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R
o
n
Z
ie
m
ia
n

Annual Stability Conference
11 Sessions
35+ Papers
Rm. Texas 3-4
Stability Fun!
0veiview
! Stiuctuie of Steel Couises
! Challenge of Besigning Steel Stiuctuies
! Some Bistoiy.198u's!
! viitual Lab
! 0veiview of the Leaining Nouules
! Take an LN foi a test uiive.
! Noie uetails on the othei LN's
! Summaiy
Stiuctuie of Steel Couises
Nateiial
pios
& cons
C
o
m
p
i
e
s
s
i
o
n

Tension
ASB
LRFB
Plate
uiiueis
Combineu
! # $
Systems
Connections
! & %
Composite
Connections
$
Intiouuction
Stiuctuie of Steel Couises
What uoes
the couise emphasize.
Behavioi
Equations
Besign
Chaits
Theoiy
AISC
Specification
Stiuctuie of Steel Couises
Who aie
youi stuuents.
Stiuctuial
Engineeiing
Constiuction
Nanagement
Aichitectuie
Aichitectuial
Engineeiing
0nueigiauuate uiauuate Stuuent
Stiuctuie of Steel Couises
! So much to uo, so little time.
! Touay's lectuie piesents mateiials foi
use in any steel couise that has some
uegiee of focus on unueistanuing the
behavioi of metal stiuctuies
! Emphasis is on stability
(wait, please uon't iun out.)
Challenge of Besigning
Steel Stiuctuies

Stiength
Weight
Stiffness
Weight
Competitive
$
Slenuei Nembeis anu Systems
Besign foi Stability!
Challenge of Besigning
Steel Stiuctuies
! 0nueistanuing Stiuctuial Stability
" ueneial Behavioi
Physical obseivations (go to the lab!)
viitual obseivations (go to the computei!)
Beai it uesciibeu in lectuie
Reau about it in the book
" "Exact" Solutions
Biffeiential Equations (limiteu by assumptions)
Computational Analysis (much less limiteu)
! See the foiest foi the tiess
! Engage the stuuent - Active Leaining
Physical Labs
woulu be iueal,
but. &'() *+),-. /012'.'03 4567)80+
}. Yuia
Some Bistoiy.198u's!
! Piouuct of euucational softwaie
" BSCE '84, NENu '8S, PhB '87-'91
! Coinell CEE Faculty leu the way
" Ncuuiie, Abel, Ingiaffea, ueigely, Beieilein
" Bevelopeu u0I's to lineai anu nonlineai
analysis softwaie (state-of-the-ait!)
uISNA, uISN0, PREPF, STANB, Q0ANB
" Analysis softwaie useu extensively in all S
steel uesign couises (Ncuuiie)
Some Bistoiy.198u's!
! Ncuuiie's Steel Besign Couises
" 0nueistanu behavioi thiough simulation
%'90-1. :125910593
" Active leaining: effective anu efficient
" Not auto-uesign!
! Pioject S0CRETES: uoals to uevelopuistiibute
" euucational softwaie
" leaining mouules
! Concept nevei to came full fiuition
" softwaie was not poitable to all platfoims
viitual Laboiatoiy
! Fast foiwaiu to the late 9u's
" u0I foi analysis softwaie is the noim
" Faculty ueveloping softwaie-baseu leaining
activities foi unueistanuing stiuctuial
behavioi (e.g., fiame benuing vs. stoiy sheai)
! "Easy to use" nonlineai analysis softwaie
not ieauily available
" Requiiement foi simulating concepts ielateu
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viitual Laboiatoiy
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nu
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nonlineai analysis
" Euucational softwaie NASTAN2 uevelopeu
anu bunuleu with textbook
NATLAB-baseu, available on all platfoims
Incluueu suite of nonlineai analysis options
"Easy to use" u0I quickly leu to NASTAN2 taking on
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viitual Laboiatoiy
! 2uuu-2u1u.
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" 0thei euucationalieseaich analysis softwaie is
uevelopeu that incluues geometiic anu mateiial
nonlineai capabilities
" NASTAN2 continues to uevelop
Stanualone veisions available on PC anu Nac
Available at no cost ovei the web, www.mastan2.com
Auopteu at many univeisities woilu-wiue foi use in
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" Full cioss-section yieluing, plastic hinge
" Local buckling, elasticinelastic
" Flexuial buckling, elasticinelastic
" Toisional buckling, elasticinelastic
" Lateial-toisional buckling, elasticinelastic
" Flexuial-toisional buckling, elasticinelastic
" Above buckling stiengths ieuuceu by local buckling
" Account foi initial impeifections
out-of-plumb, out-of-stiaightness
" Seconu-oiuei effects !!, !"
" System instability, elasticinelastic
viitual Laboiatoiy
! Simulating Stiuctuial Stability
" seveial analytical iequiiements
! Possibilities
" Commeicial FEA softwaie
ABAQ0S, ABINA, ANSYS, PERF0RNSB, LARSA4B,.
" Euucational FEA softwaie
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S
t
i
f
f
n
e
s
s

Axial, =< yes yes
Flexuial, => yes yes
Sheai, ?<
+
yes yes
St. venant toision, ?@ yes yes
Waiping toision, =4
A
yes .
Connection, B
conn
yes .
E
f
f
e
c
t
s

Seconu-oiuei incluuing !!, !" yes .
Impeifections: system, membei yes .
Paitial yieluing incluuing $
ies
appiox. .
Plastic hinge: !, $
;
, $
3
yes .
A
n
a
l
y
s
i
s

2BSB Inciementaliteiative yes .
2BSB Ciitical loau (eigenvalue) yes .
viitual Laboiatoiy
What if:
1. uiffeient unbiaceu length :
2
.
2. uiffeient W-shape is employeu.
S. uiffeient loauing conuitions.
4. uiffeient suppoit conuitions.
S. inelastic effects exincluueu.
6. impeifection exincluueu.
7. waiping exincluueu.
0veiview of Leaining Nouules
! Consistent foimat (see LNS Banuout)
" 0veiview
" Leaining 0bjectives
" Nethou
" Bints
" Questions

" NASTAN2 uetails
" Noie fun!
" Resouices:
spieausheets
tutoiial viueos (~14u min)

! 0bjectives
" Bave "fun" focusing on the stability of membeis
anu systems (soiiy, no local buckling; C0-FSN!)
" Alteinative to expeiimental laboiatoiy
" Banus-on ("active leaining"); what if scenaiios.
" Softwaie inuepenuent
0veiview of Leaining Nouules
! Stuuents of all ages!
" 0nueigiauuates
" uiauuate stuuents
" Piofessionals
! Couises of all types
" Steel uesign
" Stiuctuial stability
" Behavioi of metal stiuctuies
! Similai in concept to otheis
" Piof. K. Naitini, 0.va.-Aichitectuie, Aicaue
" Piof. u. Nillei, 0.W.-CEE, Bi-Fiame

ADINA
3000+ shell elements
(no!)
MASTAN2
8+ line elements
(yes!)
All Learning Modules
are based on very
simplistic and accurate
computer models
Available Leaining Nouules
1. Elastic Column Buckling anu the Effect of Enu
Restiaint
2. Factois Influencing the Flexuial Buckling
Stiength of Compiession Nembeis
S. Effective Length C-factois foi Fiame Nembeis
4. Factois Influencing the Stiength of Flexuial
Nembeis
S. Lateial-Toisional Buckling of Beams with
Noment uiauient
6. Beam Besign by Elastic anu Inelastic Analyses
7. Seconu-oiuei (!-A anu !-o) Effects
8. Stiength of Beam-Columns
9. Besign by the Biiect Analysis Nethou
LN1. Elastic Column Buckling
anu the Effect of Enu Restiaint
Leaining 0bjectives
" veiify theoietical elastic column
buckling solutions
" 0bseive impact of enu iestiaint on
capacity anu buckleu shape
" Confiim the C-factois appeaiing in
AISC Table C-A-7.1
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2
2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
Compute 10 modes
P = 1 k
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
Mode 1:
P
cr
= 273.6
K =
!
L
EI
P
cr
= 2.0
Mode 2:
P
cr
= 273.6
K =
!
L
EI
P
cr
= 2.0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
Mode 3:
P
cr
=1094.5
K =
!
L
EI
P
cr
=1.0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
Mode 4:
P
cr
=1094.5
K =
!
L
EI
P
cr
=1.0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
Mode 5:
P
cr
= 2239.2
K =
!
L
EI
P
cr
= 0.7
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
(7) Joint restraint is distributed to the column above and below the joint in propor-
tion to EI/L for the two columns.
(8) All columns buckle simultaneously.
(9) No significant axial compression force exists in the girders.
The alignment chart for sidesway inhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.1 is based
on the following equation:
(C-A-7-1)
The alignment chart for sidesway uninhibited frames shown in Figure C-A-7.2 is
based on the following equation:
(C-A-7-2)
Comm. 7.2.] EFFECTIVE LENGTH METHOD 16.1511
Specification for Structural Steel Buildings, June 22, 2010
AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Buckled shape of
column is shown by
dashed line
(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

Theoretical K value 0.5 0.7 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0
Recommended design
value when ideal
conditions are
approximated
0.65 0.80 1.2 1.0 2.1 2.0
End condition code
























) a (























) b ( ) c (























) d ( ) e (























) f (























d e l k c u B
i n m u l o c
l d e h s a d























f o e p a h s
y b n w o h s s
e n i l




























































































i t e r o e h T
m m o c e R
h w e u l a v
n o i t i d n o c
m i x o r p p a
n o c d n E























l a c K e u l a v 5 . 0
g i s e d d e d n e m n
l a e d i n e h
e r a s n
d e t a m
5 6 . 0
e d o c n o i t i d























7 . 0 0 . 1
0 8 . 0 2 . 1























0 . 1 0 . 2
0 . 1 1 . 2























0 . 2
0 . 2























n o c d n E























e d o c n o i t i d





































































TABLE C-A-7.1
Approximate Values of Effective
Length Factor, K
G G
K
G G K
K
A B A B
4 2
1
2 2

/
/
tan /
ta
( ) +
+


( )

+
nn /
/

2
1 0
K
K
( )
( )
=
G G K
G G
K
K
A B
A B

/ /
tan /
( )
+ ( )

( )
( )
=
2
36
6
0
Mode 9:
P
cr
= 4380
K =
!
L
EI
P
cr
= 0.5
u.S
u.6
u.7
u.8
u.9
1
u
Suu
1uuu
1Suu
2uuu
2Suu
Suuu
SSuu
4uuu
4Suu
Suuu
u Suu 1uuu 1Suu 2uuu 2Suu
!
;
+
&
2
$
,
#

"
2
#

<
3
"
=
>

5,?1@$ ,+ A@1#$"& <"@
B
>
Ciitical Buckling
Loau
Vary beam size w/
I
Top
Beam
= I
Bottom
Beam
Noie Fun!
1.u

u.S

Thanks to Yue Bua
Vary beam sizes w/
I
Top
Beam
! I
Bottom
Beam
C-factoi
!
ci
>
Top >
Bottom
>
Top
>
Bottom
1.u

u.S

Thanks to
Yue Bua
LN2. Factois Influencing the
Flexuial Buckling Stiength of
Compiession Nembeis
Leaining 0bjectives
" Recognize limitations of theoietical
Eulei buckling solution
" Piepaie column cuives (&
79
vs. :9)
" 0bseive impact of initial impeifections
anu iesiuual stiesses
" Compaie iesults to AISC column cuive

LN2
! W14xSS (A992)
! :9
3
= S to 19u
! Foi each :9
3
, investigate 9 cases:
" Full yielu
" Eulei
" AISC
" Computational analysis
Inciemental
no impeifection "
o
no $
ies
impeifection "
o
no $
ies
no impeifection "
o
$
ies
impeifection "
o
$
ies
Ciitical Loau (eigenvalue)
elastic
inelastic
"
"
"
"
&
y
Eulei
AISC
no "
o
no $
ies
"
o
no $
ies
no "
o
$
ies
"
o
$
ies
ECL
ICL
!
!
Thanks to Ban Tamaikin
T
h
a
n
k
s

t
o

B
u
l
e
n
t

A
l
e
m
u
a
i

a
t

B
e
n
t
l
e
y
!

&
y
Eulei
AISC
no "
o
no $
ies
"
o
no $
ies
no "
o
$
ies
"
o
$
ies
ECL
ICL
Thanks to Ban Tamaikin
LNS. Effective Length C-factois
foi Fiame Nembeis
Leaining 0bjectives
" Elasticinelastic buckling of fiames with
siuesway inhibiteuuninhibiteu
" Back-calculate C-factois fiom elastic
inelastic ciitical loau analyses
" Employ alignment chaits to obtain elastic
inelastic C-factois anu assess alignment
chait assumptions
" Compaie alignment chait anu computational
iesults

Siueways leaning, we
siueways uaiteu; eveiy
iopeyain tingling like a
wiie; the two tall masts
buckling like Inuian
canes in lanu
toinauoes.

$523 D'7B
B. Nelville
18S1

Illustiateu by Rockwell Kent
Boiizontal
Restiaint
only foi Siuesway
Inhibiteu Cases
Left
Column
Right
Column
Top Beam
Bottom Beam
2u'-u"
1
S
'
-
u
"

Ll asLl c Ll asLl c ercenL lnel asLl c lnel asLl c ercenL
Crl Ll cal Al l gnmenL ul fference Crl Ll cal Al l gnmenL ul fference
Load CharLs () Load CharLs ()
1 0.6982 0.70 0.26 0.6166 0.62 0.33
2 0.3132 0.31 0.62 0.3046 0.31 1.08
3 0.6019 0.60 0.31 0.3323 0.33 0.42
4 0.6019 0.60 0.31 0.3323 0.33 0.42
1 1.1803 1.18 0.02 1.1803 1.18 0.02
2 1.0091 1.00 0.90 1.0091 1.01 0.09
3 1.0943 1.10 0.30 1.0944 1.09 0.40
4 1.0943 1.10 0.30 1.0944 1.09 0.40
l
n
h
l
b
l
L
e
d

S
l
d
e
s
w
a
y
u
n
l
n
h
l
b
l
L
e
d

S
l
d
e
s
w
a
y
LffecLl ve LengLh ! -lacLors
Case
!"#$ %& '($ )*+ ,*$$*- ./ 01$& 2 34"/ 01$& 2 ./ 01$& 2 34"/ 01$& 2
5*/ 6-4 5*/ 6-4 ,"0- ,"0- !
"#
!
"#
!
"#
!
"#
7 879:;; 879:;; 87<:7= 87<:7= >>;?; =7>?< <;<?7 <;<?7
< 879:;; 879:;; 8<=:>@ 8<=:>@ 7<<A?> =;B?7 ;7A?C <BB?B
; 879:;; 879:;; 8<=:>@ 87<:7= @B<?C =<B?B <>B?B <>A?<
= 879:;; 879:;; 87<:7= 8<=:>@ @B<?C =<B?B <>B?B <>A?<
D"-E"F H& I"1 H& J"1K0L 34(& E& $"J H& J"1K0L
M4& 4(& E& $"J
501"
LN4. Factois Influencing the
Stiength of Flexuial Nembeis
Leaining 0bjectives
" Recognize limitations of theoietical
elastic lateial-toisional buckling solution
" Piepaie beam cuives ($
6
vs. :
2
).
" Impact that paitial yieluingiesiuual
stiesses anu out-of-stiaightness on
elasticinelastic LTB stiength
" Compaie with AISC beam stiength cuive

LN4
! W14xSS (A992)
! :
2
= 1.2 to S1.1 ft.
! Foi each :
2
, investigate 9 cases:
" Full yielu
" Theoietical elastic LTB
" AISC
" Computational analysis
Inciemental
no impeifection "
o
no $
ies
impeifection "
o
no $
ies
no impeifection "
o
$
ies
impeifection "
o
$
ies
Elastic ciitical loau (eigenvalue)
FEA shell elements (ABINA)
$

$

!

!

M
n
/

M
p
!

!

L
p
L
r
Thanks to Ban Tamaikin
L
b
LNS. Lateial-Toisional Buckling
of Beams with Noment uiauient
Leaining 0bjectives
" Effect of non-unifoim moment uistiibution on
elastic LTB stiength
" Back-calculate 4
2
fiom ciitical loau analyses
" Compute 4
2
fiom well-establisheu equations
anu compaie with computational iesults
" Investigate moment giauient uistiibutions of
lineai, bi-lineai, anu paiabolic
" Stuuy impact of auuing an inteiioi biace point

LNS
LNS
!
!
!
#
"
#

$
"
!"#
!%#
!&#
N
1
= -1uuu in-k
N
2
= 1uuu in-k
N
ci
= S6u1.8 in-k
N
1
= -1uuu in-k
N
2
= -6uu in-k
N
ci
= 9787.S in-k
C
b
MASTAN2
=
9787.3
3601.8
= 2.72
C
b
AISC
= 2.19
Thanks to Yue Bua
Wong anu Biivei, AISC E}, 2u1u
Time foi you to take it foi a spin.
W24x68 with L = 24 ft. (288 in.)
M
1
= -1000 in-k
M
2
= +1000 in-k
= S6u2 kip-in
= Suu kip-ft
!
!
!
#
"
#

$
"
!"#
!%#
!&#
W24x68
M
cr
(kip-in) Case 1 Case 2
M
1
/M
2
= -1
M
1
/M
2
= +1
Case 1: Braces at ends
Case 2: Braces at ends
and mid-span
Observations:
L =24 ft. (288 in.)
!
!
!
#
"
#

$
"
!"#
!%#
!&#
W24x68
M
cr
(kip-in) Case 1 Case 2
M
1
/M
2
= -1 3,602 12,120
M
1
/M
2
= +1 9,838 27,414
Case 1: Braces at ends
Case 2: Braces at ends
and mid-span
Observations:
L =24 ft. (288 in.)
3.36
M
cr
increases as L
b
is reduced
2.73
M
cr
increases as moment gradient increases
An inflection point is not a brace point!
2.79
LN6. Beam Besign by Elastic
anu Inelastic Analyses
Leaining 0bjectives
" Compaie uesigns of continuous beams using
elastic anu inelastic analyses
" 0bseive pios anu cons of each uesign methou
" Employ AISC's 91u
ths
moment ieuistiibution
allowance
" Investigate foicemoment ieuistiibution that
occuis as a iesult of membei yieluing.

"Pieuiction is veiy uifficult, especially about the futuie."
Niels Bohi
Banish Physicist
(188S - 1962)
LN6: Elastic vs. Inelastic Besign
!
"
"#$%&' ($%&' "#$%&' )$%&'
* + , -
B /&414C
1. All membeis W16x31, P
u
= .
2. W27x84, W16x31, W18x35, P
u
= .
S. All membeis same size, P
u
= 200k, min. weight.
4. Nembeis sizes may vaiy, P
u
= 200k, min. weight.

D 6A-/ E14"F@4C
Elastic vs. Elastic 91u vs. Inelastic
W27x84 W16x31 W18x35
100 kip
Case 2: Inelastic Analysis
P
u
= 101.3 kip Wt = 1.881 kip P
u
/ Wt = 53.84
!
"
"#$%&' ($%&' "#$%&' )$%&'
* + , -
AlSC A8 8C Cu !
"
8aLlo WelghL 8aLlo
ueslgn MeLhod 12'-0" 18'-0" 9'-0" klps !
"
/!
"#$%&'()*$+
klps !
"
/ ,*
a. LlasLlc W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 83.23 0.841 1.209 70.30
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 94.70 0.933 1.209 78.33
c. lnelasLlc W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 101.30 1.000 1.209 83.79
a. LlasLlc W27x84 W16x31 W18x33 76.97 0.760 1.881 40.92
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W27x84 W16x31 W18x33 83.32 0.844 1.881 43.47
c. lnelasLlc W27x84 W16x31 W18x33 101.28 1.000 1.881 33.84
a. LlasLlc W24x33 W24x33 W24x33 200 - 2.143 93.24
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W21x33 W21x33 W21x33 200 - 2.143 93.24
c. lnelasLlc W21x30 W21x30 W21x30 200 - 1.930 102.36
a. LlasLlc W18x40 W24x62 W18x33 200 - 1.911 104.66
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W18x33 W24x62 W14x26 200 - 1.770 112.99
c. lnelasLlc W10x13 W24x76 W10x13 200 - 1.683 118.84
C
a
s
e

4
Member LengLhs and Slzes
C
a
s
e

1
C
a
s
e

2
C
a
s
e

3
Anu the winnei is.
AISC Inelastic Besign!
AlSC A8 8C Cu
!
"
8aLlo WelghL 8aLlo
ueslgn MeLhod 12'-0" 18'-0" 9'-0" klps !
"
/!
"#$%&'()*$+
klps !
"
/ ,*
a. LlasLlc W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 83.23 0.841 1.209 70.30
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 94.70 0.933 1.209 78.33
c. lnelasLlc W16x31 W16x31 W16x31 101.30 1.000 1.209 83.79
a. LlasLlc W27x84 W16x31 W18x33 76.97 0.760 1.881 40.92
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W27x84 W16x31 W18x33 83.32 0.844 1.881 43.47
c. lnelasLlc W27x84 W16x31 W18x33 101.28 1.000 1.881 33.84
a. LlasLlc W24x33 W24x33 W24x33 200 - 2.143 93.24
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W21x33 W21x33 W21x33 200 - 2.143 93.24
c. lnelasLlc W21x30 W21x30 W21x30 200 - 1.930 102.36
a. LlasLlc W18x40 W24x62 W18x33 200 - 1.911 104.66
b. LlasLlc 9/10
Lh
W18x33 W24x62 W14x26 200 - 1.770 112.99
c. lnelasLlc W10x13 W24x76 W10x13 200 - 1.683 118.84
C
a
s
e

4
Member LengLhs and Slzes
C
a
s
e

1
C
a
s
e

2
C
a
s
e

3
LN7. Seconu-oiuei Effects
(!-A anu !-o) Effects
Leaining 0bjectives
" Employ seconu-oiuei elastic analysis
" 0bseive the ielationship between extent of
moment amplification anu !!
)

" Investigate the impact of single oi uouble
(ieveise) cuivatuie benuing has on the
uegiee of moment amplification
" Compute anu assess the AISC moment
amplification factoi E
1
uefineu in App. 8

%&''( )'*+,- . /0' /1(' 23 /42
5+&+'*

It was the best of times
(plug'n chug the equations anu
being able with the table)
it was the woist of times
(being iesponsible foi ieally
unueistanuing the behavioi)

-Lay Z. Stuuent

1
st
-oiuei vs. 2
nu
-oiuei
P

0
.
2

k
i
p
/
f
t

2
8

-
0


P

1.0 kip
2
8

-
0


!

"
"
"
#
#$%&'(
M
1
/M
2
= +0.75, 0.0, -0.75
P/P
e
= 0, 0.1, 0.2,!,0.9
W14x48
W
1
4
x
4
8

W
1
4
x
4
8

P/P
e
=
0.000,
0.122,
0.244,
0.367
P/P
e
=
0.000,
0.326,
0.489,
0.652
Rigoious
vs.
B
1
, B
2
M
max
1st
= 200 k-in
M
max
2nd
= 391 k-in
B
1
Computation
=
391
200
=1.96
M
1
1st
= !150 k-in
M
2
1st
= +200 k-in = M
max
1st
( )
C
m
= 0.6 !0.4 !150 +200
( )
= 0.9
P P
e
= 0.5 B
1
AISC
=
0.9
1!0.5
=1.8
M
max
2nd
= B
1
AISC
M
max
1st
M
max
2nd
=1.8"200 =360 k-in
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
!
"
#
$
%
&

(
)
)
*
+
,
-
.
+
&
"
%
/

0
1

232$
2nd-order elasuc AlSC 81
B
1
P/P
e
M
1
/ M
2
= -0.75

M
1
/ M
2
=+0.75

M
1
/ M
2
= 0.0

!

"
"
"
#
#$%&'(
W14x48
Thanks to Ban Tamaikin
LN8. Stiength of Beam-Columns
Leaining 0bjectives
" Axial plus majoi- oi minoi-axis flexuie
" Stiength limit state behavioi of beam-
columns, incluuing full yieluing to elastic
inelastic flexuial anu lateial toisional
buckling
" Piepaie inteiaction cuives (!!
3
- $$
8
)
" Compaie iesults of the AISC inteiaction
equation anu computational analysis

<6F 1+ 0G) A9)07GH AG5+) ,)()9IA)1B)6JF K5'60+H
:'B) +09)6L0G.)++ G'6L)+H 2-7B.) -6F)9 .',)HM

Pait II, King Beniy the Fouith
W. Shakespeaie
1S99
LN8
! W14xSS (A992), :
2
= 1S ft.
! Investigateu:
" P-M
major
" P-M
minor
! Pioviueu iange of P-M
end
's
that satisfy AISC inteiaction
eq. B1-1 (stuuent's to confiim)
! Beteimineu stiength accoiuing
to 2
nu
-oiuei inelastic analysis
! Wiue iange of failuie moues
incluuing: full yieluing, elastic
inelastic -LTB, -FTB

!
#
!"#
#
!"#
!
!
#
!"#
#
!"#
!
!"!!
!"$!
!"%!
!"&!
!"'!
!"(!
!")!
!"!! !"%! !"'! !")! !"*! $"!!
+,-.
/+-0+1%
+2,1+
P / P
y
M / M
px
P + M
major
!"!!
!"$!
!"%!
!"&!
!"'!
!"(!
!")!
!"!! !"%! !"'! !")! !"*! $"!! $"%!
+,-.
/+-0+1%
P / P
y
M/M
py
P + M
minor
LN9. Besign by the
Biiect Analysis Nethou
Leaining 0bjectives
" Apply the Biiect Analysis Nethou.
" 2
nu
-oiuei analyses to ueteimine !
-
's anu $
-
's
" 0tilize notional loaus in place of uiiect
moueling of !
o
anu %
b
" Piactice with inteiaction equation
" 0se the iatio of 2
nu
- to 1
st
-oiuei uiifts as an
inuicatoi of a system's sensitivity to 2
nu
-oiuei
effects.

AISC Specification
/0G /9GD
S. Aujustments to Stiffness
The analysis of the stiuctuie
to ueteimine the iequiieu
stiengths of components
shall use ieuuceu stiffnesses,
as follows:
(1) A factoi of u.8u shall be
applieu to all stiffnesses that
aie consiueieu to contiibute
to the stability of the
stiuctuie
AISC Specification
/0G /9GD
S. Aujustments to Stiffness
The analysis of the stiuctuie
to ueteimine the iequiieu
stiengths of components
shall use ieuuceu stiffnesses,
as follows:
(1) A factoi of u.8u shall be
applieu to all stiffnesses that
aie consiueieu to contiibute
to the stability of the
stiuctuie
Peihaps I
shoulu have
gone with tiees
as the lateial
system.
W
1
2
x
3
8

(
L
y
p
)

1wo arLs:
1. WlLh !
"
= 100 klps, check deslgn:
a. uM wlLh expllclL modellng of !
o

and "
b
b. uM wlLh equlvalenL nouonal
loads
2. ueLermlne maxlmum !
"
LhaL sauses
AlSC Spec. by employlng uM wlLh
expllclL modellng of !
o
and "
b
W24x76
20'-0"
1
2
'
-
0
"

!
"
!
"
0.1!
"
)5H
uuiues stuuent thiough a uesign check of a simple
system using the Biiect Analysis Nethou
LN9
! Also incluues making a compaiison with 2
nu
-
oiuei inelastic analysis accoiuing to AISC
Appenuix 1 piovisions.
! Noie Fun!
" Requests uesign check by Effective Length Nethou
anu 1
st
-0iuei Analysis Nethou, both appeaiing in
AISC Appenuix 7
(BN: C = 1, !
6
= 6uSk anu ELF: C = 2.1, !
6
= 27Sk)
! veiy inteiesting compaiisons.
Lessons Leaineu
! All mouules fully testeu in my CENu4uS-
Besign of Steel Stiuctuies couise
! Stuuents:
" Leain to ieau anu follow instiuctions
" Finu NS Excel LN spieausheets key to quickly
piepaie compaiative tables
" Enjoy the LN Tutoiials available on YouTube.com
" Welcome oppoitunity to employ stiuctuial
analysis softwaie
" Benefiteu fiom the hanus-on appioach to leaining
stiuctuial stability
Futuie Nouules
! Youi suggestions!
" e-mail me at ziemianbucknell.euu
! Yuia's &'() *+),-. /012'.'03 4567)80+
" leaning column
" biacing (neaily complete!)
" some alieauy incluueu in LN's.
! Stability of slenuei cioss-sections
" C0-FSN
C0-FSN
http:www.ce.jhu.euubschafeicufsm
Summaiy
! viitual Laboiatoiy
! Revieweu 9 Leaining Nouules ielateu
to stiuctuial stability
! Each Nouule incluues:
" Assignment (PBF, NS Woiu)
" NS Excel Spieausheet of key tables
" Links to LN tutoiials on YouTube.com
! Encouiage you to tiy some oi all.
! Customizing of LN's peimitteu!
Questions.