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NUR 505 Homework Assignment for Unit 2 Readings- Answer Key 1.

Explain the directional trends of growth and development. Cephalocaudal (head-to-tail); proximodistal (near-to-far) which means midline of body to peripheral; simple to complex-ex. gross motor skills are mastered before fine motor skills. 2. Describe what is meant by the degree of fit. Describes the compatibility between the temperament of the child with the personality traits of the parent (s). Whether a child is what is considered an easy child, or a hard child, or a slow-to-warm-up child is not significant in and of itself, it is significant when compared to the personality of the parent (s). For example, if a hard child is paired with parents who have little patience, then this makes the child vulnerable to negative outcomes. If a hard child is paired with parents who have a lot of patience however, then there will be a greater degree of fit between the parents and child and the child is at less of a risk for negative outcomes. 3. Please complete the following tables: Eriksons stages of psychosocial development Ages Task Barriers to accomplishing task

Infant: Birth-1 year

Toddler: 1-3 years

Preschool: 3-6 years

Trust vs. mistrust (i.e. developing trust, security, and optimism) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (i.e. developing autonomy, selfcontrol, pride, and willpower) Initiative vs. guilt (i.e. developing initiative, direction, and purpose)

Caregivers do not meet the needs of the infant; the infant is separated from caregivers; having inconsistent caregivers; exposure to repeated painful stimuli; over involvement of parent. Toddlers are not given the opportunity to be autonomous, are physically/cognitively unable to perform skills by themselves, or are constantly put down and criticized.

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School-Age: 6-12 years

Industry vs. inferiority (i.e. developing a sense of industry, pride,

Children are not given opportunities to be creative, and not encouraged or allowed to explore their environment, are not answered when they question why things are the way they are, lack the physical/cognitive capabilities to explore the world around them, or are deprived of environmental stimuli. Children are not given the opportunity to participate in events that help build a sense of industry such as school, sports, etc. for various reasons (hospitalized, lack the

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and competence)

physical/cognitive skills necessary to participate, etc.); expectations are too high Children are not given opportunities to interact with peers their age; children isolate themselves because they feel different from peers; children are not able to participate in activities that teens typically partake in d/t physical and/or cognitive disabilities.

Adolescence: 12-18 years

Identity vs. role confusion (i.e. developing a sense of identity)

Piagets stages of cognitive development: Age Birth-2 years Name of stage Sensorimotor Accomplishments Barriers to successfully mastering of stage stage Infants learn Medical condition that dulls the though interactions reflexes, physical/cognitive with their senses disabilities that hinder an infants (starts only with ability to move or comprehend what primitive reflexes, they are sensing. Environmental then advances). depravation.
Object permanence develops. Children think by using symbols, logic not developed. Shows egocentrism and have magical thinking. Uses transductive reasoning, where conclusions are drawn from one general fact to another. Object permanence advances. Concrete reasoning abilities develop (i.e. children learn to classify, sort, order, and organize facts in order to problem solve, children learn cause and effect).

2-7 years


Lack of educational stimulation; missing school for a prolonged period of time; cognitive disabilities r/t a medical condition.

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7-11 years

Concrete operational

Same as above

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Formal operational

Conservation is learned. Children can consider things from anothers point of view. Abstract reasoning abilities develop, thought processes mature

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Same as above

Kohlbergs stages of moral development: Age Name of stage How are moral decisions made in this stage?
Actions are guided by desire to avoid punishment and please others

Barriers to making moral decisions

4-7 years


7-11 years




Children to do have good role models to teach them right from wrong; parenting style is permissive and thus children do not learn right/wrong Focused on Rules are not well defined; following a set of community is not cohesive on moral rules as established issues; conflicts of moral decision by others, often making process b/w parents & school parents officials; psychological conditions that inhibit moral decision making Children should Similar to above
have developed their own set of standards, values and beliefs. Bases decisions on the ethical/moral principles that they possess, focusing on social responsibility

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4. Please outline the social character of play for each age group listed in the text (i.e. how children play with one another).
1. Onlooker play-children watch others play but do not play themselves. 2. Solitary play- children play alone with their own toys but with other children in the room. 3. Parallel play-play is often next to other children, often playing with similar toys, but they are not influencing one another. 4. Associative play-follows leader, no group goal, no organization.
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5 Cooperative play-play now has rules, a group goal, is organized, and has clear leaders and followers

5. Summarize all the functions of play. 1. Sensorimotor development-Tactile, auditory, visual, and kinesthetic stimulation helps promote muscle development and coordination of movements. 2. Intellectual development-Tactile, auditory, visual, and kinesthetic stimulation helps promote cognitive development in an engaging way. Children begin by learning simple concepts such as the alphabet, colors, shapes, numbers, etc., and then continue to learn more advanced intellectual concepts through play such as math, science, problem-solving, etc. 3. Socialization-Children have to learn to be with others. This includes learning how to share, learning how to be a leader and follower, how to follow rules, etc. from playing with other children. 4. Creativity-Many different mediums exist to develop creativity through play. Examples are with the arts (painting, writing stories, coloring, etc.) or with pretend play. 5. Self-awareness-Through play, children are able to test their abilities, to assume and try out various roles, and to learn the effect of their behavior on others. 6. Therapeutic value-Play can be used to express emotions (i.e. fear, anxiety, anger, happiness) and convey ideas that might be difficult for some children to express in words. 7. Moral value-Play can be used to enhance moral lessons taught at home, in church, or in the classroom, especially if their peers expect them to act a certain way based on what they have been taught is correct or incorrect behavior. 6. Summarize all the factors that influence development. 1. Heredity-Genetics plays a major role in how a child will develop physically. 2. Neuroendocrine factors-Physical growth is moderated by many different hormones (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and androgens). Deficiencies or excess in any of these hormones will likely influence a childs physical growth. When children are different from their peers physically, this can in turn have an impact on their psychosocial growth. 3. Nutrition-Many sources list nutrition as the single most important influence on growth. Proper nutrition is essential in the heavy growth period of childhood, especially in infancy and adolescence. 4. Interpersonal relationships-Lack of meaningful interpersonal relationships may not always hinder physical growth, but it likely will hinder psychosocial, cognitive, and moral growth. Children who are deprived of human interaction often do not meet developmental milestones.

There are instances where deprivation has caused physical growth restrictions, thought to be influenced by a psychologically induced endocrine imbalance. 5. Socioeconomic level-Exact causes are unknown, as there are many potential mitigating factors, but it has been established that children of lower socioeconomic status often are shorter and may have more developmental delays compared to their cohorts. 6. Disease-The impact of disease on physical growth is highly variable depending on the disease process. Children with chronic disorders have more cognitive delays and sometimes show regression r/t missing school and a disruption in the home routine. 7. Environmental hazards-Effects on G&D are highly variable depending on the substance the child is exposed to, but any excess exposure to a hazardous item has the potential to negatively impact a childs G&D. 8. Stress/coping ability-If children are exposed to more stress than they have the ability to cope with, it can have a negative impact on their G&D. 9. Mass media-Between books, movies, TV, computers, video games, social media, etc. there are many mass media influences on childrens G&D. It could impact their cognitive and moral development depending on what they are exposed to, and often has a profound impact on childrens behaviors. Sedentary lifestyle habits born of extreme use of screened activities is having a profound effect on physical development as well (higher incidence of obesity). 7. Explain what the Denver II is, and how it is used. It is a developmental screening test, and it is used to assess for developmental delays in young children, so that early intervention can be started (i.e. a secondary prevention measure). It has been evidenced that early intervention significantly reduces the presence of developmental delays, and children are often able to catch up quicker the earlier the intervention is started. Each item is scored as advanced, okay, caution, or delay. If the item (task) is not able to be completed when 75-90% of their peers can complete the task, it is given a caution. If a child cannot complete a task that 90% of their developmentally appropriate peers can complete, they are given a delay. If they child obtains one or more delays, or 2 or more cautions, they should be rescreened in a week or two with f/u evaluation if the delays or cautions persist. 8. Explain how the Denver II prescreening developmental questionnaire differs from the Denver II, and how it is used. The Denver II prescreening is shorter and easier to administer compared to the Denver II. It also differs in that the Denver II prescreening is administered by parents, whereas the Denver II need to be administered by a healthcare professional. It is an attempt to save resources, in that only children who are showing a potential developmental delay using the prescreening undergo a Denver II assessment. The way it works is that the parents complete a questionnaire that is specific to their childs age. The questionnaire consists of a subset of questions from the Denver II. If 2 or more delays (or 3 or more cautions) are noted on this

prescreening test administered by the parent, the child should undergo the Denver II test right away. If 1 delay or 2 cautions are noted, the PDQ should be readministered in one month (after the parent provides some developmental activities with the child) and if the results are unchanged, the Denver II should be administered to the child.