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Grammar

1
One of the two sentences below is incorrect. Which one, and what is wrong with it? 1 You're always wiping your nose on your sleeve; couldn't you use a tissue? 2 You're never blowing your nose. Always, forever or continually can be used with the present continuous tense in the positive form to indicate that the speaker finds another person's habit or repeated action annoying. She's forever bon'owing my things without asking me. However, the simple present is chosen if the sentence is in the negative or interrogative form. She never asks bef01'e borrowing my things. Why don't you ask before you borrow my things?

Don't disturb your father at the moment - he work. 2 3 4 I used to enjoy chatting to Jane, but these days she something or other. I L .. (suspect) that my daughter's schoohvork. new friends (not want) (forcver complain) about

We (have) salmon for supper, but I (presume) you any, Tom, since you (abhor) fish in any form.

S And while we're on the subject of mistakes. I (recall) you telling me that it would take me only ten minutes to get to town, and I arrived an hour late for an important meeting. 6 A: He always (wear) jeans and a T-shirt, even when hc clients. B: Well, he's the boss, he can do what he (want). A: True, but what (annoy) me is that his T-shirt .. his trousers so he ... (continually tuck) it back in.

(always come out of)

A: 'What on earth . (you do)? _". B: I (smell) the meat. I think it might have gone off. A: Let me try'. No, I ..'l , (not think) so. It (smell) fine to me.
) Y'
I

A: Don't interrupt, dear. You friends. It's not polite. B: It (not matter). She

(always interr\ipt) me when I

:.. (tall{) to my

~ .. (seem) to me to be a very well-behaved child.

A: Look!\, (you see) that couple at the table over there? B: Yes, it's Steve and Gloria .. A: Surely they (not see) each other again? I heard they'd had a fight. B: Well, judging from the way they (look) at each other, they to be back together again.

(appear)

,
II the sentences below relate to future time. Match each sentence to its function, Sentence 1 All Proficiency students are to report to the principal at ten o'clock. 2 The plane is due to arrive at 16.45.1 3 I'm about to go down to the shops. _ 4 School fees are sure to go up. Function a referring to an event in the immediate future.

b making a formal request c making a prediction d referring to an event which is expected to happen at a particular time.

~ ~-....

form

\vith the infinitive.

'. are to (go/see)

am/is/aTe about to (go/see) to (go/see)

_ -..; g predictions using the infinitive . .: a'"e sure/certain/bound/likely/unlikely

, 'lIg predictions using constructions with will. :r-ely possible/pmbable/unlikely that (prices) will (rise/go up) "!ire certain that (prices) will + (rise/go up) " -=oubtIl'hetherlif (prices) will (rise/go up) .. 'I?ect (that) (prices) will (rise/go up)

,"~ likely that fuel prices will rise , 's \ear. :- e prices are unlikely to rise [s \ear. 3 :', sure that fuel prices will rise "his \ear.

a I doubt if fuel prices will rise this year. b Fuel prices are bound to rise this year. c I expect fuel prices will rise this year.

plete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the gi\"en. Do not change the word given. You must use between three and eight words, '_dino the word given. : - . "Carol's unlikely to pass her driving test at the first attempt. whether ........................................................ her driving test at the first attempt.
';n

certain that AJ;lne will come to the party tonight. e


.

.tll1e

I mn't chat now, as I'm on the poinr of departing for the airport. lea,e ' . [ mn't chat now, as I'm the airport. ["\. orderecl a taxi and I expect it will be here any 'minute now. due --::-' e taxi / arrive any minute now. ;e-ase note that all guests must leave their room key at reception \vhen they leave the hotel.

are
.'I

- ~. mm a partner. Discuss current and future trends in your country in two of the topic areas . Then together prepare a very short talk (less than a minute) on each of the two topics to "0 me \,hole class. Try to use a range of appropriate structures. A model is given on the g page. of me Internet at home. .ajonships between parents and children. -=- < aoer . social life and free time. in education. - 0 pino habits.

In our opinion, the Internet is not very well-established here yet, and only a few people have an Internet connection at home. However, a lot of cybercafes are opening up, and they're very popUlar, especially with young people It's likely that these young people will encourage their parents to buy them computers for home use and, since the costs of hardware are coming down all the time, domestic use of the Internet is bound to increase.

Read the whole text below then complete the gaps by writing the appropriate form of the verb in the margin. Choose from these tenses - Present simple / continuous, going to + verb, Future simple / continuous", Future perfect simple " You might want to study the uses of the tenses marked with an asterisk again in this unit, Grammar overview, pages 20-21.

tF

It happens every October. I'll be sitting on a train on a rainy Friday afternoon and I (1) up and see that almost everyone else in the carriage is old enough to be my mother. Some of these women (2) at their watches and sighing a lot, as if to brace themselves for an ordeal. Others (3) . on duty for the school half-term holiday. They (4) two or three school-aged children with them, the younger ones settled with colouring books and crayons and matching bags of crisps. And, as always, I (5) like saying to one of them 'Would you like to come and be our grandmother too?' You see, grandparents (6) into two categories these days - the doting and the disappearing. Some of the doting ones (7) their grandchildren up from school every day. Others are on duty less frequently but are quite happy to drop everything and rush round to baby-sit when their working daughter or daughter-in-law (8) them at 7.00 am to say that a grandchild is sick. But that is only halfthe story. Not once in my 22 years of working motherhood have either my parents or my in-laws offered to baby-sit. When asked why, they say 'We (9) too many of our friends being taken advantage of. They raised their own families and now they (10) up their grandchildren. By the time they're seventy, they (11) half their lives looking after children.' My children (12) entirely. In fact, that's what they (13) most about their grandparents - they're so much fun. They (14) their grandchildren like burdens or mouths to feed, but like fascinating friends. When they can squeeze in a visit, they (15) . Monopoly with the children with real enthusiasm or get out a globe to show them all the countries they (16) on their next holiday. As I write this, my own parents (17) in the Far East on a month's holiday and my children (18) to getting postcards from Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia. I am resigned to the fact that they (19) grandparents of the doting variety. But I (20) their verve and hope that I will be as adventurous as they are when I reach their age.

LOOK GLANCE ALREADY BE HAVE

FALL PICK

SEE BRING SPEND AGREE APPRECIATE NOT TREAT PLAY

VISIT TRAVEL LOOK FORWARD NEVER BE ADMIRE

ocabulary
rasal verbs: relationships

'You know, she had such a friendly, open face that I (1) took to Katie the very first rime I met her and we've been best friends since then. We've only (2) fallen out with each other on one occasion, it happened when we both (3) fell for the same boy at school ... he had the most gorgeous big brown eyes. But he comes from a posh suburb and Katie and I both live in a tower block, so he (4) lqoked down on both of us, and so anyway he didn't (5) come between us for long. Katie and I (6) made up after that quarrel and have (7) got along with each other perfectly since then. You know, my dad can be horrible sometimes - he has a tendency to (8) lash out at me when he's angry, I don't mean he hits me or anything, but he says cruel things and he likes to (9) put me down especially in front of his friends, saying I'm useless because I don't know how to cook and dean, that sort of thing. A lot of the time, I can (10) put up with his behaviour, but sometimes, I'm feeling, like, sensitive, and it really (11) gets me down. So that's when I get on the phone, because I know I can (12) turn to Katie for comfort, she's always kind and understanding, like, I know she won't (13) let me down, she always has time for
me.'

a
b

to cause trouble between two or more people to suddenly speak angrily to someone or to try to hit someone to like someone or something from the beginning to express a low opinion of someone and thus make them feel hurt to have a good relationship to quarrel

D D
[J
i\

to bear or tolerate something

[l
J

h to fall in love with or be very attracted to someone i to make someone feel sad to become friends again after a fight or disagreement k to hold a poor opinion of someone
I

c d e

LJ D
D

[2J

to cause someone to be disappointed

EJ
D

m to go to someone for help

2 ~e

o phrasal verbs below have opposite meanings to two of the phrasal verbs in the passage.

een phrasal verbs above can be used in four different patterns. Look again at the text and Ie e the chart. Follow the examples given. attem - preposition + noun phrase/pronoun - noun/noun phrase/pronoun +
make up with Katie, Katie and I made up, . . took to Katie, take against sb, put me down, . . .

crb
- ad\'erb + preposition noun phrase/pronoun

- adverb + preposition + oun phrase/pronoun or - adwrb (without an object)

IE

Vocabulary

1
Rephrase the parts of these sentences in bold by using phrasal verbs from the chart above. Add appropriate nouns, noun phrases or pronouns if necessary.

It was a bit embarrassing at the dinner party as Mark kept making rude remarks about his wife in front of us all. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I always got the impression that she thought she was superior to us.

I didn't mean to do it, but I lost my temper and said some very rude things to the kids. I have always admired and respected my father. I would probably have married him, but my mother disapproved our relationship. of him and destroyed with Jim.

Maybe you don't like him, but I've always had a friendly relationship

I heard that they had a fight last week, but I believe they've become friendly again since. For some reason, I took an instant dislike to him from the moment we met. She promised to show up on time today for a change, but as usual she didn't - she was half an hour late and we missed the start of the film. attracted to.

to That tall man with the loud voice over there is exactly the type that my sister is usually
tt

I can no longer stand the noise my neighbours make every night.

~ Many of these phrasal verbs have more than one meaning. With a partner, choose two phrasal verbs from the list below and, using a dictionary, find one other meaning for each verb. Then write your own sentences to illustrate these alternative meanings. When all pairs are ready, take turns to read your sentences aloud. The rest of the class must suggest definitions based on the sentences they hear.

'I'm amazed she fell for Tony's story about losing his wallet on the bus; she should know that he says that every time he needs to borrow money.' 'It means to be deceived or tricked by someone or something. '

When recording new phrasal verbs at home, you can organise them: by topic area (as in this book). alphabetically according to the verb. according to the preposition or adverb (e.g. all phrasal verbs with out together). , Try experimenting with the different methods and see which one works best for you. ~ ~ ~

. 2fly nouns can be formed by adding a suffix to another noun, or a verb or adjective. Nine suffixes " ich are frequently used to create abstract nouns (nouns which are not people, places or objects) are s:ed in the chart below, with some examples. Which would you guess is the most commonly used 5 I x?
Suffix ance/-ence cy - dom - hood - ity - rnent - ness - tion - ure
-

Nouns
tolerance, independence, ........... ....................
...........................
0

..............

infancy, ........ ................. .................... ............ ........... . ............ wisdom, ..................................................... .............. ................................. motherhood, ................................................... sanity, ........................................................ encouragement, thoughtfulness, concentration,
.. ... ............................................. ......

........... ..............................

...............................................

............................................................
..............

......................... ............. ..........

.......................................

............................................

exposure, ....................................................................................................

ork with a partner. Together think of one more abstract noun to add to each category. Then share your . 'eas with the rest of the class, and add their words to your list. mplete the gaps in the text with a noun formed from the word given in the margin. The first one has een done as an example. Important social changes are taking place in the arcas of (0) ..... I11a.r. ria.0.e. ... and the family. There is a global (1) going on in how we [hink of ourselves and how we form ties and (2) with others. What most people call the traditional family was in fact a transitional pha e in family (3) in the 1950s. By then the idea that romantic love was the best (4) for marriage had replaced me concept of marriage as an economic contract. The family has since changed further. In the traditional family the married couple was only one part of the familv system. Ties with children and other relatives were equally important in day-to-day (5) : ,.. Today the couple is at the core of what the family is. While statistically marriage is still the norm, for mo t people its (6) has completely changed. Although marriage promotes the (7) of a relationship by making a pubLic declaration of (8) , it is now the quality of the couple's relationship which is considered the most important element. _-\couple has its own exclusive history. It is a unit based upon emotional communication or (9) Communication is both the means o~ establishing the tie in the first place and the basis for ensuring continuing (10) in the relationship.
MARRY REVOLVE CONNECT

DEVELOP FOUND

SIGNIFY STABLE COMMIT

Vocabulary

1
Idioms and set phrases
Think of one word which can be used to complete all three sentences in each group below. Follow the example. o o o The young man devoted his life to the pursuit of pleasure. I have to admit that hill walking is a pursuit which doesn't interest me at all. The flustered mother ran out of the supermarket in hot pursuit of her absconding

toddler.

.:j

Do the easiest sentence in each group of three first. ~ Use a dictionary to help you check if the word you've chosen also fits in the other sentences.

o o

I waited years to do it, but I finally Loud noise is something that has always

my own back on him for his disloyalty to me. on my nerves. ,.. on like a house on fire.

o The party was a great success as all the guests

o o

She has a gift for

out the best in people. down a peg or two.

I don't like her high and mighty attitude; she needs "" my mother here with me.

o I hope you don't mind me

I must have upset her, as she usually chats happily to me, but today she .., dead when we met in the street. ~ . ., s Just .. a tnm t hI a Iot, p Iease; It at want.

""

me

aD' on t o

He was so enraged by his nephew's behaviour that he .... penny.

o I have to admit that with John and me it was o There is little o

""

at first sight.

lost between me and my next-door neighbour. "" , as I'm certainly not letting my son get

I'm hoping it's just a case of puppy married at the age of sixteen.

o Take good a

of my daughter; she's the only one I've got. our town, of whom ten per cent are in the local

There are over 600 children in children's home.

o I don't

what you say; I believe I'm old enough to make my own decisions.