2 2.24x10
-4
5.63x10
-3
0.173 5.41
0.02 5.5x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.33 9.3 2.40x10
-4
6.07x10
-3
0.188 5.98
0.05 7.0x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.42 13 2.87x10
-4
7.52x10
-3
0.243 8.09
0.10 8.7x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.60 20 3.61x10
-4
1.01x10
-2
0.352 12.55
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.33 14.5 2.21x10
-4
5.40x10
-3
0.169 6.98


178


Table 4.145 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.09 2.4 1.83x10
-4
1.51x10
-3
0.040 1.15
0.02 3.4x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.09 2.3 1.83x10
-4
1.49x10
-3
0.040 1.17
0.05 3.3x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.09 2.5 1.83x10
-4
1.45x10
-3
0.040 1.22
0.10 3.4x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.09 2.6 1.83x10
-4
1.42x10
-3
0.040 1.35
No TVA 3.2x10
-4
3.7x10
-3
0.090 2.4 1.83x10
-4
1.91x10
-3
0.046 1.24

Case 3: Both of the spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which
is same with the first natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam and the
step-function force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.


Figure 4.49 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass systems
subjected to step-function force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L

179


Table 4.146 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for two-
span uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading -
Case 3
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 7.0x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.33 10 3.57x10
-4
6.51x10
-3
0.203 6.36
0.02 7.2x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.35 10.5 3.66x10
-4
6.77x10
-3
0.213 6.74
0.05 8.0x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.42 13 3.92x10
-4
7.58x10
-3
0.243 7.91
0.10 9.8x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.55 17.5 4.32x10
-4
8.86x10
-3
0.294 9.98
No TVA 9.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.34 15 3.54x10
-4
6.25x10
-3
0.200 7.80

Case 4: The first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
two-span bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system. The
step-function force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Table 4.147 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 6.7x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.33 10 3.58x10
-4
6.58x10
-3
0.206 6.46
0.02 7.5x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.37 11 3.70x10
-4
6.97x10
-3
0.220 7.01
0.05 8.7x10
-4
1.6x10
-2
0.48 15 4.05x10
-4
8.32x10
-3
0.273 9.07
0.10 1.0x10
-3
2.0x10
-2
0.65 22 4.65x10
-4
1.08x10
-2
0.378 13.43
No TVA 9.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.34 15 3.54x10
-4
6.25x10
-3
0.200 7.80

180


Table 4.148 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 6.8x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.32 9.8 3.56x10
-4
6.46x10
-3
0.201 6.33
0.02 7.3x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.35 10.5 3.64x10
-4
6.63x10
-3
0.209 6.63
0.05 8.5x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.42 13 3.87x10
-4
7.14x10
-3
0.228 7.49
0.10 1.0x10
-3
1.8x10
-2
0.53 17.5 4.26x10
-4
8.15x10
-3
0.265 9.00
No TVA 9.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.34 15 3.54x10
-4
6.25x10
-3
0.200 7.80
4.7.2.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span. Both of the
spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam and the harmonic force is
applied to x=0.75L.


Figure 4.50 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass systems
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.75L
181


Table 4.149 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.1x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.50 12.5 4.99x10
-4
1.03x10
-2
0.229 5.62 6.3
0.02 1.0x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.50 12 4.59x10
-4
9.63x10
-3
0.220 5.63 6.3
0.05 1.0x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.50 14 4.53x10
-4
9.72x10
-3
0.231 6.23 6.3
0.10 1.0x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.60 16 4.58x10
-4
1.01x10
-2
0.255 7.39 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
-3
9.17x10
-2
1.814 36.32 6.3
Table 4.150 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 4.0x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.18 4 1.60x10
-4
3.25x10
-3
0.069 1.58 6.3
0.02 3.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.13 3.2 1.13x10
-4
2.35x10
-3
0.053 1.30 6.3
0.05 1.9x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.10 2.5 7.36x10
-5
1.62x10
-3
0.040 1.11 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
-4
3.2x10
-3
0.078 2.2 5.33x10
-5
1.23x10
-3
0.034 1.02 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
-3
9.27x10
-2
1.833 36.47 6.3










182


Case 2: The first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
two-span bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system. The
harmonic force is applied to x=0.75L.
Table 4.151 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.0x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.50 12 3.86x10
-4
8.28x10
-3
0.196 5.18 6.3
0.02 1.1x10
-3
2.6x10
-2
0.55 14 5.13x10
-4
1.08x10
-2
0.245 6.17 6.3
0.05 3.5x10
-3
7.0x10
-2
1.50 33 1.73x10
-3
3.43x10
-2
0.693 14.57 6.3
0.10 1.6x10
-3
3.4x10
-2
0.80 22 6.69x10
-4
1.44x10
-2
0.351 10.23 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.60x10
-3
9.17x10
-2
1.814 36.32 6.3
Table 4.152 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 8.0x10
-4
1.7x10
-2
0.34 7.25 3.12x10
-4
6.22x10
-3
0.125 2.60 6.3
0.02 1.1x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.45 9.8 5.25x10
-4
1.05x10
-2
0.210 4.24 6.3
0.05 1.8x10
-3
3.5x10
-2
0.70 14 9.35x10
-4
1.84x10
-2
0.363 7.20 6.3
0.10 4.0x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.17 4 1.81x10
-4
3.52x10
-3
0.072 1.60 6.3
No TVA 1.1x10
-2
0.22 4.25 85 4.66x10
-3
9.27x10
-2
1.833 36.47 6.3



183


Case 3: Both of the spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which
is same with the first natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam and the
harmonic force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.


Figure 4.51 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass systems
subjected to harmonic force at x=0.25L and x=0.75L
Table 4.153 Maximum and RMS responses at both x=0.25L and x=0.75L for two-
span uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading -
Case 3
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.1x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.55 14 4.62x10
-4
1.00x10
-2
0.238 6.25 6.3
0.02 1.0x10
-3
2.3x10
-2
0.55 14 4.51x10
-4
9.91x10
-3
0.239 6.40 6.3
0.05 1.0x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.60 15 4.55x10
-4
1.02x10
-2
0.253 7.07 6.3
0.10 1.0x10
-3
2.5x10
-2
0.65 18 4.62x10
-4
1.06x10
-2
0.278 8.25 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
-4
6.29x10
-3
0.179 5.84 6.3


184


Case 4: The first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of
two-span bare uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural
frequency of the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system. The
harmonic force is applied to both x=0.25L and x=0.75L.
Table 4.154 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 9.0x10
-4
2.1x10
-2
0.50 13 3.35x10
-4
7.91x10
-3
0.206 5.83 6.3
0.02 1.2x10
-3
2.5x10
-2
0.60 15 5.02x10
-4
1.10x10
-2
0.261 6.86 6.3
0.05 3.4x10
-3
7.0x10
-2
1.5 34 1.72x10
-3
3.43x10
-2
0.698 14.90 6.3
0.10 1.6x10
-3
3.4x10
-2
0.90 24 6.66x10
-4
1.46x10
-2
0.365 10.83 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
-4
6.29x10
-3
0.179 5.84 6.3
Table 4.155 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.5x10
-3
3.2x10
-2
0.70 17 6.39x10
-4
1.33x10
-2
0.293 7.09 6.3
0.02 2.0x10
-3
4.0x10
-2
0.90 20 8.80x10
-4
1.79x10
-2
0.380 8.64 6.3
0.05 1.5x10
-3
3.4x10
-2
0.75 19 6.74x10
-4
1.39x10
-2
0.308 7.67 6.3
0.10 9.0x10
-4
2.2x10
-2
0.60 17 3.68x10
-4
8.75x10
-3
0.238 7.28 6.3
No TVA 4.7x10
-4
0.0125 0.35 12 2.43x10
-4
6.29x10
-3
0.179 5.84 6.3

185


4.7.2.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. Both
of the spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with
the first natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.52 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass systems
subjected to moving load
Table 4.156 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.015 7.62x10
-5
1.32x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0093
0.02 1.1x10
-4
3.1x10
-5
5.3x10
-4
0.016 7.73x10
-5
1.35x10
-5
3.1x10
-4
0.0097
0.05 1.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-5
6.3x10
-4
0.019 8.07x10
-5
1.44x10
-5
3.4x10
-4
0.0109
0.10 1.2x10
-4
4.0x10
-5
7.8x10
-4
0.023 8.63x10
-5
1.59x10
-5
3.9x10
-4
0.0130
No TVA 1.1x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.017 7.76x10
-5
1.31x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0094

186


Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. The
first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of two-span bare
uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural frequency of
the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system.
Table 4.157 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.015 7.62x10
-5
1.31x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0092
0.02 1.1x10
-4
3.1x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.016 7.73x10
-5
1.34x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0095
0.05 1.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-5
6.3x10
-4
0.019 8.07x10
-5
1.41x10
-5
3.2x10
-4
0.0102
0.10 1.2x10
-4
4.0x10
-5
7.9x10
-4
0.023 8.62x10
-5
1.55x10
-5
3.5x10
-4
0.0117
No TVA 1.1x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.017 7.76x10
-5
1.31x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0094
Table 4.158 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.0x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.015 7.64x10
-5
1.32x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0094
0.02 1.1x10
-4
3.1x10
-5
4.9x10
-4
0.016 7.78x10
-5
1.37x10
-5
3.2x10
-4
0.0100
0.05 1.1x10
-4
3.6x10
-5
6.7x10
-4
0.020 8.24x10
-5
1.50x10
-5
3.7x10
-4
0.0122
0.10 1.3x10
-4
4.3x10
-5
8.8x10
-4
0.028 9.09x10
-5
1.75x10
-5
4.7x10
-4
0.0168
No TVA 1.1x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.017 7.76x10
-5
1.31x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0094
187


4.7.2.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. Both
of the spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with
the first natural frequency of two-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.53 Two-span simply supported beam carrying two spring-mass systems
subjected to moving pulsating load
Table 4.159 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L and x=0.75L for two-span
uniform beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating force-
Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 3.6x10
-4
7.0x10
-3
0.14 2.8 1.85x10
-4
3.66x10
-3
0.072 1.43 6.3
0.02 3.6x10
-4
7.0x10
-3
0.14 2.7 1.80x10
-4
3.57x10
-3
0.071 1.40 6.3
0.05 3.5x10
-4
6.7x10
-3
0.14 2.7 1.82x10
-4
3.61x10
-3
0.071 1.41 6.3
0.10 3.5x10
-4
7.0x10
-3
0.14 2.8 1.86x10
-4
3.68x10
-3
0.073 1.44 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
-3
8.0x10
-2
1.6 33 2.15x10
-4
4.25x10
-2
0.842 16.73 6.3
188


Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=0.25L and x=0.75L, respectively. The
first spring-mass system is tuned to the first natural frequency of two-span bare
uniform beam and the second one is tuned to the second natural frequency of
the two-span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system.
Table 4.160 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.75L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating force-Case 2
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 5.8x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.22 4.5 2.73x10
-4
5.41x10
-3
0.107 2.13 6.3
0.02 7.5x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.30 6.0 3.76x10
-4
7.47x10
-3
0.148 2.95 6.3
0.05 8.5x10
-4
1.6x10
-2
0.32 6.25 4.28x10
-4
8.39x10
-3
0.165 3.23 6.3
0.10 2.7x10
-4
5.3x10
-3
0.105 2.1 1.38x10
-4
2.73x10
-3
0.054 1.07 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
-3
8.0x10
-2
1.6 33 2.15x10
-4
4.25x10
-2
0.842 16.73 6.3
Table 4.161 Maximum and RMS responses at x=0.25L for two-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating force-Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.8x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.07 1.4 9.11x10
-5
1.80x10
-3
0.036 0.708 6.3
0.02 3.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.12 2.4 1.39x10
-4
2.79x10
-3
0.056 1.11 6.3
0.05 1.9x10
-3
3.6x10
-2
0.70 14 8.30x10
-4
1.63x10
-2
0.321 6.31 6.3
0.10 4.7x10
-4
9.5x10
-3
0.19 3.7 2.48x10
-4
4.90x10
-3
0.097 1.92 6.3
No TVA 4.0x10
-3
8.0x10
-2
1.6 33 2.15x10
-4
4.25x10
-2
0.842 16.73 6.3
189


4.7.3. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
One Spring-Mass Systems
4.7.3.1. Impact Loading
Case 1: Spring-mass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the step-
function force is applied to x=(1/6)L.


Figure 4.54 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x= (1/6) L
Table 4.162 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.6x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.12 3.4 2.01x10
-4
1.82x10
-3
0.051 1.56
0.02 3.7x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.12 3.5 2.02x10
-4
1.85x10
-3
0.052 1.61
0.05 3.7x10
-4
4.2x10
-3
0.12 3.6 2.02x10
-4
1.82x10
-3
0.052 1.68
0.10 3.5x10
-4
4.1x10
-3
0.12 3.6 2.00x10
-4
1.76x10
-3
0.052 1.78
No TVA 3.7x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.12 3.4 2.03x10
-4
1.93x10
-3
0.052 1.53
190


Table 4.163 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 8.5x10
-4
1.6x10
-2
0.53 18 4.05x10
-4
8.29x10
-3
0.298 10.89
0.02 9.5x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.60 20 4.32x10
-4
8.97x10
-3
0.319 11.63
0.05 1.1x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.70 24 4.86x10
-4
1.06x10
-2
0.375 13.73
0.10 1.3x10
-3
2.7x10
-2
0.90 31 5.66x10
-4
1.32x10
-2
0.476 17.80
No TVA 7.5x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.47 16.5 3.81x10
-4
7.70x10
-3
0.278 10.23
Table 4.164 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.7x10
-2
1.0 34 1200 3.23x10
-2
0.576 21.16 782.3
0.02 6.1x10
-2
1.05 36 1300 3.46x10
-2
0.616 22.61 836.9
0.05 7.3x10
-2
1.3 45 1600 4.05x10
-2
0.729 26.91 1002.4
0.10 9.0x10
-2
1.65 60 2200 5.08x10
-2
0.946 35.59 1349.4
No TVA 5.2x10
-2
0.90 31 1100 3.00x10
-2
0.539 19.80 732.0










191


Case 2: Spring-mass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the step-
function force is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.165 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 9.5x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.67 25 5.21x10
-4
1.25x10
-2
0.466 17.34
0.02 9.5x10
-4
1.9x10
-2
0.67 24 5.00x10
-4
1.21x10
-2
0.450 16.80
0.05 8.5x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.60 22 4.32x10
-4
1.06x10
-2
0.398 14.96
0.10 7.2x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.50 18.5 3.36x10
-4
8.46x10
-3
0.320 12.22
No TVA 9.8x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.70 25 5.43x10
-4
1.30x10
-2
0.482 17.88
Table 4.166 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.20 7 2.27x10
-4
3.39x10
-3
0.123 4.57
0.02 3.9x10
-4
5.9x10
-3
0.20 6.5 2.20x10
-4
3.23x10
-3
0.117 4.35
0.05 3.5x10
-4
5.3x10
-3
0.17 6 2.00x10
-4
2.72x10
-3
0.100 3.68
0.10 3.1x10
-3
4.4x10
-3
0.15 4.7 1.72x10
-4
2.06x10
-3
0.074 2.74
No TVA 4.2x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.21 7.3 2.37x10
-4
3.63x10
-3
0.130 4.79



192


Table 4.167 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 9.5x10
-4
1.9x10
-2
0.68 24 5.15x10
-4
1.24x10
-2
0.459 17.08
0.02 9.3x10
-4
1.9x10
-2
0.67 24 4.89x10
-4
1.18x10
-2
0.437 16.27
0.05 8.0x10
-4
1.7x10
-2
0.60 21 4.07x10
-4
9.88x10
-3
0.367 13.76
0.10 6.7x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.50 17.5 3.03x10
-4
7.36x10
-3
0.272 10.26
No TVA 9.8x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.70 25 5.43x10
-4
1.30x10
-2
0.482 17.88

Case 3: Spring-mass system is attached to mid span at x= (3/6) L and the step-
function force is applied to x=(1/6)L.


Figure 4.55 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x= (3/6) L

193


Table 4.168 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.5x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.12 3.2 1.96x10
-4
1.74x10
-3
0.047 1.42
0.02 3.5x10
-4
4.1x10
-3
0.11 3.2 1.93x10
-4
1.72x10
-3
0.046 1.35
0.05 3.5x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.11 3.0 1.88x10
-4
1.68x10
-3
0.044 1.23
0.10 3.3x10
-4
3.9x10
-3
0.10 2.7 1.85x10
-4
1.71x10
-3
0.043 1.15
No TVA 3.7x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.12 3.4 2.03x10
-4
1.93x10
-3
0.052 1.53
Table 4.169 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 7.0x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.43 15 3.48x10
-4
6.98x10
-3
0.254 9.42
0.02 7.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.40 14.5 3.24x10
-4
6.44x10
-3
0.236 8.78
0.05 5.8x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.35 13 2.77x10
-4
5.32x10
-3
0.196 7.43
0.10 5.2x10
-4
9.8x10
-3
0.30 10 2.34x10
-4
4.23x10
-3
0.155 6.00
No TVA 7.5x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.47 16.5 3.81x10
-4
7.70x10
-3
0.278 10.23
Table 4.170 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.9x10
-2
0.8 30 1050 2.81x10
-2
0.497 18.38 684.8
0.02 4.6x10
-2
0.8 28 1000 2.65x10
-2
0.464 17.25 647.8
0.05 4.2x10
-2
0.7 25 900 2.33x10
-2
0.394 14.93 573.0
0.10 3.7x10
-2
0.65 22 800 2.03x10
-2
0.323 12.52 496.7
No TVA 5.2x10
-2
0.90 31 1100 3.00x10
-2
0.539 19.80 732.0
194


Case 4: Spring-mass system is attached to mid span at x= (3/6) L and the step-
function force is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.171 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three-
span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading -
Case 4
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.1x10
-3
2.1x10
-2
0.75 27 5.59x10
-4
1.37x10
-2
0.510 19.11
0.02 1.1x10
-3
2.3x10
-2
0.80 29 5.77x10
-4
1.44x10
-2
0.540 20.41
0.05 1.3x10
-3
2.7x10
-2
0.97 36 6.30x10
-4
1.65x10
-2
0.633 24.52
0.10 1.5x10
-3
3.2x10
-2
1.2 45 6.95x10
-4
1.95x10
-2
0.777 31.30
No TVA 9.8x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.70 25 5.43x10
-4
1.30x10
-2
0.482 17.88
Table 4.172 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under impact loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.20 7.0 2.24x10
-4
3.33x10
-3
0.122 4.56
0.02 3.8x10
-4
5.8x10
-3
0.19 6.5 2.16x10
-4
3.18x10
-3
0.117 4.40
0.05 3.6x10
-4
5.2x10
-3
0.17 6.0 2.00x10
-4
2.84x10
-3
0.106 4.10
0.10 3.3x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.15 5.5 1.82x10
-4
2.45x10
-3
0.094 3.78
No TVA 4.2x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.21 7.3 2.37x10
-4
3.63x10
-3
0.130 4.79



195


4.7.3.2. Harmonic Loading
Case 1: Spring-mass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(1/6)L.


Figure 4.56 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L
Table 4.173 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 3.6x10
-4
7.8x10
-3
0.18 4.3 1.56x10
-4
3.18x10
-3
0.069 1.68 6.3
0.02 2.7x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.15 3.6 1.17x10
-4
2.43x10
-3
0.057 1.50 6.3
0.05 1.8x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.11 3.0 7.86x10
-5
1.72x10
-3
0.045 1.36 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
-4
3.1x10
-3
0.09 2.7 5.65x10
-5
1.31x10
-3
0.039 1.31 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
-3
0.15 2.9 56 3.13x10
-3
0.0623 1.23 24.49 6.3

196


Table 4.174 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.4x10
-3
3.0x10
-2
0.78 20 5.80x10
-4
1.24x10
-2
0.301 8.79 6.3
0.02 1.3x10
-3
3.0x10
-2
0.78 20 5.69x10
-4
1.23x10
-2
0.309 9.22 6.3
0.05 1.3x10
-3
3.1x10
-2
0.80 23.5 5.66x10
-4
1.28x10
-2
0.336 10.53 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
-3
3.4x10
-2
0.90 28 5.84x10
-4
1.38x10
-2
0.391 13.04 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
-3
0.15 3.0 65 3.03x10
-3
0.0605 1.21 24.79 6.3
Table 4.175 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 5.0x10
-2
1.30 36 1100 2.29x10
-2
0.570 16.92 572.0 6.3
0.02 5.5x10
-2
1.35 40 1200 2.40x10
-2
0.603 18.01 611.1 6.3
0.05 6.0x10
-2
1.55 45 1400 2.66x10
-2
0.684 20.96 723.5 6.3
0.10 7.0x10
-2
1.90 58 1800 3.13x10
-2
0.835 26.70 952.3 6.3
No TVA 4.5x10
-2
1.2 34 1000 2.00x10
-2
0.511 15.52 531.7 6.3











197


Case 2: Spring-mass system is attached to first span at x= (1/6) L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.176 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.0x10
-3
2.6x10
-2
0.70 22 4.57x10
-4
1.16x10
-2
0.358 12.45 6.3
0.02 1.0x10
-3
2.2x10
-2
0.70 21 4.32x10
-4
1.11x10
-2
0.344 12.02 6.3
0.05 9.0x10
-4
2.4x10
-2
0.65 20 3.90x10
-4
9.93x10
-3
0.306 10.69 6.3
0.10 8.0x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.50 17 3.41x10
-4
8.39x10
-3
0.251 8.71 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
-3
0.15 3.1 70 3.03x10
-3
0.061 1.236 26.76 6.3
Table 4.177 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 5.5x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.31 8.2 2.35x10
-4
5.13x10
-3
0.127 3.70 6.3
0.02 5.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.29 7.8 2.15x10
-4
4.74x10
-3
0.118 3.50 6.3
0.05 4.3x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.24 6.75 1.91x10
-4
4.19x10
-3
0.103 3.00 6.3
0.10 4.0x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.21 6.0 1.75x10
-4
3.75x10
-3
0.088 2.40 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
-3
0.15 2.9 60 3.12x10
-3
0.062 1.230 24.64 6.3


198


Table 4.178 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 7.8x10
-4
2.1x10
-2
0.65 20 3.39x10
-4
1.00x10
-2
0.338 12.12 6.3
0.02 7.0x10
-4
1.9x10
-2
0.60 19 3.21x10
-4
9.56x10
-3
0.321 11.54 6.3
0.05 6.5x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.55 17.5 2.96x10
-4
8.46x10
-3
0.276 9.81 6.3
0.10 6.5x10
-4
1.7x10
-2
0.50 15 2.76x10
-4
7.22x10
-3
0.218 7.46 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
-3
0.15 3.1 70 3.03x10
-3
0.061 1.236 26.76 6.3

Case 3: Spring-mass system is attached to mid span at x= (3/6) L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(1/6)L.


Figure 4.57 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (3/6) L

199


Table 4.179 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 4.8x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.23 5.5 2.06x10
-4
4.29x10
-3
0.092 2.08 6.3
0.02 4.2x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.21 5.0 1.80x10
-4
3.80x10
-3
0.083 1.91 6.3
0.05 3.4x10
-4
7.5x10
-3
0.17 4.1 1.64x10
-4
3.51x10
-3
0.078 1.79 6.3
0.10 3.8x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.19 4.2 1.59x10
-4
3.44x10
-3
0.077 1.76 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
-3
0.15 2.9 56 3.13x10
-3
0.0623 1.23 24.49 6.3
Table 4.180 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 8.0x10
-4
2.0x10
-2
0.50 15 3.59x10
-4
8.22x10
-3
0.222 7.11 6.3
0.02 7.8x10
-4
1.8x10
-2
0.50 13.8 3.29x10
-4
7.55x10
-3
0.205 6.59 6.3
0.05 6.8x10
-4
1.6x10
-2
0.42 12 2.94x10
-4
6.64x10
-3
0.176 5.58 6.3
0.10 6.0x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.37 11 2.71x10
-4
5.97x10
-3
0.150 4.61 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
-3
0.15 3.0 65 3.03x10
-3
0.0605 1.21 24.79 6.3
Table 4.181 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 3
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 4.5x10
-2
1.1 33 950 2.00x10
-2
0.495 14.65 498.1 6.3
0.02 4.5x10
-2
1.1 32 900 1.90x10
-2
0.469 13.80 469.7 6.3
0.05 3.8x10
-2
0.98 27 800 1.74x10
-2
0.418 12.08 412.1 6.3
0.10 3.6x10
-2
0.9 25 750 1.59x10
-2
0.371 10.41 354.2 6.3
No TVA 4.5x10
-2
1.2 34 1000 2.00x10
-2
0.511 15.52 531.7 6.3

200


Case 4: Spring-mass system is attached to mid span at x=(3/6)L and the
harmonic load is applied to x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.182 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three-
span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading -
Case 4
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.5x10
-3
3.6x10
-2
0.90 27 6.52x10
-4
1.51x10
-2
0.421 13.99 6.3
0.02 1.5x10
-3
3.6x10
-2
0.95 27 6.42x10
-4
1.51x10
-2
0.434 14.73 6.3
0.05 1.5x10
-3
3.6x10
-2
1.0 31 6.50x10
-4
1.59x10
-2
0.483 17.16 6.3
0.10 1.5x10
-3
3.7x10
-2
1.1 36 6.57x10
-4
1.70x10
-2
0.557 21.07 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
-3
0.15 3.1 70 3.03x10
-3
0.061 1.236 26.76 6.3
Table 4.183 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under harmonic loading - Case 4
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 3.7x10
-4
8.2x10
-3
0.22 6.25 1.57x10
-4
3.60x10
-3
0.101 3.34 6.3
0.02 2.8x10
-4
6.7x10
-3
0.18 5.8 1.17x10
-4
2.88x10
-3
0.089 3.12 6.3
0.05 2.0x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.15 4.75 7.98x10
-5
2.18x10
-3
0.075 2.80 6.3
0.10 1.4x10
-4
3.6x10
-3
0.11 4.0 5.80x10
-5
1.70x10
-3
0.063 2.50 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
-3
0.15 2.9 60 3.12x10
-3
0.062 1.230 24.64 6.3



201


4.7.3.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass system
is attached to first span at x=(1/6)L.


Figure 4.58 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving load
Table 4.184 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.2x10
-3
7.0x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.40 2.84x10
-3
3.20x10
-4
0.0068 0.251
0.02 4.0x10
-3
6.5x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.40 2.75x10
-3
3.07x10
-4
0.0065 0.238
0.05 3.6x10
-3
6.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.35 2.45x10
-3
2.68x10
-4
0.0054 0.199
0.10 3.0x10
-3
5.0x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.30 2.09x10
-3
2.21x10
-4
0.0041 0.148
No TVA 4.3x10
-3
7.1x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.41 2.93x10
-3
3.33x10
-4
0.0072 0.264

202


Table 4.185 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.7x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.018 1.17x10
-4
1.34x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0109
0.02 1.7x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
5.3x10
-4
0.018 1.17x10
-4
1.34x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0108
0.05 1.5x10
-4
3.0x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.018 1.11x10
-4
1.29x10
-5
2.9x10
-4
0.0105
0.10 1.5x10
-4
2.8x10
-5
5.5x10
-4
0.020 1.05x10
-4
1.25x10
-5
2.8x10
-4
0.0106
No TVA 1.8x10
-4
2.9x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.018 1.18x10
-4
1.35x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0109
Table 4.186 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.6x10
-3
8.0x10
-4
0.017 0.45 3.16x10
-3
3.60x10
-4
0.0078 0.285
0.02 5.0x10
-3
8.2x10
-4
0.015 0.50 3.38x10
-3
3.85x10
-4
0.0084 0.307
0.05 5.8x10
-3
1.0x10
-3
0.018 0.60 3.96x10
-3
4.53x10
-4
0.0101 0.373
0.10 7.1x10
-3
1.2x10
-3
0.022 0.80 4.91x10
-3
5.68x10
-4
0.0132 0.499
No TVA 4.3x10
-3
7.1x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.41 2.93x10
-3
3.33x10
-4
0.0072 0.264










203


Case 2: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass system
is attached to mid span at x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.187 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three-
span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
-3
6.7x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.40 2.77x10
-3
3.11x10
-4
0.0067 0.245
0.02 3.8x10
-3
6.5x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.38 2.63x10
-3
2.94x10
-4
0.0062 0.229
0.05 3.4x10
-3
6.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.35 2.36x10
-3
2.60x10
-4
0.0053 0.199
0.10 3.0x10
-3
5.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.30 2.10x10
-3
2.28x10
-4
0.0044 0.167
No TVA 4.3x10
-3
7.1x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.41 2.93x10
-3
3.33x10
-4
0.0072 0.264
Table 4.188 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving load-Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.6x10
-4
2.7x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.017 1.11x10
-4
1.26x10
-5
2.7x10
-4
0.0101
0.02 1.5x10
-4
2.5x10
-5
4.5x10
-4
0.015 1.05x10
-4
1.18x10
-5
2.5x10
-4
0.0094
0.05 1.4x10
-4
2.3x10
-5
4.0x10
-4
0.014 9.34x10
-5
1.03x10
-5
2.1x10
-4
0.0080
0.10 1.2x10
-4
2.0x10
-5
3.4x10
-4
0.012 8.20x10
-5
8.80x10
-6
1.7x10
-4
0.0065
No TVA 1.8x10
-4
2.9x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.018 1.18x10
-4
1.35x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0109





204


4.7.3.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-
mass system is attached to first span at x=(1/6)L.


Figure 4.59 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving pulsating force
Table 4.189 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force -Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 8.8x10
-3
0.17 3.4 67.5 4.21x10
-3
8.34x10
-2
1.65 32.67 6.3
0.02 8.5x10
-3
0.17 3.4 65 4.12x10
-3
8.16x10
-2
1.61 31.97 6.3
0.05 8.0x10
-3
0.15 3.0 60 3.81x10
-3
7.54x10
-2
1.49 29.57 6.3
0.10 7.0x10
-3
0.14 2.8 55 3.45x10
-3
6.84x10
-2
1.35 26.80 6.3
No TVA 0.013 0.25 5.0 100 6.28x10
-3
0.124 2.46 48.76 6.3

205


Table 4.190 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force -Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 4.0x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.16 3.2 1.99x10
-4
3.95x10
-3
0.078 1.55 6.3
0.02 4.0x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.16 3.2 1.98x10
-4
3.92x10
-3
0.078 1.54 6.3
0.05 4.0x10
-4
7.5x10
-3
0.15 3.0 1.92x10
-4
3.80x10
-3
0.075 1.49 6.3
0.10 3.8x10
-4
7.5x10
-3
0.15 3.0 1.85x10
-4
3.66x10
-3
0.072 1.43 6.3
No TVA 3.1x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.12 2.4 1.50x10
-4
2.98x10
-3
0.059 1.17 6.3
Table 4.191 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force -Case 1
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 7.5x10
-3
0.15 3.0 60 3.72x10
-3
7.36x10
-2
1.457 28.85 6.3
0.02 8.0x10
-3
0.16 3.1 63 3.92x10
-3
7.75x10
-2
1.534 30.38 6.3
0.05 9.0x10
-3
0.18 3.6 70 4.38x10
-3
8.67x10
-2
1.717 33.98 6.3
0.10 1.1x10
-2
0.20 4.0 70 5.14x10
-3
1.02x10
-1
2.016 39.91 6.3
No TVA 0.016 0.32 6.25 125 7.82x10
-3
0.155 3.06 60.65 6.3










206


Case 2: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-
mass system is attached to mid span at x=(3/6)L.
Table 4.192 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L and x=(5/6)L for three-
span uniform beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating
force -Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 8.8x10
-3
0.17 3.5 67.5 4.24x10
-3
8.40x10
-2
1.663 32.92 6.3
0.02 8.2x10
-3
0.17 3.3 65 4.10x10
-3
8.12x10
-2
1.607 31.81 6.3
0.05 8.0x10
-3
0.15 3.0 60 3.82x10
-3
7.56x10
-2
1.496 29.62 6.3
0.10 7.5x10
-3
0.145 2.9 58 3.55x10
-3
7.04x10
-2
1.393 27.58 6.3
No TVA 0.013 0.25 5.0 100 6.28x10
-3
0.124 2.46 48.76 6.3
Table 4.193 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying one spring-mass system under moving pulsating force -Case 2
m
1
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 3.2x10
-4
6.2x10
-3
0.125 2.5 1.56x10
-4
3.09x10
-3
0.061 1.209 6.3
0.02 3.0x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.120 2.4 1.50x10
-4
2.96x10
-3
0.059 1.162 6.3
0.05 2.8x10
-4
5.5x10
-3
0.110 2.2 1.38x10
-4
2.72x10
-3
0.054 1.067 6.3
0.10 2.6x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.100 2.0 1.26x10
-4
2.50x10
-3
0.049 0.979 6.3
No TVA 3.1x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.12 2.4 1.50x10
-4
2.98x10
-3
0.059 1.17 6.3

207


4.7.4. Forced Vibration Analysis of Three Span Beam Carrying
Two Spring-Mass Systems
4.7.4.1. Impact Loading

Case 1: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L
and x=(3/6) L and the step-function force is applied to x=(1/6)L. Both of the
spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of three-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.60 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to step-function force at x= (1/6) L


208


Table 4.194 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 3.5x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.11 3.3 1.97x10
-4
1.76x10
-3
0.048 1.47
0.02 3.5x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.11 3.2 1.95x10
-4
1.76x10
-3
0.048 1.47
0.05 3.4x10
-4
4.0x10
-3
0.11 3.2 1.92x10
-4
1.72x10
-3
0.048 1.47
0.10 3.3x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.10 3.0 1.88x10
-4
1.62x10
-3
0.046 1.50
No TVA 3.7x10
-4
4.5x10
-3
0.12 3.4 2.03x10
-4
1.93x10
-3
0.052 1.53
Table 4.195 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 8.0x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.50 17.0 3.77x10
-4
7.68x10
-3
0.276 10.16
0.02 8.5x10
-4
1.6x10
-2
0.52 17.5 3.79x10
-4
7.82x10
-3
0.277 10.19
0.05 9.5x10
-4
1.9x10
-2
0.60 20.0 4.03x10
-4
8.71x10
-3
0.301 11.06
0.10 1.05x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.75 26.0 4.53x10
-4
1.05x10
-2
0.364 13.44
No TVA 7.5x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.47 16.5 3.81x10
-4
7.70x10
-3
0.278 10.23
Table 4.196 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under impact loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 5.4x10
-2
0.90 32 1150 3.04x10
-2
0.537 19.87 739.9
0.02 5.6x10
-2
1.00 32 1200 3.11x10
-2
0.541 20.05 752.2
0.05 6.4x10
-2
1.10 40 1400 3.46x10
-2
0.593 22.17 845.3
0.10 7.5x10
-2
1.40 50 1900 4.20x10
-2
0.725 27.56 1076.1
No TVA 5.2x10
-2
0.90 31 1100 3.00x10
-2
0.539 19.80 732.0
209


4.7.4.2. Harmonic Loading

Case 1: Spring-mass systems are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L
and x=(3/6) L and the harmonic load is applied to x=(1/6)L. Both of the spring-
mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of three-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.61 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to harmonic force at x= (1/6) L
Table 4.197 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 3.0x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.16 3.8 1.20x10
-4
2.55x10
-3
0.059 1.51 6.3
0.02 2.3x10
-4
5.0x10
-3
0.13 3.2 9.45x10
-5
2.09x10
-3
0.051 1.39 6.3
0.05 1.6x10
-4
3.8x10
-3
0.10 2.7 6.78x10
-5
1.61x10
-3
0.043 1.27 6.3
0.10 1.2x10
-4
2.8x10
-3
0.08 2.3 4.95x10
-5
1.25x10
-3
0.037 1.19 6.3
No TVA 7.2x10
-3
0.15 2.9 56 3.13x10
-3
0.0623 1.23 24.49 6.3
210


Table 4.198 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 1.2x10
-3
2.4x10
-2
0.65 19 5.37x10
-4
1.15x10
-2
0.28 8.19 6.3
0.02 1.2x10
-3
2.6x10
-2
0.70 19 5.27x10
-4
1.14x10
-2
0.28 8.20 6.3
0.05 1.1x10
-3
2.8x10
-2
0.7 20 5.19x10
-4
1.15x10
-2
0.29 8.75 6.3
0.10 1.15x10
-3
2.9x10
-2
0.78 23 5.22x10
-4
1.20x10
-2
0.32 10.24 6.3
No TVA 7.3x10
-3
0.15 3.0 65 3.03x10
-3
0.0605 1.21 24.79 6.3
Table 4.199 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under harmonic loading - Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 5.0x10
-2
1.25 35 1000 2.17x10
-2
0.538 15.91 539.04 6.3
0.02 5.0x10
-2
1.23 34 1100 2.20x10
-2
0.545 16.10 546.75 6.3
0.05 5.0x10
-2
1.30 40 1200 2.35x10
-2
0.586 17.54 605.68 6.3
0.10 6.0x10
-2
1.60 48 1500 2.66x10
-2
0.682 21.11 753.16 6.3
No TVA 4.5x10
-2
1.2 34 1000 2.00x10
-2
0.511 15.52 531.7 6.3








211


4.7.4.3. Moving Load
Case 1: The velocity of moving load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-mass systems
are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L and x=(3/6) L. Both of the
spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same with the first
natural frequency of three-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.62 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving load
Table 4.200 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.0x10
-3
6.5x10
-4
1.1x10
-2
0.40 2.70x10
-3
3.02x10
-4
0.0064 0.236
0.02 3.6x10
-3
6.0x10
-4
1.0x10
-2
0.36 2.52x10
-3
2.77x10
-4
0.0057 0.213
0.05 3.2x10
-3
5.5x10
-4
9.0x10
-3
0.32 2.21x10
-3
2.39x10
-4
0.0046 0.174
0.10 2.8x10
-3
4.8x10
-4
8.0x10
-3
0.28 1.96x10
-3
2.14x10
-4
0.0039 0.143
No TVA 4.3x10
-3
7.1x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.41 2.93x10
-3
3.33x10
-4
0.0072 0.264
212


Table 4.201 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 1.6x10
-4
2.8x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.017 1.11x10
-4
1.26x10
-5
2.8x10
-4
0.0101
0.02 1.5x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.016 1.05x10
-4
1.19x10
-5
2.6x10
-4
0.0095
0.05 1.4x10
-4
2.6x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.016 9.61x10
-5
1.09x10
-5
2.3x10
-4
0.0086
0.10 1.3x10
-4
2.4x10
-5
4.8x10
-4
0.016 9.00x10
-5
1.03x10
-5
2.2x10
-4
0.0083
No TVA 1.8x10
-4
2.9x10
-5
5.0x10
-4
0.018 1.18x10
-4
1.35x10
-5
3.0x10
-4
0.0109
Table 4.202 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving load-Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)
0.01 4.4x10
-3
7.4x10
-4
1.3x10
-2
0.45 3.00x10
-3
3.39x10
-4
0.0073 0.268
0.02 4.5x10
-3
7.5x10
-4
1.4x10
-2
0.45 3.07x10
-3
3.46x10
-4
0.0074 0.272
0.05 5.0x10
-3
8.5x10
-4
1.5x10
-2
0.53 3.42x10
-3
3.84x10
-4
0.0082 0.306
0.10 6.0x10
-3
1.0x10
-3
2.0x10
-2
0.70 4.14x10
-3
4.64x10
-4
0.010 0.385
No TVA 4.3x10
-3
7.1x10
-4
1.2x10
-2
0.41 2.93x10
-3
3.33x10
-4
0.0072 0.264







213


4.7.4.4. Moving Pulsating Force
Case 1: The velocity of moving pulsating load is 1.333 m/sec and the spring-
mass systems are attached to first and second span at x=(1/6) L and x=(3/6) L.
Both of the spring-mass systems are tuned to constant frequency which is same
with the first natural frequency of three-span bare uniform beam.


Figure 4.63 Three-span simply supported beam carrying one spring-mass
system subjected to moving pulsating force
Table 4.203 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(1/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating force -Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 8.5 x10
-3
0.17 3.4 65 4.17x10
-3
8.26x10
-2
1.64 32.37 6.3
0.02 8.0 x10
-3
0.16 3.2 63 3.98x10
-3
7.88x10
-2
1.56 30.87 6.3
0.05 7.5x10
-3
0.15 3.0 60 3.66x10
-3
7.24x10
-2
1.43 28.38 6.3
0.10 7.0 x10
-3
0.14 2.7 55 3.41x10
-3
6.75x10
-2
1.34 26.46 6.3
No TVA 0.013 0.25 5.0 100 6.28x10
-3
0.124 2.46 48.76 6.3
214


Table 4.204 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(3/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating force -Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 3.6x10
-4
7.2x10
-3
0.14 2.8 1.78x10
-4
3.53x10
-3
0.070 1.38 6.3
0.02 3.5x10
-4
7.0x10
-3
0.14 2.8 1.72x10
-4
3.40x10
-3
0.067 1.33 6.3
0.05 3.3x10
-4
6.5x10
-3
0.13 2.5 1.62x10
-4
3.20x10
-3
0.063 1.25 6.3
0.10 3.2x10
-4
6.2x10
-3
0.12 2.4 1.54x10
-4
3.05x10
-3
0.060 1.20 6.3
No TVA 3.1x10
-4
6.0x10
-3
0.12 2.4 1.50x10
-4
2.98x10
-3
0.059 1.17 6.3
Table 4.205 Maximum and RMS responses at x=(5/6)L for three-span uniform
beam carrying two spring-mass systems under moving pulsating force -Case 1
m
1
/m
b
=
m
2
/m
b

w
max

(m)
v
max

(m/s)
a
max

(m/s
2
)
j
max
(m/s
3
)
w
rms
(m)

v
rms
(m/s)
a
rms
(m/s
2
)
j
rms
(m/s
3
)

(rad/s)
0.01 8.0x10
-3
0.16 3.2 65 4.04x10
-3
7.99x10
-2
1.581 31.30 6.3
0.02 8.0x10
-3
0.16 3.2 65 4.07x10
-3
8.06x10
-2
1.595 31.57 6.3
0.05 8.5x10
-3
0.18 3.4 67.5 4.31x10
-3
8.53x10
-2
1.688 33.43 6.3
0.10 1.0x10
-2
0.19 3.8 75 4.83x10
-3
9.57x10
-2
1.894 37.50 6.3
No TVA 0.016 0.32 6.25 125 7.82x10
-3
0.155 3.06 60.65 6.3


215


CHAPTER 5. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
5.1. Summary
The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of spring-mass
systems (Tuned Vibration Absorbers, or TVAs) attached to Euler-Bernoulli
beams in order to control the response due to excessive vibrations. Effectiveness
of tuned vibration absorbers has been studied and their performance evaluated
through comparisons on an extensive combination of loading dynamic types,
span configurations, and TVA distributions. The proposed method includes the
exact solutions of natural frequencies and mode shapes of uniform and non-
uniform beams carrying any number of passive tuned mass dampers (TMD) and
forced vibration of these beams based on their free vibration data. A
mathematical formulation has been presented for free and forced vibration of
beams. An algorithm has been developed through MATHEMATICA and
numerical results have been obtained for various forcing systems and boundary
conditions.

Several numerical examples have been provided in order to evaluate the
performance of TMDs under free and forced vibration of uniform and non-uniform
beams carrying single or multiple spring-mass systems with various boundary
conditions. Free vibration characteristics of beams carrying elastically attached
point masses are obtained through numerical assembly method (Wu and Chou,
1999). Overall coefficient matrix is generated by combining the coefficient
matrices of each boundaries of the beam and each attaching points for a spring-
mass system through conventional assembly technique for finite element
method. Numerical assembly method is used in order to derive the eigenvalue
equation and then the developed algorithm is used for the solution of the
216


eigenvalues and the corresponding mode shapes. The accuracy of the
developed algorithm in this study is evaluated by comparing its numerical results
with existing literature.

The first part of the present study deals with the determination of natural
frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of single-span uniform beams,
single-span non-uniform beams and multi-span uniform beams carrying any
number of spring-mass systems and the second part calculates the forced
vibration responses of uniform beams under the excitation of step-function forces
(Impact Loading), harmonic forces, moving loads and moving pulsating forces.
First and second part also includes the free and forced vibration of a high mast
lighting tower (HMLT) which is subjected to wind induced dynamic load and
represented as non-uniform cantilever beam. The beams are considered as
continuous structural elements and both free and forced vibration solutions are
analyzed using thin beam (Euler-Bernoulli) theory. For single-span beams, four
boundary conditions are studied including simply supported-simply supported,
clamped-clamped, clamped-simply supported and clamped-free boundaries. On
the other hand, each intermediate support is assumed as simply supported for
multi-span beams. For the force vibration response of the structural elements,
90% of modal mass contribution is considered to be sufficient. Forced vibration of
the entire beam is obtained by using normal mode approach and linear
combination of the normal modes. Displacement, velocity, acceleration and jerk
responses of the entire beam with TMDs are calculated and the resultant
responses are compared with the beam without TMDs.

The illustrative numerical examples presented in this study are based on
human induced loads for single-span and multi-span uniform beams. Moreover,
single-span non-uniform beams are subjected to wind-induced loads to evaluate
the passive vibration control of HMLTs. Harmonic forces are considered as
repeated forces caused by human activities such as walking or dancing and
217


represented as timedependent sinusoidal forcing. Harmonic moving loads are
also represented as concentrated loads with sinusoidally varying amplitude and
moving with a constant speed v
0
which is the average human walking speed,
80m/min. Moreover, footstep impulse vibration has defined as step-function force
and non-harmonic moving load is considered to simulate pedestrian walking load
with a constant speed. The step-function and harmonic forces are represented by
using Dirac delta function and moving load and moving pulsating force are
expressed by using Fourier series. To evaluate the performance of TMDs, the
frequency component of the exciting forces is selected to match with the natural
frequency of the beams in order to simulate and approximate the condition for
resonance which could be the worst scenario causing significant vibration
amplification.

In addition, the performance of TMD under wind induced vibration has been
investigated through an analysis performed for a HMLT structure which is
assumed to be a non-uniform cantilever beam to carry out the proposed method
in this study. Wind induced dynamic loads are estimated using available wind
velocity data obtained at a certain height of the HMLT. The wind velocity profile
has been generated with empirical power-law method based on five selected
points throughout the height of HMLT and the corresponding forcing functions
with respect to time are defined by Fourier series using obtained wind profiles for
each selected points. A TMD is attached to top of the structure and dynamic
response at that point has been compared with the results obtained from bare
HMLT under wind-induced vibration.
5.2. Conclusion
This study presents the free and forced vibration of beams carrying any
number of spring-mass systems and the resultant responses were compared
with the bare uniform and non-uniform beams. Based on the observations from
218


numerical results for single span uniform, single span non-uniform and multi-
span uniform beams, the following conclusions are made;

1. It is observed that TMDs are very effective when they are properly
tuned to the excitation frequency. The effectiveness level of TMD
increases if the excitation frequency converges to the any normal
mode frequency causing the condition for resonance.

2. When TMD is tuned to the exact excitation frequency, it can be
concluded that single TMD application is more effective than multiple
TMDs of the same total mass ratio based on the peak resultant
responses or RMS values obtained from the main structure for
harmonic excitations. On the other hand, it is difficult to estimate the
exact excitation frequency in practice. Therefore it may be more
effective to implement multiple TMDs within a small frequency range in
order to overcome randomly varying excitations such as wind induced
or human induced vibrations.

3. TMD loses its effectiveness when the structure is subjected to non-
harmonic excitations such as step-function forces or constant moving
loads.

4. If the natural frequency of the TMD diverges further from the excitation
frequency or fundamental frequency of the structure, the performance
of TMD significantly decreases.

5. Single or multiple TMD application is more effective and robust when
the attached mass is increased without changing natural frequency of
properly tuned TMD under harmonic excitations.

219


6. Based on the results obtained from wind induced vibration analysis of
HMLT structure, it can be confirmed that a passive TMD can be
effective in reducing the dynamic response of HMLTs when it is
properly tuned to the fundamental frequency of the HMLT it is installed
in.

7. It is also observed that a TMD attached to top of the HMLT structure
having 1% mass of the total mass of the structure decreases the wind
induced dynamic response by about 50%.

8. The results for HMLT structure also show that the dynamic response of
the main structure does not change with the increase of the mass of
TMD under wind induced vibration. The relative motion of TMD is also
in practical limit and able to be accommodated in the actual structure.

9. For multi-span beams, when TMDs are used for each span, one of the
normal mode frequencies being dominated by any of the TMDs may
converge to the fundamental frequency of the structure and this may
cause undesirable responses. Therefore, this case requires a careful
consideration on selecting the final dynamic characteristics of the
TMDs for multi-span beams.

10. Although the first four lowest natural frequencies and corresponding
mode shapes of the structures are found without having any problem
by solving the eigenvalue equation using the developed algorithm in
MATHEMATICA, some numerical difficulties are encountered in finding
the roots of determinant expression of coefficient matrix in the
eigenvalue equation. The precise starting values for finding the roots of
determinant expression increase the computational time in case of
more than two TMDs particularly.
220


5.3. Future Work
No damping characteristics of the structure or the TMDs have been
included in the proposed method of this study. Based on the numerous examples
given in this study, the use of single or multiple TMDs is significantly effective in
reducing the dynamic response of the main structure under harmonic excitations
and wind induced vibration. However, the study may be extended by considering
the effects of damping characteristics of the structure and TMD in order to
generalize the results of this study.

Experimental study is needed to extend this research and to obtain more
information in order to understand the performance of TMD in actuality.
Moreover, experimental results are necessary to study the level of reliability of
the analytical and numerical method proposed in this study.

This study may also be extended for the free and forced vibration of
uniform rectangular plates with attached TMDs located at arbitrary points and the
performance of TMDs can be also evaluated for floor vibration control of
structures subjected to human induced vibration particularly.

In this study, it is also indicated that the use of single TMD has a
disadvantage when the excitation frequency is not known exactly. However,
multiple TMDs within a small frequency range may perform better for randomly
varying excitations. As a result of this, it is recommended to investigate the
optimum parameters of multiple TMDs having different dynamic characteristics in
order to improve the effectiveness of vibration control.















BIBLIOGRAPHY














221


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APPENDICES














228


Appendix A.
A.1. Detailed formulation for the responses of SDOF-TMD system


Figure A.1 SDOF-TMD system
Parameters of primary structure and TMD;

2
=
k
m
,

Eq. A.1
c = 2m Eq. A.2

d
2
=
k
d
m
d
Eq. A.3
c
d
= 2
d

d
m
d
Eq. A.4
The mass ratio, , is defined as;
p =
m
d
m
,

Eq. A.5
The governing equations of motion for the SDOF-TMD system are as
follows;
mu +ku +cu -k
d
u
d
-c
d
u
d
-p(t) = u Eq. A.6
m
d
(u +u
d
) +k
d
u
d
+c
d
u
d
= u Eq. A.7
From equations A.6 and A.7 one obtains;
mu +ku +cu +m
d
(u +u
d
) = p(t) Eq. A.8
Dividing equations A.6 and A.7 by m
d
the governing equations of motions
are as follows;

229


Primary mass,
(1 +p)u +2u +
2
u =
p(t)
m
-pu
d

Eq. A.9
Tuned mass,
u
d
+2
d

d
u
d
+
d
2
u
d
= -u Eq. A.10
The optimal approximation for the damper is assumed as,

d
= Eq. A.11
The stiffness relation between damper and structure is defined as,
k
d
= pk Eq. A.12
And the periodic excitation can be shown as follows,
p(t) = p sin(0t) Eq. A.13
The responses of the structure and the damper is given by,
p(t) = p sin(0t) Eq. A.14
u
d
(t) = u
d
sin(0t +o
1
+o
2
) Eq. A.15
The critical scenario is the equality of and which is resonant condition
and the solutions for this case are as follows,
u(t) = Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t) Eq. A.16
u
d
(t) = C sin(0t) +cos(0t) Eq. A.17
A = u cos(o
1
) B = u sin(o
1
) Eq. A.18
C = u
d
cos(o
2
) = u
d
sin(o
2
) Eq. A.19
u = (A
2
+B
2
)
Eq. A.20
u
d
= (C
2
+
2
)
Eq. A.21
u(t) = u sin(0t +o
1
) Eq. A.22
u
d
(t) = u
d
sin(0t +o
2
) Eq. A.23
When equations A.16 and A.17 are introduced into equations A.9 and
A.10, one obtains,
-0
2
(1 +p)(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t)) +20(Acos(0t) -Bsin(0t)) +

2
(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t)) =
p
m
sin(0t) +0
2
p(C sin(0t) +cos(0t))
Eq. A.24

230


-0
2
m
d
(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t) +C sin(0t) +cos(0t)) +k
d
(C sin(0t) +
cos(0t)) +c
d
0(C cos(0t) -sin(0t)) = u
Eq. A.25
If equations A.24 and A.25 are simplified, one obtains,
-0
2
(1 +p)A -20B +
2
A =
p
m
+0
2
pC
Eq. A.26
-0
2
(1 +p)B +20A +
2
B = 0
2
p Eq. A.27
-0
2
m
d
(A +C) +k
d
C -c
d
0 = u Eq. A.28
-0
2
m
d
(B +) +k
d
+c
d
0C = u Eq. A.29
where,
0 = Eq. A.30
o
1
= tan
-1
(
B
A
, ) Eq. A.31
o
2
= tan
-1
(

C
, ) Eq. A.32
c = 2m Eq. A.33
c
d
= 2
d

d
m
d
Eq. A.34
If equation A.30 is substituted into equations A.26, A.27, A28 and A29,
one obtains,
-
2
pA -2
2
B -
2
pC =
p
m

Eq. A.35
-2
2
A -
2
pB -
2
p = u Eq. A.36
-
2
m
d
A -2
d

2
m
d
= u Eq. A.37
-
2
m
d
B +2
d

2
m
d
C = u Eq. A.38
The simplified forms of equations A.35, A.36, A.37 and A.38,
-pA -2B -pC =
p
k

Eq. A.39
-2A -pB -p = u Eq. A.40
-A -2
d
= u Eq. A.41
-B +2
d
C = u Eq. A.42
A, B, C and D are as follows after solving equations A.39, A.40, A.41 and
A.42;
231


A = -
4mp
d
2
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2

d
2
+16
2

d
2
)
Eq. A.43
B = -
2(pp
d
+4p
d
2
)
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2

d
2
+16
2

d
2
)
Eq. A.44
C = -
pp +4p
d
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2

d
2
+16
2

d
2
)

Eq. A.45
= -
2pp
d
k(p
2
+8p
d
+4p
2

d
2
+16
2

d
2
)

Eq. A.46
And the responses are given by;
u =
_
_
-
2p
d
k_[8p
d
+16
2

d
2
+p
2
(1 +4
d
2
)
_
_

Eq. A.47
The simplified form of equation A.47 is given by,
u =
p
kp
_
1
1 +[
2
p
+
1
2
d

2

Eq. A.48
u
d
=
_
_
-
p
k_[8p
d
+16
2

d
2
+p
2
(1 +4
d
2
)
_
_

Eq. A.49
u
d
=
1
2
d
u Eq. A.50
The response for no damper is as follows;
p = u Eq. A.51
u +2u +
2
u =
p
m
sin(0t)
Eq. A.52
u(t) = Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t) = u sin(0t +o
1
) Eq. A.53
u = (A
2
+B
2
) A = u cos(o
1
) B = u sin(o
1
)
Eq. A.54



232


When equation A.53 is introduced into equation A.52, one obtains,
-0
2
(Asin(0t) +Bcos(0t)) +20(Acos(0t) -Bsin(0t)) +
2
(Asin(0t) +
Bcos(0t)) =
p
m
sin(0t)
Eq. A.55
The simplified form of equation A.55 is given by,
-B0
2
+2A0 +
2
B = u Eq. A.56
-A0
2
+2B0 +
2
A =
p
m

Eq. A.57
where 0 = , and A and B are as follows after solving equations A.56 and
A.57,
A = u Eq. A.58
B = -
p
m
1
2
2
= -
p
m
1
2
k
m
= -
p
2k

Eq. A.59
And the response for no damper is given by;
u = (A
2
+B
2
) = _-
p
2k
_ =
p
k
_
1
2
] Eq. A.60
Equation A.60 can be expressed in terms of equivalent damping ratio in
order to compare the cases with and without damper.
u =
p
k
_
1
2
c
] Eq. A.61
where,

c
=
p
2
_
1 +_
2
p
+
1
2
d
]
2

Eq. A.62
If equation A.54 substituted in equation A.53, one obtains,
(t) = u sin(0t) cos(o
1
) +u cos(0t) sin(o
1
) Eq. A.63
B
A
, = tan(o
1
) Eq. A.64
o
1
= tan
-1
(
B
A
, ) Eq. A.65
o
1
= -
n
2
,

Eq. A.66

233


Example
Assume that = u and
c
= u.1, the relation between p and
c
is as
follows
p
2
_
1 +_
2
p
+
1
2
d
]
2
= u.1
Eq. A.67
where
u
d
=
1
2
d
u Eq. A.68
Inserting equation Eq.A.68 into equation Eq.A.67 and assuming that
= u as indicated above gives,
p
2
_
1 +_
u
d
u
]
2
= u.1
Eq. A.69
Since
u
d
u
is greater than 1, equation A.69 can be written as,
p
2
_
u
d
u
] = u.1
Eq. A.70
If
u
d
u
is assumed to be 10, then equation A.70 gives an estimate for p =
m
d
m
,
,
p =
m
d
m
,
=
2(u.1)
1u
= u.u2
Eq. A.71
and from equation A.68 and A.12,

d
=
1
2
_
u
u
d
] =
u.1
2
= u.uS Eq. A.72
k
d
= pk = u.u2k Eq. A.73
Therefore, 2% of the primary mass provides an effective damping ratio of
10% as it is shown in the above. On the other hand, the large relative motion of
the damper mass should be considered during design stage in order to control
this motion in a real structure.



234


Appendix B.
B.1. Determination of |B
L
] and |B
R
] for Different Boundary Conditions for
Uniform Beams
a) Clamped-Clamped beam
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2

Eq.B.1
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
cos([l) -sin([l) cosh([l) sinh([l)
_
p -1
p

Eq.B.2

b) Simply supported-Simply Supported beam
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
u -1 u 1
_
1
2

Eq.B.3
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
-sin([l) -cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
_
p -1
p

Eq.B.4

c) Clamped-Simply Supported beam
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2

Eq.B.5
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
sin([l) cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
-sin([l) -cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
_
p -1
p

Eq.B.6



235


d) Clamped-Free End with Attached Mass (M) beam
(u) = u
i
(u) = u Eq.B.7

ii
(l) = u EI
iii
(l) = -H
2
(l) Eq.B.8
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
u 1 u 1
1 u 1 u
_
1
2

Eq.B.9
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
sin([l) -cos([l) sinh([l) cosh([l)
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
_
p -1
p

Eq.B.10
where
e
1
= -EI cos([l) +H
2
sin([l) Eq.B.11
e
2
= EI sin([l) +H
2
cos([l) Eq.B.12
e
3
= EI cosh([l) +H
2
sinh([l) Eq.B.13
e
4
= EI sinh([l) +H
2
cosh([l) Eq.B.14

B.2. Coefficient Matrix |B] for Uniform Simply Supported Beams Carrying Multiple Spring-Mass Systems

Case 1-Uniform Simply Supported Beam Carrying Two Spring-Mass Systems

















|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u
u -1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u
-sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u
-cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u p
1
([l) u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u y
1
2
-1 u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u cos(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u u
u u u u -sin(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u -cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u p
2
([l)
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u y
2
2
-1
u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u
u u u u u u u u -sin([
1
l) -cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
3
6

Case 2-Uniform Simply Supported Beam Carrying Three Spring-Mass Systems


















|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u -1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u
-sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u
-cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u p
1
([l) u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u y
1
2
- 1 u u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u u u u u u u
u u u u -sin(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u u u u u u
u u u u -cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u u u u u p
2
([l) u
u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u u u u u y
2
2
- 1 u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) -sin(0
S
) -cos(0
S
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
S
) -sin(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) -cos(0
S
) sin(0
S
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u u u
u u u u u u u u -sin(0
S
) -cos(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u u
u u u u u u u u -cos(0
S
) sin(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cos(0
S
) -sin(0
S
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u u p
S
([l)
u u u u u u u u sin(0
S
) cos(0
S
) sinh(0
S
) cosh(0
S
) u u u u u u y
S
2
-1
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u -sin([
1
l) -cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
3
7

238


Appendix C.
C.1. Determination of |B
L
] and |B
R
] for Different Boundary Conditions for Non-
Uniform Beams
a) Clamped-Clamped beam
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
[
1
([)
1
([) I
1
([) K
1
([)
[
2
([)
2
([) -I
2
([) K
2
([)
_
1
2

Eq.C.1
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) -I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p -1
p

Eq.C.2

b) Simply supported-Simply Supported beam
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
[
1
([)
1
([) I
1
([) K
1
([)
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
_
1
2

Eq.C.3
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
3
([o)
3
([o) I
3
([o) K
3
([o)
_
p -1
p

Eq.C.4

c) Simply Supported-Clamped beam
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
[
1
([)
1
([) I
1
([) K
1
([)
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
_
1
2

Eq.C.5
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) -I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p -1
p

Eq.C.6

239


d) Free End with Attached Mass (M)-Clamped beam
For free end
x = u - = 1
therefore
Shear,

ii
(1) = u Eq.C.7
Bending,
J
Jx
_EI(x)
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
_ = E
JI(x)
Jx
J
2
(x)
Jx
2
+EI(x)
J
3
(x)
Jx
3
= H
2
(x) Eq.C.8

C
11
[
3
([) +C
12

3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([) = u Eq.C.9
6[
2
|C
11
[
3
([) +C
12

3
([) +C
13
I
3
([) +C
14
K
3
([)] -[
3
|C
11
[
4
([) +
C
12

4
([) -C
13
I
4
([) +C
14
K
4
([)] =
8Mo
2
L
3
LI
0
(u-1)
3
|C
1
[
1
([) +C
2

1
([) +
C
3
I
1
([) +C
4
K
1
([)]
Eq.C.10
1 2 S 4
|B
L
] = _
[
3
([)
3
([) I
3
([) K
3
([)
e
1
e
2
e
3
e
4
_
1
2

Eq.C.11
4n +1 4n +2 4n +S 4n +4
|B
R
] = _
[
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o)
[
2
([o)
2
([o) -I
2
([o) K
2
([o)
_
p -1
p

Eq.C.12
where
e
1
= 6[
2
[
3
([) -[
3
[
4
([) -
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o -1)
3
[
1
([) Eq.C.13
e
2
= 6[
2

3
([) -[
3

4
([) -
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o -1)
3
([) Eq.C.14
e
3
= 6[
2
I
3
([) +I
4
([) -
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o -1)
3
I([) Eq.C.15
e
4
= 6[
2
K
3
([) -[
3
K
4
([) -
8H
2
I
3
EI
0
(o -1)
3
K([) Eq.C.16

C.2. Coefficient Matrix |B] for Non-Uniform Free-Clamped Beams Carrying Multiple Spring-Mass Systems

Case 1-Non-Uniform Free-Clamped Beam Carrying Two Spring-Mass Systems
















|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
[
S
([)
S
([) I
S
([) K
S
([) u u u u u u u u u u
e
1
e
2
e
S
e
4
u u u u u u u u u u
[
1
(o
1
)
1
(o
1
) I
1
(o
1
) K
1
(o
1
) -[
1
(o
1
) -
1
(o
1
) -I
1
(o
1
) -K
1
(o
1
) u u u u u u
[
2
(o
1
)
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) K
2
(o
1
) -[
2
(o
1
) -
2
(o
1
) I
2
(o
1
) -K
2
(o
1
) u u u u u u
[
S
(o
1
)
S
(o
1
) I
S
(o
1
) K
S
(o
1
) -[
S
(o
1
) -
S
(o
1
) -I
S
(o
1
) -K
S
(o
1
) u u u u u u

11

21

S1

41
-
S1
-
61
-
71
-
81
u u u u u u

1
-
1
2
[
1
(o
1
)
1
-
1
2

1
(o
1
)
1
-
1
2
I
1
(o
1
)
1
-
1
2
K
1
(o
1
) u u u u u u u u y
1
2
-1 u
u u u u [
1
(o
2
)
1
(o
2
) I
1
(o
2
) K
1
(o
2
) -[
1
(o
2
) -
1
(o
2
) -I
1
(o
2
) -K
1
(o
2
) u u
u u u u [
2
(o
2
)
2
(o
2
) I
2
(o
2
) K
2
(o
2
) -[
2
(o
2
) -
2
(o
2
) I
2
(o
2
) -K
2
(o
2
) u u
u u u u [
S
(o
2
)
S
(o
2
) I
S
(o
2
) K
S
(o
2
) -[
S
(o
2
) -
S
(o
2
) -I
S
(o
2
) -K
S
(o
2
) u u
u u u u
12

22

S2

42
-
S2
-
62
-
72
-
82
u u
u u u u
2
-
1
2
[
1
(o
2
)
2
-
1
2

1
(o
2
)
2
-
1
2
I
1
(o
2
)
2
-
1
2
K
1
(o
2
) u u u u u y
2
2
-1
u u u u u u u u [
1
([o)
1
([o) I
1
([o) K
1
([o) u u
u u u u u u u u [
2
([o)
2
([o) -I
2
([o) K
2
([o) u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
4
0

Appendix D.
D.1. Coefficient Matrix |B] for Multi-Span Uniform Beams Carrying Multiple Spring-Mass Systems
Case 1-Two-Span Uniform Beam Carrying Two Spring-Mass Systems

|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u -1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u
-sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u
-cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u p
1
([l) u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u y
1
2
- 1 u
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
:1
) -sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) -cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) -cosh(0
:1
) -sinh(0
:1
) u u u u u u
u u u u -sin(0
:1
) -cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) -sinh(0
:1
) -cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u u
u u u u u u u u -sin(0
2
) -cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) u u
u u u u u u u u -cos(0
2
) sin(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cos(0
2
) -sin(0
2
) -cosh(0
2
) -sinh(0
2
) u p
2
([l)
u u u u u u u u sin(0
2
) cos(0
2
) sinh(0
2
) cosh(0
2
) u u u u u y
2
2
- 1
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u -sin([
1
l) -cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
4
1

Case 2-Three-Span Uniform Beam Carrying One Spring-Mass System attached to First Span



|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u -1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
-sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u
-cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u p
1
([l)
sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u y
1
2
-1
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
:1
) -sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) -cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) -cosh(0
:1
) -sinh(0
:1
) u u u u u
u u u u -sin(0
:1
) -cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) -sinh(0
:1
) -cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
:2
) -sin(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) -cos(0
:2
) sin(0
:2
) -cosh(0
:2
) -sinh(0
:2
) u
u u u u u u u u -sin(0
:2
) -cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) -sinh(0
:2
) -cosh(0
:2
) u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u
u u u u u u u u u u u u -sin([
1
l) -cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
4
2

Case 3-Three-Span Uniform Beam Carrying One Spring-Mass System attached to Mid Span





|B
1
] =
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
l
u 1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u -1 u 1 u u u u u u u u u u u u u
sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u
cos(0
:1
) -sin(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) -cos(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) -cosh(0
:1
) -sinh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u
-sin(0
:1
) -cos(0
:1
) sinh(0
:1
) cosh(0
:1
) sin(0
:1
) cos(0
:1
) -sinh(0
:1
) -cosh(0
:1
) u u u u u u u u u
u u u u sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u
u u u u cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u u
u u u u -sin(0
1
) -cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) u u u u u
u u u u -cos(0
1
) sin(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cos(0
1
) -sin(0
1
) -cosh(0
1
) -sinh(0
1
) u u u u p
1
([l)
u u u u sin(0
1
) cos(0
1
) sinh(0
1
) cosh(0
1
) u u u u u u u u y
1
2
-1
u u u u u u u u sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) u u u u u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) u
u u u u u u u u cos(0
:2
) -sin(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) -cos(0
:2
) sin(0
:2
) -cosh(0
:2
) -sinh(0
:2
) u
u u u u u u u u -sin(0
:2
) -cos(0
:2
) sinh(0
:2
) cosh(0
:2
) sin(0
:2
) cos(0
:2
) -sinh(0
:2
) -cosh(0
:2
) u
u u u u u u u u u u u u sin([
1
l) cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u
u u u u u u u u u u u u -sin([
1
l) -cos([
1
l) sinh([
1
l) cosh([
1
l) u 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2
4
3