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Boiler: A boiler is a device used for generating a) Steam for power generation, process use or heating purposes and

b) Hot water for heating purposes. According to Indian Boiler Act, 1923, a boiler is a closed pressure vessel with capacity exceeding 22.75 litres used for generating steam under pressure. Steam boiler includes containing vessel and convection heating surfaces only. Steam generator covers the whole unit encompassing water wall tubes, super heaters, air heaters and economizers. Boiler classification: 1) Based on mode of circulation of working fluid: a) Natural circulation boiler, b) Forced circulation boiler, 2) Based on position: a) Horizontal boilers, b) Vertical boilers, c) Inclined boilers. 3) Based on furnace position: a) Externally fired furnaces, b) Internally fired furnaces. 4) Based on tube contents: a) Fire tube boilers, b) Water tube boilers. 5) Based on pressure: a) Low pressure boilers, b) Power boilers, c) Miniature boilers. 6) Based on firing: a) Fired boilers, b) Non-fired boilers. 7) Based on nature of fuel used: a) Coal fired, b) Gas fired, c) Oil fired, d) Wood fired. Some of the boiler types indicated by manufacturers trade name are: Benson boiler, Sulzer boiler, La Mont boiler, Loeffler boiler.

Heat transfer sections of a boiler: UTILITY BOILER Furnace Superheater Reheater Economizer Air-heater Furnace Superheater Boiler bank Economizer Air-heater INDUSTRIAL BOILER

Economiser: Function of an economizer in a steam generating unit is to absorb heat from flue gases and add this as sensible heat to feed water before the water enters the evaporative circuit of the boiler. The provision of this additional heating surface increased efficiency of steam generation, saving in fuel consumption, thus the name economizer. Water flow is from bottom to top so that steam if any formed during the heat transfer can move along with water and prevent the lock up steam which will cause overheating and failure of economizer tube. Always use only deaerated water for boiler feeding. This is essential to keep down the inside corrosion of pressure parts including economizer. Water treatment: Inadequate quality of feed or boiler water results in deposits and corrosion in the boiler water tubes. Without proper boiler water quality, it is also not possible to achieve desirable steam purity for trouble free operation of super heaters, reheaters and turbines. Sodium phosphate can be used to maintain required pH of boiler water. The recommended boiler water limits are as follows: Phosphate - 5 - 10 ppm pH - 9.4 - 9.7

Trisodium phosphates tend to increase the pH. Disodium phosphate is neutral salt and monosodium phosphate salt is acidic, tending to lower the pH. The spectrophotometer is a versatile tool, since almost all constituents important for boiler water chemistry such as iron, copper, phosphate, ammonia, chloride, silica and hydrazine can be accurately measured.

Carry over in steam: Carryover of salts in steam occurs either due to mechanical or vapour carry over. Silica is always carried over in vaporous form. Vapourous carryover of remaining salts, mainly sodium salts, is significant only at very high pressures, above 2700psi. Generally carry over may occur in 4 types- leakage carry over, spray or mist carry over, foaming and priming carry over. Fans: Fans are used in boilers for different applications such as supplying air for combustion, removal of combustion products, air for cooling of equipment working at hot zones etc. fans are designated according to the function they do in boiler (e.g.) induced draft fan, forced draft fan, primary air fan etc. Classification of fans: Depending upon the direction of flow of the medium at outlet with respect to rotational axis, fans are broadly classified into axial and radial (centrifugal). Air heater: Air heater is a heat transfer surface in which air temperature is raised by transferring heat from other fluids such as flue gas. Since air heater can be successfully employed to reclaim heat from flue gas at lower temperature levels than is possible with economizer, the heat rejected to chimney can be reduced to higher extend thus increasing the efficiency of boiler. For every 20c drop in flue gas exit temperature, the boiler efficiency increases by about 1%.

Types of air heaters: Recuperative type The heating medium is on one side and air is on the other side of tube or plate and the heat transfer is by conduction through the material which separates the media. Deposit on the heat transfer surfaces does not reduce the heat transfer. They are of static construction and hence there is only nominal leakage through expansion joints, access doors, casings, etc.. Regenerative type The heating medium flows through a closely packed matrix to raise its temperature and then air is passed through the matrix to pick up the heat. Deposit will reduce the heat transfer due to their poor conducting. Either the matrix or the hoods are rotated to achieve this and hence leakage through sealing arrangements at the moving surfaces is high.

Electrostatic precipitators (ESP): Electrostatic precipitators can handle large volume of gases from which solid particulates are removed. The four different steps in the process of precipitation are: Ionization of gases and charging of dust particles, Migration of the particles to the collector, Deposition of the charged particles on the collecting surfaces, Dislodging of the particles from the collecting surface. ESP consist of two sets of electrodes, one in the form of thin wires called discharge or emitting electrodes and other set called collecting electrodes in the form of pipes or plates. The discharge plates are placed in the centre of pipes or between two plates and are connected to negative polarity of high voltage source of the order of 25 100 kV. The collecting electrodes are connected to the positive polarity of the source and grounded. The high electric field in the vicinity of the emitting electrodes creates corona discharge ionizing the gas molecules. The dust particles entrained in the gas acquire negative charge and experience a force which drives them towards the collecting electrodes where they get deposited. The collected material is dislodged by knocking the electrode by a process called rapping.

Functions of valves: 1) To stop or allow the flow of fluids in a pipe line, 2) To act as safety device, a) To prevent excess pressure generation in a pipeline or vessel, b) To prevent the back flow of the fluid. 3) To regulate the quantity or pressure of the flowing fluid. Classification of valves: Valves are classified in to two types based on the relative motion of the closing element with the direction of the fluid or pressure. The closing element moves in the same axis in which the fluid flows. (Globe valves, safety valves, non-return check valves, etc...) The closing element moves in the perpendicular direction in which the fluid flows. In other words the closing element cuts across the flow of the fluid. (Gate valves, cocks, ball valves, etc...) Superheaters: They are meant to raise the steam temperature above the saturation temperature by absorbing heat from flue gas. By increasing the temperature of the medium the useful energy that can be recovered increases, thus the efficiency of the cycle also increases. 4

Present trend is to limit the steam temperature value at 540C in superheater as well as reheater. It also eliminates the formation of condensate during transporting of steam in pipelines and inside the early stages of the turbine which is harmful to the turbine blades and pipelines. They are of two types - convection and radiant type. Reheaters: It is used to raise the temperature of steam from which part of the energy has been extracted in high pressure turbine. The cycle efficiency increases with increasing stages of reheating. But it requires additional equipment (i.e.)heating surface, boiler turbine, connecting piping, safety equipment like safety valve, non-return valve, isolating valves, steam temperature regulating equipment, instruments, high pressure feed pump etc. Desuperheaters: Desuperheaters of contact spray type are commonly used to reduce the superheated steam temperature as a means of controlling the final superheated steam temperature. It is widely used to control superheated steam temperature because of simpler system, low initial and maintenance cost, flexibility and effective control in operation. Disadvantage is that the purity of SH steam may go down if the desuperheater spray water is of poor quality. Soot blowers: They are used to remove the ash which is a residue of combustion. A properly designed furnace has two functions: i. ii. To burn the fuel completely. To cool the products of combustion sufficiently so that the convection passes are kept sufficiently clean with a reasonable amount of soot blowing.

They are of two types, long retractable soot blower and half retractable soot blower. Efficiency of boilers: Efficiency = in terms of heat values.

The various losses considered for this type of treatment are exhaust gas loss, air moisture loss, radiation loss, fuel moisture loss, unburnt carbon loss, unaccounted loss, loss due to hydrogen in fuel. Boiler mountings: These are fittings primarily intended for safety of the boiler and control of the steam generation process completely. They are, Pressure gauge Safety valves (2 nos.) Water level indicators (2 nos.) Feed check valve Manholes and mudhole. 5