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Assignment on

Analyzing the feasibility and sustainability of Disaster Management Plan of Bangladesh 2015in conte t of Disaster Management !lans of different Asian countries "ourse #itle$ Disaster Management: Global and Regional Issues "ourse "ode$ DSM 425

%ubmitted to$ #oiaba Binta #aher &ecturer

Department of Disaster Risk Management Faculty of Disaster Management
atuak!ali Science and "ec!nology #ni$ersity Dumki% atuak!ali&'()2% *anglades!

%ubmitted by$
+Reg, -o,: )25)./ ID: ).)()0)1 't! Semester +2e$el&4% Semester&II1 Session: 2)).&2)0)
atuak!ali Science and "ec!nology #ni$ersity Dumki% atuak!ali&'()2% *anglades!

Date of %ubmission$ 0',0),2)03

'aculty of Disaster Management

4"#45642I S7I8-78 4-D "876-929G: #-I;8RSI":

Dumki% atuak!ali&'()2% *anglades!

Bangladesh is one of the most disaster prone countries in the globe. Due to its geographical and geophysical location the county become more vulnerable to different natural and anthropogenic disasters in comparison to other countries of the south Asian region. Flood, cyclone, riverbank erosion, landslide, flush flood, flood due to storm surges, saline water intrusion, drought etc. become as a recurring phenomena for the country. Bangladesh cannot fulfill its development activities as per the planning due to different natural disasters. The development activities of the country always disrupted for the chronic impact of natural disasters. Therefore disaster management become a big challenge and must addressing issue for Bangladesh to make accelerate its development and sustain the development in a long run. To minimi e the losses of disasters and to build disaster resilient sustainable Bangladesh, it adopted different plans, polices, acts and different best practices guidelines as well. The adoption of the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan $!D"#% &'('-&'() is one of the great milestones of the disaster management history of Bangladesh. !ational Disaster "anagement #lan delineates the country*s commitment to reduce the vulnerability of the people especially the poor and the disadvantaged, from the effects of natural, environmental and human induced ha ards, to a manageable and acceptable humanitarian level, and to have in place an efficient emergency response system capable of handling large scale disasters. The plan reflects the country*s initiatives since the creation of the Disaster "anagement Bureau in (++, in line with the paradigm shift in disaster management from conventional response and relief to a more comprehensive risk reduction culture having the development linkages. -nclusion of #olicy "atri. on /omprehensive Disaster "anagement towards poverty reduction and growth in #overty 0eduction 1trategy $#01% is an indicator of mainstreaming risk reduction and consideration of disaster development linkages. Different Asian countries like -ndia, #akistan, 1ri 2anka, Afghanistan, Thailand, -ndonesia and many more already have adopted disaster management related different policies, acts and plans. This paper conducts a comparative study to analy e the feasibility and sustainability of !ational Disaster "anagement #lan &'('-&'() of Bangladesh in conte.t of Disaster management plans of others Asian counties. This study finds that !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh have many positive strengths in conte.t of other Asian countries* plans on one hand, on the other hand it has many drawbacks or in the other sense weaknesses. 1ome of the positive strengths like it address the all ha ards approach, address and consider emerging threats like climate change, linkage between the disaster and development, adopt holistic approach to disaster management from conventional relief and rehabilitation to paradigm shift to proactive measures like prevention, preparedness and mitigation measures and so on. At the same

time it has different weaknesses as well like this plan doesn*t incorporate any detailed human resource development plan3 no provision of transparency and accountability and many more like this. This paper*s findings suggest that the incorporation of different options like human resource development related to disaster management plans and associated others make the plan very much feasible and sustainable to disaster management in Bangladesh.

The main ob4ective of the study is to analy e the feasibility and sustainability of the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan &'('-&'() of Bangladesh in conte.t of different plans of the different Asian countries in particular the -ndia, #akistan and 1ri 2anka. This analy e was made by in terms of the strengths and weaknesses of the national disaster management of Bangladesh in contract of the other Asian countries like -ndia, #akistan and 1ri 2anka.

This paper is prepared on the basis of the data available in the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh. This paper follows the literature review approach to prepare this report. This paper makes an attempt to identify different gaps of the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh in terms of strengths and weakness in conte.t of the disaster management plans of other Asian countries. To fulfill this purpose it is identified and compared the different strengths and weakness of the Bangladesh !ational Disaster "anagement #lan with the plans of different Asian countries. -n fact, this paper analy es the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh &'('-&'(), Disaster "anagement Act &'(& of Bangladesh, !ational Disaster "anagement #olicy of -ndia and Disaster "anagement Act of -ndia &''), !ational Disaster "anagement #lan &'(& and !ational Disaster "anagement Act &'') of #akistan and the Draft Disaster "anagement #olicy &'(, and Disaster "anagement Act &'') of 1ri 2anka.


Different strengths and weaknesses of the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh identified in contrast of the plans, policies and acts of disaster management of different Asian counties. The plans, polices and acts of different countries involved the followings like -ndia, #akistan and 1ri 2anka. The above mentioned countries are considered to analy e the disaster management plan of Bangladesh

because these counties represent more or less same pattern and types of disasters common in Bangladesh. "oreover, there are many similarities with these countries and Bangladesh in terms of geographical location, population pattern, economic structure and others factors. The different gaps of the Bangladesh !ational Disaster "anagement #lan are discussed in below5 (. Development -Dis ste! Lin" #e$ 6ne of the strongest stands of the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh &'(' -&'() is that it adopts the disaster-development linkage in its content. This plan assimilate the basic principles and actions of the "illennium Development 7oals $"D7s%, #overty 0eduction 1trategy #aper $#01#%, Bangladesh, 0ecommendations of the !ational 8orkshop on 6ptions for Floods 0isks and Damage 0eduction in Bangladesh, &''9, :yogo Framework for Actions $:FA% &'')-&'(', ;nited !ations Framework /onvention on /limate /hange $;!F//%, 1A00/ Framework for Action $1FA% &''<-&'(), Bangladesh /limate /hange 1trategy and Action #lan $B//1A#% &''+. The above mentioned papers provide the strict and appropriate instructions and guidelines to develop feasible and sustainable disaster management plan. 1ince the !D"# of Bangladesh accepts and assimilate the guidelines and instructions of these papers so that we can infer that the #lan is feasible and sustainable to mange the disasters. &. A%%!essin# ll & ' !%s$ Another important aspect of the !D"# of Bangladesh is that it incorporated all ha ards approach to disaster management. This sort of approach makes the plan very much feasible and sustainable to disaster management. This study finds that diffident countries* national plans or policies do not incorporate this approach and overlooked different non-traditional ha ards like boat capsi e accident, road accident and associated others. ,. Consi%e!in# t&e eme!#in# %is ste!s$ -n the face of climate change it is predicted that the fre=uency and intensity of different natural disaster will rise in the days to come. This is very much true for the country like Bangladesh which is considered on of the "ost >ulnerable /ountries $">/s% to climate change and climate change induced different natural disasters like fre=uent floods, cyclones, drought, and saline water intrusion, water-logging and associated others. The !D"# of Bangladesh very wisely considered the emerging issues of climate change into its content. 9. Instit(tion l !! n#ements$ The proper and well coordinated institutional arrangement is the prere=uisite to the successful implementation of a plan in an efficient and effective manner. The !D"# of Bangladesh e.ecuted this theme very nicely. -n the plan it depicts the top to bottom level institutional arrangement and it allocate the role and responsibilities in the different stage of disasters namely pre-disaster, during disaster and post ?disaster situation.

). App!o )&es o* Dis ste! M n #ement$ There are mainly two types of approaches to disaster management vi . proactive and reactive approach. #roactive approach encompasses the activities which taken place prior to a disaster like preparedness, prevention and mitigation and on the other side the reactive approach denotes the activities like response, rehabilitation, recovery that are usually taken place after a disaster. The !D"# of Bangladesh has adopted the proactive approach to disaster management which is well accepted to disaster management all over the world. <. M npo+e! %evelopment in t&e *iel% o* Dis ste! m n #ement$ This is one of the big drawbacks of the !D"# of Bangladesh. -n fact, though the plan denotes the importance of the human resource development in the field of disaster management field but there is no specific plan for human resource development in disaster management field in the plan. -n this regard other countries like #akistan or -ndia have very e.plicitly denoted the human resource development plan in their respective disaster management plan. @. C p )it, %evelopment o* t&e )omm(nit,$ /apacity development is considered as one of the important aspect to comprehensive disaster management, in particular the capacity development of the community e.posed to multiple disasters. The !D"# has placed proper emphasis on the community capacity development throughout the plan. A. -!ep !e%ness n% Miti# tion me s(!es$ The !D"# of Bangladesh has drawn special emphasis on preparedness and mitigation measures to disaster management. The plan depicts that the proactive approach of disaster management can bring good result in the country like Bangladesh where the reactive approach cost more money and effort, not a sustainable and feasible approach to disaster management.

9. .in n)in# me)& nism$ Another prominent drawback of the plan. The plan does not provide any
specific financing mechanism. 0elevant "inistriesB DivisionsB Directorates and departments will make provisions in its annual budget to fund the activities and programs set out in the Disaster 0isk 0eduction component of its sect oral development plans. But in the other countries the case is different3 there is provision of specific financing mechanism to implement the plan. ('. Dis ste! !is" !e%()tion$ Disaster risk reduction is the measures that alleviate or minimi es the risk of disasters. The national disaster management plan of Bangladesh incorporate disaster risk reduction and emergency response management as important pillar of disaster management. ((. Implement tion/ monito!in# n% Ev l( tion o* t&e pl n$ The !ational #lan is a dynamic document and will be reviewed and evaluated annually to ensure consistency with national initiatives and 7overnment priorities.

(&. Clim te )& n#e % pt tion$ /limate change adaptation plan has been adopted in the national disaster management plan of Bangladesh. This approach act as a disaster risk reduction initiatives from the grassroots level to top level. (,. Liveli&oo% se)(!it, n% #en%e! m inst!e min#$ 2ivelihood security and gender mainstreaming is an important criteria to assure the feasibility and sustainability of a plan. The !D"# of Bangladesh has adopted this so that the plan becomes very much feasible and sustainable to disaster management. (9. Comm(nit, empo+e!ment n% p !ti)ip to!, pp!o )&$ /ommunity participatory approach to disaster risk reduction and capacity building in disaster management is a strong pillar of Bangladesh national disaster management plan. (). Implement tion n% t&e *ollo+ (p$ The disaster management plan of Bangladesh set out the implementation strategies and follow ?up plan. The plan set up the deadline to complete the planning process at all levels by December &'('. (<. Dis ste! M n #ement )tion m t!i0$ The !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh has been adopted the action matri. which bring the timeline to accomplish the plan in the stipulated time. (@. Gen%e! n% %ive!sit, #!o(p in)l(sion$ 7ender inclusion and inclusion of different minorities and disadvantaged group are considered in the !D"# of Bangladesh. "oreover, the plan includes women, person with disabilities, children, senior citi ens of the country, all these inclusion make the plan very much feasible and sustainable to manage disasters in a comprehensive and holistic way. (A. Desi#n n% implement t! inin# n% + !eness p!o#! ms t !#etin# t&e n tion l n% %ist!i)t level poli), o**i)i ls$ The !D"# of Bangladesh has made the provision of training for the national and district level policy makers which facilitates to incorporate different disaster management activities at the policy level. These sort of planning activities make the plan sustainable. (+. A%%!essin# t&e non-t! %ition l %is ste! li"e 1o t ) psi'e ))i%ent/ !o % ))i%ent n% ot&e! %is ste!s$ Different non- traditional disasters are overlooked in the disaster management plans of different counties like -ndia, #akistan, 1ri 2anka but Bangladesh is different in this regard. &'. T! nsp !en), n% ))o(nt 1ilit,$ Transparency and accountability is very much important for the proper e.ecution of a plan. -t is a great fact that the accountability and transparency are in some e.tend are overlooked in the !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh. &(. -!omotin# p!o )tive p !tne!s&ip +it& t&e me%i $ #roactive partnership with the media helps to disseminate the disaster warning and early warning message among the stakeholders without

any time delay. But in the !D"# of Bangladesh there is no provision or attempt to establish an effective proactive partnership with the media. The scenario is different in some other Asian countries like -ndia or #akistan. &&. N tion l instit(te o* %is ste! M n #ement$ Though the Disaster "anagement act of Bangladesh has mentioned to establish a !ational -nstitute for Disaster "anagement but the !D"# does not make any specific step to set up a Disaster "anagement institute. &,. N tion l Dis ste! Response .o!)e 2NDR.3$ For the purpose of speciali ed response to a threatening disaster situation or disastersBemergencies both natural and man-made such as those of /hemical, Biological, 0adiological and !uclear origin, having a !ational Disaster 0esponse Force $!D0F% play very important role. There are !ational Disaster 0esponse Force $!D0F% in the different Asian nations like -ndia and #akistan but in the !D"# of there is no provision to establish such a professional national force. &9. N tion l Dis ste! 4no+le%#e Net+o!"$ -n acknowledgment of the need for a knowledge sharing platform on D", and to facilitate interaction and dialogue with related areas of e.pertise, the Disaster Cnowledge !etwork #ortal can play important role. The portal will serve as a tool to collect, collate and disseminate information related to D". -t will connect all 7overnment Departments, statutory agencies, research organi ationsBinstitutions and humanitarian organi ations to share collectively and individually their knowledge and technical e.pertise. -n our neighboring country like -ndia there is national disaster knowledge network in the policy.

25. In%i#eno(s Te)&ni) l 4no+le%#e 2IT43$ A rich legacy of technical knowledge and e.perience
has been handed down right from ancient times by way of tried and tested practices in facing disasters in different parts of Bangladesh. A concerted effort to catalogue this precious heritage, validate the products through contemporary systems and disseminate the results to appropriate destinations and affected communities with a view to adding value to their D" effort. -n the !D"# of Bangladesh there is no provision to conserve, use and modify -C to disaster management. &<. 4no+le%#e %issemin tion t&!o(#& In*o *o!m tion 2ICT3$ n% )omm(ni) tion n% Te)&nolo#, -nformation communication and technology $-/T% plays very much efficient and

effective role to speedy dissemination of disaster related warnings and signals. Different Asian counties like Dapan, -ndonesia, -ndia and many more adopts the -/T as an important tool to communicate the disaster messages and build awareness across the community. But the !D"# of Bangladesh does not pay the proper attention on the -/T. &@. Role n% !esponsi1ilities !e %ivi%e% (n%e! t&e minist!,$ The effective and efficient disaster management needs the active role play of different actors. Different departments and ministries

have specific roles and responsibilities to play at the different stage of disasters. Though !D"# of Bangladesh identifies the specific roles and responsibilities of different ministers and department but it is in ambiguous form. For the effective disaster management it is important to allocate specific roles and responsibilities in much more compact way and need to add monitoring mechanism. &A. Det ile% & ' !%s n% !is"s m ps$ Detailed ha ards and risk map is very much essential for comprehensive disaster management. The disaster management plan like #akistan arranges the detailed ha ards and risks map that are common in #akistan. But in the !D"# of Bangladesh not mentioned any detailed ha ards plan or risks map. &+. H ' !%s spe)i*i) %is ste! m n #ement pl n$ Though Bangladesh !ational Disaster "anagement plan in its introduction part depict about the ha ard specific disaster management but though out the plan it does not mention the management plan of any specific disaster like floods or cyclones which are very much common in Bangladesh. -n this conte.t #akistan !ational Disaster "anagement #lan represents the ha ard specific plan.

Bangladesh faces enormous natural disasters each and every year. -n the face of the emerging climate change the fre=uency and intensity of different natural disaster will e.acerbate ever. A well and time befitting national disaster management plan like !ational Disaster "anagement #lan &'('-&'() of Bangladesh should contribute a lot to build a disaster resilient and sustainable Bangladesh. Though the e.isting national disaster management plan has some drawbacks like e.clusion of detailed human resource development plan in disaster management, detailed ha ard maps, ha ards specific disaster management plan, but it has included different positive aspects like disaster-development linkage, disaster management action plan matri., all ha ards approach and most importantly the proactive disaster management approach make the plan very much outstanding to mange the disaster in Bangladesh. The national disaster management plan has the provision to incorporate the new things to its e.iting content. This paper proposed to incorporate to outline the national human resource development plan in disaster management, ensure the transparency and accountability framework, establishment of a national disaster response group, and establish a national disaster resource and knowledge network with the e.isting !ational Disaster "anagement #lan of Bangladesh. -f it is possible to incorporate the above mentioned things with the national disaster management plan then it will a much more feasible and sustainable to mange the different natutal, human induced and environmental disasters and positively contribute to build a disaster resilient model country in the globe.

1. Natioanl Diaster Management Plan 2010-2015 D.M. Buraeu and D.M.a.R.D.D. RD), Editors. April 2 1 ! D"a#a.