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NE 555 Timer

ENGI 251
ELEC 241

Comparator

• High Gain Op Amp


• Operated Open Loop
• Designed to compare an input to a reference voltage
• Gives output (digital level) to indicate if input is above or
below reference
– Circuit designed to give VOSAT and –VOSAT only
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Comparator Operation Example

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LM 311 Comparator

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Window Comparator

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Determine the Output

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Schmidt Trigger 7414

• A Schmidt trigger (a comparator with Hysteresis) is a bistable


digital (two-state) device
• It accepts virtually any analog input and provides a logic 0 or
1 output
– A typical use is to take distorted digital signals (due to RC
time constant of transmission line) and provide a used to
square-wave output
– Can be used to eliminate noise near reference point that
would cause problems in analog comparators

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Hysteresis

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Block Diagram of 555

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Notes on 555 Timer/Oscillator IC


• Widely used as a monostable or astable multivibrator.
• Can operate between 4.5 and 16 V.
• Output voltage is approximately 2 V < VCC.
• Output can typically sink or source 200 mA.
• Max. output frequency is about 10 kHz.
• fo varies somewhat with VCC.
• Threshold input (pin 6) and trigger input (pin 2) are
normally tied together to external timing RC.

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555 as a Simple Oscillator

Duty cycle is:


tch R + R2
D= = 1
T R1 + 2R2
Given fo and D,
2D −1 1− D
R1 = ; R2 =
0.693 f o C1 0.693 f o C1
tch = 0.693(R1 + R2)C1
tdisch = 0.693 R2C1 Note that D must always be > 0.5.
T = 0.693(R1 + 2R2)C1 To get 50% duty cycle, R1 = 0,
which would short out VCC.
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Astable Multivibrator

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Astable Multivibrator

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555 Used as an Astable Multivibrator

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Astable Design Considerations

t1 R1 + R2
DC = =
T R1 + 2R2
DC =

The maximum value of R1 + R2 is 3.3MΩ and the minimum value for R1 or


R2 is 1kΩ.
The minimum recommended value for C is 500pF but best results are
obtained when C is 1000pF or larger.
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NE555 Astable Schematic

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NE555 Astable Waveforms

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555 Square-Wave Oscillator

R1
D=
R1 + R2
D 1− D
R1 = ; R2 =
0.693 f o C1 0.693 f oC1

For 50% duty cycle,


1
tch = 0.693 R1C1 ; tdisch = 0.693 R2C1 R1 = R2 =
1 1.386 f o C1
fo =
0.693( R1 + R2 )C1
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555 as a Timer / Monostable Multivibrator

t = 1.1 R1C1

Time pulses from a


few µs to many
minutes are possible
The limitation for
very long time
delays is the leakage
in the large-value
R2 (typically 10 kΩ) is a pull-up resistor. capacitor for C1.
C2 (typically 0.001 µF) is for bypass.
Timing starts when trigger input is grounded.
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Monostable Multivibrator – One Shot

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