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Video/Audio Wireless Transmitter project for ou


A!stract" To design and build a wireless transmitter that works over the ! fre"uenc# and allows the transfer of a video$audio signal over a certain distance to an ! tuner% Introduction" &n this fast'paced world( there is little time for inconveniences and a greater need for portabilit# and adaptabilit#% The idea for an Audio$)ideo transmitter stems from this need% There ma# have been times when #ouve wanted to hook up #our )C* from one room to another television set in another room% +ut that would have entailed that #ou first unhook all kinds of wires and plugs from the primar# T) set, carr# the )C* to the ne-t T) set, and then finall# re'wire ever#thing together% An Audio$)ideo transmitter will let #ou do just about the same thing% +ut it would offer other conveniences as well% or e-ample( it would allow #ou to set up securit# cameras around #our home which would send video signals directl# to a T) or )C*% And( there are no cumbersome wires and cables to line throughout the intended area% .esign / .evelopment 01hat we did23 The most difficult part of this project was coming up with a design that would work% +ecause both of us had ver# little e-perience with * signal s#stems we had to learn( basicall#( from scratch% The approach we took( was to first create a video transmitter( then add the audio portion later% This wa# we could test each component individuall# and then integrate them later when we knew both parts were working correctl#% 1e first went to the 4rainger 5ibrar# to research various transmitters designs and how the# were built% Although all the books were ver# old( we were able to gather some useful information from various sources% !ost of the books had onl# information about sending audio transmission and had ver# little on video signal transmissions% Also( some books that had some kind of designs and data for video tranmission were ver# outdated% +ut we found some interesting standards that help e-plained what television stations used% This was not too far from what our original intentions were on building two different t#pes of transmitters% 5et us first look at the basic block diagram of what and how Audio$)ideo transmission works% rom the book3 Television 6lectronics b# 7iver and 7aufman 08th ed%2 Cop#right 9:8;, there is a block diagram of the television transmitter 0page :( 7iver and 7aufman2%

As #ou can see( television signals operates as two separate transmissions% <ne for the video and the other for sound% And just like our project( two different devices are going to be built% As noted before( most of the books we used from 4rainger 5ibrar# were older than us( so all parts used listed 0tubes and such2 were outdated and not readil# available to us% =o the search goes on to finding another solution% 5et us look at some of the industr# standards that might help shed some light on this project% rom the book3 *adio re"uenc# Transmission =#stems b# 1hitaker 09st ed%2 Cop#right 9::9, we see some of the standards set b# the U%=% ederal Communications Commission 0page >>( 1hitaker2% +and 5ow'band )H High'band )H UH UH Channels ? through @ B through 9; 9> through @: BD'8; re"uenc# 0A>'B? !hC and B@'88 !hC2 09B>'?9@ !hC2 0>BD'8D@ !hC2 08D@'8:D !hC2 currentl# assigned to land mobile radio services

+elow is a table that show the specific fre"uenc# band assignment to the channels designations 0page >A( 1hitaker2%

rom the table above( we see that all channels assignments are @ !hC apart% And from 7iver and 7aufman 0page ?D'?92 there is a listing of all of the corresponding television channels to their fre"uencies with much greater detail showing the picture carrier and the sound carrier assignments% Although based on cable standards( it is identical to the airwave standards set b# the CC% 1ithin the @ !hC range the picture and sound carrier are within ? !hC from the ends and also about ? !hC apart from each other% This leaves about > !hC in between each channels%

Implementation #$ow we did it%" After searching high and low we have come across a diagram of some audio transmission schematic which was claimed to also be capable of transmitting video signals% The device was later found out to be known as the repeater% &n the following pages we have printed up the schematics that we used to build our devices% Two devices were built 0as noted above as to wh# two different transmitters are needed2% 1e had various difficulties with implementing the video transmitter design% 1e discovered that somehow a :v batter# did not deliver enough power to the circuit produce a strong clean signal% =o a bench power suppl# was used to run the circuit% 1e have also learned that not using an insulated crossdriver to tune our circuit to the correct fre"uenc# gave us a lot of problems% =o( for an alternative solution( we used an old

clock$radio$T) with an analog tuner to test our design% This allowed for fine tuning with a plastic knob when searching correct fre"uenc#% The audio transmitter eventuall# worked% +ut the audio signal was wrought with interference and fluctuations depending on the distance between the transmitter( the receiver and the position of the transmitters antenna% Also( since the devices were built in a ver# crude manner( it was ver# prone to noise interference creating highl# distorted signals%

Audio/Video transmitter sc&ematic There was another design for video transmission found from the book3 The 4iant +ook of 6lectronics Projects b# The 6ditors of B; !agaCine 09st ed% 9@th printing2 Cop#right 9:8? 0page >@>2%

1e didnt build this design since we didnt know some of the undefined values 0or at least the# were not properl# determined and purposel# left undefined2% Conclusion 0*esults23 <verall we learned a great deal about * signals relative to how much we knew before hand% 1e recommend taking an * signal class such as 6C6;A; before undertaking an# sort of * project% This project can be greatl# improved on for those interested in * transmission design which most people take for granted when listening to their favorite band on the radio or watching football games on the T)% sumit k kushwaha T< +UE P*<J6CT= !A&5 U= AT freshersblogFgmail%c =eptember ??( ?DD8 Posted b# &ndian6ngineer G UncategoriCed G @ Comments

serial infrared transmitter circuit ! indian engineer


=eptember ??( ?DD8 Posted b# Common wealth games G UncategoriCed G 9 Comment

'repaid Energ (eter #AT)*+,-% . )/,1 (icrocontroller


A scheme of 6lectricit# billing s#stem called HP*6PA&. 6I6*4E !6T6* 1&TH TA*& &I.&CAT<*H can facilitate in improved cash flow management in energ# utilities and can reduces problem associated with billing consumer living in isolated area and reduces deplo#ment of manpower for taking meter readings% 6ver# consumer can bu# a memor# card 0is nothing but an 66P*<! &C2 with a password stored inside it using a !C program% The memor# card is available at various ranges 0ie% *s AD( *s 9DD(

*s ?DD etcH2%&n our project we have given the name for memor# card as smart card% 1hen the consumer insert a smart card into the card reader which is connected in Hprepaid energ# meter with tariff indicatorHkit%Then the card reader will read the stored information and delete the information from the 66P*<! &C0smart card2 using the !C program% =o that the smart card cannot be reused b# others% =uppose if a consumer bu# a card for *s%AD$' he $ she can insert this amount through the card reader so that prepaid energ# meter with tariff indicator kit will be activated% According to the power consumption the amount will be reduced% 1hen the amount is over( the rela# will automaticall# shutdown the whole s#stem% &n our project we also have a provision to give an alarm sound to consumer before the whole amount is reduced%

The cards are nothing but the 66P*<! chip AT?>CD>% 0all 1s at *)2))123),

+T14NET+ 0A55IN6 789( 91T+I4E IN4IA '5EA+E '8E7I: //*1 ;E798E T$E N1(;E8+ 98 4IA5 //*1*313</))), A55 T$E N1(;E8+ ;E59N6 T9 NEW 4E5$I #india% 05I0= $E8E T9 6ET T$I+ '89>E0T AN4 =IT+ =eptember ?9( ?DD8 Posted b# &ndian6ngineer G UncategoriCed G A: Comments

microprocessor projects Water le?el 0ontroller


The water level Controller is a reliable circuit, it takes over the task of indicating and Controlling the water level in the overhead water tanks. The level of the water is displayed in the LED Bar graph. The Copper probes are used to sense the water level. The probes are inserted into the water tank which is to be monitored. This water level Controller !!! alarm circuit is configured around the well known " bit #icroprocessor "$"%. &t continuously monitors the overhead water level and display it and it also switch 'ff the #otor when the tank fills and it will automatically switch 'n the #otor when the water level is low. The #icroprocessor will also indicate

the water level over the LED display. (ll the input and output functions are done through the )rogrammable )eripheral &nterface &C "*%%.

final #ear projects =eptember 9B( ?DD8 Posted b# &ndian6ngineer G UncategoriCed G ?@ Comments

(I08909NT8955E8 ;A+E4 '89>E0T+ for final ear electronics


latest projects ?D9D special%%
Automatic *ailwa# 4ate Control / Track =witching0 5AT6=T2

Put Coin And .raw Power 0latest2 for 6lectrical and 6lectronics% &ntelligent Train 6ngines 0 Iew'5atest2 )6H6C56 !<I&T<*&I4 AI. =6CU*&TE =E=T6! U5T*A=<I&C rA.A*0latest2 Call Us Iow to +ook an# of these projects now Click here for +ooking .etails% 9% A=T6=T' &I46*' &*=T U=&I4 8:CA9 ?% !&C*< P*<C6==<* +A=6. *6)6*=&+56 .%C% !<T<* C<IT*<5 ;% !<)&I4 !6==A46 .&=P5AE 8D8A !&C*<P*<C6==<*05AT6=T2 >% PC9@ 8>' +A=6. C<.6. .6)&C6 =1&TCH&I4 =E=T6! A% =T6PP6* !<T<* C<IT*<5 U=&I4 8:CA9

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'89>E0T 9N WI8E5E++ 4ATA AN4 V9I0E 09((1NI0ATI9N T$8916$ IN78A8E4A5E4


P*<J6CT 7&T 9ADD$' &n .elhi IC* =EI<P=&= of the month T&T56 < TH6 =EI<P=&=3' LConceptual designs development / demonstrations of a 1&*656== .ATA AI. )<&C6 C<!!UI&CAT&<I TH*<U4H &I *A*6.'56.M $ A==6!+56. P*<J6CT C<=T ;ADD$' ree Home .eliver#

<+J6CT&)6=3' To .esign a circuit of an electronic infrared communication s#stem% .evelop new ideas to implement this circuit purposel#% To stud# the circuitr# and different t#pes of components / .T! generator( .T! decoder( op'amp and infrared'56. in the circuit% C5&C7 H6*6 T< =66 *66 P*6=6ITAT&<I < TH&= P*<J6CT &IT*<.UCT&<I or #ears( infrared 56. has been merel# a s#stem for piping light around corners and into the inaccessible places to allow the hidden to be lighted% +ut now( infrared 56. has evolved into a s#stem of significantl# greater importance and use% Throughout the world( it is now being used to transmit voice( television and data signals as light waves% &ts advantages as compared with conventional coa-ial cable or twisted wire pairs are manifold% As a result( millions of dollars are being spent to put these light wave communication s#stems into operation% <ne of the most interesting developments in recent #ears in the field of telecommunication is the use of laser light to carr# information over large distances% &t has been proved in the past decade that light wave transmission through laser light is superior than that achieved through wires and microwave links% T#picall#( infrared 56. has a much lower transmission loss per unit length 0D%9A'Adb$km2 and is not susceptible to electromagnetic interference% 6conomicall# also( it serves our purpose% The ever increasing cost and the lack of space available in the congested metropolitan cities asks for advent of a less costl# s#stem% The conventional telephonic s#stems use copper wires( which easil# get o-idiCed and as such re"uire high maintenance cost% The laser light being made of glass are non'reactive and hence economical% Also( the noise pick up b# the copper wire or in electrical signals is "uite substantial whereas in laser light( the noise pick up is negligible% +asic elements of a infrared 56. s#stem Applications 0i2 Applications for video transmission include high "ualit# video Trunked from studio Transfeter( +roadcast CAT) video( )ideo Trunking within cit# or between cities( +aasedand )ideo for closed%

+5<C7.&A4*A!

C<I=T*UCT&<I AI. 1<*7&I4 !&763 &ts converts sound signals into electrical signals% A!P5& &6* 0A23 =ignals from mike are amplified so that it can drive to infrared'56.% &I *A*6.'56.3 &t carries signals% PH<T< T*AI=&=T<*3 The electrical signals are regained from the optical signals% A!P5& &6* 0+23 6nerg# of signals is amplified to drive the speaker% =P6A76*3 6lectrical signals which are amplified are reconverted into sound signals at the speaker% .T! C<.6*3 &t is generates the .T! signal corresponding to the number entered from the ke#board% .T! .6C<.6* 3 &t is fed to .T! decoder which gives the binar# output corresponding to the signal received from the transmitter% .6C<.6* .*&)6* 3 To drive the B segment displa#% The circuit The main part of Circuit is an amplifier% This sound signals 0even at a distance of ? meters from the mic2 are picked up b# the condenser microphone and converted into electrical variation( which are amplified b# the op'amp% 0<perational amplifier2 &C' B>9 is use in the inverting mode with a single suppl# using divider network of resistor the gain of &C can be set be var#ing the feed back through *A$@ resistance 0can place a 9! variable2 here the output of &C is further amplified bu# the push'pull amplifier using transistor +C%A>8$AA8 pair( in this circuit are *? is feed back resistance with *9$8 and C9$; to connected &C'B>9% The &Cs pin ? is connect )*9 0variable resistance2 through connect to <$P of T9 0transistor2 also use @volt .C% The microphone should be placed near the circuit with the shield wire to suppress tune% The output of the amplifier is taken from emitter of two transistors( with a filter CA from speaker% =ame process continues in the second amplifier% C&*CU&T .6=C*&PT&<I < =1&TCH =6CT&<I This project was based on photo diodes and photo transistor% Photo diodes had been used as a transmitter and photo transistor as a receiver% This project had been divided in two part( irst part

transmitter section and second part receiver section% =lide switch selected to voice communication and data% T*AI=!&==&<I=6CT&<I 31hen switch ke# is pressed( circuit is energised% The output of The transmit &* beams modulated at same fre"uenc# 97HC% The receiver uses infrared module% The &*' signal form the transmitter is sensed b# the receiver sensor% *6C6&)6* =6CT&<I3' This section is worked as a lip'flop 0+istable2% &C'; is decade counter( its Pin Io%9> is input and Pin Io% ? output% The output of fre"uenc# detector stage is used( via a flip'flop( to switch N<I or switch N< a 56. alternatel#% The receiver uses infrared modules &*'signal from the transmitter is sensed b# the sensor through and its output P&I 9 goes low and switched 56.% &C'; is worked on clock pulse which receives to infrared modules at Pin Io% 9>% &ts output at Pin Io ? throughes high% The output of &C'? is also used for lighting 56.'9 indicating presence of signal% 1hen no signal is available output of sensor module goes high and transistor 56. is switched N< % 1hen another signal arrives( 56. is switched N<I and through clock pulse at Pin Io% 9> of &C';% This makes the 56. to switch N<I the appliance at first pulse and N< the appliance at its =econd pulse arrived at its sensor% Transmitter circuits works satisfactoril# with @':) .C% +atter# but receiver circuits needs @) regulated suppl#% The CA!. C!88BD$BDC provides full .T! receiver capabilit# b# integrating both the band'split filter and digital decoder functions into a single 98'pin .&P( =<&C(or ?D'pin P5CC package% The C!88BD$BDC is manufactured using state'of'the'art C!<= process technolog# for low power consumption 0;Am1( !AO2 and precise data handling% The filter section uses a switched capacitor techni"ue for both high and low group filters and dial tone rejection% The C!88BD$BDC decoder uses digital counting techni"ues for the detection and decoding of all 9@ .T! tone pairs into a >'bit code% This .T! receiver minimiCes e-ternal component count b# providing an on'chip differential input amplifier( clock generator( and a latched three'state interface bus% The on'chip clock generator re"uires onl# a low cost T) cr#stal or ceramic resonator as an e-ternal component% Iotes3 9% d+m P decibels above or below a reference power of 9m1 into a @DD% load% ?% .igit se"uence consists of all 9@ .T! tones% ;% Tone duration P >Dms% Tone pause P >Dms% >% Iominal .T! fre"uencies are used% A% +oth tones in the composite signal have an e"ual amplitude% @% +andwidth limited 0D to ;7HC2 4aussian Ioise% B% The precise dial tone fre"uencies are 0;ADHC and >>DHC2 Q?R% 8% or an error rate of better than 9 in 9D(DDD :% *eferenced to lowest level fre"uenc# component in .T! signal% 9D% !inimum signal acceptance level is measured with specified ma-imum fre"uenc# deviation% 99% &nput pins defined as &IS( &IT( and T<6% 9?% 6-ternal voltage source used to bias )*6 %

9;% This parameter also applies to a third tone injected onto the power suppl#% 9>% *eferenced to igure 9% &nput .T! tone level at T?8d+m% C<!P<I6IT= U=6. *6=&=TAIC63 *9( 9AD1 *?(*99(*9? 9DDk1 *;( *B 9D71 *>( *8 >%Bk1 *A(*@(*:(*9D 9A71 *9; ??D7 1 *9> 971 *9A'*?? 9AD1 )*'9()*'? 9!1 )ariable *esistance CAPAC&T<*3 C9(C?(C>(CA D%9 mfd 09D> pf2 C; ??D mfd !&76 Condensor !icrophone =6!&C<I.UCT<*3 &C9' U!:9?9A+ 0.T! C<.6*2 &C?( &C'; B>9 0<P A!P2 &C'> C!88BD 0.T! .6C<.6*2 &C'A B>5=>B 0.6C<.6*2 T9(T; IPI +CA>8 T?(T> PIP +CAA8 56. 5ight 6mitting .iode Pt% Photo Transistor !&=C655AI6<U=3 &C +ase 8 Pin 0?pcs%2 =peaker 8 ohms <ptical ibre 4eneral purpose PC+ 4eneral purpose =lide =witch .P.T +atter# @ volt .C C&*CU&T .A&4*A! *6C6&)6* AUT<!AT&<I =6CT&<I

+5<C7.&A4*A! C<I=T*UCT&<I AI. 1<*7&I4 &*'56.3 &t carries signals and converted into optical signals% PH<T< T*AI=&=T<*3 The electrical signals are regained from the optical signals% .T! C<.6*3 &t is generates the .T! signal corresponding to the number entered from the ke#board% .T! *6C6&)6*$.6C<.6* 3 &t is fed to .T! decoder which gives the binar# output corresponding to the signal received from the transmitter% .6!U5T&P56O6*$ >'9@ 5&I6 .6C<.6*3 &t takes the > line +C. input and selects respective output one among the 9@ output lines% &t is active low output and drives to rela#% *65AE .*&)6* 3 &ts section controls the rela#% &t has a Iot 4ate and four IPI transistors% IPI transistor is drive to rela# which works as a switching% *ela# controls the AC devices% 1<*7&I4 < AUT<!AT&<I C<IT*<5 =6CT&<I3 =ignal .ecoding Unit3 This is the main unit of this s#stem% This unit consists of a .T! to +C. decoder &C !T 88BD( > to 9@ line decoder &C B>9A> and he- inverter gate &C >D>:% The working of all the above &Cs are mentioned here before% The .T! to +C. decoder &C !T88BD takes a valid tone signal from the &* transmitter section% Then the tone signal is converted in to > bit +C. number output obtained at pins from 99 to 9>% This output is fed to the >'9@ line decoder &CB>9A>% This &C takes the +C. number and decodes% According to that +C. number it selects the active low output line from 9 to 9@ which is decimal e"uivalent of the +C. number present at its input pins% =ince the low output of this &C the output is inverted to get logic high output% This inversion is carried out b# he- inverter &C >D>:' built on TT5 logic% This &C inverts the data on its input terminal and gives inverted output% ;% .evice switching unit3 This unit consists of a tri state buffer and a . flip flop% After making confirmation of current status of the device to alter the status of that device( #ou have to change the mode of the tri state buffer b# making the control input high% This is done b# pressing the NU ke#% 1hen this ke# is pressed the output of the >'9@ line decoder goes low The output of tri state buffer is latched b# using a . flip'flop% Here this . flip flop is used in the toggle mode% or each positive going edge of the clock pulse will trigger the flip'flop% After a period of A seconds the output of the &C @ goes low and puts the tri state buffer in the high impedance state% Therefore to change the status of an# other device is to be done after the output of &C @ goes low( again NU ke# is pressed to make the tri state buffer act as input Toutput state and the respective code of the device is pressed% >% Power suppl# unit3 or the proper working of this local control section e-cept the local telephone set it needs a permanent back up which gives a A) back up continuousl#% This is achieved b# using a A)

regulated power suppl# from a voltage regulated &C B8DA% This A) source is connected to all &Cs and rela#s% This &C gets a backup from a :) batter#% A% *ela# driver circuit3 To carr# out the switching of an# devices we commonl# use the rela#s% =ince the output of the . flip flop is normall# SA) or it is the voltage of logic high state% =o we cannot use this output to run the device or appliances% Therefore here we use rela#s( which can handle a high voltage of ?;D) or more( and a high current in the rate of 9DAmps to energiCe the electromagnetic coil of the rela#s SA) is sufficient% Here we use the transistors to energiCe the rela# coil% The output of the . flip'flop is applied to the base of the transistor T? T TA via a resister% 1hen the base voltage of the transistor is above D%B) the emitter'base 06+2 junction of the transistor forward biased as a result transistor goes to saturation region it is nothing but the switching <I the transistor% This intern switches on the rela#% +# this the devices is switches <I% 1hen the output of . flip'flop goes low the base voltage drops below D%B) as a result the robotic devices also switches < % C&*CU&T .6=C*&PT&<I3 This s#stem is divided into two sections( 93 *emote =ection ?3 automation Control =ection% *6!<T6 =6CT&<I3 This unit consists of &* transmitter section( which is present in the remote place% The figure 062 shows the circuit diagram of the .T! encoder( which resembles the .T! transmitter section% &t uses .T! encoder integrated circuit( Chip U! :9?9>+% This &C produces .T! signals% &t contains four row fre"uencies / three column fre"uencies% The pins of &C :9?9> + from 9? to 9> produces high fre"uenc# column group and pins from 9A to 98 produces the low fre"uenc# row group% +# pressing an# ke# in the ke#board corresponding .T! signal is available in its output pin at pin no%B% or producing the appropriate signals it is necessar# that a cr#stal oscillator of ;%A8!HC is connected across its pins ; / > so that it makes a part of its internal oscillator% igure 062% Circuit diagram of the .T! encoder This encoder &C re"uires a voltage of ;)% or that &C is wired around >%A) batter#% And ;) backup )cc for this &C is supplied b# using ;%?v Cener diode% The row and column fre"uenc# of this &C is as on the fig% L+M% +# pressing the number A in the ke# pad the output tone is produced which is the resultant of addition of two fre"uencies( at pin no% 9; / pin no%9@ of the &C and respective tone which represents number AV in ke# pad is produced at pin no%B of the &C% This signal is sent to the .T! transmitter section through &*' 56.% *<+<T&C A*! C<IT*<5 =6CT&<I3 This is a control unit through which #ou can control #our devices% This contains one .T! transmitter section and a devices Control =ection% The devices to be controlled must be connected to phototransistor through control unit% Control unit is kept with a sufficient backup% devices control =ection consists of a .T! decoder( >'9@ line decoder$demultiple-er( .'flip' flops( and rela# driver circuits% +efore going into detail of the circuit( we will take a brief description about integrated circuits used in local control section% !T 88BD .T! decoder3 &C !T88BD$7T;9BD serves as .T! % This &C takes .T! signal coming via telephone line and converts that signal into respective +C. number% &t uses same oscillator fre"uenc# used in

the remote section so same cr#stal oscillator with fre"uenc# of ;%8A! HC is used in this &C% 1orking of &C !T88BD3 The !T'88BD is a full .T! *eceiver that integrates both band split filter and decoder functions into a single 98'pin .&P% &ts filter section uses switched capacitor technolog# for both the high and low group filters and for dial tone rejection% &ts decoder uses digital counting techni"ues to detect and decode all 9@ .T! tone pairs into a >'bit code% 6-ternal component count is minimiCed b# provision of an on'chip differential input amplifier( clock generator( and latched tri'state interface bus% !inimal e-ternal components re"uired include a low'cost ;%AB:A>A !HC cr#stal( a timing resistor( and a timing capacitor% The !T'88BD'D? can also inhibit the decoding of fourth column digits% !T'88BD operating functions include a band split filter that separates the high and low tones of the received pair( and a digital decoder that verifies both the fre"uenc# and duration of the received tones before passing the resulting >'bit code to the output bus% The low and high group tones are separated b# appl#ing the dual'tone signal to the inputs of two @th order switched capacitor band pass filters with bandwidths that correspond to the bands enclosing the low and high group tones% igure 0 2%+lock diagram of &C !T88BD The filter also incorporates notches at ;AD and >>D HC( providing e-cellent dial tone rejection% 6ach filter output is followed b# a single'order switched capacitor section that smoothes the signals prior to limiting% =ignal limiting is performed b# high gain comparators provided with b# stresses to prevent detection of unwanted low'level signals and noise% The !T'88BD decoder uses a digital counting techni"ue to determine the fre"uencies of the limited tones and to verif# that the# correspond to standard .T! fre"uencies% 1hen the detector recogniCes the simultaneous presence of two valid tones 0known as signal condition2( it raises the 6arl# =teering flag 06=t2% An# subse"uent loss of signal condition will cause 6=t to fall% +efore a decoded tone pair is registered( the receiver checks for valid signal duration 0referred to as character' recognition'condition2% This check is performed b# an e-ternal *C time constant driven b# 6=t% A short dela# to allow the output latch to settle( the dela#ed steering output flag 0=t.2 goes high( signaling that a received tone pair has been registered% The contents of the output latch are made available on the >'bit output bus b# raising the three state control input 0<62 to logic high% &nhibit mode is enabled b# a logic high input to pin A 0&IH2% &t inhibits the detection of 9@;; HC% The output code will remain the same as the previous detected code% <n the !' 88BD models( this pin is tied to ground 0logic low2% The input arrangement of the !T'88BD provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source 0)*6 2 to bias the inputs at mid'rail% Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op'amp output 04=2 for gain adjustment% The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard ;%AB:A>A !HC cr#stal% The input arrangement of the !T'88BD provides a differential input operational amplifier as well as a bias source 0)*6 2 to bias the inputs at mid'rail% Provision is made for connection of a feedback resistor to the op'amp output 04=2 for gain adjustment% The internal clock circuit is completed with the addition of a standard ;%AB:A>A !HC cr#stal% B>9A> >'9@ line decoder$demultiple-er3 &C B>9A> is a >'9@ line decoder( it takes the > line +C. input and selects respective output one

among the 9@ output lines% &t is active low output &C so when an# output line is selected it is indicated b# active low signal( rest of the output lines will remain active high% This >'line'to'9@' line decoder utiliCes TT5 circuitr# to decode four binar#'coded inputs into one of si-teen mutuall# e-clusive outputs when both the strobe inputs( 49 and 4?( are low% The demultiple-ing function is performed b# using the > input lines to address the output line( passing data from one of the strobe inputs with the other strobe input low% 1hen either strobe input is high( all outputs are high% These demultiple-er are ideall# suited for implementing high'performance memor# decoders% igure 4% &C B>9A> >'9@ line decoder All inputs are buffered and input clamping diodes are provided to minimiCe transmission'line effects and thereb# simplif# s#stem design% T*UTH TA+563 &C >D9; .'flip'flop3 &C >D9; is a conventional .'flip'flop &C% This &C consists of two . flip'flops% These flip'flops are used to latch the data that present at its input terminal% 6ach flip'flop has one data( one clock( one clear( one preset input terminals% 0Above figure shows a single .'flip'flop2 *ela# driver circuit3 To carr# out the switching of devices we commonl# use the rela#s% =ince the output of the . flip flop is normall# SA) or it is the voltage of logic high state% =o we cannot use this output to run the device or appliances% Therefore here we use rela#s( which can handle a high voltage of ?;D) or more( and a high current in the rate of 9DAmps to energiCe the electromagnetic coil of the rela#s SA) is sufficient% Here we use the transistors to energiCe the rela# coil% The output of the . flip'flop is applied to the base of the transistor T? T TA via a resister% 1hen the base voltage of the transistor is above D%B) the emitter'base 06+2 junction of the transistor forward biased as a result transistor goes to saturation region it is nothing but the switching <I the transistor% This intern switches on the rela#% +# this the device is switches <I% 1hen the output of . flip'flop goes low the base voltage drops below D%B) as a result the device also switches < % Power suppl# unit3 I66. < P<16* =UPP5E3' Perhaps all of #ou are aware that a power suppl# is a primar# re"uirement for the test bench of a home e-perimenters mini lab% A batter# eliminator can eliminate or replace the batteries of solid'state electronic e"uipment and ??D) A%C% mains instead of the batteries or dr# cells thus can operate the e"uipment% Iowada#s( the sued of commercial batter# eliminator or power suppl# unit have become increasingl# popular as power source for household appliances like transceiver( record pla#er( clock etc% =ummar# of power suppl# circuit features3' +rief description of operation3 gives out well regulated S8) output( output current capabilit# of ADDmA% Circuit protection3 +uilt Tin overheating protection shuts down output when regulator &C gets too hot% Circuit comple-it#3 simple and eas# to build%

Circuit performance3 =table S8) output voltage( reliable <peration% Availabilit# of components3 6as# to get( uses onl# common basic components% .esign testing3 +ased on datasheet e-ample circuit( & have used this circuit successfull# as part of other electronics projects% Applications3 part of electronics devices( small laborator# power suppl#% Power suppl# voltage3 unregulated 8'98)'power suppl#% Power suppl# current3 needed output current ADD mA% Components cost3 ew rupees for the electronic components plus the cost of input transformer% Pin .iagram of B8D8 *egulator &C Pin 93 Unregulated voltage input Pin ?3 4round Pin;3 *egulated voltage output Component list B8D8 regulator &C ?% D'9? transformer ;% 9DDDuf and 9DDuf% Capacitor( at least ?A) voltage rating% .6=C*&T&<I < P<16* =UPP5E This circuit is a small S 8 volts power suppl#% 1hich is useful when e-perimenting with digital electronics% =mall ine-pensive batter# with variable output voltage are available( but usuall# their voltage regulation is ver# poor( which makes them not ver# usable for digital circuit e-perimenter unless a better regulation can be achieved in some wa#% The following circuit is the answer to the problem% This circuit can give S8) output at about ADDmA current% The circuit has overload and terminal protection% C&*CU&T .&A4*A! < P<16* =UPP5E The above circuit utiliCes the voltage regulator &C B8D8 and B8DA for the constant power suppl#% The capacitors must have enough high voltage rating to safel# handle the input voltage feed to circuit% The circuit is ver# eas# to build for e-ample into a piece of Wero board% or the proper working of this local control section e-cept the mobile phone or local telephone set it needs a permanent back up which gives a 8) back up continuousl#% This is achieved b# using a 8) regulated power suppl# from a voltage regulated &C B8D8% This A) source is connected to all &Cs and rela#s% This &C gets a backup from a :) batter#% ig J% Circuit .iagram of 5ocal Control =ection% U=6. C<!P<I6IT= =6!&C<I.UCT<*= 092 &C'9 XXX B8D8 0?2 &C'?XXXX% C!88BDP 0;2 &C';XXXX% B>9A>

0>2 &C'A'@XXXC. >D9; 0A2 &C'>XXX%% >D>: 0@2 &CB XXXX U! :9?9>+ 0B2 .9'.? XXXX%&I >DDB 082 .;XXXXX ;) Wener 0:2 56. XXXXX% 5ight 6ammiting .iode 09D2 T9'T@XXXX%%0IPI2 ;@8 0992 Cr#stal XXXX ;%AB !hC% 09?2 Photodiode 09;2 Phototransistor *6=&=T<* 092 *9XXX%;;D7 <Hm% 0?2 *?XXX%% 9DD7 <Hm% 0;2 *;(*>(*B XXX% 9D7 <Hm% 0>2 *A(*@( XXX% 97 <Hm% 0A2 *8'*9?X% 9DD <Hm% CAPAC&T<* 092 C9XXXX% 9DDD! .% 0?2 C?(C;XXXX% D%9 ! .% !&=C655AI6<U= 092 *65AE XXXXXX% @) Y9DD DHm% 0?2 T*AI= <*!6*XX D': 0=tep down2

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