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Fluency, only through idea units You want to achieve a high level of fluency in spoken English.

And this is only possible if youre aware of certain fundamental things. So lets start off with them. Speech comes first, and writing, only next You know, the first thing you should understand about a language is this: A language has two sides, like a coin. Yes, two sides. A spoken side and a written side. Listen. Doesnt a child learn to speak long before it sees writing !adnt people been speaking" long before writing came So isnt one thing clear # that the $spoken stage of a language comes before the $written stage %snt this also clear # that $speech and $writing are different things" and arent to be looked at or learnt in the same way &his is true about any language. %ts true about English" too. Dont you get one thing now Dont you see why most non'native speakers of English find it hard to speak fluent English Non-native speakers learn English the wrong way By non-native speakers of nglish, ! "ean people for who" nglish is not their first language or "other-tongue, but a second language # or $ust a foreign language. You see, for people in !ndia, nglish is a foreign language # but its also a second language. %or people in several other countries, nglish is si"ply a foreign language, and not even a second language. (ost non'native speakers of English find it hard to speak English fluently" because they cant learn English the way they learn their first language. You see" theyre born and brought up in a country where English is not spoken as the first language. And so they can only learn English in the wrong way) %n a way that is *ust the reverse of the natural process of language ac+uisition. !avent we seen *ust now what the natural way is !avent we seen that the natural way is to learn to speak first" and then only to learn to write ,ut most non'native speakers of English dont have the opportunity of learning English in that way. So you see" as a non'native speaker of English" youve been learning English in the $non'natural way # in a way thats opposite to the natural way of language ac+uisition. Youve been learning to write English first" rather than to speak it. &hats what youve been doing at school and college. Youve been learning to produce written English. And the methods you had to follow never fully made you understand this) &he $spoken style is +uite different from the $written style.

You see" the spoken word is the basis for the written word" and not the other way round. And so spoken English is more fundamental than written English. ,ut the non'natural way in which you had to learn English planted the wrong notion in your mind) A wrong notion that things are the other way round # that written English is more fundamental than spoken English. So the result is this) Youre now steeped in written English. And your written English orientation has been preventing you all along from understanding one thing. %t has been preventing you from understanding that spontaneous speech has to be composed differently # that is" in a way +uite different from the way writing is produced. -esult You always try to speak the way you write. And you do this by trying hard to follow principles of grammar and usage as applied to writing" and not as applied to speech itself. %s there any wonder fluency has eluded you so far So % want you to understand one thing here and now) .hen they speak spontaneously" fluent speakers apply principles of grammar and usage in a way that is different from the way they apply those principles when they write. And the spoken style has a number of devices and conventions of its own" and these devices and conventions are not derived from the written style. earning words alone wont help &ow $ust think about this: 'uppose you learn a nu"ber of nglish words very well # say, a nice big stock of the". (hen, will you be able to speak nglish fluently) !" sure you know the answer. (he answer is, you wont. You wont be able to speak nglish fluently $ust because youve "astered all the co""on words there are. !f this hadnt been so, would speaking have been a proble") !n fact, you "ay yourself have an e*cellent vocabulary. +hy, even a student who has co"pleted high school knows all the co""on words we use in everyday spoken nglish, But, is every student who co"pletes high school able to speak fluent nglish) (he truth is, even "ost post-graduates arent able to speak nglish fluently # even though they know all the nglish words co""only used in speech, +hy is this so) -eres a chief reason: .eople who arent fluent try to speak in words, by trying to put individual words together. (heyre not aware that this is not the right way of speaking nglish. (he right way to speak nglish is
to speak it in /word groups0, by putting word groups together # and to use individual words only when an individual word can do the work of a word group. (his is because the real units of speech are ideas 1or infor"ation2. And ideas nor"ally get e*pressed in groups of words, rather than in individual words.

!ite-si"ed pieces of ideas 'o the point you should understand is this: &atural speech co"es out in units or very short pieces of ideas. And "ost often, these units of

ideas are said and heard in groups of words. 'o"eti"es theyre said and heard in individual words, too. Lets take a look at a few spoken te/ts" so that you can get a clear idea of all this. !ere we go) 0 !e unlocked the front door 1 and we went in 1 and he said 1 %ll be back in a minute 1 and he went upstairs 1 so % remained in the hall 1 and then the phone started ringing 1 and he shouted to me to answer it 1 and % picked up the receiver 1 and % said $hello 1 but the person at the other end suddenly hung up 1 so % replaced the receiver. 0 !e passed the e/am 1 with a very high score 1 and he was thrilled 1 very pleased 1 and happy 1 and he treated us to ice'cream 1 the very ne/t day. 0 &hey were close friends 1 and they had similar opinions 1 and similar ideas 1 attitudes 1 and theyve worked together 1 on several pro*ects. 0 She gave him something to eat 1 something soft and thick 1 sticky 1 a toffee' like thing. 0 %ts a bit heavy 1 and so you cant move it easily 1 from place to place 1 but it doesnt take up much space 1 so you can put it in your bedroom 1 or in the hall. 0 Actually 1 % dont like that idea 1 though % cant say anything against it 1 because % cant give any reasons 1 and % dont know why % have this feeling 1 but something in me tells me 1 that this idea may not work 1 and it may even achieve the opposite result 1 from the one we want to achieve 1 and that is not going to be a good thing. 2o through these five e/amples. &hree of them contain one one'word idea unit each. Did you spot them the first time you went through the e/amples. %f you didnt" why dont you try and spot them now #ow does natural speech come out$ +hen a child wants so"ething, what does it say) !t says: /3ive it to "e0. 4o you think the child first learns the words 3ive, it, to, and "e separately, and, then connects the" together) +hen a child doesnt want a thing, it says: /! dont want it0. +hen a child gets tired of walking, and wants to be carried, it says: /.ick "e up0. 4o you think the child first learns the words !, dont, want, it, pick, "e, and up separately, and, then, connects the" also together) 3or the child" 42ive it to me5 is the same as a single word $givitumee" and not four separate words. 4% dont want it5 is the same as a single word $Aidonwantit" and not four separate words. 46ick me up5 is the same thing as a single word

$6ickmeeyup" and not three separate words. &he child says each of these word groups as a single utterance without any gap between any two words. %t doesnt make separate utterances for each of the words in a word group. &he child says each word group as a single unit # as though it were a single word. &his is what normally happens when a fluent native speaker of English speaks English. And this is what normally happens when a fluent native speaker of any other language speaks that language. &hink about what happens in your own mother'tongue. 7otice how you yourself speak in your own mother'tongue. %hat does natural speech come out in$ %ro" what !ve said so far, dont you see one thing) &or"ally, natural speech doesnt co"e out in words. !t co"es out in word groups. 'trictly speaking, natural speech co"es out neither in single words nor even in word-groups. Actually, it co"es out in units of ideas. 5f course, "ost often, these units of ideas get e*pressed through "ultiword units 16 word-groups2 # and so"eti"es in single words. 7ow listen) .hat was the child doing when it had said 42ive it to me5 .asnt the child *ust giving e/pression to a unit of 4idea5 or a 4thought5 or a piece of 4information5 &he idea 8or thought or information9 came up in its mind" and it *ust made an utterance # an utterance that the child thought would e/press that idea 8or thought or information9. &his was so when it had said 4% dont want it5 and 46ick me up5" too. Actually" this is always so. :hildren always speak in their mother tongue by uttering idea by idea" and not word by word. So do adults" and everyone who speaks their mother'tongue fluently. .hen they speak spontaneously" do fluent speakers consciously search through their brain for word after word 7o" normally" they dont. Do they consciously stop to think about how to string the words together 7o" normally they dont. &hey *ust say what they have in mind by using such vocabulary items as occur readily to them # spontaneously and without any conscious effort. And normally" the stretches of speech that come out happen to be in groups of words. ,ut how do they get this skill ... Speech &eneration ' Flow (roduction ,y 6rof. ;ev 7air <Speech Generation & Flow Production" shows how the principles of speech generation can help you keep up an easy flow of spontaneous speech< = )he New *ndian Express.

6lease note) &his book is not sold separately. %t is available for sale only as part of Fluentzy) &he English 3luency Encyclopedia. Sample pages from this +ook Speech-generation Technique &hroughout this course" youIll be made to do several drills and e/ercises. &hose drills and e/ercises have one and only one aim) &o make you fluent in speaking genuine English. 7ow" when do you become fluent You become fluent when youIre able to speak with a free flow of English. And when do you get that flow You get that flow when you can speak on without your speech getting broken up in the middle. .hen will you be able to say that you can speak on without your speech getting broken up You can say that" when youIre able to keep on <generating< as much <speech< as you want ' without much conscious effort. earning +y heart is N,) a solution &ow let us stop and think for a bit. +e7re talking about 8generating8 1that is, 8producing82 speech. And that7s not all. +e7re talking about generating 7as "uch speech as you want7. 7ow how is it possible to generate Ias muchI speech as you want Let me ask you one thing) %s there any limit to the number of idea units in English 7o" of course not. &here can be millions and millions of idea units" because people can speak in millions and millions of different word' combinations. &here are so many idea units that are possible that we canIt even count them up. .hen that is so" is it possible for anyone to learn them all by heart .hy speak about learning them all by heartJ :an we learn even one half or one' fourth or even one'hundredth of them by heart 7o" we canIt. 7obody can. 7ot even people whose Sample Pages from the Fluentzy Book Set ,>) %dea units ? 3luency ,@) Speech 2eneration ? 3low 6roduction ,A) &eaching your &ongue ? Speech -hythm ,B) ;ey Speech' initiators ? Speech'unit 6atterns S>) 3luency in 3unctional English 8Col.>9 S@) 3luency in 3unctional English 8Col.@9 SA) 3luency in &elephone English and Sectoral English ,D) !ow to Deal with !esitation ,E) Fral &raining in 3luency Cocabulary 8Col.>9 ,G) 6acking of %nformation in Speech ,H) %mpromptu

first language is EnglishJ Even then" donIt we find one thing DonIt we find that fluent people are able to IgenerateI idea unit after idea unit !avenIt you noticed that people are able to produce InewerI and InewerI idea units every time they speak Kust think about your own mother'tongue. Do you utter only the same idea units day after day" in all situations DonIt you utter InewerI and InewerI idea units from moment to moment ' idea units with some change or the other Ff course" you do. Everybody doesJ &enerative Feature ' &enerative Structures (he point ! want you to understand is this: (he nu"ber of idea units in a language is countless, and so nobody can learn the" all by heart. But still, people are able to 7produce7 as
"any idea units as they want. You see, they7re able to do that, not because they7ve learnt all those idea units by heart. &o. (here7s another reason: (hey7re able to take advantage of a special feature of their language - the generative feature.

Speech'flow &echni+ues. SB) 3luency ,uilding and (outh 2ymnastics SD) 3luency in speaking about people ,L) 3luency in Asking Muestions ,>N) Fral &raining in 3luency Cocabulary 8Col.@9 ,>>) 3luency ? (oment'to' (oment Speech' production ,>@) Fral &raining in 3luency Cocabulary 8Col.A9 SE) 3luency in &opicwise English 8Col.>9 SG) 3luency ? 6ronunciation SH) 3luency in &opicwise English 8Col.@9

And what is this generative feature Every language has its own way of making up idea units. &hat is" it has its own IstructuresI. Some of those structures are fundamental. &hey are fundamental" because you canIt do without them. You cant do without them" because of this reason) %f you master those structures" youIll be able to generate as many idea units as you want" because those structures act as frame'works or skeletons of idea units. 7ormally" there cannot be any idea units that do not fit into these frame'works. So suppose that youIve mastered the frame'works of idea units. &hen half the work in making up idea units is over. .hy All you need to do then is to fill up the frame'works with ready'to'use vocabulary items and other words and word groups that can e/press your ideas. &his is not difficult" either" because the type of the frame'work will tell you what kinds of words to use. Each time you fill up a frame'work" you get an idea unit.

So the fundamental structures in a language have the capacity to generate or give birth to any number of idea units. Lets call these structures <2enerative Structures< 82Ss9. #ow does the &enerative Feature work$ !f you "aster a li"ited nu"ber of 3's in a language, you7ll be able to generate an unli"ited a"ount of speech in that language. (his is what we call the generative feature of a language. Let me now show you how the generative feature works in practice. &ake a very common type of idea unit as an e/ample) !e is a science teacher. 3rom this idea unit" we can generate a number of other idea units as follows) 0 She is a science teacher. 2opal is a science teacher. (y brother is a science teacher. &hat lady near the door is a science teacher. ,oth of them are science teachers. 9 -e is a history teacher. -e is a teacher. -e is a genius. -e is a clever boy. -e is the person ! told you about. -e is an e*pert at doing these things. 9 -e isn7t a science teacher. -e was a science teacher. -e wasn7t a science teacher. (hey aren7t science teachers. -e sounds to be a science teacher. You can multiply your idea units in this way to any number. !ere you can note one thing) All these >E idea units have the same pattern) 7aming word 8group9 ''O Linking words ''O 7aming word 8group9. An underlying pattern like this is called a

<structure<. %n the >E idea unit e/amples" the 7aming wordPword groups on the left'hand side are) !ePSheP2opalP(y brotherP&he lady near the doorP,oth of themP&hey. &he Linking words in the middle are) isPisntPareParentPwasPwasntPsounds to be. &he 7aming wordPword group on the right'hand side are) a science teacherPa history teacherPa teacherPa geniusPa clever boyPthe person % told you aboutPan e/pert at doing these things. -&eneration- through -su+stitution-ow do we "ultiply idea units in this way) +e do that by using a new 1and appropriate2 word or word group in place of another word or word group. (hus we used 7Gopal7 in place of 7-e7: 7a clever boy7 in place of 7a science
teacher7: 7isn't7 in place of is. (his techni;ue of using a new and appropriate word or word group in place of another word or word group - this techni;ue is called 8substitution8.

#ow to +ecome skilled at -su+stitution-$ !f you want to beco"e skilled at 7substitution7, you "ust know two things: >9 You must know what wordsPword groups to use in place of othersQ and @9 You must know how to fit those wordsPword groups in the 2Ss. .ore words/ %ords of the most general utility !f you want to decide what words and word groups to use in place of another, you "ust have a close, inti"ate knowledge of the 8core words8 in nglish. &ow what do ! "ean by 8a close, inti"ate knowledge of the

core words8) ! "ean the following: 0 A thorough knowledge of 8a9 how 8b9 where and 8c9 when to use the core wordsQ A7D 0 &he way one core word is related to another. And what are these core words You see" there are about D"NN"NNN words in the English language. ,ut most of these are highly technical words and words that are archaic" obsolete or dialectal. You wont normally meet them even in print. 7o. &ake an educated native speaker of English of the level of a college'graduate. Do you know how many words they would be able to recognize while reading About @D"NNN words. &hatIs all. So their recognition voca+ulary is about @D"NNN words. Fut of these" can you say how many words they normally use %n writing" they use about >N"NNN to >D"NNN words. &hatIs all. So their writing voca+ulary is about >N"NNN to >D"NNN words. And donIt think that all these >N"NNN to >D"NNN words are e+ually important. 7o" theyIre not. %n fact" about GDR of all their vocabulary needs in writing is met by a mere @NNN of these words alone. So a native speaker of English makes use of about >N"NNN to >D"NNN words in writing. :an you say how many words out of these they actually use in speech You see" in everyday speech" they only make use of about @NNN to ADNN of these words. And in serious conversations" or when they speak about a wide variety of sub*ects" they make use of about BGNN words. &hatIs all. And note this) Kust as in writing" more than GDR of all their vocabulary needs in speech is met by *ust about @NNN words. You see" most words other than these BGNN words usually sound out of place in speech ' even to the ears of a native speaker of English. .hy ,ecause they generally meet these other words only in writing. So if you speak using very many

words other than these BGNN words" your hearers are likely to mark you down as a pedant" or even as an idiot. 3or e/ample" in conversation" no native speaker of English would say" <E/tinguish your cigarette<. %nstead" they would normally say" <6ut out your cigarette<. So the normal speaking voca+ulary of an educated native speaker of English is *ust about @NNN to ADNN words. &hese are the most essential of the BGNN core words. ,ut remember three things) 0 %f the person youIre speaking to is not very well' educated" youId normally use only around @NNN words or fewer. ,ut if youIre speaking to an educated hearer" youId even make use of the full range of @NNN to ADNN words. And in serious conversations" you might even make use of as many as BGNN odd words. 0 Apart from the core words" you may also have to use a few special words depending on the topic youIre speaking about. 3or e/ample" if youIre speaking about the topic of fluency building" you may have to use the word IutteranceI. &his is not a fre+uently'used word" but a special word. Similarly" if your topic is politics" you may have to use the word IdefectionI. &his is not a fre+uently'used word" but a special word. So remember this) Each sub*ect has its own special words" and in speech" youIll have to use those special words also ' in addition to the core words. 0 DonIt imagine that a list of BGNN words is short and easy enough to master. You see" these BGNN words can combine among themselves in many different ways. And they can give rise to thousands of other vocabulary items like phrasal verbs" collocations" fi/ed e/pressions" set phrases and idioms. YouIll be getting a list of the BGNN core words in two instalments. %n Lesson A" youIll be getting a list of polysyllabic core words. &here are A>D@ of them. And in Lesson E" youIll be getting a list of monosyllabic core words. &here are >E>@ of them.

&ogether" they make up a collection of BGEB core words.

0ey speech-initiators !asic speech-initiators +ere now going to take up a "ost i"portant ite" of practice. Fne reason why people lack fluency in English'speech is this) &heir tongue and other organs of speech find it difficult to start saying idea units. Let me e/plain) %f you want to say anything" you have to start your utterances. &hat is" you have to start speaking. &he initial words in almost all idea units are simple words like $%" $have" $are" etc. &hese simple words combine together in various ways" and these word combinations are the initial parts of most idea units. &hese combinations look simple" and its easy to start writing them. ,ut note one thing) &hese combinations are not easy to say freely. Fur tongues and other speech organs do not *ust yield to these initial word combinations easily. &hats why people find it difficult to start their idea units. You see" a stretch of speech is a chain made up of several idea units. At the beginning of each idea unit" the speech'organs show reluctance to say the initial word combinations" and the flow of speech breaks up. &he only way to overcome this difficulty is this) 2et your organs of speech to become familiar with the initial word combinations. And the only way to do this is to practise # by uttering these initial word combinations ALFSD several times. All the common combinations are given below. &hese combinations start or initiate speech units" and so we can call them speech initiators. Dont shrug your shoulders and think that this practice is too elementary. 7o. &his practice is not an elementary or non'essential practice. &his is an essential practice. Ff course" meaningwise" the word groups given below are all elementary. &heyre all simple and straightforward and are made up of the most basic words in English # words that you learn when you first begin to learn English at school. ,ut remember this) &he aim in getting you to do the following drill is not to teach you the meaning of words. 7o. &he aim is to train your organs of speech in uttering these word groups easily. (ind you" though these word groups are all elementary" speakers who are not fluent normally stumble over them # no matter how highly educated they are. Yes" non'fluent speakers trip up when they utter these word groups" lose their balance of speech'delivery and falter. &hats why the drill youre going to do with the speech initiators is e/tremely important. Fnce you start the practice" youll

realiTe how stiff your organs of speech had been # while uttering these word groups. And once you complete the practice" youll realiTe how supple theyve started becoming. So lets go for it. 6ick up each word combination and say it several times # ALFSD. &roup 1/ 0 % have. 0 % havent. 0 % had. 0 % hadnt. 0 % have a. 0 % havent a. 0 % had a. 0 % hadnt a. 0 % have got a. 0 % havent got a. 0 % have to. 0 % had to. 0 % have got to. 0 % have been. 0 % havent been. 0 % had been. 0 % hadnt been. 0 % have been the. 0 % havent been the. 0 % had been the. 0 % hadnt been the. 0 % have been able to. 0 % havent been able to. 0 % had been able to. 0 % hadnt been able to. &roup 2/ 0 % dont. 0 % didnt. 0 % dont have to. 0 % didnt have to. 0 % dont have an. 0 % didnt have an. 7ote) -epeat the e/ercise with the word groups in 2roup % and 2roup %% by substituting for the word $% # 8i9 first $.e" 8ii9 then $&hey" and 8iii9 then $You. &hat is" utter the word group in these two groups first by using $.e in place of $%" then by using $&hey in place of $%" and then by using $You in place of $%. &roup 3/ 0 !e has. 0 !e hasnt. 0 !e had. 0 !e hadnt. 0 !e has a. 0 !e hasnt a. 0 !e had a. 0 !e hadnt a. 0 !e has got a. 0 !e hasnt got a. 0 !e has to. 0 !e has got to. 0 !e had to. 0 !e has been. 0 !e hasnt been. 0 !e had been. 0 !e hadnt been. 0 !e has been the. 0 !e hasnt been the. 0 !e had been the. 0 !e hadnt been the. 0 !e has been able to. 0 !e hasnt been able to. 0 !e had been able to. 0 !e hadnt been able to. &roup 4/ 0 !e is. 0 !e isnt. 0 !e is an. 0 !e isnt an. 0 !e was. 0 !e wasnt. 0 !e was a. 0 !e wasnt a. 0 !e was the. 0 !e wasnt the. 0 !e is to. 0 !e isnt to. 0 !e was to. 0 !e wasnt to. 0 !e is able to. 0 !e isnt able to. 0 !e was able to. 0 !e wasnt able to. 0 !e is going to. 0 !e isnt going to. 0 !e was going to. 0 !e wasnt going to. 0 !e is going to be a. 0 !e isnt going to be the. 0 !e is going to be. 0 !e isnt going to be. &roup 5/ 0 !e doesnt. 0 !e didnt. 0 !e doesnt have to. 0 !e didnt have to. 0 !e doesnt have a. 0 !e didnt have the.

7ote) -epeat the e/ercise with the word groups in 2roups %%%" %C ? C by substituting for the word $!e # 8i9 first $She" and 8ii9 then $%t. &roup 6/ 0 % am. 0 % am not. 0 % am a. 0 % am not a. 0 % was. 0 % wasnt. 0 % was an. 0 % wasnt the. 0 % am to. 0 % am not to. 0 % was to. 0 % was not to. 0 % am able to. 0 % am not able to. 0 % was able to. 0 % wasnt able to. 0 % am going to. 0 % am not going to. 0 % was going to. 0 % wasnt going to. 0 % am going to be an. 0 % am not going to be a. 0 % am going to be. 0 % am not going to be. &roup 7/ 0 .e are. 0 .e arent. 0 .e are the. 0 .e are not the. 0 .e were. 0 .e werent. 0 .e were the. 0 .e were not the. 0 .e are to. 0 .e are not to. 0 .e were to. 0 .e were not to. 0 .e are able to. 0 .e are not able to. 0 .e were able to. 0 .e werent able to. 0 .e are going to. 0 .e are not going to. 0 .e were going to. 0 .e werent going to. 0 .e are going to be the. 0 .e arent going to be the. 0 .e are going to be. 0 .e arent going to be. 7ote) -epeat the e/ercise first by substituting the word $&hey for the word $.e. &hat is" say $&hey are" $&hey arent" $&hey are the etc. several times. Thereafter" repeat the e/ercise by substituting $You for $.e. &roup 8/ 0 % can. 0 % cant. 0 % could. 0 % couldnt. 0 % cant have. 0 % could have. 0 % couldnt have. 0 % can be. 0 % cant be. 0 % can be the. 0 % cant be the. 0 % cant have been. 0 % could have been. 0 % couldnt have been. 0 % cant have been the. 0 % couldnt have been the. &roup 9/ 0 % may. 0 % may not. 0 % might. 0 % might not. 0 % may have. 0 % may not have. 0 % may be. 0 % may not be. 0 % may have been. 0 % may not have been. 0 % may be the. 0 % may not be the. 0 % may have been the. 0 % may not have been the. 0 % may have been able to. 0 % may not have been able to. &roup 1:/ 0 % must. 0 % mustnt. 0 % must have. 0 % mustnt have. 0 % must be. 0 % mustnt be. 0 % must have been. 0 % mustnt have been. 0 % must be the. 0 % mustnt be the. 0 % must have been the. 0 % mustnt have been the. 0 % must have been able to. 0 % mustnt have been able to. &roup 11/

0 % neednt. 0 % neednt have. 0 % neednt be. 0 % neednt have been. 0 % neednt be the. 0 % neednt have been the. 0 % neednt have been able to. &roup 12/ 0 % ought to. 0 % oughtnt to. 0 % ought to have. 0 % oughtnt to have. 0 % ought to be. 0 % oughtnt to be. 0 % ought to have been. 0 % oughtnt to have been. 0 % ought to be the. 0 % oughtnt to be the. 0 % ought to have been the. 0 % oughtnt to have been the. 0 % ought to be able to. 0 % oughtnt to be able to. &roup 13/ 0 % should. 0 % shouldnt. 0 % should have. 0 % shouldnt have. 0 % should be. 0 % shouldnt be. 0 % should have been. 0 % shouldnt have been. 0 % should be the. 0 % shouldnt be the. 0 % should have been the. 0 % shouldnt have been the. 0 % should be able to. 0 % shouldnt be able to. &roup 14/ 0 % used to. 0 % didnt use to. 0 % never used to. &roup 15/ 0 % had better. 0 % had better not. 7ote) -epeat the e/ercise with the word groups in 2roups H to >D by substituting for the word $% # 8i9 first $!e 8ii9 then $She 8iii9 then $%t 8iv9 then $.e 8v9 then $&hey" and 8vi9 then $You. &roup 16/ 0 % shall. 0 % shant. 0 %ll. 0 % wont. 0 % would. 0 % wouldnt. 0 % shall have. 0 % shant have. 0 %ll have. 0 % wont have. 0 %d have. 0 % wouldnt have. 0 % shall be. 0 % shant be. 0 %ll be. 0 % wont be. 0 %d be. 0 % wouldnt be. 0 % shall be the. 0 %ll be the. 0 % wont be the. 0 %d be the. 0 % wouldnt be the. 0 %ll have been. 0 % wont have been. 0 %d have been. 0 % wouldnt have been. 0 %ll be able to. 0 % wont be able to. 0 %d be able to. 0 % wouldnt be able to. &roup 17/ 0 % should like to. 0 % shouldnt like to. 0 %d like to. 0 % wouldnt like to. 0 %d have liked to. 0 % wouldnt have liked to. 7ote) -epeat the e/ercise with the word groups in 2roups >E ? >G by using $.e in place of $%.

&roup 18/ 0 !e will. 0 !e wont. 0 !e would. 0 !e wouldnt. 0 !ell have. 0 !e wont have. 0 !ed have. 0 !e wouldnt have. 0 !ell be. 0 !e wont be. 0 !ed be. 0 !e wouldnt be. 0 !ell have been. 0 !e wont have been. 0 !ed have been. 0 !e wouldnt have been. 0 !ell be able to. 0 !e wouldnt be able to. 0 !ed be able to. 0 !e wouldnt be able to. &roup 19/ 0 !ed like to. 0 !e wouldnt like to. 0 !ed have liked to. 7ote) -epeat the e/ercise with the word groups in 2roups >H ? >L by substituting for $!e # 8i9 first the word $She" 8ii9 then $%t" 8iii9 then $&hey" and 8iv9 then $You. &roup 2:/ 0 &here is. 0 &here is a. 0 &here is no. 0 &here are. 0 &here are no. 0 &here was. 0 &here was a. 0 &here was no. 0 &here were. 0 &here were no. 0 &here isnt. 0 &here arent. 0 &here wasnt. 0 &here werent. 0 &here has been. 0 &here hasnt been. 0 &here have been. 0 &here havent been. 0 &here had been. 0 &here hadnt been. 0 &here has been no. 0 &here have been no. 0 &here had been no. 0 &herell be. 0 &here wont be. 0 &hered be. 0 &here wouldnt be. 0 &herell be no. 0 &hered be no. 0 &here can be. 0 &here cant be. 0 &here could be. 0 &here couldnt be. 0 &here can be no. 0 &here could be no. 0 &here may be. 0 &here may not be. 0 &here might be. 0 &here might not be. 0 &here may be no. 0 &here might be no. 0 &here must be. 0 &here mustnt be. 0 &here must be no. 0 &here ought to be. 0 &here oughtnt to be. 0 &here ought to be no. 0 &here cant have been. 0 &here could have been. 0 &here couldnt have been. 0 &here could have been no. 0 &here may have been. 0 &here may not have been. 0 &here might have been. 0 &here might not have been. 0 &here may have been no. 0 &here might have been no. 0 &here must have been. 0 &here mustnt have been. 0 &here must have been no. 0 &here ought to have been. 0 &here oughtnt to have been. 0 &here ought to have been no. 0 &here is going to be. 0 &here isnt going to be. 0 &here are going to be. 0 &here arent going to be. 0 &here was going to be. 0 &here wasnt going to be. 0 &here were going to be. 0 &here werent going to be. 0 &here is going to be no. 0 &here are going to be no. 0 &here was going to be no. 0 &here were going to be no. 0 &here seems. 0 &here appears. 0 &here remains. 7ote) Dont worry about when to use each of these initiators or where. At present" pay attention only to uttering each word group ALFSD #several times. Functional English

Fne of the chief reasons why people want to learn a foreign language is this) &hey want to be able to 4do things5 in that language. &hat is" they want to 4agree or disagree with someone5" 4accept or re*ect an offer5" 4deny something5" 4e/press likesPdislikes5" 4offer food and drink5" 4compliment someone5 and do a lot of things like these. %n other words" they want to use that language and perform a number of 4everyday communicative functions5. 3unctions like these are everyday functions" because youll have to perform these functions whenever you deal with people. %n fact" youll have to perform each of these functions not once" but several times" every day. %f you want to become good at performing these everyday functions in a particular language" keep this in mind) Every modern language has a certain set of word groups that would help a speaker perform a certain set of functions. And when you want to perform a particular function in that language" youll have to utter one or more of the word groups that are normally used in that language to perform that function. 3or e/ample" if you want to 4e/press your gratitude5 in English" youll have to use an e/pression like 4&hank you5" 4&hats very kind of you5" 4% cant thank you enough5 etc. &hrough this Supplement and the ne/t" %m going to introduce you to all the important functions youll have to perform every day in English. Snder each function'heading" %ll also give you a collection of word groups that would help you perform that function. .hat you must do is this) You must utter each of the word groups several times # ALFSD. %n that way" you must get your ears and organs of speech used to these word groups. .hile uttering each word group" take a look at the function'heading 8under which it comes9 and remind yourself what function it helps you to perform. &his is very important. .hile doing your practice with each word group" keep reminding yourself 8silently9 that it helps you perform a particular function. 3or e/ample" while uttering the word group 4% do wish youll be more careful5 during your practice sessions" remind yourself that it helps you perform the function 43orgiving someone5. %n that way" that particular function and that particular word group would get associated in your mind. And your mind gets conditioned to recalling that word group automatically" whenever you use English to perform that function. 7ow remember this) %ts not as though one particular word group can be used only to perform one particular function. 7o. &hats not so. Fften" you can use a particular word group to perform more than one function. 3or e/ample" take the

word group 4&hank you very much5. You can use this word group to perform the function 4E/pressing gratitude5 as well as the function 4Accepting an invitation5. So theres no strict one'to'one correspondence between word groups and functions. &hat is" we cant say that a particular word group is used only to e/press a particular function or that a particular function can only be e/pressed by a particular word group. At the same time" bear in mind that certain word groups are used more often to e/press certain functions than to e/press certain other functions. %n fact" most word groups can normally be used only to e/press one or two functions. %ve classified the word groups youre going to get by taking these realities into account. And remember this) .hen you say something to a person" hes aware of the conversational situation in which you say it. And this awareness of the conversational situation would easily help him understand what function you intend a particular word group to perform when you utter it. So when you practice uttering the word groups aloud" dont let your aim be to reproduce by heart a list of word groups that would help you perform a particular function. &hat is" you dont have to learn to list the word groups by heart and to say that such'and'such a word group listed under such'and'such a function' heading would help you perform such'and'such a function. 7o" thats not necessary at all and wont be of much help. All you need to do is to associate in your mind each of the word groups listed under a function'heading with that function # because nobody ever says anything in real life by first recalling the names of the functions they want to perform from moment to moment and then by recalling word groups thatd be appropriate to fulfill those functions. 7o # nobody does thatJ %n fact" once you complete your practice with the functional word groups" you can safely forget about the names of the functions that those word groups perform. Actually" the function'names are not important outside the practice sessions. So let me stress one thing) .hen you practice uttering each word group aloud" you must keep reminding yourself what specific function that particular word group helps you to perform. % want you to do this" because the name of a particular function'heading would form a common basis for relating in your mind a set of word groups together 8that is" to one another9 as well as to a particular function. Ff course" this e/ercise may also help you to easily and readily recall appropriate word groups # function'wise at the right time # when you have a real conversation. ,ut the point is" thats not the reason why % want you to do this e/ercise. Lets now move on to the functions themselves.

Youll find these functions covered by two Supplements in this course) Supplement > and Supplement @. You should first take a look at the tables of contents on pages A and B of these Supplements. Each table gives a list of the functions covered by each of the Supplements. &hese tables give you a birds eye view of the communicative functions that youll have to perform every day" and of the word groups and patterns of word groups that English'speaking people often use in order to perform those functions. ,ut when you have to locate a negative function'heading like 4E/pressing inability5" 4E/pressing disagreement5" 4E/pressing disapproval5" 4E/pressing uncertainty5 etc" dont look for them in the places for 4inability5" 4disagreement5" 4disapproval5" 4uncertainty5" etc. %nstead" look for them in the places for the positive words 4ability5" 4agreement5" 4approval5" 4certainty5" etc. And to make it still easier for you to locate a particular function" the key'word in the name of each function has been printed in italics. !ere we go for the word groups that help you e/press each function. 1; Expressing ability 0 !e can drive. 0 % can drive a car" but not a lorry. 0 &he door was stuck" but he was able to open it. 0 .hen % was your age" % could run a mile in D minutes. 0 !es better able to do it than her. 0 !es +uite an e/pert at this sort of work. 0 She knows how to swim. 0 !e finished the work on his own without help from anyone else. 0 !e has ability" but he is laTy. 0 Shes capable of passing the e/am if she tries harder. 0 !es a good painter. 0 !es a good carpenter. 0 .ill you be able to come to the meeting tomorrow 0 Shes good at guessing things. 0 % wouldnt put it past him to do a thing like that. 0 You can do much better" %m sure. 0 !e has the ability to make decisions. 0 She can speak Spanish fluently. 0 Youre capable of doing better" you know. 2; Expressing inability 0 !e cannot do it without help. 0 She cant speak &elugu very well. 0 !e couldnt understand a thing she said. 0 %m sorry" % wont be able to come. 0 % couldnt answer her +uestions. 0 !e wont be able to type so fast. 0 Shes incapable of behaving rudely to anyone. 0 % wasnt able to pass the driving test the first time. 0 !es incapable of hard work. 0 !es incapable of telling a lie. 0 !es unable to help her. 0 % cant swim as far as you. 0 % tried to move it" but % couldnt. 0 % want to come" but %m unable to. 0 %ve never been any good at repairing things. 3; <sking a+out ability or inability 0 :an you swim across the river 0 :an you drive a car 0 :an you ride a bike 0 :an you type 0 %s she able to understand the instructions 0 .ere you able to

solve the problem 0 :ant you e/plain it more simply 0 %snt he able to read or write 0 %s he unable to walk without crutches 4; Accepting sth => something? USee 3unction 83n9. no.>H Accepting an apology" Accepting help" Accepting an invitation">NN Accepting an offer of food or drink" and>BL Agreeing to Accepting a re!uest. See also>N "#pressing agree$entV. 5; Expressing admiration 8See also> "#pressing appreciation" "#pressing approval" and> %o$pli$enting sb9. 0 &hats the most magnificent performance %ve ever seenJ 0 You dont sayJ You mean you made it 0 Look at the building. %snt it beautiful 0 % *ust adore this colour. 0 %ve never seen anything like itJ 0 Youre the prettiest girl %ve ever seenJ 0 Fh" thats marvellousJ 0 Ah" really wonderfulJ 0 %ts really wonderfulJ 0 %ts really somethingJ 0 %snt that fantasticJ 0 %ts +uite e/traordinary" reallyJ 0 Fh" thats lovelyJ 0 .hat a grand viewJ 0 .ell" % neverJ &hats incredibleJ 0 -eally fantasticJ 0 %ts absolutely splendidJ 0 &hats +uite fantasticJ 0 &his dress looks really stunning on you. 0 &errificJ 0 .hat glorious rosesJ 0 Ah" superJ 0 Fh" smashingJ 0 Fh" lovelyJ 0 (yJ 0 Fh" its the most impressive speech %ve ever heardJ 0 %ve never met anyone so attractive. 6; Admitting sth 0 Yes" its possible. 0 %m sorry. %t was a mistake on my part. 0 .ell" perhaps % should have handled it with some more care. 0 %ve been wrong about that. 0 %t was my mistake entirely. 0 % think it was wrong of us not to invite them. 0 .ell" perhaps % may have been a little careless about it. 0 % guess % didnt have the nerve. 0 .ell" it could be true. 0 7o one is to blame but myself. 0 Yes" F;" it looks as though %ve slipped up. 0 Look" %m not able to do this # % find it too difficult. 0 %ve made a mistake in inviting them. 0 % dont know much &amil. 0 Yes" all right. 0 % admit that % was absent'minded. 0 !e may be able to do it. Yes. 0 So what if % broke the vase %t wasnt intentional" you know. 0 %m sorry. Youre +uite right about it. 0 %t was my fault entirely. 0 &his was all my own fault" really. 0 .hat % said was +uite wrong. % know. 0 .ell" perhaps we ought to have been a bit more careful. 0 %m entirely to blame for it. 0 Fh dear" % seem to have made a mistake. 0 &heres something in what he says. 0 % made the mistake of trusting him with money. 0 % had a part in that decision" too. % admit that. 7; Admonishing sb (= somebody) 8See also>EH &arning sb9.

0 Dont repeat the same mistake again. 0 Dont try to harass me # %m warning you. 0 Youll be more careful in future" wont you 0 Dont give me any more cause for complaint. 0 &herell be serious conse+uences if you try to cheat us again. 0 % think youre making a mistake. 0 % dont think that was very wise. 0 Let me warn you) Dont interfere in my affairs in future. 0 ,e more careful in future. 0 7e/t time" % wont forgive this kind of behaviour. 0 You had better watch outJ 0 You had better not make another mistake. 0 Dont all talk together. 0 % wouldnt do such a thing again" if % were you. 0 Kust be more considerate in future. 0 %f you do this again" %ll come down hard on you.

Fluency in Functional English !ow have you got on with the practice of the functional word groups in Supplement > Let me stress one thing once again. %n actual life" nobody ever speaks by first recalling the name of the communicative function they have to perform in a particular conte/t and then by deciding on a word group that would help them perform that function. 7o. 7obody ever does that. .hat people actually do is to rely on their feelings for whats appropriate in a particular conte/t. Yes" they *ust utter what they feel is appropriate. And the practice you do with the functional word groups would help you develop this sense of appropriateness in everyday situations. .eve already seen one thing in Supplement >) &he word groups under the various function'headings show you how you can 4do things5 in English. ,ut thats not the only benefit you get out of the practice you do with the function word groups. 3or one thing" this practice adds to your skill in handling some of the most useful of the core words in English. 3or another" it adds to your fle/ibility in handling some of the most common grammatical patterns. And of course" it trains your organs of speech to handle everyday English speech. So continue doing your practice with the function word groups with all seriousness and sincerity. .e looked at as many as E@ communicative functions in Supplement >. .ell now take up the remaining functions in this Supplement. Kust as youve done with the function word groups in Supplement >" practise uttering the word groups in this Supplement" too # several times" ALFSD. 2o through the instructions given in the introductory part of Supplement > once again # and follow those instructions. -emember this) &he purpose in uttering the word groups several times # that too" ALFSD # is this) &hats the +uickest and easiest way you can train your organs of speech and ears to get used to these word groups. And so long as

your organs of speech and ears dont get used to these word groups" you wont be able to produce those word groups 8or similar word groups9 easily in actual conversationsJ So keep uttering the word groups ALFSD" until they come out of your mouth smoothly and continuously # without hesitation. .hen you go through the various function'headings given below" youll come across two abbreviations) $sb and $sth. &he abbreviation $sb stands for $somebody" and the abbreviation $sth stands for $something. And now" here we go for the function word groups) 63; @esponding to greetings from s+ you already know &ake a look at these everyday greetings) 0 4!ow are you 5 0 4!ows things 5 0 4!ows everything 5 0 4!ows it going 5 Structurally" theyre all +uestions. ,ut theyre all greetings" too. %n fact" pragmatically" a +uestion like this is more a greeting than a +uestion. Yes" its a greeting in the first place" and a +uestion only in the second place. 7ormally" its from someone you already know" rather than from a person you meet for the first time" that you get a greeting of this kind. &he most common responses to these greetings are) 43ine" thanks. And how arePabout you 5 4Cery well" thanks. And how arePabout you 5 You can answer other greetings like $!i" $!ello" etc. with a return $!i or $!ello # or with one of the other greetings given at Sl. no. E@ 8 Greeting people you already know9. Fr you can use a combination of a $!i 8or $!ello9 and one of the other greetings given there. 3or e/ample" you can say) 4!i" what a nice surpriseJ5 4!ello" AlfredoJ 3ancy meeting you hereJ5 64; &reeting s+ youve Aust met for the first time 8See Sl. no. H@ 'ntroducing people and responding to introductions .9 65; Sending greetings through s+ to s+ else 0 6lease give my regards to your father" will you 0 Dont forget to remember me to Ashok. 0 Say hello to -ekha. 0 2ive my best wishes to your mother. 0 2ive my

love to the children. 0 2ive my regards to Kulia. 0 6lease remember me to Sumitra. 66; ,ffering help 0 :an % help you 0 :an % give you any help 0 Do you need any help 0 %s there anything % can do to help 0 .hy dont you let me help you with the cooking 0 %ll do it" shall % 0 (aybe" % could help you do it. 0 %m going to the post office. .ould you like me to get anything for you 0 :an % help 0 Everything all right 0 %ll help you. 0 %ll ring for the office boy. 0 .ant me to try 0 6lease let me help you. 0 :an % help you with it 0 Do you want me to help with the washing'up 0 :an % be of any help 0 Do you need some kind of help 0 Allow me to do it for you. 0 %ts cold in here. .ould you like me to shut the windows 0 %ll do it for you. 0 %s there anything else 0 6erhaps % could be of some help 0 .ould you like me to try 0 %ll be glad to help" if you need it. 0 Do you want me to have a look 0 %f you like" %ll phone him up. 0 Let me carry your bag. 0 % suppose you want something else" do you 0 Shall % see if % can help you 0 % can help" if you like. 0 %f you like" %ll help you with your work. 0 Lets have a look. 0 :ould % give you a hand to complete it 0 !ere" %ll show you how to do it. 0 6ermit me to help you. 0 :an % help you with anything 0 .ell" if you have any more trouble" *ust let me know. 0 %t looks heavy. :ould % give you a hand with it 0 You seem to be having some problem. 0 .hats wrong 0 % havent got much" but you can borrow what money % have. 0 6erhaps % could help you do it. 0 Let me help you. 0 %ll help you" if you like. 67; <ccepting help 0 Fh" thats very kindPthoughtful of you. 0 :ould you 0 Youre most kind. 0 Yes" please. %d appreciate it. 0 Fh" could you do that &hatd be very helpful. 0 &hatd be lovelyPgreat. 0 %d be delighted if you could. 0 .ould you 0 &hats e/tremely good of you. 0 %d appreciate it if you could. 0 %f youre sure its no trouble for you... 0 %d be glad if you could. 0 &hanks. &hatd be a great help. 0 &hanks very much. 0 %d be glad if you would. 68; Beclining help 0 7o" thank you. 0 Dont bother. 0 7o" please dont bother # % can manage. 0 Dont worry. 0 &hats very kind of you. 0 &hank you" but % can manage. 0 %d rather do it myself" thank you. 0 7o" thanks. %m fine. 0 &hats F;" thanks. 0 %d better do it myself" thank you. 0 %m all right" thank you. 69; <sking for help 8See Sl. no. >BH (e!uesting others to help you or to do sth or to give you sth 9. 7:; Expressing hope

0 % *ust hope shell be able to come. 0 % was hoping for something different this time. 0 .e hope to go there ne/t month. 0 % hope so. 0 % think youll like our food. 0 % very much hope theyd realiTe its importance. 0 % hope we can make them feel welcome. 0 % only hope hell be able to help them out. 0 !opefully" hell bring it with him. 0 % hope to see her soon. 0 % hope you havent paid for it. 0 % hope hell do it. 0 Lets hope hell get better soon. 0 %m rather hoping the weatherll be good. 71; Identifying s+ or sth 0 %t could be Anitha. 0 &hats her" isnt it 0 &his is the bag he had with him. 0 (aybe" its that contractor. 0 %ts me. 0 %ts us. 0 %ts them. 0 &hats her. 0 %ts him. 0 Shes here. 0 %t could be a !onda. 0 Yes" it is. 0 &heres a big mole on his right cheek. 0 &hat girl on his left is his younger sister. 0 % think thats her husband. 0 %ts Ashok (alhotra from ne/t door. 0 % suppose that must be him. 0 %ts a very good book. 0 Shes got a wart on her nose. 0 % know the man shes standing beside. 0 &hats him" your friend. 0 Ah" theres the man % told you about. 0 % think hes an electrician or something. 0 % think its a -olls -oyce . 0 Yes" she is. 0 %ts your father on the phone. 0 !e has a slight limp. 0 &hese are his clothes. 0 % think thats the one. 0 % am a client of his. 0 Yes" its her all right. 0 &his is the book you wanted" isnt it 0 !e has a scar on his forehead. 0 6erhaps its a !onda. 0 .ell" there he is. 0 !es a mechanic. 72; <sking a+out identity 0 .ho are you 0 (ay % know who you are 0 Are you (r. %yengar 0 .hos that man over there 0 .hat make of &C is it 0 %s that you" Asha 0 .ho did you see at the bank 0 .hat the hell is that 0 .hich Sharma do you mean # his brother' in'law or his neighbour 0 See that man .hos he 0 .hat sort of book is it 0 Do you know who she is 0 .hore those people 0 .hat in the world is it 0 Are you policemen 0 .ho are you phoning 0 E/cuse me. Are you the teacher of C%%% A 0 .hat colour is it 0 .ho on earth told you that 0 .hats the name of that girl 0 &hat man standing over there. Do you know him 0 See that thing there .hat is it 0 %snt that your father 0 Do you recogniTe that man in a blue shirt 0 Do you know what that thing is 0 .ho are you going to meet 0 .hat on earth is that thing in your bag 0 Do you have some identification with you 0 Do you know what that woman is 0 %snt that your bag 0 .hat kind of typewriter is it An electronic one 0 &hats your uncle" isnt it 0 .ho is that packet for 0 .hich of these bags is yours 0 .hat make is your car 0 .hos he talking to 0 .hat type of oil do you use 73; Not identifying 0 % dont recogniTe him. 0 %m afraid %ve no idea. 0 % dont know who it was. 0 % know his face" but % cant place him. 0 %ve no idea what it is. 0 &heres some man at the door. 0 Sorry. % dont know. 0 % only saw his back. 0 %m not certain. 0 &heres something on the floor. 0 !e *ust reminds me of someone. 0 ,ut % cant put a

name to his face. 0 % havent the faintest idea. 0 % have no idea who that is. 0 % have no idea what his name is. 0 7o. % dont think so. 0 % havent a clue. 0 &his isnt mine. %t must be somebody elses. 0 2od knows. 0 %m not sure. 74; *magining a situation 8See Sl. no. >DB Speculating about things9. 75; Expressing indecision 8See also Sl. no. AB "#pressing uncertainty and Sl. no. DE "#pressing doubt9 0 Look" % dont know what to do. 0 % cant decide whether to invite him or not. 0 Fh" % dont know. 0 (aybe % shouldnt do it. 0 6erhaps % should write to his deputy first. 0 %m in two minds whether or not to do it. 0 % dont know what to tell them. 0 Yes" % suppose so. 0 %ll possibly be able to do it. 0 (aybe %ll buy it" maybe % wont. 0 %m a bit uncertain about this. 0 .ell" of course. 0 %ts up to you. 0 %m not sure. 0 !es possibly one of our best workers. 0 .ell" maybe. 0 %m not sure what to do ne/t. 0 % dont know whether to accept it or not. 76; Expressing indifference 0 %t makes no difference to me. 0 %t makes no difference. 0 Do what you like. % dont care. 0 % suppose so. 0 !ow should % know 0 %ts all the same to me. 0 % shouldnt worry if % were you. 0 % dont careJ 0 % dont mind what you do 0 %ts your decision. 0 % dont mind. 0 Look" why dont you rela/ 0 %t doesnt matter. 0 2o ahead" do it. 0 %f you like. 0 % wouldnt mind. .hy should % 0 % know hell be angry" but % dont care. 0 .ho caresJ 0 .ho knowsJ 0 %t makes no difference either way. 0 %m easy 8W % dont mind" % have no preference9. 0 As you like. 0 % couldnt care less. 0 So what 0 You can say whatever you like. 0 Do as you like. Fluency in )elephone English &heres an important point you must remember when you have a telephone conversation. .hen you have a conversation with someone on the telephone" youre not face'to'face with them. You and the person youre having the conversation with are not within each others presence or sight. Fn the other hand" when you have a face'to'face conversation with someone" youre near them" and you can see them. And you can listen to them and speak to them # by actually looking at them 8and their facial e/pressions and gestures9 and at the surroundings. You see" when you have a face'to'face conversation with someone" you communicate not only through the actual words you use" but also through a number of e/tra'linguistic factors # such as facial e/pressions" gestures" etc. ,ut when you have a telephone conversation" many of the e/tra'linguistic factors

are absent # and youve got to rely mainly on the actual words you use in order to convey your meaning. &he person at the other end cant watch your facial e/pressions or gestures. And you cant watch his. And so" neither of you can take advantage of e/tra'linguistic factors like facial e/pressions or gestures to add meaning to the actual words used. %n the same way" when you have a face'to'face conversation with somebody" you dont need to spell out everything in words. (any of the things you want to communicate to them would be clear to them from the situational conte/t. ,ut when you have a telephone conversation" a number of aspects of the situational conte/t are absent. So when you have a telephone conversation" youll have to spell out all these things clearly in words. Fr the person at the other end of the line wont be able to understand what you mean. 3or e/ample" when you have a telephone conversation" you wont be able to speak about something or someone by pointing them out to your addressee # because the addressee is not near you" and the addressee cant see them. So on the phone" youll have to speak about them by mentioning their actual names 8if your addressee knows them by those names9 # or by actually describing them in such a way that the addressee understands what youre referring to or who youre referring to. Similarly" the addressee 8the person at the other end of the line9 wont be able to see the surroundings at your end or what is going on around you at your end at the time youre speaking. And so the addressees eyes give him no help in understanding what youre saying" and hell have to depend solely on his ears. All this means that when you speak to somebody on the phone" youll have to assume less and spell out more. Yes. .hen you have a phone conversation" youll have to e/plain almost everything in the clearest or the most detailed way. .hat %m trying to tell you is this) .hen you speak to somebody face to face" you can take a number of things for granted. &hat is" you can assume one thing) Even if you dont spell out many of the things clearly in words" your addressee would be able to understand them from your facial e/pressions" gestures and the situational conte/t. And so" when you speak to somebody face to face" you neednt spell out these things clearly. %n other words" when you speak to somebody face to face" you can assume a lot" and you need only spell out the important things. ,ut when you speak to somebody on the telephone" youll have to do the opposite) Youll have to assume less and spell out more. And thats not all. .hen you have a telephone conversation" you must be careful to do one other thing) Youll have to spell out what you want your addressee to understand in a way thats clearer than you wouldve done if you had been speaking to him face to face. &hat is" when you have a telephone conversation" its not enough that you spell out a lot. You must also spell them out far more clearly and in a far more detailed way. %n short" when you have a telephone conversation" youre handicapped in several ways. And its not always as easy to get your meaning across over the telephone as it is when you have a face'to'face conversation. ,ut all this does not mean

that when you speak on the telephone" youll have to be as e/plicit as you are when you communicate the same thing in writing. 7o. &hats not so. 3irst of all" you can never be as e/plicit during a telephone conversation as when you write something # because even during a telephone conversation" you communicate through the spoken medium 8and not through the medium of writing9. So" even during a telephone conversation" you speak under pressure of time" and you can only e/press yourself by composing and speaking at the same time" *ust as you do when you have a face'to'face conversation. Secondly" when you have a telephone conversation" you keep getting feedback and reactions to what you say from your addressee # in words" e/clamations and other sounds that he produces over the phone as he listens to what you say. And so" depending on the addressees reaction" you can keep modifying" improving and adding to what you say from moment'to'moment" and thus make your meaning clear to him. And his moment'to'moment reactions would let you know the points on which he shares knowledge with you and the points that he has understood without your having specifically mentioned them. &his saves you from having to spell out those points in words" and you can safely speak on by taking those points for granted. ,ecause of all these reasons" if you want your telephone conversation to be effective" you must never forget to do the following things) &uidelines for making a call <2. +henever you dial a nu"ber and so"eone picks up the phone at the other end, you should do these things: i9 Ask the person who picks up the phone at the other end if the number of the phone he has picked up is really the number you dialled. Eg) 0 Are you ABEGLHA 0 %s that ABEGLHA ii9 %f he says it is the right number" itd be a good idea to go ahead and ask him if its really the place 8office" house" etc.9 that you want. Eg) 0 %s that the XYY :o. 0 %s that the 3ire Station iii9 &hen you should announce your identity. 8You should do this # if the person who picked up the phone at the other end has not already recogniTed your voice9. &ell him who you are and where youre calling from # that is" the place" office etc. youre calling from. iv9 After announcing your identity" you can straightaway ask him if you could speak to such and such a person # without asking him who he is. Ff course" if you recogniTe his voice" and if hes the person you want to speak to" you can straight away launch into a conversation.

v9 %f the person who picks up the phone at the other end voluntarily announces his identity" and if hes not the person you want to speak to" tell him youd like to speak to such and such a person # or ask him if you could speak to that person. vi9 Suppose that the person who picks up the telephone at the other end tells you that the person you want is not available or that" for some reason" you cant speak to him at that point of time. &hen if you want" you can ask the person who has picked up the phone who he is # before you start telling him anything else. Eg) 0 .hos this speaking 0 (ay % know who this is speaking" please ,ut remember one thing) %n general" nobody likes to tell you who they are if you dont tell them who you are first. So the best policy is to announce your identity first" before asking for the identity of the person at the other end. vii9 Suppose that the person who picks up the phone at the other end is not the person you want" and suppose that he puts you through to the right person. &hen" announce your identity once again" and ask this second person if he is really the person you want to talk to. Eg) %s that (r. Sridhar @9. Fnce you get the person you want on the phone" and once youre sure that hes the person you want" you can state the purpose of your call. ,ut dont *ust rush into e/plaining the purpose all of a sudden. %nstead" start by preparing the ground # by telling him that youre now going to state the purpose. 3or e/ample" if youre calling him to tell him something about a meeting" you can begin by saying something like this) 0 %m calling you about tomorrows meeting. Fr" 0 %ts about tomorrows meeting. &ell him what you want to tell him about the meeting only after you get him ready to listen to it by preparing the ground in this way. Fn the one hand" this step gives a sense of direction to what you want to say. And on the other hand" it directs your addressees attention to what youre going to say. A9. %n the same way" before you speak to him about anything important" start by telling him that youre going to speak to him about such and such a thing or such and such a person or such and such a topic. %n this way" you must always build an e/pectation in him about what youre going to say # before you actually say it. &his step is very important if your telephone communication is to be really effective.

B9. ,efore you actually ring off" say something appropriate thatd indicate to the person at the other end that youre going to ring off. Depending on the conte/t" word groups like the following would help you do this) 0 ,ye" then. 0 %ll get back to you soon. 0 .ell" thats settled" then. 0 &hanks a lot. 2oodbye. 0 Sntil tomorrow" then. 2oodbye. &uidelines for answering a call 'o far, !ve been telling you about
about answering a call.

making a phone call. =et "e now tell you a few things

.hen you answer a call" points A and B given above are as important as when you $ake a call. ,ut the preliminary things that you must do 8when you answer a call9 are not the same. And here are the preliminary things you must do when you answer a call) >9. As soon as you pick up the phone to answer a call" let the caller know that youve picked up the phone and that he has your attention. You can do this by saying 4!ello5. @9. %f you want to be more helpful" you can voluntarily announce the number of your phone or announce your identity while saying 4!ello5 8or instead of saying 4!ello59. Eg) 0 !ello" ABEHLDA. 0 !ello" Ashok ;umar here. 0 XYY company. 2ood morning. A9. %f the caller starts stating the purpose of his call without announcing his identity" you can ask him who he is before telling him anything or helping him # if you find it necessary to do so. How to deal with hesitation !eres a Lesson thats going to do two things for you) %tll keep your speech flow from breaking up. And itll help you keep up a regular flow of speech. (auses and sylla+le lengthening As a background to what follows, you "ust note one thing: !n speech, pauses are as i"portant as words the"selves. A pause is a temporary stop or break in speech ' a momentary silence when you stop uttering words. A momentary stopping of the speech flow. A momentary stopping of the sound stream.

6auses are important" because they help you divide up what you want to say into chunks of manageable siTes. And whats more" they help you deal with hesitation. &here are two types of pauses. &hey are) 8i9 Kunction pausesQ and 8ii9 !esitation pauses. Cunction pauses >unction pauses are pauses "ade at $unctions between idea units. (hat is, theyre "ade at the ends of idea units 16 chunks2. .hy does a speaker pause at an idea unit *unction &he reason is usually one of the following) 0 &o mark the end of one idea unit and the beginning of the ne/tQ or 0 &o take a breathQ or 0 &o give a moment or two to the listener # to digest the idea contained in the idea unit that the speaker has *ust uttered. So generally" when you pause at an idea unit *unction" your aim is not to deal with hesitation. (ost often" your aim 8in making a *unction pause9 is to mark off one idea unit from the ne/t. And you mark off one idea unit from the ne/t one" because of two reasons) 8a9 Your listeners will then find it easier to understand you properly. 8b9 )ou will then find it easier to go on with your speech without faltering. So remember this) Youre free to make a *unction pause" even if you have no hesitation when youve finished uttering an idea unit. As you know" an ideal idea unit ends at a gra$$atical break" and so an ideal idea unit is a whole 8W unfragmented9 grammatical unit. So an ideal idea unit *unction would be a grammatical *unction. 7ow go through the following e/amples. %n these e/amples" the symbol $ 1 indicates a grammatical *unction" that is" an ideal idea unit *unction. And the pauses you make at these *unctions are *unction pauses" and they mark off one idea unit from the ne/t. Eg/ 0 (r. 2upta 1 please come over here. 0 3or three hours 1 he waited there. 0 3inally 1 he gave it to me. 0 &he route we took 1 wasnt short. 0 .hat he told me 1 wasnt the truth. 0 % met him there 1 and he came with me. 0 Ask her father 1 or one of her brothers. 0 !e left the place 1 after Kohn and others had come. 0

,efore % came 1 nobody had left the place. 0 !es been with that company 1 since last April. 0 % asked him to tell me 1 if he had seen it. Cunction pauses and grammatical +reaks Spontaneous speech +hen you speak spontaneously, whats the natural way of co"posing and delivering speech) You know, the natural way is to co"pose and deliver the things you want to say chunk by chunk # each chunk containing a few closely connected words. About ?@A of all the chunks would nor"ally contain < to B words per chunk. (he "ost fre;uent nu"ber of words per chunk is about C words, and such a chunk would take about D seconds to utter. As you know, each such chunk is an idea unit. So you can see that the *unctions between every two idea units are natural points for making pauses" and so natural points for your organs of speech to get momentary rest. And theres a strong tendency for most of these idea units to be whole 8unfragmented9 grammatical units. 8W whole clauses or whole phrasesQ sometimes even single words9. &he idea units marked off by the $ 1 sign in the above e/amples are all whole" unfragmented idea units. Fccasionally" a chunk 8uttered as a single idea unit9 may even consist of two 8or even three9 whole grammatical units 8each unit being short # and made up of *ust > or @ or A words9. Eg/ 9 E1breakfast2 1and dinner2F. 9 E1doGens2 1of people2F. 9 E1-e parked2 1off the "ain street2F. 9 E1a
"atter2 1of great i"portance2F. 9 E1You know2 1what he said2 1surprised "e2F. 9 E1(his happened2 1at about <@ 5 clock2 1last night2F.

So the *unction between an idea unit 8whether it contains only one grammatical unit or two or three9 and the idea unit ne/t to it tends to be a natural grammatical break # a grammatical *unction. ,ut remember that this is *ust a tendency. And so" this is *ust whats likely to happen often" or what happens often # but not what actually happens all the time. .hen you speak spontaneously" 8that is" without prior planning or preparation9" idea unit *unctions may not often coincide with grammatical *unctions. You see" spontaneous speech situations are not ideal" because in those situations" youre not delivering something planned ahead" or composed or organiTed in advance. 7or are you making a scripted speech. .hen you speak spontaneously" you find yourself having to compose your speech and speak at the same time. You have to think and plan your speech" produce it" organiTe it and process it as you go along. And the time you have at your disposal" in order to do all this" is limited to the duration of speech.

.hat fluent speakers do in such a situation is to put together units of ideas or information that occur to them on the spot. &hey put them together by using such words and structures as occur to them on the spot. And they refine and clarify things as they speak along # by uttering other clarifying idea units. &his is so" whether the spontaneous speech situation is public" non'public" formal" non'formal" informal or casual or whatever. So when fluent speakers speak spontaneously" their idea units may not often end e/actly at grammatical breaks" and so their idea units may not often be whole grammatical units. &heir idea units would be a word or two shorter than a whole grammatical unit" or a word or two longer than a whole grammatical unit. &hat is" their idea units would often be frag$ented grammatical units. And so" many of the chunk *unctions may not happen to be grammatical *unctions. %n other words" many of the *unction pauses in spontaneous speech may not actually happen at grammatical *unctions. 8(ost often" they happen at the foot' boundary ne/t to a grammatical *unction9. Non-spontaneous speech Bear in "ind that weve been speaking about
produced without prior planning, preparation or rehearsal.

spontaneous speech # speech thats

,ut when you speak after preparation" or when you speak about something that you have spoken about several times before" most idea units tend to be whole grammatical units" and most idea unit *unctions tend to be gra$$atical *unctions. &his is because in such cases" you dont hesitate as much as you do when you speak about a new topic spontaneously. .hen you read aloud from a prepared te/t or when you prepare your speech thoroughly in advance and deliver it in a formal setting" almost all idea units would end at grammatical breaks. &hat is" almost all idea units would then be whole 8W unfragmented9 grammatical units. And so" in these ideal situations" almost all idea unit *unctions would coincide with grammatical *unctions. And in these situations" almost all *unction pauses happen at grammatical *unctions. #esitation pauses -esitation pauses are pauses that speakers "ake whenever they have so"e kind of hesitation. You can "ake these pauses anywhere # at any point
in the speech strea". Yes, any: You can "ake the" not only in the "iddle, but also at the end or at the beginning of idea units.

7ormally" you make a hesitation pause under the following circumstances) 0 You make a hesitation pause when youre uncertain about what to say ne/t" or when youre deciding what to say ne/t. &his often happens when you have something to say" but you have not planned it in detail. &his is a speech'planning

pause" and this usually occurs immediately after the first one or two words in an idea unit # often after the very first word. 0 You make a hesitation pause when youre not sure that what youve said or what youre going to say is right. 0 You make a hesitation pause when you have difficulty in finding an appropriate word. 0 You make a hesitation pause when you want to utter a word thats specially significant or thats of high le/ical content or that may sound surprising in that conte/t. 0 You make a hesitation pause when you have difficulty completing a particular syntactic structure. -emember that when you want to deal with hesitation" youre free to pause anywhere in your utterance # that is" not only in the middle of an idea unit" but also at the end or even at the beginning of an idea unit. So suppose that you pause at a *unction" and that your aim in pausing there is to deal with a hesitation" then that pause is actually a hesitation pause" rather than a *unction pause" though you make it at a *unction. Youve already seen in this Lesson that you can make a *unction pause even if you have no hesitation when you reach a *unction. ,ut as far as a hesitation pause is concerned" speakers normally make it only if they have some hesitation. (ind you" when you speak spontaneously even for a few seconds" there will be points of hesitation here and there in your speech. &hat is" whenever anybody speaks continuously" theyll certainly hesitate every now and then. So a hesitation pause is made because of this reason) You wont be able to go on with your speech without faltering # if you dont pause at every point of hesitation and deal with the hesitation properly. 7ow go through the following e/amples. %n these e/amples" the symbol $= stands for a hesitation pause" and the symbol $1 stands for a *unction pause. Eg/ 9 +ho planned H and directed the I ca"paign) 9 !f I you have any doubts H why dont you I
e*press the") 9 .ull on the rope H and see if its I secure. 9 %ry the onions H but I dont use too "uch I oil. 9 -e shows I conte"pt for everybody. 9 (hat road HI ran by the side of a I railway. 9 -e had a $ob H in the I Jivil 'ervice.

%n this Lesson" well be dealing with hesitation pauses in detail. Dont get worried over the difference between *unction pauses and hesitation pauses or about any other aspect now. Fnce you finish going through the e/planations and e/amples" youll find that this is not a complicated topic at all.

)raining in &eneral Structures .e saw the first instalment of 2Ss in Lesson @. Lets now go through the second instalment. Some of you may now be thinking like this) $Fh" these are all elementary sentences. .hy should % learn them at all . %f you have any such thought" give it up. &he aim of the practice with 2Ss is not to improve your understanding of the meanings of words or word groups. &he aim of the practice is to help you get your organs of speech used to working in a special way # the way the English language wants them to work. You must be clear in your mind about this aim. &hats why % e/plained the reasons behind our drills early on. 8!ere" read through what % have said about 2Ss in Lesson @9. Ff course" the drills give you another benefit on the side) &hey put you in the midst of $everyday vocabulary # word groups that help you carry on conversations of all kinds. ,ut thats only a side benefit. &he main aim of the drills with 2Ss is this) &o get the patterns of the structures fi/ed in your mind" so that it becomes second nature to you to use those patterns to build speech. )he way speech gets produced -eres so"ething you should fir"ly understand: You know" human beings have a tendency # the tendency to imitate things. You have that tendencyQ everybody has that tendency. &he word $imitate only roughly e/presses the idea. &heres no e/act word for that tendency. ,ut you can easily get an idea of what that tendency is) &hat tendency is to make things by copying. &o make new things that are similar to the things that are already known # by using the known things as models. 3or e/ample" if you hear a song with a special tune" you have a tendency to make up other songs with the same tune # using other words. %f you notice that most others are wearing a particular kind of dress" you have a tendency to get a similar dress for you. %f youre faced with a tough situation and you have to take a decision" your tendency is to find out whether others have faced similar situations in the past" and if so" what decisions they have taken. All these are e/amples of the same thing # our mental slant. .e always imitate. Sometimes consciouslyQ sometimes unconsciously. Show me something. % am sure to imitate it # consciously or unconsciously. And here comes the importance of the 2Ss. %m putting you in the middle of those 2Ss. Youre sure to imitate them # consciously or unconsciously. And what is the result of this imitation 6roduction of new idea units" of courseJ &hat is" new idea units that are similar to the 2S word groups. Frame-work for speech-production &ow we can look at everything fro" another angle. 'uppose you want

to "ake up a song. Your work will be easier if you have another song to copy. 'uppose you want to "ake a dress. Your work will be easier, if you have another dress as a pattern. 'uppose you want to take a decision on so"e issues. Your work will be easier, if you have another decision on a si"ilar issue as a guide. So this is the point) %tll be easier for you to do anything" if you can have another thing as a reference or pattern or guide or frame'work. Ff course" when you make anything with reference to a pattern or guide or frame'work" youre free to make changes here and there. ,ut the point is this) &he pattern or guide or frame'work will make it easy for you to make new things. &his is so about making new idea units" too. 2Ss are nothing but patterns or guides or frame works. &hats why theyre called $structures. &hink about the structure of a tall building. %ts *ust a frame'work or skeleton. You have to fill it up with bricks and other materials to make the building. %n the same way" a 2S is only a frame'work or a skeleton. You can fill it up with words and word groups to make an idea unit. Shape of speech units You see, the word groups given under 3' &o. <, 3' &o. D, 3' &o. K, etc. are only examples of 3's # and not 3's the"selves. 3's are the shapes of those e*a"ples.
%or e*a"ple, look at the e*a"ples under 3' &o. <. (hey all have a co""on shape, dont they) (hat shape is 3' &o. <. !ts that shape that "ust get i"printed on your "ind.

Fluency tools (hink about children. (ake the case of a boy or girl aged <@ or <D. (heir vocabulary in their "other-tongue isnt large. (hey know how to use $ust about D@@@ words or so in their "other-tongue. (hats all. But still, arent they able to speak fluently in their "other-tongue) You see" theyve learnt to fit those few words in different ways into the basic syntactic structures of their language # unconsciously. &heyve unconsciously picked up the $feel about the various structures by listening to other people and from reading # and through actively using them in real life situations. &heyve also learnt how to fill those structures with the words and word groups they know. &hese structures and the limited vocabulary theyve mastered are the core of their language skill. &hese core structures help them e/pand their fluency" because whenever they learn a new word or word group" they can easily fit them into those structures" and make newer and newer idea units. 3or e/ample" a boy or girl of >N or >@ has been e/posed only to a very limited +uantity of their mother'tongue. Yet" with that limited +uantity" theyre able to produce an unlimited +uantity of idea units. &he key to this mystery is this) &hey have mastery over the core structures" and these core structures help them process" bend" twist and manipulate the limited +uantity of the language they know in a

number of different ways. &hey can fit the words and word groups they know into the basic structures appropriately # to suit their communicative convenience. %n short" the core structures help them *uggle with and manipulate the words they know. &he core structures are their fluency tools. @epeated exposure !ts true that children know only a very few words. Yes, theyre e*posed only to a li"ited ;uantity of language. But theres one thing. (hey co"e across this li"ited ;uantity not $ust a few ti"es, but a lot of ti"es. (hey
co"e across and use the few words that they know in a large nu"ber of conte*ts and situations. And theyre e*posed to the li"ited ;uantity of the language they know ;uite fre;uently, too.

So this is the point) &he more fre+uently you come across the same thing" the more you will become ac+uainted with it. &hats why its useless to spend your time trying to learn a lot of $newer and $newer words. %nstead" you should be paying more and more attention to the words you already know. )he most important point in voca+ulary choice +hy do you speak at all) +hat is the reason why you speak to so"eone) Because you want to be nice and friendly to the" # or because you want to co""unicate so"ething to the". !snt that so) But will you be successful in your efforts if the addressees do not
understand the words you use) !f they dont understand your words, is there any point in your speaking to the") 5f course not.

So isnt one thing plain Your speech must be $understandable to your addressees. And how can you make sure that what you say would be $understandable to your addressees &he most important thing you should do is this) Sse only those words that the addressees can understand. &hat is" the words you use must be known to the addressees. ,ut this brings up a difficulty. %s it practically possible to find out how many words each of your addressees know So the only solution to this problem is this) &here are certain fundamental" everyday" words. &hese are words that every speaker normally uses and every hearer normally understands. Sse only those words while youre speaking. Then you can be sure that your addressees would understand those words" too. <+out words you should master &ow what are these funda"ental, everyday, words) You see, theyre the core-words ! told you about in =esson D. !ere let me tell you one thing) &heres no use in making up a list of the core' words and learning their meanings alone. 3or e/ample" the word $beautiful means $nice to look at. You certainly should have a clear understanding of this meaning in your mind. ,ut you neednt learn to e/plain this meaning in words. .hat you need to learn is to $use the word $beautiful. &hat is" you need to fit this

word into the various structures that are possible. &his means that you must have a command of these structures. Youll come across the most essential ones among the core words several times in this course. &heyve been spread out throughout the several Lessons in such a way that they stick in your mind unconsciously. !ere you should note two things) >9 % am not talking about limiting the vocabulary range to an artificial number 8say" @NNN words9" because occasionally" youll have to go beyond this range # depending on the nature of the topic youre speaking about. And may have to use several $special words" too. &hese special words are not part of the core words. % have already told you about these special words in Lesson @. 7ow go back to Lesson @ and find out what these special words are. @9 7obody can be precise and say that there are only @NNN core words" or >LLL core words or @NN> core words. All we can say is this) &here are about @NNN words that can meet more than GDR of everybodys vocabulary needs in speech. And if you have a complete mastery of about ADNN most fre+uently'used words" vocabulary difficulty wont stop you from being fluent. .hen you want to speak about a wide variety of sub*ects" especially in educated circles" you may have to use a higher vocabulary range. ,ut even then" if you have a good command of about BGNN words" you wont have any vocabulary'related difficulty. ,+Aective-+ased voca+ulary-development 'o the cru* of all ! have been saying is this: (heres no use in hunting after newer and newer words # as far as fluency building is concerned. (hat is not worth the effort. -emember this) % am speaking about production vocabulary" that too" speech' production vocabulary" and not about recognition vocabulary. &hat is" %m speaking about the vocabulary you need to have mastery of in order to produce speech # and not about the vocabulary that you need to have ac+uaintance with in order you understand written things while reading. (ind you" our aim is $fluency development. 3or fluency development" your attention should be on words you and others are likely to actively use in order to produce speech. 8%n fact" this is true not only of fluency in spoken English" but also of fluency in plain written English # plain" straight'forward" modern English9. %ve already pointed out in Lesson @ that your $reading vocabulary would always be far higher than your $spoken and $written vocabulary. ,ut even if you come across a few words that you do not know while reading" theres no point in rushing to learn their meanings and usage. 7ormally" the conte/t in which those words occur will give you an idea of the whole passage. %f youre a college graduate or above" and if youve done your studies through the medium of English in college" and if you 8with your educational background9 have

not come across those words so far" the chances are that those words are not words in general use. So even if you spend time mastering them now" you wont be able to use them. (acking of information &he e/tent of your fluency in spoken English depends on an important factor) &he way you pack information in your speech. &hat is" the way you pack words
within your idea units, as well as the way you pack idea units within your speech. !f you pack infor"ation densely, you will find it difficult to be fluent. !f you pack infor"ation loosely, you will find it easier to be fluent. (his is the general principle of infor"ation-packing.

&his principle is of great importance for fluency'development. So we must take it up immediately. .ell only be able to get a clear idea of this principle if we do one thing) .e must look at a basic point of difference between spoken English and written English. &his all'important difference is this) .ritten English normally packs information densely. ,ut spontaneous spoken English always packs information loosely. So heres a fundamental principle you should always remember) 7ever pack information in speech the way you pack information in writing. )echniDues of information-packing -ow does written nglish pack infor"ation densely) -ow does spoken nglish pack infor"ation loosely) (hese things happen in the following ways: A. .ritten English uses a tight synta/. ,ut spoken English uses a loose synta/. 8$Synta/ is the grammatical arrangement of words9. And so written English relies more on a $hierarchical arrangement of clauses called subordination than spoken English does. Spoken English relies far less on subordination. .hat spoken English does is to rely far more on an $e+ual arrangement of clauses called co* ordination than written English. ,. .ritten English uses heavily'modified" comple/ phrases freely. Spoken English does not. :. .ritten English goes in search of the $right words and uses $specific and $non'general words wherever possible. Spoken English does not do so. Spoken English prefers non'specific and general words. <; Su+ordination and co-ordination +e can connect two clauses by one of these "ethods: >9 :o'ordinationQ or @9 Subordination.

%n co'ordination" we connect two clauses by the con*unctions and+ and then+ or+ but+ so+ yet+ nor+ neither+ either,,, or+ and neither,,, nor. 8Fr" sometimes we *ust utter two independent clauses ne/t to each other # without using a co'ordinator between the two9. %n subordination" we connect clauses by con*unctions like after+ although+ when" etc. 8&here are" of course" other methods of subordinating a clause" and well look at them later in this Lesson9. You see" co'ordination is far more helpful than subordination in speech' production. &he reason is this) %f you connect two clauses by co'ordination" the clauses continue to remain structurally independent" and one clause does not become a burden on the other by becoming structurally dependent on it. &his sort of $e!ual arrangement is not a tight arrangement 8as subordination is9" and so" it makes the speech'production process +uite fle/ible. Eg) % was coming from the office 1 and % saw an elephant. !ere the clauses $% was coming from the office and $% saw an elephant are both independent clauses" because neither of them is a constituent element of the other. ,ut if we connect the two clauses by subordination" the clause that has been subordinated becomes a constituent of the other clause" and becomes embedded in it # by becoming fi/ed there firmly and deeply. And the clause that has been subordinated loses its independent status. Eg) As % was coming from the office 1 % saw an elephant. 8 -r" % saw an elephant 1 as % was coming from the office9. !ere the clause thats been subordinated is) $ as % was coming from the office. 8%ts been subordinated by making it start with the subordinator $ as9. &his is not an independent clause" because it cannot stand alone as a sentence. &he subordinating con*unction $as has forced it to become a constituent element of the matri/ clause $% saw an elephant. &hus subordination has brought about an $une+ual arrangement" and has created a hierarchical order # with the matri/ clause having superior status 8because it can stand alone as a sentence9 and the subordinate clause having inferior status 8because it cannot usually stand alone as a sentence9. Fn the other hand" in co'ordination" the clauses that are linked together continue having e+ual status" because they continue to remain independent. Eatrix clause first You see, the idea units in spontaneous speech are

not "ade up before we start speaking. &o. (heyre "ade up as we speak on and, that too, under pressure of ti"e. 'o speakers dont have the ti"e to hierarchically arrange their clauses into "atri* clauses and subordinate clauses. +hat they nor"ally find easier to do is this: Ltter independent unit after independent unit, and leave the" independent and of e;ual status # through co-ordination.

,ut dont be under a wrong impression. %n spontaneous speech" nobody can avoid subordination completely. 7o. &his is because" in certain situations" grammar" usage or even common sense gives you no choice. 7ow suppose that a construction that occurs to you spontaneously is a subordinate one and that it tends to become involved or complicated # making it difficult for you to keep up a flow of speech. &hen you can avoid the problems of subordination in four ways) 8i9 :onvert the subordinate construction into a co' ordinate oneQ 8ii9 Leave the subordinate clause half'finished" and start uttering a new independent clause in its placeQ 8iii9 -econstruct the subordinate clause differently" by introducing it with a si$ple subordinator # rather than in any other way. 8iv9 -econstruct your utterance" by uttering the matri/ clause first and the subordinate clause ne/t. &he fourth point is very important. You see" written English often prefers the order $subordinate clause first and matri/ clause ne/t. Eg) As ' was co$ing fro$ the office 1 % saw an elephant. ,ut spoken English prefers the order $matri/ clause first and the subordinate clause ne/t. Eg) % saw an elephant 1 as ' was co$ing fro$ the office. &his is the natural order. You know" you can avoid a lot of problems that subordination brings up by this simple trick) Stter the matri/ clause first and the subordinate clause ne/t. 7ote >) %n writing as well as in speech" co'ordination is more fre+uent than subordination. ,ut between writing and speech" youll find the percentage of co' ordination far more in speech than in writing. 7ote @) %f the speech is formal" the percentage of subordination would be more than if it is informal. %n fact" the less formal the speech becomes" the less the percentage of subordination and the more the percentage of co'ordination. Nature of information-packing and fluency You see, when you connect one clause to the ne*t by co-ordination, you feel a sense of co"pleteness at the end of each clause. You have a feeling that theres no syntactic co"pulsion to continue in a rigidlyfi*ed direction. You do not feel under any syntactic pressure to construct the ne*t clause in a
particular way. &o. !n fact, you have a feeling of considerable syntactic freedo", and you feel free to construct it in a way that suits your convenience.

,ut what happens in subordination is entirely different) Eg) As % was coming from the office 1 % saw an elephant.

!ere the subordinate clause $As % was coming from the office has been placed first" and so this is a tight arrangement. %f you follow this tight arrangement" you feel a sense of incompleteness at the end of the subordinate clause. And theres then in you a sense of restraint and a sense of being tied down to something. &his is because your mind is burdened by a thought) 47ow that %ve uttered a subordinate clause" %ll have to utter a matri/ clause too" and %m bound to construct it in a way that the subordinate clause dictates" and not in a way that % find convenient5. &hat is" after uttering $As % was coming from the office" you dont feel that your responsibility for the utterance is over. &heres a sense of syntactic compulsion weighing down on your mind" asking you to continue in a rigidly'fi/ed direction. Youre now under considerable syntactic pressure to construct the ne/t clause in a pre'determined way. And you dont have any syntactic choice # as when you use co'ordination. So at the end of the subordinate clause thats been placed first" you tend to lose your speech'composition balance" and you tend to falter" and you find it difficult to continue. %n fact" subordination tends to make you lose not only your speech' composition balance" but also your speech'delivery balance. (ind you" when you utter the subordinate clause first" theres no sense of completeness at the end of that clause. So your organs of speech are in stretched 8and uncomfortable9 positions towards the end of the subordinate clause. And they try to complete the subordinate clause and to start the matri/ clause from their stretched and uncomfortable positions # and not from their normal or rela/ed positions. 7aturally" you find it difficult to speak with a flow. Your speech tends to falter and comes to a stop. You see" this does not happen in co'ordination. &hats why" if you employ subordination" its generally better to utter the $atri# clause first" and the subordinate clause ne/t. Do this as far as possible. You see" when you do that" a lot of the syntactic pressure on your mind gets relieved. &his is because at the end of the matri/ clause 8which you utter first9" you have several syntactic options for the ne/t idea unit. Subordination then becomes *ust one of those several options. And when you follow this order" your subordinate arrangement becomes a lot similar to a co'ordinate arrangement" because the structure of the subordinate arrangement would then be) %ndependent clause 1 :onnector1 %ndependent clause. &he only difference then between the two types of arrangement is this) %n co' ordination" the connector is a co'ordinating con*unction" and in subordination" the connector is a subordinating con*unction. 7ow listen. Suppose that you happen to start your utterance with a subordinate clause 8rather than with a matri/ clause9. And suppose that you run into speech' composition difficulties. &hen you can get over the difficulties by leaving the

subordinate clause unfinished. You see" this kind of unfinished units and incomplete structures are +uite common in naturally'occurring speech. A main reason is this) .hen your organs of speech are already in stretched positions" youll find it necessary to relieve them of the pressure on them. So you give up the structure half'finished. &hen your organs of speech would immediately come back to their normal positions" and they become rela/ed and free of the pressure on them. &he organs of speech can then start the ne/t utterance from these rela/ed positions.

*mpromptu word group ordering Eakeshift improvisations +eve already learnt that spontaneous speech is co"posed and spoken at the sa"e ti"e. (hat is, spontaneous speech-"aking is an i"pro"ptu action # one that you do without planning or organiGing it in advance. (herefore, if you look at a long stretch of spontaneous speech, you can always notice one thing: 'pontaneous speech has a distinctive flavour # the flavour of /"akeshift i"provisations0. &he reason is this) %n spontaneous speech" you use a particular word group only because nothing better occurs to you readily # and not because you know that that particular word group is the most appropriate one. You see" when you start speaking" the information that you want to convey is not available in an organiTed form or set in words. So the only option you have is to speak on by using such word groups as occur to you as suitable on the spur of the moment #whatever they may be. Youre not definite that youre using word groups that are absolutely right. You want to try them out" feel them out" e/periment with them. You want to see whatll happen. Then you refine and edit what youve said # words" word groups" structures" everything. &hese processes of $trying out and $editing go on # one after the other. %n other words" when you speak spontaneously" you speak e/ploratorily. You see" its like this) !ow will you move from one end of a room to another in the dark You feel the groundQ you feel the wallsQ you move your hands around or hold them in front of you in order to feel your wayQ you move step by step # pausing here and there. You retrace your steps. You change your direction" you stumble and regain balance. &he more familiar the room and the ob*ects in it are to you" the less your difficulty. %n spontaneous speech also" you proceed almost in the same way. &he more familiar the sub*ect'matter is to you" the less your difficulty. &hus everything that you say in spontaneous speech is tentative #and sub*ect to revision and refinement. &rue" you may not revise or refine everything. ,ut

everything is sub.ect to revision and refinement. (any of the things" you revise and refine. &he remaining things" you leave in their crude forms. &herefore" from the very nature of its production" spoken language gets the flavour of 4makeshift improvisations5. %ts this flavour that gives an individuality of its own to spoken language # and marks it out from written language. %f you take away the tentativeness" the vagueness and the lack of e/actness from spoken language" it would immediately cease to be spoken language. Special ways of word group ordering (he earlier =essons have taken you through a nu"ber of spontaneous spoken nglish te*ts # te*ts containing speech-co"position features. An i"portant point that would have struck your "ind is this: (he way a siGeable proportion of word groups is ordered 1arranged2 in spoken nglish # its different fro" the way word groups are ordered 1arranged2 in written nglish. &he reason for this difference is this) %f you order word groups in certain special ways" itll be easier for you to plan and e/ecute your speech simultaneously. &hat is" these special ways of word group'ordering will help you in the moment'to' moment speech'production more than the written English style of word group' ordering. %n other words" these special ways of word group ordering will help you make makeshift'improvisations and" thus" help you compose your speech and speak at the same time. ,ut heres something you should remember) All this doesnt mean that you should only compose whatever you say in these special ways. 7o" thats not what % mean. .hat % mean is this) &here are special methods that you can use when you find normal methods 8of structuring clauses and groups of clauses and phrases9 inconvenient in certain conte/ts. &hese are certainly supplements to the normal methods # and not substitutes for them. .hen ordinary syntactic processes fail to help you to keep up an acceptable level of fluency" you dont have to falter and the flow of your speech doesnt have to stop. &here are these special ways of word group ordering in e/istence" and you can 8and must9 take help from them. And % want you to understand that every fluent speaker depends a lot on them. Lets now e/amine these special ways of word group'ordering in spoken English. 1; )opicFcomment arrangement (ake this word group: .hen is the ne/t train to Delhi

&his is a simple +uestion" and its grammatically sound 8even according to written English rules9. And you can use it in spoken English also. ,ut theres a more natural and simpler way of asking this +uestion in spoken English) &he ne/t train to Delhi = when is it !ere what the speaker has done is this) !e presented the topic 8theme9 first) 4&he ne/t train to (adras5. &hen he made a comment on it # separately" by an independent structure) 4.hen is it 5 !eres another e/ample) &his habit of yours = it will get you into difficulties. &he normal style # acceptable in written English also # is this) 4&his habit of yours will get you into difficulties5. &his type of &opic':omment arrangement is very common in spoken English. &his type of word group ordering will liberate you from the written English clutch to a great e/tent. A few e/amples will help you master the knack. !ere we go) Group 1 0 &hat man 1 who is he 0 &he man who shouted at me 1 hes in the ne/t room. 0 Fur new boss 1 have you met him 0 &hat man 1 %ve seen him somewhere. 0 Your friend 1 whats his name 0 &he postman 1 his house is somewhere there. 0 Kohns sister 1 is she abroad 0 (y wife 1 shes from :alcutta. 0 !is mother 1 have you seen her 0 &he girl % told you about 1 % didnt see her there today. 0 &he girl in red 1 is her father abroad 0 Your secretary 1 her computer needs repairing. 0 &he cash book 1 where is it 0 Your letter 1 % got it yesterday. 0 !is book 1 whats its name 0 &his shirt 1 % dont like its colour. 0 &he thieves 1 were they wearing masks 0 3ather and mother 1 theyre coming today. 0 &hose people 1 do you know them 0 &hese men 1 you should be cautious about them. 0 Your friends 1 whats their interest in this 0 &he manufacturers 1 its their fault. 0 &he cake you gave 1 did he eat all of it 0 &he oil in this bottle 1 % took a little of it. 0 &he things he said 1 none of them is true. Group 2 0 :rying like this 1 it wouldnt help you at all. 0 (eeting him there 1 its no use. 0 Shouting at her like this 1 what good will it do 0 .orking with them 1 isnt it a great privilege 0 (aking all these arrangements 1 it isnt easy. 0 &hreatening him 1 its not wise. 0 (oving to another place 1 it wont solve the problem. 0 2etting a part'time *ob 1 will it be difficult 0 Attending evening classes 1 % find it

inconvenient. 0 &ravelling around 1 she finds it e/citing. 0 Doing the washing up 1 she finds it tedious. 2; .ommentFtopic arrangement (his arrange"ent is the reverse of the topic-co""ent arrange"ent. (hat is, here we "ake a co""ent about the topic 1the"e2 first, and
then e"phasiGe the topic by presenting it as a tag.

3or e/ample" take this word group) .here has the gate'keeper gone &he topic'comment arrangement of this +uestion would be like this) &he gate'keeper 1 where has he gone Fn the other hand" the comment'topic arrangement would be like this) .here has he gone 1 the gate'keeper %n spoken English" the comment=topic arrangement is as important as the topic' comment arrangement. &he following word groups will help you learn the arrangement) Group 1 0 .hos he 1 that man 0 !es in the ne/t room 1 the man who shouted at me. 0 !ave you met him 1 our new boss 0 %ve seen him somewhere 1 that man. 0 .hats his name 1 your friends 0 !is house is somewhere there 1 the postmans. 0 %s she abroad 1 Kohns sister 0 !ave you seen her 1 his mother 0 % didnt see her there today 1 the girl % told you about. 0 %s her father abroad 1 that girls 1 the girl in red. 0 !er computer needs repairing 1 your secretarys. 0 .here is it 1 the cash book 0 % got it yesterday 1 your letter. 0 .hats its name 1 his books 0 % dont like its colour 1 this shirts. 0 .ere they wearing masks 1 the thieves 0 &heyre coming today 1 father and mother. 0 Do you know them 1 those people 0 You should be cautious about them 1 these men. 0 .hats their interest in this 1 your friends 0 %ts their fault 1 the manufacturers. 0 Did he eat all of it 1 the cake you gave 0 % took a little of it 1 the oil. 0 7one of them is true 1 the things he said. Group 2 0 %t wouldnt help you at all 1 crying like this. 0 %ts no use 1 meeting him there. 0 .hat good will it do 1 shouting at her like this 0 %snt it a great privilege 1 working with them 0 %t isnt easy 1 making all these arrangements. 0 %ts not wise 1 threatening him. 0 %t wont solve the problem 1 moving to another place. 0 .ill it be difficult 1 getting a part'time *ob 0 % find it inconvenient 1 attending evening

classes. 0 She finds it e/citing 1 travelling around. 0 She finds it tedious 1 doing the washing up. Group 3 0 Does anyone know it 1 how youre going to handle the situation 0 .ill father do it 1 what mother has asked him to do 0 :an you predict it 1 which team will win 0 !ave you settled it 1 where to go for the picnic 0 Do the police know it 1 the place the murderer is hiding in 0 Does she suspect it 1 that the cloth is +uite cheap 0 Do they believe it 1 that hes an educated man 0 !ave you found it 1 how they broke open the door A persons ma e-up! A persons 4make'up5 is hisPher nature or a combination of the various +ualities that form their character. % have chosen this topic for you because this is an area in which most people arent fluent. %f you monitor day'to'day conversations for a long time" youll be convinced of one thing) &here are four sub*ects that very often come up during all conversations. &hey are) >9. A persons behaviour. @9. A persons attitude. A9. A persons intelligence. B9. A persons personality and personality traits. &hese are the main elements in a persons make'up" and during conversations" most people fail miserably in e/pressing ideas that have to do with these four sub*ects. .hy does this happen .hy do you often find it difficult to speak about someones behaviour" attitude" intelligence" personality or personality traits &hese are the chief reasons) 3irstly" though you know the core words in English" you may not have much e/perience in using them to speak about these topics 8a persons behaviour" attitude" etc.9. Secondly" to speak about a persons behaviour" attitude etc." you should be good at using English in the 4descriptive style5 # and this style is +uite different from the style of ordinary functional English dialogues.

&he second reason needs some e/planation. %n very general terms" we can classify the English language as 4descriptive English5 and 4non'descriptive English5. Descriptive English is the type of English that you use when you want to e/plain or describe what someone or something is like or what they look like. And when you use descriptive English" what you actually do is to try and give a picture of someone or something to your listeners. 3or e/ample" take the following word'groups) 0 !es a man of powerful build with a severe face. 0 Shes a tall" business'like" woman of AD. 0 !es a short man in the early fifties" with a bald head. 0 She had a blue dress on. 0 !is house has an entrance hall" two bedrooms" a kitchen and a bath. 0 &he floor is of white tiles. 0 A hovercraft is a sort of vehicle" and it travels above the surface of land or water" and it can float above the land or water on a cushion of air. &hese are e/amples of descriptive English. Fn the other hand" take the following e/amples) 0 Dont repeat the same mistakes. 0 Youd better e/plain everything to her. 0 6erhaps you may have a point there. 0 Sorry" %m not ready yet. 0 &hats all right. 0 %m happy about the whole idea. 0 !ave a look at this photo. 0 %m not satisfied with this mi/er. !ere youre not trying to describe or e/plain what someone or something is like or what they look like" and so these are not e/amples of descriptive English" but

of non'descriptive English. 8Kust a casual look at the two sets of e/amples would give you an idea of the difference between the two styles9. %n general" when you speak about a persons behaviour" attitude" etc." the style of English you use is the descriptive English style" and not the non'descriptive English style. 7ow" theres a complicating factor) .hen you describe or e/plain the physical appearance of a person or a thing" things are not very difficult" because youre then speaking about concrete things # things you can see or touch or things whose pictures you can easily form in your mind. ,ut when you describe or e/plain the +ualities of a person or thing" the position is different. Youre then speaking about abstract things 8and not concrete things9 # things you cannot see or touch or things whose pictures you cant readily form in your mind 8because they dont e/ist as material ob*ects9. So when you try to speak about the behaviour" attitude etc. of a person" what you are trying to do is to describe or e/plain abstract concepts. And this is not easy. 7ow remember this) %m not trying to tell you that descriptive English is always more difficult than non'descriptive English. Actually" there would be occasions when you may find descriptive English easier than non'descriptive English" and there would be occasions when you may find descriptive English more difficult than non'descriptive English. ,ut" in general" descriptive English becomes difficult to produce when you try to describe or e/plain abstract concepts like the behaviour" attitude" etc. of people. &hats why were concentrating on these areas in this Supplement. Snder each of the four topics in this Supplement" youre going to get plenty of word'groups. Each word'group has been hand'picked to give you ma/imum training in using the core words that are relevant to that particular topic. 2o through all the word'groups carefully. &heyll give you plenty of e/perience in using the core words to speak about these topics. And theyll give you plenty of e/perience in handling descriptive English to deal with abstract sub*ects. 7ow remember this) :ore words are words of the greatest general service" and when you practise using them under a particular topic" you become good not only at using those words to handle that particular topic" but also at handling all topics in general. Lets now take up the word'groups. !ere we go) !ehaviour &roup 1

0 .hat % like about her is" she isnt shy or embarrassed in the company of other people. 0 !es very harshPcruel" and will do anything to get what he wants. 0 !es friendly" and en*oys talking to other people. 0 !e behaves differently from other people. 0 !e avoids too much of eatingPdrinking. 0 % found him willing and eager to be helpful. 0 !es lively and enthusiastic. 0 !es very concerned about unimportant details and is very difficult to please. 0 She fre+uently changes her mood without warning. 0 !e was angry and upset. 0 !is behaviour was stupid and insensitive. 0 She never does what shes told to do. 0 She was in a bad situation" and she was willing to do anything to get out of it. 0 !es stubborn and determined to have his own way. 0 She behaved as though she felt at ease. 0 !e has the courage to do what he believes is right. 0 !e allows things other people disapprove of. 0 !es very aggressive and eager to argue. 0 % found him humble and unassuming. 0 Even when he knows what he has done is wrong" he doesnt feel guilty or sorry about it. 0 &hat was a difficult situation" but she was calm and unemotional. 0 Stop behaving like a woman" cant you" Ashok 0 !es very unwilling to spend money. 0 !es very reliable and respectable. 0 % found him very confident and assured. 0 She was very upset and was behaving in an uncontrolled way. 0 &hose children are noisy and not easily controlled. 0 !es not careful in obeying rules. 0 She often complains about things. 0 Shes very sensitive and sympathetic towards other people. 0 Shes rather reserved and behaves very correctly. 0 !e keeps trying to make people like him. 0 She feels embarrassed and nervous when someone is looking at her. 0 !es not afraid of doing things even if they involve riskPdanger. 0 % think hes too confident and aggressive. 0 !es very mean and hates spending money. 0 !e gave the impression of being dishonest. 0 !e was lively and entertaining. 0 Sometimes he behaves in a silly way" rather than being serious and sensible. 0 !e only helps people if he thinks theyre important. 0 Shes always at ease in social situations. 0 !es full of witPhumour. 0 !es respectable" well'bred and refined. 0 Shes polite and has good manners. 0 !e behaves as though he has no emotional interest in the things he does. 0 &hey were too eager to obey their boss and to do things for them. 0 &hey were cowardly" or they wouldnt have attacked that old lady. 0 !e felt so happy and e/cited" he found it hard to think and act normally. 0 !e looked slightly embarrassed # as though he felt he had done something silly. 0 She was very helpful and polite. 0 %t was a frightening situation" but he was brave. 0 !es weak and cowardly. 0 %t was a frightening e/perience" but she was very calm and self' controlled. 0 Shes very kind and sympathetic towards other people" and she tries to do them as little harm as possible. 0 She was very friendly and rela/ed. 0 % found him +uiet and not aggressive. 0 !e likes to have fun embarrassing people. 0 !e behavesPspeaks as though hes superior to other people. 0 !e behaves in a gentle and helpful way towards other people. 0 !e was nervous and e/cited and seemed likely to lose control of himself. 0 !e does a lot of dishonestPillegal things every day. 0 &hat child is very spirited and playful. 0 !e often gets involved in

arguments. 0 Shes very +uiet and rather shy. 0 !e doesnt take enough care over how his words will affect other people. 0 &he children were noisy" lively and full of energy. 0 !e behaves in a way thats too lively. 0 !e doesnt talk much about his abilities and +ualities. 0 !e is very dishonest and secretive. 0 !e never understands how complicated things can be at times" and he interprets them in a way thats too simple. 0 !e doesnt show any feelings or emotions. 0 !e strongly supports people he likes" without thinking carefully about the matter. 0 !e always says unkind things. 0 !e appeared to be rela/ed and was not trying to hide anything. 0 Fur ne/t'door neighbours are very friendly and helpful. &roup 2 0 !es very religious and moral. 0 !e was angry" irritated and bored. 0 !e was worried and unhappy about something. 0 Shes cheeky" but lively and full of energy. 0 Shes easily upset by unpleasant sights and situations. 0 !e wont hesitate to take risks to achieve what he wants. 0 %t was a dangerous situation" but she showed courage. 0 !es too self'confident and rather cheeky. 0 !e gets angry +uickly and easily. 0 !e recogniTes and accepts the true nature of situations" and tries to deal with them in a practical way. 0 !e never gives any importance to other peoples opinions or beliefs. 0 !es always careless about doing things. 0 !e was so upset and worried that he couldnt think clearly. 0 !es very cheeky and always speaks rudelyPdisrespectfully. 0 % found his behaviourPaccent very artificial. 0 !e always behaves in a formal and unfriendly way. 0 !es lively and full of enthusiasm and e/citement. 0 !e only agrees with people if he considers them to be important. 0 !e has no hesitation in doing things even if theyre morally wrong. 0 !e has an enthusiastic nature and is interested in everything he does. 0 !es playful and unpredictable rather than serious and practical. 0 .hy do you hesitate to show affection openly and freely 0 !e has a strong belief in democracy. 0 !e becomes angry and upset very +uickly about small" unimportant things. 0 !es rather shy and doesnt en*oy talking about himself. 0 !es very careful and detailed in his work. 0 !es willing to try out new and unusual ways of doing things. 0 !es prepared to be cruel to other people and feels no pity for them. 0 !e was angry and said a lot of bitter things. 0 !es very gentle" and he doesnt get angry very easily. 0 !es very naZve and believes that everybody is honest. 0 !es a noble person. 0 Fur new boss is bad'tempered and is easily irritated. 0 !es +uiet and shy. 0 !er son is disobedient and behaves very badly. 0 Your behaviour was so bad that you ought to be ashamed. 0 Fur new boss is very strict and serious # % dont like him. 0 She must have been very courageous to go into the burning building. 0 She always talksPbehaves in a rude and offensive way. 0 Shes very lively and easily e/cited. 0 !es a mild person" and he never shouts at other people. 0 !e behaved as though he didnt likePrespect them. 0 !es full of confidence and energy. 0 She seemed cold and aloof. 0 !e does things suddenly without thinking about them first. 0 Shes always ready to +uarrel. 0 !e always behaves in a proud and unpleasant way towards

other people. 0 She deals with situations without an/iety or emotional tension. 0 !is behaviour was silly and immature.

@ole of Duestions Are you really good at asking ;uestions in fluent nglish) !f youre not, do you think youll be able to have a satisfactory chat or conversation in nglish with so"eone) Suppose youre at a party or in a gathering. Fr suppose that youre travelling on a train. .hat will make a conversation go on You see" its mainly your capacity to ask +uestions. %f youre not able to ask +uestions" youll find it difficult to keep up conversations" and the conversations you have will come to a stop +uickly # or youll find yourself forced back into the position of a silent listener. Fthers around you will go away with a wrong impression about you # that you do not know English. Again" if you want to effectively carry out a number of communicative functions in English" you need to be good at asking +uestions in fluent English. Suppose you want some information from someone or somewhere. .hat alone will help you get the information you want Fnly your skill in putting +uestions. %snt that so 7othing else. %f you ask someone about something" theyll give you some kind of a reply. &hat may not be the kind of information you want. Fr that may only be part of what you want. Youd then want e/tra information or the right information" or clarifications or e/planations. .hich means that you have to put +uestions # more +uestions" the right kind of +uestions. Fr suppose that you want to ask somebody for something" or to offer something to somebody" or to make a polite suggestion. Fr suppose that you want to buy something from somewhere. Do you think youll be able to do these things effectively in English if you arent fluent in asking +uestions in English (ind you" most non'native speakers of English are handicapped in one way) %n schools and colleges" they never had much opportunity of learning to make $+uestions. &hey only had the opportunity of learning to make $answers. And of course" generally speaking" the answers could not be in the form of +uestions. &he answers had to be in the form of statements. (any non'native speakers of English started facing the problem of having to make +uestions only when they left school or college. &hey came face to face with this problem only when they found themselves having to S6EA; in English # in real'life situations.

Bifficulty in framing Duestions Most educated people are able to produce ;uestions correctly in
(rue. But when they have to produce ;uestions in speech, they falter and fail.


Sometimes" they end up asking such un'English +uestions as 4.hat youre doing 5 8instead of 4.hat are you doing 59" youve put it 5 8instead of have you put it 59" 4.hy shes standing there 5 8instead of 4.hy is she standing there 59" 4.hen you came 5 8instead of 4.hen did you come 59" 4!ow she is managing 5 8instead of 4!ow is she managing 59" 4.hether he is coming 5 8instead of 4%s he coming 59" 4.hether you will do it 5 8instead of 4.ill you do it 59" 4.hether he can come 5 8instead of 4:an he come 59" etc. At other times" they end up muttering nonsense. Fr they become nervous and embarrassed and keep mum # or they fall back on their mother tongue. Even very highly'educated people can be heard to make these sorts of distortions. Yes" they are distortions" because they do not represent natural or genuine English. &his is not the kind of English that native speakers of English speak. %ts artificial English. Ff course" you may already know all this. You may already know that this is not the right way to frame +uestions. ,ut the problem is this) %f the right +uestion patterns are not firmly fi/ed in your mind" youre sure to slip up and utter +uestions with 4un'English5 patterns. So its now time for us to pay close attention to +uestion patterns. You know" making +uestions is one of the most important spoken English skills. Fne of the most difficult skills" too. Ff course" many people are likely to be thinking like this) 4FhJ &hat is +uite easy. % can make any number of +uestions without difficulty5. 6erhaps you can. ,ut the problem is not simply of making +uestions. &he problem is of making them while youre speaking # on your feet. (ind you" youll never be able to learn 4right5 +uestion patterns from a list of 4wrong5 and 4right5 samples. &he thing to do is to get the 4right5 +uestion patterns i$printed on your mind # so they dont fade away. &heyll then remain there" and act as the framework for all the +uestions you utter. And soon" it becomes second nature to you to use those patterns and to produce the $right sort of +uestions. .hief reason for the difficulty -eres the chief reason for the difficulty in asking ;uestions in the right way: &he way you should arrange your words when you utter a !uestion # that is different from the way in which you arrange your words when you utter a state$ent. &hat is" when youre uttering a simple sentence 8a single independent

clause9 in the form of a statement" you order your words in one way. ,ut when youre uttering a simple sentence 8a single independent clause9 in the form of a +uestion" you order your words in another way. 3or e/ample" when you say" 4Kohn is a good boy5" youre uttering a statement" and not a +uestion. 82rammatically speaking" youre using a declarative structure here9. ,ut when you arrange the words in a different order and say 4%s Kohn a good boy 5" youre uttering a +uestion. 82rammatically speaking" youre using an interrogative structure here9. A basic difference between a statement 8declarative structure9 and a +uestion 8interrogative structure9 is this) A statement normally starts with a Sub*ect element and is followed by a verb. ,ut in +uestions" the Sub*ect element is pushed into another position. 8.ell soon look at how this word'order reversal happens9. You see" simple sentences belong to four syntactic classes" and each has a separate semantic function. !ere are the names of these syntactic classes 8with the corresponding semantic class name given within brackets9) 0 Declarative form 8W Statements9. 0 %nterrogative form 8W Muestions9 0 E/clamative form 8W E/clamations9 0 %mperative form 8W Directives9. %f you want to speak English fluently" the right order of words must come easily and naturally # whether youre uttering a statement or a +uestion or an e/clamation or a directive. &he right word'order must come as second nature to you" almost without thinking. So the most important thing you should do now is to get the patterns of +uestions in English fi/ed in your mind and to get into the habit of uttering +uestions in those patterns. You know" any advanced learner of your level can easily achieve these goals through constant and thorough practice # constant and thorough practice with a sufficiently large collection of everyday +uestions. And this sort of e/tensive practice is *ust what youre going to do. And youre going to get large collections of everyday +uestions that are sufficient for your purpose. Guestion types (here are K "a$or types of ;uestions. (hey are: 0 $Yes'7o +uestions. 0 &h'word +uestions. 0 Alternative +uestions. Hes-No Duestions Yes-&o ;uestions are ;uestions that e*pect affir"ation or negation as a reply. (he "ost co""on word that e*presses affir"ation is Yes, and the "ost co""on word that e*presses negation is &o. (hat is

why these ;uestions are called Yes-&o ;uestions. -ere are a few e*a"ples of yes-no ;uestions: 0 %s he a nice person 0 %snt she coming to the wedding 0 Are there any ob*ections 0 Arent you ready yet 0 Doesnt she like coffee 0 Did you paint it yourself 0 .ould you like an orange 0 :an % come too 0 !asnt she been here often 0 :ant we do something about it As you can see from these e/amples" a yes'no +uestion starts with an au/iliary verb. !eres a complete list of the au/iliaries that are normally used to make yes' no +uestions)

@eply Expressions !ave you noticed one thing from your own e/perience !ave you noticed that the most difficult part in giving a reply is to start the reply) +hen so"ebody asks you a
;uestion, do you get the feeling that you have a lu"p in your throat) A tight feeling in your throat, preventing the reply fro" co"ing out) 5ften, the reply $ust doesnt start co"ing out. Most non-fluent people have this proble".

&o overcome this problem" this is what you must do) You see" there are certain prefabricated'sort'of response*initiator word groups # word groups that would help you start your reply. Sometimes" these e/pressions alone would be enough for a complete reply. At other times" these e/pressions would help you to avoid a lump getting formed in your throat" and to start your reply. You have to get into the habit of starting your replies with an e/pression of this kind. Fnce you get started" your general training would come to your help # the training you get through the other Lessons in this course. So the thing you should do now is to get to know closely the fre+uently'occurring types of response* initiator word groups. Youll find these e/pressions against the letter $Y under the following heading 8$6rompt'response practice9. 6ay particular attention to them. (rompt-response practice Youll find below a series of pro"pts and responses. Most of the pro"pts are ;uestions "ade up of the /;uestion-initiator word groups0 you saw in Book N. -epeat each prompt 8$X9 and each response 8$Y9 several times # ALFSD. 0 X) .ill they be angry with me [ Y) % think so" yes. 0 X) !ave they left the office [ Y) 7o" % dont think so. 0 X) .ont he be busy now [ Y) Yes" % think so. 0 X) .hat does it cost [ Y) Lets find out. 0 X) .ill she come here today [ Y) Yes"

she will. 0 X) .hen does she go to bed everyday [ Y) Muite early. 0 X) !ow does it concern you [ Y) %t doesnt. 0 X) Arent you the daughter of our 6rincipal [ Y) Yes" % am. 0 X) Did he bring the books [ Y) Yes" he did. 0 X) !as she managed to get a camera [ Y) Yes" she has. 0 X) .hat were they telling you [ Y) 7othing. 7othing important anyway. 0 X) Should we be punctual [ Y) You had better. 0 X) :an you come a little early [ Y) %m sorry" % cant. 0 X) .hy did they leave so early [ Y) % have no idea. 0 X) !ow far will this train go [ Y) As far as !yderabad. 0 X) !asnt he been away on a tour [ Y) Yes" he has. 0 X) .hy cant he come here more often [ Y) %m afraid % dont know. 0 X) .hat did you do that for [ Y) Kust to scare the children. 0 X) .ho did % talk to yesterday [ Y) &o me. 0 X) :an they be a little more strict with the children [ Y) %ll ask them. 0 X) .hy did David borrow money [ Y) % dont know. 6lease tell me. 0 X) .hat is the name of the baby [ Y) .ell have to ask someone. 0 X) .asnt she a little rude to him [ Y) Yes" she was. 0 X) .ould you like to have a cup of tea [ Y) 7o" thank you. 0 X) :an they come here right over [ Y) 7o" they cant. 0 X) .hat can it be used for [ Y) 3or washing clothes. 0 X) .hat did you have for breakfast [ Y) 7othing much. 0 X) .ill they be asking for the payment [ Y) 7o" they wont. 0 X) .hat was he doing there [ Y) Eating food. 0 X) .hen do they have breakfast everyday [ Y) Youll have to ask them. 0 X) Should he be e/perienced in your line [ Y) Yes" he should. 0 X) .hat vegetable do we get most protein from [ Y) % dont +uite know. 0 X) !ave you a match to light a cigarette [ Y) 7o" % havent. 0 X) .ere they waiting for long [ Y) Yes" they were. 0 X) .hat are you doing for your headache [ Y) %m taking tablets. 0 X) !as Simon been sleeping long [ Y) Yes" he has. 0 X) !ow much should % pay for these fruits [ Y) &en rupees altogether. 0 X) .hich one do you prefer # the red one or the yellow one [ Y) 7either. 0 X) .hos that man standing there [ Y) %m not sure who he is. 0 X) Do you know what the punishment for late'coming is [ Y) % really wonder what. 0 X) !ow often does he go for films [ Y) 7ot very often. 0 X) .hat is the best way to the Too [ Y) %m out of this place myself. 0 X) Are your friends going home this weekend [ Y) 7o" &hey arent. 0 X) %s there a restaurant anywhere near here [ Y) &heres one a kilometre to the south. 0 X) .hat road is the hotel on [ Y) % dont know what road. 0 X) Did it take him long to get back [ Y) 7o" not very long. 0 X) .erent you supposed to send a report [ Y) Sorry" % didnt know that. 0 X) .hy did you have to leave so early [ Y) ,ecause % had some private work to do. 0 X) .hat siTe shoes does he wear [ Y) %m afraid % dont know. 0 X) !avent you heard what happened [ Y) 7o" what did happen 0 X) .hat should they have done to escape punishment [ Y) Ask someone else. 0 X) .hat has he been complaining to you about [ Y) About the way those bo/es were unloaded from the trucks. 0 X) Does he have to put in a written complaint [ Y) 7o" he doesnt. 0 X) .hat sort of a trick did he play [ Y) A nasty trick. 0 X) !ow long is the *ourney from here to :hicago [ Y) Kust about ten hours. 0 X) Does Kohn usually carry your bags [ Y) 7o" he doesnt. 0 X) !ow much are these oranges [ Y) &en rupees a doTen. X) Did you have trouble finding this address [ Y) Kust a little. 0 X) .hy didnt she marry him [ Y) 7o one can e/plain. 0 X) .hich one are you going to select [

Y) % cant decide. 0 X) .hat do % have to do to help him [ Y) % really cant say. 0 X) .ho did he meet there [ Y) %m sorry % didnt hear you. 0 X) Are there any samples left [ Y) 7o" no more samples. 0 X) .ill there be any deduction [ Y) Sorry" there wont be. 0 X) .hich one did they like best [ Y) % cant tell. 0 X) %snt he showing off too much lately [ Y) % think so" too. 0 X) !ave you ever seen a better film [ Y) %ts difficult to say. 0 X) .hy werent you getting her the things she wanted [ Y) Youd like to know" wouldnt you 0 X) Does he get up early [ Y) Yes" he does. 0 X) :ouldnt he be doing this *ust to fool you [ Y) Yes" he could. 0 X) .erent you well yesterday [ Y) 7o" % wasnt. 0 X) .hich will you give me # the one in the right hand or the one in the left hand [ Y) &he one in the left hand. 0 X) Should % be more strict with the children [ Y) Yes" you should. 0 X) !as Kohn come back from the office [ Y) % hope so. 0 X) .hy should she get upset over such a minor thing [ Y) % wonder why. 0 X) !ow much did you pay for the bag [ Y) % dont remember. 0 X) .ere father and mother here yesterday [ Y) Yes" they were. 0 X) Are all the staff in the office against you [ Y) 7o" only a few of them. 0 X) .hat time do you get up in the morning [ Y) Sometimes +uite early" and sometimes +uite late. 0 X) Do you want to come with me [ Y) 7o" thank you. 0 X) :ould they be planning to strike work tomorrow [ Y) %m afraid they could be. 0 X) .hat did she pick up from there [ Y) .e know what. 0 X) .hat do you plan to do during the summer holidays [ Y) % havent decided yet. 0 X) Do we have time for coffee before the film begins [ Y) %m afraid not. 0 X) .hat will it look like if nobody goes for the party [ Y) !ell think everyone has ganged up against him. 0 X) !ave your father and mother been away long [ Y) 7ot very long. 0 X) .here will they stay if they come [ Y) .ith youQ where else 0 X) !ow did he do in the last e/amination [ Y) Muite well. 0 X) .here have they been all these days [ Y) &hey alone know where. 0 X) Do (ary and (inu have raincoats [ Y) .ho knowsJ 0 X) Did you like the film [ Y) 7o" % didnt. 0 X) !ow soon will the rains come [ Y) %n a month or two. 0 X) .ho did they laugh at [ Y) % dont know who. 0 X) .hy wasnt anyone friendly with him [ Y) ,ecause he was rude. 0 X) :an % show you a trick [ Y) .hat trick 0 X) Should the man be asked to go away [ Y) You decide. 0 X) .hat should it cost according to you [ Y) 3ar less. 0 X) !avent you been going there fre+uently [ Y) Yes" % have. 0 X) .hich one of these is the best [ Y) &he one lying on the top. 0 X) :an you tell me how % can get to this address [ Y) Ask someone else" please. 0 X) .ho is the officer'in' charge here [ Y) &he one who is sitting there. 0 X) Didnt % warn you not to fight with him [ Y) You did. 0 X) !ow can % start this engine [ Y) 6ress this button. 0 X) Do you often come here [ Y) 7o" only seldom. 0 X) Are short people taken in the army [ Y) % dont +uite know. 0 X) .ill (ary and you be at the party today [ Y) :ant say. 0 X) .here do you get vegetables from [ Y) 3rom the market. 0 X) !ow large is your bedroom [ Y) 7ot very large. 0 X) Should she be where others would see her or behind the curtain [ Y) ,ehind the curtain. 0 X) !ow much will it cost to have this shoe mended [ Y) 3ifty rupees. 0 X) .hat did he do when the plane landed [ Y) % wasnt there. 0 X) Dont you care for mutton chops [ Y) 7o" % dont. 0 X) !ow long ago did his grandfather die [ Y) % dont know e/actly.

0 X) !ow old are you [ Y) &wenty years. 0 X) .ho is this little boy with you [ Y) (y nephew. 0 X) .here has 6riya been studying all these years [ Y) Somewhere outside. 0 X) !ave you and your friends taken e/ercise today [ Y) Yes" we have. 0 X) Do you have to take a lot of e/ercise to keep fit [ Y) Yes" they say so. 0 X) !ow far is :alcutta from here [ Y) Cery far. 0 X) !ow often are there trains to :alcutta [ Y) Everyday" theres a train. 0 X) :an % show you some magic [ Y) &hatd be fine. 0 X) %snt it wonderful to have such good friends [ Y) -eally it is. 0 X) !ow will you get to the station from here [ Y) %ll get a ta/i" % guess. 0 X) .here are you staying tonight [ Y) %n a hotel. 0 X) !ave you ever been to this place before now [ Y) 7o" this is the first time. 0 X) Are you a salesman [ Y) 7o. 0 X) :ould you spare some money for a week [ Y) %m indeed sorry. 0 X) Do you want anything else [ Y) 7o. &hese are about all" % guess. 0 X) .hat did he want [ Y) You know it" dont you 0 X) !ave you got a few minutes to spare [ Y) :ertainly" please come in. 0 X) Are you going to the cinema [ Y) 7o. 7ot really. 0 X) .ho will be the !ome Secretary ne/t [ Y) .ho knowsJ. 0 X) !as Dad ever scolded him [ Y) 7o. &hats the trouble. 0 X) Do you like being scolded [ Y) 7o" of course not. 0 X) Did she have to give him a beating [ Y) 7o. !e told the truth when he got a good scolding. X) Did he have to pay for the seat [ Y) %t doesnt seem so. 0 X) Did 2ita have to take a plane to reach there early [ Y) %t looks like it. 0 X) !ow many students are there in your school [ Y) %m not sure *ust how many. 0 X) !asnt he repaid the loan [ Y) !e probably has. 0 X) .hat places have you visited so far [ Y) Kust a few. 0 X) Did your brother bring you any present [ Y) Yes" he did. 0 X) !ow much did you draw from the bank [ Y) Youd like to know" wouldnt you 0 X) Do you prefer tea with sugar or without [ Y) .ith sugar" and plenty of it. 0 X) Are you sure today is &hursday [ Y) .ell" the calendar says so. 0 X) !ow old is your father [ Y) 7ot very old. 0 X) Did you have a nice time at the party [ Y) Yes" % had a wonderful time. 0 X) Do you often go to restaurants [ Y) 7ot often" but on occasion. 0 X) .hen should she serve coffee [ Y) A little later. 0 X) Did it take him long to come back from the shop [ Y) Yes it did. % was wondering what kept him so long. 0 X) .hy werent you angry with him [ Y) ,ecause itd do no good. 0 X) :an you tell me all these things in 3rench [ Y) %ll try to. 0 X) .hat time does he leave for the office [ Y) ,y about eight. 0 X) !ave you ever been to the department store [ Y) Yes" why 0 X) Did the workers strike work today [ Y) 7o. &he dispute was settled yesterday. 0 X) .hat is wrong with this report [ Y) Everything. &ake a look at it. 0 X) Doesnt (ary come here any more [ Y) 7o" she doesnt. 0 X) .ould you like to go for a film [ Y) &hatd be fine. 0 X) !ow was the film [ Y) 7ot very good. 0 X) Do you think well be late for the film [ Y) 7o" theres plenty of time. 0 X) Does he always find fault with everything you do [ Y) Yes" he does. 0 X) !adnt we better stay away from that area [ Y) Yes" we had. %ts +uite unsafe. 0 X) .ho did she go to the park with [ Y) .ith a friend of hers. 0 X) .hat are they supposed to do when a customer comes in [ Y) 2ive him service. 0 X) !ow long ago did he borrow the money from you [ Y) 3ive or si/ months ago. 0 X) Are you having a headache [ Y) Yes" % am. 0 X) .hat hotel is the best hotel here [ Y) &hats difficult to say. 0 X) .hat school is nearer to her house [ Y) % dont remember its name

Eoment-to-moment speech production %f you want to be fluent in producing long se+uences of speech" theres a basic skill you must have) &he skill of composing speech and uttering it at the same time. &hat is" the skill of moment'to'moment speech production. Ff course" you must have this skill not only for producing long se+uences" but also for producing short se+uences" too. ,ut this skill has a greater role in producing long se+uences than in producing short se+uences. ,y now" you already have a sound theoretical knowledge of speech'composition features and moment'to'moment speech production. You have already had considerable oral training" too. %t is now time for you to get some more intensive training in moment'to'moment speech production. ,ut before going through the practice materials given below" go carefully through Lessons D" G and H once again. ife-giving elements of spoken English &ow re"e"ber this: +hat gives life to a spoken language is the presence of speech-co"position features. Yes, features like startingtroubles, false-starts, repetition of syllables, repetition of words and word groups, inco"plete structures, unfinished word groups, pauses, pause-fillers, refor"ulations, refine"ents, rearrange"ents, backtracking, looseness in packing infor"ation etc. !f these features are absent, your speech will have no life in it, and it wont even sound like spoken language. +hat is "ore, if you try to avoid these features, you wont be able to speak on either. 2o through the following three pieces of spoken te/ts) >9 % was going that way 1 and % saw a ' a picture 1 in a shop 1 th ' the picture of a = :hinese = net 1 you know 1 a very beautiful picture 1 and % wanted to buy it 1 but )= % didnt = didnt have any money on me then 1 no 1 actually 1 % had some money 1 but not much 1 anyway it wasnt = wasnt enough for the = for the = picture. 8W .hen % was going that way" % saw a very beautiful picture of a chinese net in a shop. % wanted to buy it. ,ut % did not have enough money for buying it9. @9 &here was a ' &here was a huge = m structure 1 you know ) = they call it the dome 1 oh its amaTing 1 the way they have built it. 8W &here was a huge structure called $the dome there. &he way they have built it is amaTing9. A9 She wanted this = this new book 1 and as she ' she picked it up 1 then there was another man there who 1 he wanted it too 1 and this man said 1 %ve ' %ve already reserved it 1 and he = sort of started shouting 1 and he made a scene there. 8W She wanted this new book" and as she picked it up" another man who was there" and who also wanted the book" said that he had already reserved it" and he started shouting and making a scene9.

&he materials within the brackets are the written English e+uivalents of the materials outside the brackets. And the materials outside the brackets are spoken English te/ts. Look at the difference between each spoken English te/t and its written English e+uivalent. 7ow dont you see &he chief difference between a spoken English te/t and its written English e+uivalent is this) &he spoken English te/t contains features of speech'composition. &he written English e+uivalent does not. So the lesson you must learn is this) %f you take away speech'composition features from a spoken te/t" it ceases to be a spoken te/t. < common mistake (he trouble with "ost non-fluent people is this: (hey believe that the word groups that a fluent speaker produces are si"ilar to those within the brackets. +hen they ai" at spoken nglish fluency, their ai" is to gain the skill of producing word groups si"ilar to those within brackets. (hat is, they try to produce written nglish word groups orally. &o wonder they dont beco"e fluent in speech. .hat they must try to produce orally is a se+uence of oral 8spoken9 English word groups" and not a se+uence of written English word groups. Fnly then can they become fluent in oral 8spoken9 English. And oral 8spoken9 English word groups are similar to those outside the brackets 8in the three e/amples given above9" and not those within the brackets. Speech-composition features ' duration of speech Oe"e"ber one thing # always, whenever you open your "outh to speak. Yes, whenever. +ithout the help of speech-co"position features, nobody can produce speech # orally. &obody can. &ot even a fluent native speaker of nglish. %n fact" whenever a fluent speaker speaks" ANR to DNR of the speaking time is taken up by pauses" hesitations and other speech'composition features. Yes" ANR to DNR of the speaking timeJ Yes" when a well'educated native speaker of English speaks" the information content of his speech takes up only about DNR to GNR of the speaking time. &he rest of the time is taken up by pauses" hesitations and other speech'composition features. %t is this duration of time 8taken up by speech'composition features9 that gives fluency to the production of the information content. And so if you dont spend ANR to DNR of your speaking time to speech'composition features" you wont be able to produce the information content fluently. 7o. So speech'composition features are an essential part of a spoken language # particularly spoken English. ,ut listeners dont consciously notice the speech' composition features. &hey dont keep track of the time that the speaker spends on the process of spontaneous speech'composition. Everybody unconsciously accepts the speech'composition features in their native speech as an integral

part of the speech content. &hats why people dont consciously notice the presence of these features in speech. %n fact" most people are not aware that ANR to DNR of the speaking time is taken up by speech'composition features alone # though everyone makes use of these features to speak in their native language. &hats why when a non'native speaker tries to produce a foreign language orally" he tries to fill the whole of his speaking time with information content alone. And he does not spend any time on speech'composition features. &he result is that he fails to speak fluently # though he may be highly educated in that foreign language and has a good command of its grammar and vocabulary. You are not going to commit this mistake. 3rom now on" make it a point to spend ANR to DNR of your speaking time for getting help from speech'composition features. Spoken English texts +hat follows is a collection of spoken nglish te*ts. ach te*t 1stretch of speech2 is divided into chunks, and each te*t contains speechco"position features. As you know, theres no rigid rule about where e*actly to divide a stretch of language into chunks. (here are only guidelines # practical guidelines. You are free to divide a strea" of speech virtually anywhere # depending on the needs of the /on-the -spot-speech-co"position0 process. 2o through each te/t carefully. %dentify the speech'composition features found in each te/t. 7otice how different in form each te/t would have been if the speech' composition features had not been present. 7otice how different the written' English e+uivalent of each te/t would be. -ead each te/t ALFSD # making full use of the speech'composition features. -epeat several times. !ere we go) 0 &he place 1 it looks really ' dirty 1 in the rainy season 1 % mean 1 gutters and ' pools of mud 1 and everything. 0 !es a very able man 1 %ve noticed that 1 % mean 1 m = *ust from the point of view of his = mastery of law 1 and = looking at the way he ' e/plains things 1 he grasps things +uickly 1 and prepares himself ' thoroughly 1 before coming to the :ourt. 0 At the ne/t *unction 1 about th ' two furlongs from here 1 youve got = m = well itll be a bit e/pensive 1 but its a good hotel. 0 %t go = goes to the = comes from the other side. 0 %t takes a = its about a ten'mile'drive from here. 0 You would love the place 1 the buildings 1 the parks 1 the playgrounds 1 but it is the ' backwaters 1 you can hire a boat and 1 and = itll be really be en* = fantastic. 0 %n a place where = ) = places like these 1 if we have = if you have a small ' shop 1 or something like that 1 you can make money 1 a very busy place 1 this = bus stop 1 railway station 1 and all that. 0 Abraham Lincoln 1 its very interesting actually 1 theres a story about Lincoln where 1 one day Lincoln was\ 0 And one of them 1 he was m = a fat fellow you know 1 m '

bulky 1 and ' m = he was in that chair 1 oh ' and the other man came in 1 through that door. 0 Di ' did ' oh ' you went there 1 didnt you 0 &hey kept it in = they have a big iron safe 1 they put it away safely. 0 Fh the = she says 1 they didnt complete it she says. 0 % met her husband there 1 Kohn 1 thats right 1 and Kohn told me the 1 when he started the business 1 that was years back 1 he didnt have much money with him = then. 0 She filled up the form 1 and dropped it in the ' bo/ 1 and the office people 1 on the last day 1 she dropped it on the last day 1 and their = they got it on the last day. 0 Some of these people 1 they ' you can easily convince them. 0 !e +uarrels with everybody 1 yes 1 and criticiTes everybody 1 and this sort of thing happens whenever you = whenever you meet him. 0 !e was so interested in = in this thing that = you see 1 this was his hobby 1 and he = he used to spend thousands of rupees every year 1 buying books" tools and things. Everyday Eedical English/ Speaking a+out health and illness &his is an area where even people who are generally fluent stumble +uite often. You see" when youre ill" youll have to describe and e/plain to your doctor 8and to other people9 how youre suffering. &he doctor would ask you a number of +uestions" and youll have to understand those +uestions and answer them. And at home and when youre among your friends" youll often have to talk about your own or someones illness or health. And if youre a doctor or a medical professional" youll have to discuss illness and health with patients and others. Youll have to speak to patients about the history and symptoms of their illness. Youll have to speak to them while e/amining them" while prescribing medicines" about the treatment. And even if youre not a doctor" youll find it necessary to use these word groups +uite often" because $illness is a topic that people speak to you about +uite often. All this means that you need to be fluent in using a set of special kinds of word groups. 7ot a set of technical terms" but plain everyday language that has to do with health and illness. 3or a fluent native speaker of English" this is not normally a problem" of course # *ust as this is not a problem for you in your own mother tongue. ,ut for non'native speakers of English" this is a real problem when they have to use English to speak. &his Lesson will help you get over this difficulty. Boctor to patient -ere are K separate collections of word groups. (hese are word groups that doctors 1as well as others2 usually use when theyre speaking to patients. &he first collection contains word groups that doctors 8as well as others9 use when theyre speaking to patients in order to find out about an illness. &he second collection contains word groups that doctors 8as well as others9 use when theyre speaking to patients while e/amining them. &he third collection contains

word groups that doctors 8as well as others9 use when theyre speaking to patients about the diagnosis that has been made and about the treatment. 7ow remember this) Kust because this section has been given the heading 4Doctor to patient5" dont think that the word groups given are useful only to doctors. 7o" thats not so. You see" these are word groups that everybody will find useful when they have to speak to someone who is ill) Sons and daughters when they have to speak to fathers" mothers and others who are ill. 3athers and mothers when they have to speak to sons and daughters who are ill. 3riends when they have to speak to friends and others who are ill. Everyone to everyone else who is ill. So you can imagine how universally useful these word groups are. .ase-taking/ Guestioning the patient .ick up each word group and utter it A=5L4 # several ti"es. .ractise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of the" with a ready flow. After that, co"e back to the word groups once a week 1at least for K or P weeks at a stretch2 and repeat uttering the" several ti"es # A=5L4. 0 Any pain in your muscles 0 Any pains in your chest when you cough 0 Any problems with your chest 0 Any problems with your waterworks 0 Any shortness of breath 0 Apart from your headaches" are there any other problems 0 Are your parents fit and well 0 Are your parents in good health 0 Are you a heavy drinker 0 Are you aware of anything when you swallow 0 Are you breastfeeding 0 Are you doing better today 0 Are you having any difficulty with your hearing 0 Are you long'sighted 0 Are you married 0 Are you short of breath 0 Are you short' sighted 0 Are your bowels regular 0 Are your stools black 0 :an % *ust come back for a moment to these diTTy spells 0 :an you describe the pain 0 :an you describe the problem 0 :an you describe the symptoms 0 :an you see any letters at all 0 :an you show me where it hurts 0 :an you tell me e/actly how you turned your foot 0 :an you tell me which tooth is causing the problem 0 :an you describe the diTTy spells 0 Describe whats wrong" will you 0 Did the tablets help 0 Did you ever have any fractures 0 Did you ever have trouble with your liver 0 Did you have a comfortable night 0 Do bright lights bother you 0 Do the eyes water when you read 0 Do you always sweat 0 Do you belch 0 Do you bring up any phlegm 0 Do you cough a lot 0 Do you cough much 0 Do you cough up phlegm 0 Do you cough when you smell certain foods or other smells 0 Do you drink a lot 0 Do you drink 0 Do you ever bring something up 0 Do you ever faint 0 Do you ever feel completely possessed by another person 0 Do you ever feel giddy 0 Do you ever feel like vomiting 0 Do you ever get short of breath 0 Do you ever get wheeTy 0 Do you ever have diTTy spells 0 Do you ever have nose bleeds 0 Do

you ever see double images in front of your eyes 0 Do you ever see distorted images before your eyes 0 Do you ever see unusual shapes before your eyes 0 Do you ever suffer from headaches 0 Do you ever wet the bed 0 Do you feel any pain inside your ears 0 Do you feel any pain or discomfort down below 0 Do you feel any weakness in your limbs 0 Do you ever take aspirins or anything like that 0 Do you relate the cramps in anyway to your meals 0 Do you have any cough or phlegm 0 Do your ankles ever swell up 0 Do you feel sick when you get these headaches 0 Do you find that youre losing your eyelashes 0 Do you get any pain on breathing 0 Do you get any pains in the chest 0 Do you get headaches when youre reading 0 Do you get headaches 0 Do you get out of breath easily 0 Do you get tired easily 0 Do you give him li+uids 0 Do you go out drinking much 0 Do you have a cold 0 Do you have a history of any serious illness 0 Do you have a sore throat 0 Do you have any allergies 0 Do you have any chest pains after e/ercise 0 Do you have any difficulty moving your arms or legs 0 Do you have any discharge from your eyes 0 Do you have a cough 0 Do you have any aches or pains 0 Do you have any pain in passing water 0 Do you have any trouble with passing water 0 Do you have any trouble with your stomach or bowels 0 Do you have any pain while passing urine 0 Do you have bad breath 0 Do you have headaches 0 Do you have palpitations 0 Do you have to strain to pass your motions 0 Do you have to strain to pass your water 0 Do you know when these headaches are coming on 0 Do your muscles feel stiff in the morning 0 Do you often get diarrhoea 0 Do you often get constipation 0 Do you often have a fever 0 Do you often lose your temper 0 Do you play any sports 0 Do you see spots in front of your eyes 0 Do you smoke 0 Do you socialiTe much 0 Do you strain when you pass water 0 Do you suffer from double vision 0 Do you sweat at night 0 Do you vomit 0 Do you wheeTe 0 Do your eyeballs feel painful 0 Do your eyes get red easily 0 Do your eyes get tired easily 0 Do your eyes itch 0 Do your eyes water 0 Do your legs swell 0 Do your motions smell bad 0 Do you wear glasses 0 Do these headaches come on at any particular time 0 Do you ever get these headaches at night 0 Does it bother you when you are walking 0 Does any special food upset your stomach 0 Does anyone else in your family suffer from this problem 0 Does anything in particular bring on this pain 0 Does anything make the pain better 0 Does anything make the pain worse 0 Does he cough a lot 0 Does he ever bring up his food 0 Does he ever get diarrhoea 0 Does he pass wind as normal 0 Does the pain affect your work 0 Does it bother you in any way 0 Does it burn when you pass water 0 Does it come on any particular time 0 Does the discharge have a bad smell 0 Does it hurt if you bend your knee 0 Does it hurt much 0 Does it hurt when % do this 0 Does it hurt when you swallow 0 Does the pain stay in one place" or does it go anywhere else 0 Does light bother you 0 Does lying down help the pain 0 Does she eat at the usual times 0 Does she have a good appetite 0 Does she have any rashes 0 Does she sleep at the normal time 0 Does that medicine have any effect 0 Does that hurt at all 0

Does the knee feel tender here 0 Does the pain have any relation to all this 0 Does your husband smoke 0 Does your nose run a lot 0 Does your water dribble 0 !as he ever had a fever 0 !as there been any changes in your health since your last visit 0 !as this been a problem before 0 !ave these headaches affected your vision at all 0 !ave you brought your urine sample 0 !ave you noticed any problems with your eyesight 0 !ave you got a cough # a persistent cough 0 !ave you ever been admitted to a hospital 0 !ave you ever been operated on 0 !ave you ever blacked out 0 !ave you ever coughed up blood 0 !ave you ever fainted 0 !ave you ever had backaches before 0 !ave you ever had any problems 0 !ave you ever had chicken po/ 0 !ave you ever had measles 0 !ave you ever had your tonsils out 0 !ave you had a head in*ury 0 !ave you had an anaesthetic before 0 !ave you had any cough at all 0 !ave you had any diseases in the family # like diabetes or high blood pressure 0 !ave you had any falls 0 !ave you had any miscarriages 0 !ave you had any pain in your chest 0 !ave you had any serious illness in the past 0 !ave you had any shortness of breath 0 !ave you had 8this9 problem before 0 !ave you had this 8problem9 long 0 !ave you lost any weight 0 !ave you noticed any blood in your stools 0 !ave you noticed any blood in your water 0 !ave you noticed any swelling of your ankles 0 !ave you noticed any twitching of your muscles 0 !ave you noticed any weakness or tingling in your limbs 0 !ave you put on weight recently 0 !ave you taken any aspirin 0 !ave you taken anything for it 0 !ave you usually got lots of energy 0 !ow about sore throats 0 !ow about your bowels 0 !ow about your relations with your colleagues 0 !ow about your relations with your husband 0 !ow are you at the moment 0 !ow are you feeling today 0 !ow can % help you 0 !ow do you feel in general 0 !ow are you feeling at the moment 0 !ow does it feel 0 !ow have you been keeping up to now 0 !ow is your appetite 0 !ow long do these headaches last 0 !ow long does the pain last 0 !ow long has it been bothering you 0 !ow long has this been going on 0 !ow long has this bothered you 0 !ow long has your voice been hoarse 0 !ow long have the headaches been bothering you 0 !ow long have they been bothering you 0 !ow long have you had this pain 0 !ow long have you had these pains 0 !ow long have you had this boil 0 !ow long have you had this discharge 0 !ow long have you had this problem with your vision 0 !ow long have you had this problem 0 !ow long have your gums been bleeding 0 !ow many do you smoke each day 0 !ow many times do you have to go during the night 0 !ow often do you feed him 0 !ow often do you get this pain 0 !ow old are you 0 !ow old is your last child 0 !ow would you describe the pain8s9 0 !ow many episodes 8of cramps9 a day were you getting 0 !ows your health otherwise 0 !ow about your weight %s it steady

0 %s his toilet normal 0 %s it a localiTed or general pain 0 %s the pain bad enough to wake you up 0 %s it broken 0 %s the pain continuous or does it come and go 0 %s it sore all the time 0 %s it sore to the touch 0 %s it thick or light 0 %s she active" like other children 0 %s there a history of diabetes in your family 0 %s there any bad smell from your nose 0 %s there any blood in it 0 %s there any discharge from your ears 0 %s there any discharge or watering of the eyes 0 %s there any heart disease in the family 0 %s there any rash on the body 0 %s there anybody with blood pressure trouble in the family 0 %s there anybody with kidney trouble in the family 0 %s there anything else you feel the same time 0 %s there anything that makes the pain better 0 %s there anything that makes the pain worse 0 %s there anything you need 0 %s this a life'long habit 0 %s your digestion all right 0 %s your hearing affected 0 %s there anybody with heart trouble in the family 0 So you fell over and graTed your knees 0 &ry and e/plain what happens when the pain comes on. 0 .as it painful 0 .as it something you tried to lift 0 .as there any other position that might bring the cramp on 0 .as there anything that started it off 0 .ith the right eye" can you see anything 0 .hat about coughs 0 .hat about wheeTing 0 .hat about shortness of breath 0 .hat are you taking for your headache 0 .hat brings on your cough 0 .hat brings you here 0 .hat brought this on 0 .hat caused this 0 .hat colour is the stuff you bring up 0 .hat colour is the vomit 0 .hat effect does food have 0 .hat has your health been like 0 .hat kind of pain is it 0 .hat seems to be the problem 0 .hat seems to bring it on 0 .hat sort of e/ercise do you take 0 .hat sorts of things makes it sore 0 .hats your appetite like 0 .hats brought you along today 0 .hats the colour of this discharge 0 .hats the matter 0 .hats the pain like 0 .hats the stream 8W urine9 like 0 .hats the trouble 0 .hat medication are you taking now 0 .ere you breathless 0 .ere you breathless with this discomfort 0 .ere you aware of palpitations 0 .ere you sneeTing and coughing
9 +hen did his first tooth appear) 9 +hen did the trouble first start) 9 +hen did the pain1s2 start) 9 +hen did you first notice the lu"p) 9 +hen did you first notice the pain) 9 +hen did you first notice this) 9 +hen did you "ove into town fro" the country) 9 +hen does the pain co"e on) 9 +hen was the last ti"e you had a tetanus shot) 9 +hen was the last ti"e you visited your dentist)

0 .here did you catch the infection 0 .here does it hurt 0 .here is it sore 0 .here is the pain e/actly 0 .here is the pain most severe 0 .here are these headaches 0 .hich one is worse # the top teeth or bottom teeth 0 .hich part of your chest is affected 0 .hich part of your back is affected 0 .hich part of your head is affected 0 .ould it be sore if % were to tap the tooth 0 .here is the pain e/actly

0 Youre not vomiting now 0 7o black'looking stool 0 You dont think the cramps are likely to come on before or after meals 0 And the longest episode 8of cramps9 lasted for 0 And your bowels !ave they changed 0 You dont feel sick at all 0 Any +uestions" or anything we can do for you Fluency in speaking a+out a wide range of topics 5ne of the i"portant things this course has been trying to do is to i"prove your co""and over everyday nglish vocabulary. You see, its i"possible to
master a word $ust by learning its "eaning or by learning the rules governing its usage. (hese things are i"portant, of course # but these things would only help you get to know that word. But when youre ai"ing to beco"e fluent, its not enough that you know a word. +hat is needed is that you should have co"plete mastery over it. You should not only have a clear idea of its "eaning and other features, but also have the e*perience of actually using it in various conte*ts. Yes, not in one conte*t alone, but in different conte*ts. (hats why !ve been giving you word-groups by relating the" to a particular co""unicative function, or to an idea or a notion, or to a particular topic.

7ow" this is the point that %d like you to note carefully) &he collections of word' groups that you get under various topics 8such as $,anking" $,usiness or $3ood ? Drink9 help you in several ways. Let me stress *ust three of the ways they help you) Firstly" they help you associate the words in those word'groups to the topic they come under. &his sort of association would increase your command over those words more effectively than if you had gone through the same word'groups individually 8in isolation9 without relating them to that topic. Secondly" the topic' wise collections of word'groups bring into one place the most useful word'groups and structures that have to do with a particular topic. &his helps you concentrate on becoming fluent in speaking about that topic. And whats more important" this helps you increase your command over a collection of words # words that are related to one another through a common topic. Thirdly" each topic'wise collection of word'groups helps you look at the core words in the English language from a new point of view" and this adds to your fle/ibility in using those words # to speak about any topic. &he third point needs some e/planation. You see" though % give a large collection of word'groups under various topical headings" the words used are not of a technical or rare nature. 7o. % only concentrate on giving word'groups made up of fre!uently*occurring words # that is" words that occur fre+uently in everyday conversations among educated speakers. &hese words make up the core vocabulary of the English language. And as far as fluency development is concerned" its these words that are important. &hus" even if the topic dealt with is $,anking" the words in the word'groups you get are core wordsQ even if the topic dealt with is $,usiness" the words in the word'groups you get are core wordsQ even if the topic dealt with is $3ood ? Drinks" the words in the word' groups you get are core words. So what happens is this) Youre made to use the core words not under one topic alone" but under a number of topics. And you come across the same words again and again under different topics # as part of newer and newer word'groups. And even under the same topic" you come across most of the words several times # and not *ust once.

&he result of all this is this) You get to handle the core words again and again # in conte/t after conte/t" and situation after situation. And you dont come across them in isolationQ you come across them in the company of other words that fre+uently occur with them. And these other words are core words" too. &his helps you relate each core word to the other core words that usually come before it and after it 8in speech units9 in various conte/ts. %n other words" you get to learn the inter'relationship among words without any conscious effort # and this is what helps you really master the core vocabulary of a language. %n this Supplement" were going to take up word'groups that have to do with seven topics that are of everyday interest. &hese are) >9. Driving. @9. Cehicle repairs and maintenance. A9. :lothes. B9. .eather. D9. (oney. E9. Entertainment ? Leisure. G9. Sports ? 2ames. &hese are high'fre+uency sub*ects" and theyre of general importance any time you speak. ,ut when they come up during conversations" most people often find it difficult to put their thoughts and ideas into words. Ff course" %m not talking about the language re+uired for a theoretical or academic discussion of the various technical aspects of these topics. 7o. %m talking about everyday situations when these topics come up. %n day to day life" a large number of situations come up again and again when youll have to say something or other about these seven topics. Yes" this is so even if you dont drive a car" and even if you are not going to get a car repaired" and even if you are not interested in sports or games. &hat is" these are topics that everyone would come across during everyday conversations # topics on which everyone would find it necessary to say something or other +uite fre+uently. Ff course" the things you will find it necessary to say are usually of a general nature" and not of a technical nature" but most people find it difficult even to say things of a general nature about these topics. &he main reason is this) &hey dont have much e/perience in using the core words in English to e/press ideas related to these topics. As far as you are concerned" the practice material in this Supplement would put an end to this difficulty. &he practice material youre going to get now would give you ample

training in handling the core words to e/press ideas related to these topics. And the result would be this) You not only become good at saying things related to these topics" but also get to see the core words at work in newer and newer conte/ts. And this will help you become better at handling the core words # and become more fluent. .e shall now take up the word'groups under each of the topics. &his is what you should do) 2o through all the word'groups under a topic +uickly once. :omplete all the seven topics in this way once. &hen come back to the first topic" pick up each word'group" and start uttering it several times # ALFSD. 2et your organs of speech to become familiar with the sounds of these word'groups. !ere we go) Briving &roup 1 0 &he police car overtook our car. 0 Fn hills" you must use low gears. 0 % was in a traffic *am for more than an hour. 0 &he car must be in neutral when you start the engine. 0 2et out of the way # the car is backing up. 0 % hate driving along stony roads. 0 &urn off this road at the ne/t corner on the left. 0 Lets park the car here. 0 % got stuck in traffic for some time. 0 6ut the gear lever in the neutral position" and start the car. 0 &he authorities will have to do something to reduce the traffic *ams in the city centre. 0 &he truck veered out of control" overturned" and hit a lamp'post. 0 &he sign said $7o 6arking. 0 &his tyre is very worn # you should get it changed. 0 &here were skid marks on the road where the accident happened. 0 6ull up at the pedestrian crossing. 0 6ut the car in the garage" and lock the garage door. 0 (ost cars have four forward gears and a reverse. 0 %m thinking of learning to ride a motorbike. 0 A car came in the opposite direction" and the driver dipped his headlights. 0 &he car kept hitting potholes and bumps. 0 !e was arrested on suspicion of drunk driving. 0 !e drives very well" and hes very cautious" too. 0 !e goes to work by carPon his motorbike. 0 .hats the correct tyre pressure for your tyres 0 &he car was travelling very fast. 0 &he crash happened on a sharp bend. 0 &hat car didnt have its headlights on. 0 &he car skidded and hit a lamp post" and the side of the car crumpled. 0 %f you use the choke when you start the car" you should push it in before you move forward. Yes" push the choke in when the engine is idling. 0 A few speed'bumps will have to be installed in that street. 0 3or a moment" % was blinded by the lights of the oncoming car. 0 &he driver pulled up in front of a shop. 0 Slack off when you approach the *unction. 0 !e got into the car and fastened the seat belt. 0 &he tyres s+uealed when he braked hard. 0 :an you ride a motorbike 0 !is car drove into the back of mine. 0 !e crashed the car into a tree and smashed it up. 0 &his is the second car hes smashed up. 0 !e was involved in a motor accident. 0 She swerved to avoid another car. 0 %s there a garage in this street 0 &he car began to speed up. 0 During the rush hour" the traffic would be bumper to bumper. 0 She went round the building. 0 !e rides to work on a motorbike. 0 &he car was in third gear. 0 (y

tyre burst when % was driving along a stony road. 0 !e released the hand brake" and the car moved forward. 0 &he car hit a lamp'post. 0 &here was heavy traffic on the roads. 0 !e got into the car" and wound the window down. 0 %n a few minutes" he began to speed up. 0 !e opened the door" got in and started the car. 0 !e pulled into a petrol station. 0 % saw the car turning the corner. 0 &he car park is behind the building. 0 !e rides his motorbike to work. 0 &he driver got out of the bus. 0 % was doing EN kph" and a blue (aruti passed me at LN kmph. 0 !e drives to work by car. 0 &hats a dangerous stretch of road. 0 Lets go out for a drive. 0 !e got into the car and folded the roof down. 0 &hese parking spaces are reserved for employees. 0 % dont want to go with him # hes not a safe driver. 0 !e let the engine tick over for about AN seconds before the car moved forward. 0 &he car skidded on the road # the driver had pulled up too fast. 0 .eve nearly run out of petrol. 0 !e pressed the accelerator hard. 0 %s the hand brake on or off 0 6ut the car in gear and drive on. 0 &his is a no'parking Tone. 0 Fur car had a breakdown" and we had to push it into a garage. 0 !e braked sharply to avoid a car. 0 !e wound up the window" and locked the car door. 0 !e undid the seat belt" and got out of the car. 0 6ut your car into neutral when you stop at traffic lights. 0 &he car is now in bottom gear. 0 %ve got another puncture in my front tyre. 0 !e turned down a street where there was a $7o Entry sign. 0 :hange into second gear when you go up the hill. 0 !e took the handbrake off" and the car moved forward. 0 .hy dont you roll the window down 0 &he authorities have been doing their best to ease traffic congestion in the city. 0 % thought he would pull up at the traffic lights" but he drove straight on. 0 .e saw a restaurant by the road" and pulled in. 0 % think youre a bit low on petrol. 0 Fur car was travelling at a speed of EN kilometres per hour. 0 %s this a parking place #ow to pronounce English like a native speaker of English +eve already dealt with the topic
Flow Production Techniques in =esson D. (here we saw several techni;ues that would help you speak nglish by "aking the end of one word flow into the beginning of the ne*t word. +hile dealing with that topic, ! told you that the sounds "ade by five of the letters in nglish 1a, e, i, o and u2 are called "owels and that the sounds "ade by the re"aining twenty one letters are called consonants. &ow, when you speak, words co"e together, and when words co"e together, four different types of $unctions are for"ed. !n =esson D, we saw that these $unctions are:

0 :onsonant'consonant *unctions. 0 :onsonant'vowel *unctions. 0 Cowel'vowel *unctions. 0 Cowel'consonant *unctions. And in Lesson @" you learnt certain important techni+ues that would help you utter one word after another smoothly # without the *unctions between every two of them causing problems and forcing you to falter. 7ow this is what % am going to do through the present Supplement) %m going to deal with the Flow Production Techni!ues at an advanced level.

.onnected speech and pronunciation =et "e e*plain. +hen you watch an nglish fil", are you able to understand what the people in that fil" are saying) +hen you listen to native speakers of nglish having a conversation, are you able to understand what they are saying) +ell, "any people arent able to. And in this 'upple"ent, !" going to tell you what one of the chief reasons is. .ell" simply put" this is what happens) .hen you listen to them" you hear several clusters of sounds that are unintelligible to you. &hat is" youre not able to make out what words these sound clusters represent. Although they actually stand for everyday words that you know very well" these sound clusters dont sound to you to be like anything you know. 3or e/ample" suppose that you hear a native speaker of English say something like this) isnch sod "an 7ote) As %ve already told you in Lesson A" $ stands for the $schwa. &his is a vowel sound # but not a distinct one. %t occurs in the unstressed syllables in words. &his is the sound of $a in 4above5" 4about5" etc." that of $e in 4water5" that of $i in 4possible5" that of $o in 4actor5" and that of $u in 4suppose5. 3or all practical purposes" these sounds are one and the same.9 .hat do you think was he saying .ell" if he had written the same thing down 8rather than uttered it aloud9" this is how it wouldve looked) /e isnt your sort of $an, Fr suppose that you hear him say things like these) 0 snochos, 0 soright, 0 sip$atter1 0 kyou, 0 Praps, %f he had written these things down" they wouldve looked as follows) 0 'ts not yours, 0 'ts all right, 0 &hat does it $atter1 0 Thank you, 0 Perhaps, A foreign learner finds spoken word groups like these difficult to understand 8when a native speaker of English say them aloud9. &his is mainly because of two reasons) >9. !e 8the foreign learner9 has had his training mainly in written English" and his eyes are used to seeing spaces between every two written words. And he gets confused and somewhat disoriented when he hears a group of words uttered as a single unit # without even the briefest possible pause corresponding to those spaces.

@9. !e has learnt to pronounce every word individually" and he e/pects that a particular word would sound the same whether its pronounced individually 8in isolation9 or as part of a word group 8in connected speech9. As far as the first point is concerned" understand this) ,lank spaces among the words in a written word group have no importance when you utter that word group in connected speech. %n connected speech" there are no pauses corresponding to the spaces among written words. 7o. %n connected speech" there are normally no pauses between two neighbouring words in a word group 8e/cept when you make use of a pause as a device in overcoming hesitation or as a device that helps you compose and speak at the same time9. %n general" there are only pauses between word groups" and not between words. And the words in a word group are spoken as a single" tight" well'knit unit" having no gaps among them. You can even say that" in speech" a group of words is treated as e+uivalent to a single word # and so the spaces you see among the words 8when you write that word group down9 have no relevance at all when you utter them in connected speech. 7ow lets take up the second point. %n a way" this entire lesson is going to be a detailed study of this 8second9 point. At the outset" theres something you should understand firmly) .ords in English dont sound the same when theyre pronounced individually 8in isolation9 as when theyre pronounced as part of a word group in connected speech. 7o. A word is pronounced in one way when its uttered in isolation # thats its ideal pronunciation. And its often pronounced in a different way when its uttered in combination with other words # thats its pronunciation in practice. )ongue movement and phonetic simplification You see, when you utter a consonant or a vowel

individually, your tongue gets into the ideal position thats re;uired to produce that sound. +hen you utter another consonant or vowel after that, the tongue will have to get back fro" that ideal position, and then get into the ideal position re;uired to produce the new sound. (his is only possible when you utter words individually in isolation, because then youll be uttering the sounds slowly, and your tongue will have enough ti"e to "ove fro" ideal position to ideal position. But when words are co"bined 1and uttered aloud2 in speech, a cluster of consonants or a cluster of vowels co"e together. And your tongue will have to "ove fro" one position to another in quick succession. And in that process, the positions to which the tongue "oves will not often be the ideal positions re;uired to produce the various sounds. 'o the consonant sound and the vowel sound the tongue produces in connected speech will be different fro" the ideal sounds. 1(he ;uality of the sounds the tongue actually produces thus would depend on the nature of the neighbouring sounds.2

%n English" stressed syllables are normally uttered slowly and clearly" and unstressed syllables are always uttered +uickly and far less clearly. So when you utter stressed syllables in speech" therell be time enough for your tongue to get into the ideal positions re+uired to produce the ideal consonant sounds and vowel sounds. ,ut when you utter unstressed syllables" your tongue wont have enough time to get into the ideal positions re+uired to produce those syllables" because theyre uttered +uickly. So when you utter a cluster of unstressed syllables" your tongue gets into such positions as it finds easier to get into from

the preceding positions" and not into the ideal positions. As a result" a cluster of unstressed syllables often sounds different in speech from what it might sound if those syllables are pronounced slowly one after another. As its difficult 8and sometimes impossible9 for the tongue to move from ideal position to ideal position in connected speech" it only moves from possible position to possible position" and each consonant and each vowel in a cluster will have to ad*ust to the sounds of the neighbouring consonants and vowels. %n this process of mutual ad*ustment" this is what happens) &he sounds of various consonant clusters" vowel clusters and consonant'vowel clusters become different from their ideal sounds # because the sounds that the tongue produces are those that it finds easier to produce rather than the ideal sounds. And thats not all. (any consonants and vowels even get left out" and are not pronounced. %n other words" in the process of mutual ad*ustment among neighbouring consonants and vowels" a lot of phonetic simplification 8of consonant and vowel clusters9 takes place. -emember this) &he tongue sometimes finds that its easier to utter a cluster of consonants or vowels if it $odifies the sounds of some of them or leave them out altogether 8without pronouncing them9" and thats when all these phonetic changes happen. So if you want to understand a native speaker of English" you must never e/pect him to pronounce words with the same precision as he would if he were asked to pronounce them individually. E/pect that the shapes of most of the words would change in speech. And you should have a clear idea of the sort of changes that can be e/pected. And this Supplement" would help you here. (honetic simplification and fluency #ow as $ar as $luency de"elopment is concerned% how are these phonetic changes important& 'n (esson )% we noted the $ollowing points* 0 English is a semi'musical language. 0 You should speak English by uttering stressed syllables very clearly" and unstressed syllables far less clearly. 0 &his contrast between stressed syllables and unstressed syllables is the key to the rhythm of English speech. 0 You should speak English in stress'units called 4feet5. 0 Each 4foot5 is made up of a stressed syllable which may 8or may not9 be followed by one or more unstressed syllables. 0 &he number of syllables a foot has varies from foot to foot within an idea unit. ,ut you should only take appro/imately the same amount of time to utter each foot # no matter how many unstressed syllables a foot has.

0 You should utter stressed syllables at fairly e+ual intervals of time. 7ow" for e/ample" in an idea unit that you utter" one foot may only have a single syllable 8a stressed syllable9" another may have two syllables 8a stressed syllable and an unstressed syllable9 and another may have four syllables 8a stressed syllable and three unstressed syllables9. !ow can you utter each of these feet by giving each the same amount of time .eve already seen in Lesson A that you can do this by doing two things) >9. You should utter the stressed syllables alone clearly" and you should play down the unstressed syllables by not uttering them clearly. @9. And you should utter the unstressed syllables 8that follow a stressed syllable9 as fast as is necessary to allow the ne/t stressed syllable to come up at the ne/t rhythmic beat. 8See Lesson A for details and e/amples9. 7ow when you try to utter a foot containing" say" as many as four syllables within the same length of time as a foot containing" say" a single syllable" you can imagine whats going to happen to the three unstressed syllables in that foot. Fbviously" theyll have to be pronounced so +uickly that they run into one another. And then" its only natural that these two things happen) >9. Some of the consonants in those unstressed syllables undergo a change in sound 8to suit the neighbouring consonants9 or get dropped altogether from the utterance. @9. And some of the vowels in them get weakened or dropped from the utterance. 6honetic changes like these are +uite normal in all styles of speech in English # formal" informal 8W casual9 and neutral styles. You can notice them whenever a native speaker of English speaks. Yes" whenever # because all styles of speech in English are sub*ect to the pressures of rhythm and stress" and its these pressures that make it difficult for the tongue to move into ideal positions during a long utterance and thus brings about the phonetic changes. &hese phonetic changes happen even when non'native speakers speak English" but many non' native speakers 8wrongly9 think that these changes are abnormal # and they try hard to deliberately avoid these changes. And this is what happens then) >9. &he 8unnecessary9 effort they make to avoid the phonetic changes interrupts the natural flow of speech when they speak. @9. &his effort takes away their concentration from what they are saying to how they are saying it" and their attention gets diverted away from the meaning of their message to the details of pronunciation. &his stops them from concentrating on composing the content of their message" and they falter.

So if you want to be fluent in spoken English" remember this) You should never make a conscious effort to resist the natural tendency of unstressed syllables to undergo phonetic simplification. %nstead" you should give in or yield to this phenomenon. Fluency in speaking a+out a wide range of topics ! told you in 'upple"ent Q that, if you are to beco"e fluent in speaking about a wide range of topics, it is not enough that you

know a lot of words and have a clear idea of their "eanings and other features. And ! told you this: +hats needed is that you should have co"plete mastery over the core words in nglish. But this is only possible if you have the e*perience of handling the core words again and again, that too, by relating the" to fre;uently-discussed topics. !n 'upple"ent Q, ! gave you carefully chosen collections of word groups that have to do with si* topics. !n this 'upple"ent, !" going to give you word groups that have to do with seven other i"portant topics:

>9. 2ood and bad. @9. 3arming" Agriculture ? 2ardening. A9. Sports ? 2ames. B9. Essential :omputer English. D9. :rime. E9. 7ature. G9. ,uilding and home. Lets go straight for the word groups. As usual" utter each word group aloud several times" so that you and your organs of speech become familiar with them. -emember this) .hats needed is not *ust to learn the content of these word groupsQ whats needed is to train your organs of speech with them. !ere we go) &ood and +ad &roup 1 0 .e had a really pleasant time together. 0 !is 3rench wasnt as good as his English" but good enough. 0 .hat an unpleasant manJ 0 Dont e/pect them to be truthful # theyve got no ethics. 0 &he weather conditions were bad" and the plane couldnt land. 0 !es a very able lawyer. 0 %ts an old car" but its basically sound. 0 &his is perhaps the finest film %ve ever seen. 0 !e showed e/cellent self' control in his answer. 0 .hat an awful smellJ 0 !is work is satisfactory" but not outstanding. 0 !es a nasty man" and he wont help anyone. 0 &hats a

remarkable achievement. 0 She gave us some hints on how to look after indoor plants" and % found them very useful. 0 !e says hes a policeman" but he doesnt look authenticPgenuine. 0 !e has a lot of good +ualities and he deserves admiration. 0 &he conference was very dull" and % didnt know what to do to amuse myself. 0 &hats a marvellous dress youre wearing. 0 Some of these drugs have a harmful effect on the nervous system. 0 Shes a very skilled and e/perienced swimmer. 0 (any of them are incapable and dont have the abilities necessary to do their *obs. 0 !is work is first class. 0 .hat miserable weatherJ %f only it stopped rainingJ 0 &hats a first rate planPidea. 0 &he management of that company seems to be very inefficient. 0 &heir work is well below standard. 0 % dont think it was an honest answer. 0 All the players were good" but he was easily the best. 0 &his dishwasher is an ingenious invention. 0 &he inde/ at the back of the book is not as good as it should be. 0 !e had a better life there. 0 !es a very gifted violinist. 0 %f you want to be successful in this business" youll have to offer the best to your customers. 0 &he new park is going to be an e/cellent place for kids. 0 % think his argumentPreasoning is faulty. 0 &he dress she had on wasnt suitable for the occasion. 0 &he telephone line was defective. 0 !es all right # you can trust him. 0 !e did an admirable *ob in dealing with the situation. 0 Fne thing % like about him is" he has a positive attitude to everything. 0 !e was very unfriendly" and his behaviour was nasty. 0 &hat was an outstandingPimpressive performance. 0 !es an ethical person # %m sure he wont stoop to blackmail. 0 %t isnt a genuinePan authentic (ichelangelo drawing" but a fake. 0 &heir computers are superior to those of others. 0 !e never loses his temper" and thats an admirable +uality. 0 !es a nice person" but rather dull and boring. 0 &he election didnt produce a satisfying result for them. 0 Dont buy those vegetables # theyre rotten. 0 Do you think the supplies of food are sufficient 0 !es good looking and fashionable. 0 &he boss was in a foul temper today. 0 !es a fine painterPmusicianPactor. 0 !e likes to play tricks on others # hes a mischievous person" you know. 0 &he painters have done an e/cellent *ob of that building. 0 Fur company is going through a bad time. 0 &hat was a surprise to me" but an agreeable one. 0 !is new house is a bit small" but very pleasant. 0 &hat egg is rotten # dont eat it. 0 !e isnt very clever" but he tries hard. 0 !e showed great surprise at the news" but % dont think it was genuine. 0 !es always hopeful and confident" and its great to work with him. 0 % like the design of this buildingPdressPfurniture # its stylish. 0 %m not happy with his work # its below a satisfactory standard. 0 &hank you for an e/cellent evening. 0 !is argumentPreasoning was deeply flawed. 0 % dont think its a sound ideaPplan. 0 &he problem is" the supplies of medicines are not ade+uate. 0 She always goes out dressed in fine clothes. 0 !is new film is a miserable failure. 0 !es a first'rate professional. 0 &heyre all fine singers. 0 :hange that dress # it looks awful on you. 0 !es very truthful" and you can trust him. 0 % find it difficult to believe that hes a realPgenuine doctor. 0 &he telephone system in our area is very inefficient.

0 .e had a really good time at the party last night. 0 &his food has a nasty mouldy smell. &roup 2 0 &he terms of the new contract are really advantageous to us. 0 &his film doesnt have any technical merit" but its very entertaining. 0 &his medicine isnt suitable for all patients. 0 !es a superior musician. 0 !es very competent in foreign languages. 0 % think the fears of the industrialists are legitimate" and not groundless. 0 (y room has a fine view of the countryside. 0 &he kitchen smelt foul. 0 !is car is in first class condition. 0 %f you want to know how to start up a company" you should consult (r. Ashok Arora # hes a specialist adviser" you know. 0 !es the most honest man % ever met. 0 &hey treated us dreadfully. 0 Last nights party was good wholesome fun. 0 !e has a bad character" and he cant be trusted. 0 (any of our doctors are not ade+uately trained. 0 .e had a really en*oyable time there. 0 &he arrangements for the conference # % dont think they were ade+uate. 0 % dont know if this make of &C is all right. 0 .ho cooked this dish %ts superbJ 0 !is interpretation of the balance sheet figures # its faulty. 0 % dont think hes suitable for that *ob. 0 !e had a terrible accident last year. 0 Stress in itself is not always harmful. 0 !es a nice person" and is pleasant to be with. 0 &heir villagePtown is rather crowded" but very pleasant. 0 !es good'looking and stylish. 0 &he new boss is always nasty to me. 0 &he work was not up to standard. 0 &hat was a very competent performance. 0 &he boss seems to be in a foul mood today. 0 !es a genuine person # always honest and sincere. 0 &his butter tastes stale. 0 % like her # her behaviour has a childlike +uality. 0 Shes very clean" and always keeps the kitchen free from dirt. 0 (ost people in that area are poor and live in housing of sortsPof a sort. 0 &hat was a satisfying meal. 0 &hat bridge is in poor condition and may soon collapse. 0 !es an e/pert tailor. 0 !e claims to have invented this device" but do you think his claim is legitimate 0 &he smell of rotting cabbage was disgusting. 0 &he new arrangement suits me fine. 0 !es a miserable man" and always bad'tempered. 0 &hats a great idea. 0 %t was a bad accident" and his in*uries were awful. 0 % dont think he was being truthful with us when he said all those things. 0 &he whole marketing department in our company is very inefficient. 0 &his milk has gone bad. 0 &he food in that restaurant is very goodPpoor. 0 !is hearingPsight was defective. 0 !es a very talented tennis player. 0 &his food has gone off" and it smells. 0 !e has superb confidence. 0 %f you bury a piece of wood" itd decayProt. 0 &his medicine is an effective cure for &,. 0 &his method is inefficient and e/pensive. 0 &he flight was very comfortable" and % en*oyed it. 0 !es a poor singer # his wife can sing better than him. 0 !es a very friendly and agreeable person. 0 She has a nice little house there. 0 Dont keep biting your nails # its a disgusting habit. 0 !es a very moral person # dont e/pect him to stoop to bribery.

0 &his is not the most favourable time to start up a company. 0 &heres no doubt that his work deserves to be praised. 0 &his is a boring sub*ect. 0 &his is a wicked world. 0 !es an outstanding musician. 0 &hat building is very impressive. 0 &he things theyve done are morally unacceptable. 0 6rof. Ahmed is an e/pert on this topic. 0 &heir new interest rates seem very advantageous. 0 &hats a fine book. 0 % found his *oke offensive. 0 !e has an e/cellent brain and is very competent. 0 &his method isnt effective and isnt going to produce the result we want. 0 &he boss liked her because she was honest and reliable. 0 %ts immoral to deceive other people. 0 &hats a faulty switch # well have to get it replaced. 0 % didnt like the food # it wasnt all right. 0 &hey sell good +uality furniture. 0 &his bread isnt fresh # its stale. Dont eat it. 0 &he terms of the contract are not very advantageous to us. 0 !es a great painter # he has superb skill. 0 You shouldnt wear this sort of dress to the office # it isnt suitable" you know. 0 %ve had a bad day at work. 0 &his is certainly an awesome achievement. 0 &he food was poor. 0 !es a fine'looking young man. 0 !e lives in a nasty little flat there. 0 !e was way below the standard re+uired" and was not chosen for the *ob. 0 (ost of our employees are hardworking and responsible. 0 !es a warm and friendly man. 0 !es a mischievous person # he takes delight in embarrassing others. 0 % like him # hes an admirable character. 0 &he children looked smart in their white shirts. 0 !is new film has a lot of artistic merit. 0 Fur new boss looks very stern" but is actually harmless. 0 !e was splendid company during the *ourney. 0 !e was found to be a superior candidate" and he was chosen for the *ob. 0 Shes an e/pert at cooking. 0 &hey claim to be the market leaders in this industry" and % think their claim is reasonable and *ustified. 0 She gave us an e/cellent meal. 0 !e says this diamond is flawed. 0 &he food here is first class. &roup 3 0 Youll have to give me a truthful answer. 0 -umours like these would certainly be damaging to our reputation. 0 % hate that place # its awful. 0 &he preparations for the meeting were not satisfactory. 0 &hese floppy disks are of superior +uality. 0 % dont think the response to their latest ad was very good. 0 Dont use this milk # it smells off. 0 &hat machine was of poor +uality. 0 !is financial situation is awful. 0 !e e/ercises every day and keeps in perfect shape. 0 &he bathroom was dirty and disgusting. 0 % dont think the investigation has been thorough. 0 %ts not a very e/pensive hotel # the prices are F;. 0 Did you go to the carnival %t was an impressive spectacle. 0 % found his argument defective. 0 % think todays going to be a pleasant day. 0 Shes a very attractive and fashionable woman. 0 !e made some nasty *okes about me. 0 !es the most upright and trustworthy man %ve ever met. 0 &his sort of diet isnt suitable for most people. 0 !e has a few valuable contacts in the government. 0 &he lecture was so dull % fell asleep. 0 &he film didnt have a satisfying ending. 0 !er grandfather is past LN" but his mind is sound. 0 Do you think the talks the unions had with the management were genuine 0 &heres nothing more en*oyable than lying on that beach. 0 !e has a foul mouth" and nobody likes him. 0 !es an e/cellent student.