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12 STD BUSINESS MATHEMATICS

FORMULAE

CHAPTER 1 . APPLICATIONS OF MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS

1. Adjoint of a matrix A is .
T
c
(where A
c
is a cofactor matrix)
2. Inverse of a matrix A is ( ).
1
1
A
A =

3. Results:
(i) ( ) . ) ( I A A AdjA AdjA A = =
(ii) ( ). ) ( ) ( AdjA AdjB AB Adj =
(iii) ( ) .
1 1 1
= A B AB
(iv) .
1 1
I A A AA = =

(v) ( ) .
1
1
A A =

4. The rank of a zero matrix (irrespective of its order) is 0.

5. Conditions for consistency of Simultaneous Linear Equations (Non homogeneous):
(i) If , ) ( ) , ( n A B A = = then the equations are consistent and has unique solution.
(ii) If , ) ( ) , ( n A B A < = then the equations are consistent and has infinitely many solutions.
(iii) If ), ( ) , ( A B A = then the equations are inconsistent and has no solution.

6. Conditions for consistency of Simultaneous Linear Equations (Homogeneous):
(i) If , ) ( ) , ( n A B A = = (OR) If 0 = A then the equations have trivial solutions only.
(ii) If , ) ( ) , ( n A B A < = (OR) If 0 = A then the equations have non trivial solutions also.
7. Cramers rule: . ; ;
A
A
=
A
A
=
A
A
=
z
y
x
z y x
8. Technology matrix .
2
22
1
21
2
12
1
11
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
x
a
x
a
x
a
x
a
B
9. Output matrix ( ) .
1
D B I X

=
10. Transition Probability Matrix
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
BB BA
AB AA
P P
P P
T (OR)
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
QQ QP
PQ PP
P P
P P
T
( depends on the name of the products A, B or P, Q)

11. For finding Equilibrium share of market A + B = 1 (OR) P + Q = 1
(This step carries 1 mark and it is compulsory)

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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CHAPTER 2 . ANALYTICAL GEOMETRY

1. . e
PM
SP
=

2. Eccentricity of parabola e = 1.

3. Eccentricity of ellipse e < 1.

4. Eccentricity of hyperbola e > 1.

5. Eccentricity of rectangular hyperbola . 2 = e .

6. Parabola:

y
2
=4ax
(opens
rightward)
y
2
=-4ax
(opens
leftward)
x
2
=4ay
(opens
upward)
x
2
=- 4ay
(opens
downward)
Vertex (0,0) (0,0) (0,0) (0,0)
Focus ( ) 0 , a ( ) 0 , a ( ) a , 0 ( ) a , 0
Directrix a x = a x =
a y = a y =
Latusrectum 4a 4a 4a 4a
Axis 0 = y 0 = y
0 = x 0 = x

7. Ellipse:

b a
b
y
a
x
> = + , 1
2
2
2
2
b a
a
y
b
x
> = + , 1
2
2
2
2

Centre (0,0) (0,0)
Eccentricity
( )
2 2 2
1 e a b =
(OR)
2
2
1
a
b
e =
( )
2 2 2
1 e a b =
(OR)
2
2
1
a
b
e =
Vertices ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0 , a a ( ) ( ) a a , 0 , , 0
Directrix
e
a
x =
e
a
y =
Latusrectum
a
b
2
2

a
b
2
2

Foci ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0 , ae ae ( ) ( ) ae ae , 0 , , 0

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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8. Hyperbola:

1
2
2
2
2
=
b
y
a
x
1
2
2
2
2
=
b
x
a
y

Centre (0,0) (0,0)
Eccentricity
( ) 1
2 2 2
= e a b
(OR)
2
2
1
a
b
e + =
( ) 1
2 2 2
= e a b
(OR)
2
2
1
a
b
e + =
Vertices ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0 , a a ( ) ( ) a a , 0 , , 0
Directrix
e
a
x =
e
a
y =
Latusrectum
a
b
2
2

a
b
2
2

Foci ( ) ( ) 0 , , 0 , ae ae ( ) ( ) ae ae , 0 , , 0

9. The general equation of Rectangular Hyperbola (R.H) is xy = c
2
.

\
|
where
|
|
.
|
=
2
2
2
a
c ( useful for objectives)

10. The eccentricity of Rectangular Hyperbola (R.H) is 2 = e

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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CHAPTER 3 . APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION I

1. Average cost (AC) = .
) (
) (
x
k x f
or
x
C +

2. Average variable cost (AVC) = .
) (
x
x f

3. Average fixed cost (AFC) = .
x
k

4. Marginal cost (MC) = .
dx
dC

5. Marginal average cost (MAC) =
( )
.
dx
AC d

6. Total revenue R = px.
7. Average revenue (AR) = .
x
R

(Average revenue = Demand function i.e, AR = p)
8. Marginal average revenue (MR) = .
dx
dR

9. If x = f(p) is a demand function, then Elasticity of demand
dp
dx
x
p
d
.

= q .
(Where x quantity demanded ; p price)
Note : For a demand function q = f(p) ,
dp
dq
q
p
d
.

= q
10. If x = f(p) is a supply function, then Elasticity of supply
dp
dx
x
p
s
. = q
(Where x quantity supplied ; p price)
11. Relation between MR and Elasticity of demand is .
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
d
p MR
q

12. At equilibrium level, Q
d
= Q
s
.

13. Equation of tangent is ( ) ( ).
1 1
x x m y y =
14. Equation of normal is ( ) ( ).
1
1 1
x x
m
y y =

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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CHAPTER 4 . APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION II

1. Eulers theorem : If u is a homogeneous function of x and y with degree n then, . nu
y
u
y
x
u
x =
c
c
+
c
c

(f or z can be used in the place of u depends on the name of the function)

2. Partial Elasticities

1
1
1
1
1
1
.
p
q
q
p
Ep
Eq
c
c
= and
2
1
1
2
2
1
.
p
q
q
p
Ep
Eq
c
c
=

3. Economic order quantity .
2
) (
1
3
0
C
RC
q =
(where R Requirement ; C
3
ordering cost ; C
1
carrying cost)

4. If unit price and percentage of inventory are given then carrying cost ( ) .
100
%
1
unitprice C =
5. Time between two consecutive orders . ) (
0
0
R
q
t =
6. Number of orders = .
0
q
R

7. Minimum average variable cost = . 2
1 3
C RC
8. Total ordering cost = .
3
0
C
q
R

9. Total carrying cost = .
2
1
0
C
q

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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CHAPTER 5 . APPLICATIONS OF INTEGRAL CALCULUS

Properties of Definite integrals:

1. . . ) ( ) (
} }
=
b
a
a
b
dx x f dx x f
2. If f(x) is an odd function, i.e, if f(-x) = -f(x) then . . 0 ) (
}

=
a
a
dx x f
3. If f(x) is an even function, i.e, if f(-x) = f(x) then . . ) ( 2 ) (
0
} }

=
a
a
a
dx x f dx x f
4. . . ) ( ) (
} }
+ =
b
a
b
a
dx x b a f dx x f
5.
} }
=
a a
dx x a f dx x f
0 0
. ) ( ) (
6. The area under the curve ), (x f y = the x-axis and the ordinates at a x = and b x = is
}
=
b
a
ydx Area
7. The area under the curve x = g (y), the y-axis and the lines y = c and y = d is

}
=
d
c
xdy Area .
8. If MC is the marginal cost function then total cost function is given by ( ) .
}
+ = k dx MC C
9. If MR is the marginal revenue function then total revenue function is given by
( ) .
}
+ = k dx MR R
10. The producers surplus for the supply function ) x ( g p = for the quantity
0
x and price
0
p is
. ) ( .
0
0
0 0
}
=
x
dx x g x p S P
11. The consumers surplus for the demand function p = f (x) for the quantity x
0
and price p
0
is
. ) ( .
0
0
0 0
}
=
x
x p dx x f S C

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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CHAPTER 6 . DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

1. The General form of Homogeneous differential equations is
( )
( )
.
,
,
y x g
y x f
dx
dy
=

2. Working rule for finding the solution of linear differential equations

(i) Extract P and Q.
(ii) Find .
}
dx P
(iii) Find Integrating Factor (I.F) =
dx P
e
}

3. The solution to linear differential equations of type Q Py
dx
dy
= + (Where P and Q are functions of
x only) is ( ) ( )
}
+ = C dx F I Q F I y . . (OR)
}
+ =
} }
C dx Qe ye
Pdx Pdx

4. The solution to linear differential equations of type Q Px
dy
dx
= + (Where P and Q are functions of
y only) is ( ) ( )
}
+ = C dy F I Q F I x . . (OR) .
}
+ =
} }
C dy Qe xe
Pdy Pdy

5. Second order linear differential Equations
If m
1
and m
2
are the roots of the Auxilliary equation is of the type ax
2
+ bx + c = 0

(i) If the roots m
1
and m
2
are real and distinct, C.F = .
2 1
x m x m
Be Ae +

(ii) If the roots m
1
and m
2
are real and equal(m
1
= m
2
), C.F = ( ) .
mx
e B Ax +

(iii) If the roots m
1
and m
2
are unreal, i.e, if | o i m = , C.F = ( ). sin cos x B x A e
x
| |
o
+
(C.F Complementary Function)

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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CHAPTER 7 . INTERPOLATION

1. Forward operator (delta)
0 1 0
) ( y y y = A (or) ). ( ) ( )) ( ( x f h x f x f + = A
2. Backward operator (nabla)
0 1 1
) ( y y y = V (or) ). ( ) ( )) ( ( x f h x f h x f + = + V
3. The Shifting operator ......... ) ( , ) ( , ) (
3 0
3
2 0
2
1 0
y y E y y E y y E = = = and so on.
4. The relation between forward operator (delta) and shifting operator E is
1 = A E (or) . 1 + A = E

5. (For missing term problems)
(a) ( ) ( ) . 1 3 3 1
0
2 3
0
3
y E E E y E + =

(b) ( ) ( ) . 1 4 6 4 1
0
2 3 4
0
4
y E E E E y E + + =

(c) ( ) ( ) . 1 5 10 10 5 1
0
2 3 4 5
0
5
y E E E E E y E + + =

6. Gregory Newtons forward formula :

( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
.
!
1 ....... 2 1
. ..........
! 3
2 1
! 2
1
! 1
0 0
3
0
2
0 0
y
n
n u u u u
y
u u u
y
u u
y
u
y y
n
A

+ A

+ A

+ A + =
Where .
0
h
x x
u

= and h equal interval between the x - values
(number of terms in the formula depends on the number of terms in the problem)

7. Gregory Newtons backward formula :

( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )
.
!
1 ....... 2 1
. ..........
! 3
2 1
! 2
1
! 1
3 2
n
n
n n n n
y
n
n u u u u
y
u u u
y
u u
y
u
y y V
+ + +
+ V
+ +
+ V
+
+ V + =
Where .
h
x x
u
n

= and h equal interval between the x - values

(number of terms in the formula depends on the number of terms in the problem)

8. Lagranges formula:

( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )
1 1 0
1 1 0
1 2 1 0 1
2 0
1
0 2 0 1 0
2 1
0
.... ..........
.... ..........
......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
.... ..........
.... ..........
.... ..........
.... ..........

+
+

+

=
n n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
y
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
y
x x x x x x
x x x x x x
y y

(depends on the number of terms given in the problem)

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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9. Line Of Best Fit:

Normal equations are

= + y nb x a

= + xy x b x a
2

The line of best fit is
y = ax + b

CHAPTER 8 . PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION

1. If X is a continuous random variable, then
}
= < <
b
a
dx x f b X a P . ) ( ) (
2. For a discrete random variable X,
Mean . ) (

=
i i
p x X E
. ) (
2 2

=
i i
p x X E
| | . ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
X E X E X Var =
3. For a continuous random variable X,
Mean . ) ( ) (
}

= dx x xf X E
. ) ( ) (
2 2
}

= dx x f x X E
| | . ) ( ) ( ) (
2 2
X E X E X Var =

4. If the discrete random variable X follows Binomial distribution then
. . ,......... 2 , 1 , 0 , ) ( n x q p nC x X P
x n x
x
= = =

5. Results related to Binomial distribution:
Mean = np ; Variance = npq ; and p + q = 1

6. If the discrete random variable X follows Poisson distribution then
. . ,......... 2 , 1 , 0 ,
!
) ( =

= =

x
x
e
x X P
x

7. Results related to Poisson distribution:
Mean ( ) np = ; Variance = .
In Poisson distribution Mean = Variance

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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8. If the continuous random X follows Normal distribution, then its p.d.f is given by
( ) . ,
2
1
2
2
1
< < =
|
.
|

\
|

x e x f
x
o

t o

9. To convert Normal variate X to standard Normal variate z we use,
o

=
X
z .

CHAPTER 9 . SAMPLING DISTRIBUTION

1. Notations:
(a) N Population size
(b) n Sample size
(c) X Mean of the sample
(d) Mean of the population
(e) s - Standard deviation (S.D) of sample
(f) o - Standard deviation (S.D) of population

2. Confidence limits for = ( ) .
n
s
Z X
c
(If N is not given)
= ( ) .
1

N
n N
n
s
Z X
c
(If N is given)
3. Confidence intervals for proportion = ( ) .
n
pq
Z p
c
(If N is not given)
= ( ) .
1

N
n N
n
pq
Z p
c
(If N is given)
Note : For 95% confidence interval Z
c
= 1.96

For 99% confidence interval Z
c
= 2.58
4. Testing of Hypothesis Formulae:
Test statistic .
n
X
Z
o

=
Test statistic .
n
pq
P p
Z

=
K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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5. For 5% level of significance : Acceptance region . 96 . 1 < Z
Critical region . 96 . 1 > Z
6. For 1% level of significance : Acceptance region . 58 . 2 < Z
Critical region . 58 . 2 > Z

CHAPTER 10 . APPLIED STATISTICS

1. Correlation coefficient formulae:
(a)
( ) ( )

=
2
2
2
2
) , (
Y Y N X X N
Y X XY N
Y X r
(If Y X, are integers or non-integers)

(b)

=
2 2
) , (
y x
xy
y x r Where X X x = and . Y Y y =
(If Y X, are integers) and
n
X
X

= and
n
Y
Y

=

(c)
( ) ( )

=
2
2
2
2
) , (
dy dy N dx dx N
dy dx dxdy N
Y X r
(If Y X, are integers or non - integers)
Where A X dx = and . B Y dy = (A, B are arbitrary values of X and Y)

(Note: Correlation coefficient should lie between -1 and 1)

2. Regression Formulae:

(a) Regression line of X on Y is
). ( ) ( Y Y b X X
xy
=

(b) Regression line of Y on X is
). ( ) ( X X b Y Y
yx
= Where
n
X
X

= and
n
Y
Y

=

Where
( )

=
2
2
Y Y
Y X XY N
b
xy
and
( )

=
2
2
X X
Y X XY N
b
yx

(If Y X, are integers or non - integers)

Where

=
2
y
xy
b
xy
and

=
2
x
xy
b
yx
(If Y X, are integers)
K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.
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(Note: Regression lines will intersect at ( ). ,Y X )

3. Seasonal Index = . 100
average Grand
average Quaterly

4. Index Numbers:
(a) Laspeyres price Index number ( ) . 100
0 0
0 1
01
=

q p
q p
P
L

(b) Paasches price index number ( ) . 100
1 0
1 1
01
=

q p
q p
P
P

(c) Fishers price index number ( ) . 100
1 0
1 1
0 0
0 1
01
=

q p
q p
q p
q p
P
F

(OR) ( ) .
01 01 01
P L F
P P P =

(d) Cost of Living Index numbers:
(i) Aggregate Expenditure method (C.L.I) . 100
0 0
0 1
=

q p
q p

(ii) Family Budget method (C.L.I) .

=
V
PV

Where 100
0
1
=
p
p
P and .
0 0
q p V =

5. Statistical Quality Control (SQC) Formulae:
Range chart (R Chart): C.L = .
n
R
R

=
U.C.L = R D
4

L.C.L = R D
3

X Chart : C.L = .
n
X
X

=
U.C.L = .
2
R A X +
L.C.L = .
2
R A X
(Where C.L Central Line ; U.C.L - Upper Control Line ; L.C.L - Lower Control Line)

K. MANIMARAN. M.Sc.,B.Ed ; P.G. Asst - GOLDEN GATES MAT. HR. SEC. SCHOOL,
SALEM 8. PH : 94899 69230.

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