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Table of Contents

1 Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 2 Problem statement ................................................................................................................. 1 1.2 Aims and objectives ...................................................................................................................... 1 Study on mix design parameters .................................................................................................... 3 2.1 2.2 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 3 Mix design considerations ...................................................................................................... 3 Bitumen type................................................................................................................... 3 Foaming conditions......................................................................................................... 4 Foam characteristics ....................................................................................................... 4 Aggregate properties ...................................................................................................... 4 Mixing.............................................................................................................................. 5 Mixing and Compaction water content .......................................................................... 5 Compaction ..................................................................................................................... 6 Curing .............................................................................................................................. 7 Materials ......................................................................................................................... 8 Introduction ..................................................................................................................10 Optimum foam characteristics......................................................................................14 Design gradation ...........................................................................................................15 Optimum mixing water content (pre wet water content)............................................18 Optimum compaction effort.........................................................................................20 Mixture volumetric composition ..................................................................................23 Selection of Foamed Bitumen content (Mechanical tests)...........................................25

2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.2.6 2.2.7 2.2.8 2.2.9 2.3 2.4 2.3.1 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6 2.5 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Methodology.........................................................................................................................10 Results and Discussion ..........................................................................................................14

Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................28 Scope of the study ................................................................................................................30 Effect of time and temperature on water loss .....................................................................30 Effect of time and temperature on stiffness.........................................................................31 Effect of water content on stiffness......................................................................................33 Effect of RAP and Cement on stiffness .................................................................................33 Conclusions ...........................................................................................................................34

Study on accelerated curing..........................................................................................................30

3.7 4 4.1

Further curing study..............................................................................................................34 Generating inputs for Pavement analysis and design (June 2013 August 2013)...............35 Specimen Fabrication....................................................................................................35 MEPDG inputs frequency sweep test.........................................................................35 Material constants generation for non-linear elastic analysis......................................36 Non-linear elastic analysis using KENLAYER..................................................................36 Sensitivity analysis of distress types to FBM inputs......................................................36

Further study.................................................................................................................................35 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3

Analysis and design (September 2013 January 2013)........................................................36

Fatigue and durability study (February 2014-June 2014).....................................................36

References ....................................................................................................................................37

1 Introduction
1.1 Problem statement
Unlike Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) in which bitumen and aggregate are primary components, in foamed bitumen (FB) treated mixtures, water and, often, active fillers are the additional ingredients. Therefore, FB mixtures involve more variables, have a less controllable mixing procedure, and are expected to exhibit more complex behaviour than HMA. It is a very common practice to add cementitious additives in FB treated mixtures (FBM) for various reasons such as; to achieve early strength, accelerated curing. Moreover, this technique of bitumen foaming has commonly been used for recycling, which means mixtures including Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) material. From the literature review it was understood that the permanent deformation behaviour of FBM with cementitious and RAP addition is well documented (Halles and Thenoux, 2009, Jenkins, 2000). However, fatigue behaviour of these mixtures with these additives has not been studied so extensively. It is a well-known fact that FB mixtures are neither fully bound (like HMA) nor unbound mixtures. The presence of mastic (fines + bitumen) brings a difference in these mixtures in which aggregates are bonded with this mastic. Therefore, water susceptibility of these mixtures is much more important than in the case of HMA. Usually, therefore, tests on FBMs are mostly accompanied by water susceptibility tests. FBMs gain strength with time after compaction. This is due to loss of mixing water in the mix over the time. This process of gaining strength of FBM with expulsion of water is called curing. With reduction of water in FBM strength (compressive and tensile) and stiffness increase (Asphalt academy, 2009). Maturity functions can potentially be used to convert the actual curing temperature to an equivalent temperature. This concept of a time-temperature factor can be used to quantify the strength development of FB mixtures. It has been learned that stress and strain signals occur in the pavement under traffic loading. The magnitude of the stress varies from one location to the other. HMA exhibits stress independent behaviour at least to a certain level of stress. So, it has been a common practice to analyse HMA layers using linear elastic theory. Due to the un-bound nature of the FB mixtures, applicability of linear (stress dependency) behaviour is questionable. In order to obtain reliable stress and strain data from analysis, an experimental program with varying stress levels has to be carried out. After detailed literature review, the following aim and objectives are considered.

1.2 Aims and objectives


The primary aim of this research is to understand the behaviour of FB mixtures with cementitious additives and RAP material and to design pavements with FBM layers with some confidence. The objectives of the research are as follows; 1. Detailed literature review of mix design and structural design procedures that are being followed by different agencies. 2. Identifying critical mix design parameters and studying their influence on mechanical properties. 3. Understanding curing (water loss and strength gain) mechanisms in FBM. 4. Developing strength-maturity relationships for FB mixtures. 1

5. Studying fatigue behaviour and durability of FB mixtures with cement and RAP material. 6. Understanding the stress dependency behaviour FB mixtures. 7. Conducting mechanistic (non-linear elastic) analysis of pavements with FB layers by using the results obtained in 4. 8. Designing pavements (structural design) using the Mechanistic Empirical Design Guide (MEPDG AASHTO design guide).

2 Study on mix design parameters


2.1 Introduction
Unlike HMA (Hot mix asphalt), there is no universally accepted mix design method for FBM. Most of the agencies Asphalt Academy, 2009 and 2002, Wirtgen 2004 and 2010 which use FBM have their own mix design procedures which are the result of numerous efforts over decades (Jenkins, 2000, Ebels and Jenkins, 2007, Jenkins and vanderVen, 2001, Jenkins et al., 1999, Muthen, 1998, Acott, 1979, Bowering and Martin, 1976, Castedo et al., 1982, Gui-Ping and Wing-Gun, 2008 , Kim and Lee, 2006, Ramanujam and Jones, 2007, Saleh, 2003) for improving the mix design guidelines for FBM. In spite of all these efforts, Foamed Bitumen application in cold recycling suffers from lack of a standardised mix design procedure and as a result the mix design parameters such as Foam characteristics, mixing, compaction, curing and testing that are being adopted are far from being standardised. To overcome this, a research was undertaken at the University of Nottingham(Sunarjono, 2008) to develop a mix design procedure by identifying critical mix design parameters. The mix design parameters identified were Type of bitumen Foaming conditions- Foaming water content (FWC) and Foaming temperature Foam characteristics- Maximum expansion ratio (ERm) and Half-life(HL) Type of mixer Aggregate gradation Foamed Bitumen content Secondary binder (Cement, lime etc) Mixing and compaction water content Compaction effort Conditioning of compacted specimens (Curing)

The research by Sunarjono, 2008 was focussed on the influence of the bitumen type, the foaming conditions, foam characteristics and mixer type on the mechanical properties of FBM. The major outcomes of the work were recommendations for producing an optimised FA mixture in terms mixer type and usage, selection of binder type, bitumen temperature, foam characteristics. Therefore the present study focussed on other mix design parameters such as aggregate gradation, FB content, mixing and compaction water content, compaction effort and curing conditions. Thus, the primary objective of the present study is to propose a practical and consistent mix design procedure.

2.2 Mix design considerations


2.2.1 Bitumen type In HMA mix design, the expected traffic and the regional climate influence the selection of the bitumen type. However in FBM mix design, fomability (foaming potential) of the bitumen and the mixture compactability has to be considered during selection of the bitumen type. Harder bitumen was avoided in past as it produces poorer quality foam leading to poorer dispersion of fines. However, it was found that FBM with harder bitumen had a positive effect on mixture stiffness due to high stiffness of the bitumen (Sunarjono, 2008). However, a FBM with hard binders has to be mixed in a high speed mixture to ensure good dispersion of mastic.

2.2.2 Foaming conditions Temperatures of the bitumen during foaming and Foaming water content (FWC) are considered as important parameters during the bitumen foaming process (Jenkins et al., 1999, Sunarjono, 2008, Kim and Lee, 2006). In general the higher the bitumen temperature the higher the ERm and lower the HL. FWC also has similar effect on the foam characteristics (Muthen, 1998, Brennan, 1983, Maccarrone et al., 1994). Efforts were made to propose a range of foaming temperature and FWC(Sunarjono, 2008). However, it was understood from the results that the range depends on the bitumen type. For the type of binder used in this work which is 70/100 (90 pen) a range of 150C 180C and a FWC of 2.5% - 5% was recommended. However, sensitivity analysis of these characteristics with FWC and temperature was conducted to verify these values. 2.2.3 Foam characteristics The first qualitative characterisation of FB was the result of a Mobil Australia study (Mobil Oil Austrailia Ltd, 1971) in Australia. In their work quality of bitumen foam was characterised by ERm and HL. Since then along with ERm and HL, FB has been characterised by other characteristics such as Foam Index (FI)(Jenkins et al., 1999) and minimum viscosity (Saleh, 2006b) and quantitative recommendations for these foam characteristics were made by some studies (Bowering and Martin, 1976, Ruckel et al., 1982, Muthen, 1998). Attempts by researchers to apply ERm and HL for optimising foam characteristics have (Maccarone et al., 1995, Acott and Myburgh, 1983, Fu et al., 2011) been successful. But, optimising FI for FBM was not successful as no optimum point could be achieved (Sunarjono, 2008) and measuring foam viscosity was found to be difficult because of foam distortion and this may lead to unreliable results (Namutebi et al., 2011). Consequently in this study it was decided to study ERm and HL as foam characteristics to be optimised. 2.2.4 Aggregate properties Many researchers have showed that a wide range of aggregates can be used with FB ranging from crushed stone (Ruckel et al., 1982, Saleh, 2006a) to sand (Acott and Myburgh, 1983, Bissada, 1987 ). Research has showed that aggregate properties such as aggregate type (Ruckel et al., 1982, Saleh, 2006a, Acott and Myburgh, 1983, Bissada, 1987 ), aggregate gradation (Akeroyd and Hicks, 1988, Saleh, 2006a, Al-Abdul Wahhab et al., 2012, Namutebi et al., 2011), amount of fines (Bowering and Martin, 1976, Lee, 1981, Csanyi, 1960, Castedo et al., 1982, Sakr and Manke, 1985, Abel, 1978, Acott, 1979) have significant effect of strength and deformation characteristics of FBM. Alongside these, angularity of aggregate, Plasticity Index (PI) have also been considered (Sakr and Manke, 1985).

The importance of fines (< 63 (or) 75 micron) has been well documented. It has been argued that the higher the amount of the fines the more promising the mix (Ruckel et al., 1982, Roberts et al., 1984, Bissada, 1987 , Maccarrone et al., 1994). This argument seems to be true, because foam bonds with fines to form mastic; more mastic will be formed if more fines are available and the mastic enhances the FBM properties. However, this was not found to be true in all the findings. Mixtures with higher amount of fines found to have lower soaked strength (Fu et al., 2011). In addition, the amount of fines suggested to be in mix ranged from 3% (Sakr and Manke, 1985) to 40% (Lee, 1981) which is a very wider range. Hence, efforts were made in this study to understand the effect of fines in the FBM by the use of strength and stiffness characteristics of the mixture. However, work was limited to a single aggregate type (limestone), four different gradations out of which two are fuller curve 4

gradations with 20mm and 32mm nominal maximum size and the other two are gradations with more fines than fuller gradations. 2.2.5 Mixing Foamed Bitumen begins to collapse rapidly once it comes into contact with relatively cold aggregates. Therefore, the mixing process should be a dynamic one. Consequently FB is most often applied directly from the laboratory foaming plant to the aggregate as it is being agitated in the mixer. As different mixers can produce up to 25% difference in strength (Academy, 2009) selection of an appropriate mixer is very important in production of FB mix. It is always recommended to utilise a mixer that simulates site mixing. From the literature it was found that most of the research was carried out using a Hobart type mixer (blender type) (Sakr and Manke, 1985, Lee, 1981). Pug mill drum mixers and milling-drum mixers are the most commonly used mixers on site for the production of FB mixtures. These mixers provide sufficient volumes in the mixing chamber and energy of agitation to ensure better mixing (Jenkins, 2000). A pug mill type mixer is therefore recommended for production of FB mix that is representative of the field (Long et al., 2004). Hence, a twin shaft pug mill is adopted in this work. Mixing time should be in accordance with the time required by the bitumen foam to collapse. Therefore, half-life is an important factor to be considered in the mixing process. The greater the half -life the better the mixture is predicted to ge. A Half-life of more than 60 seconds can be achieved with addition of foamant (Maccarone et al., 1995); but this approach is seldom used. In the laboratory a mixing time of 60 seconds is recommended (Bissada, 1987 )which is longer than in situ mixing but simulates the difference in the energy of the laboratory mixer and field plant and the same was adopted in this study. 2.2.6 Mixing and Compaction water content The water content during mixing and compaction is considered as one of the most important mix design parameter in FBM(Bowering, 1971, Ltd, 1973, Xu et al., 2012). The mixing water content (MWC) of FBM is defined as the water content in the aggregate when the FB is injected (Fu, 2009). The MWC helps in dispersion of the mastic in the mix (Brennan, 1983, Jenkins, 2000). However, too much water causes granular agglomerations which do not yield optimum dispersion of the mastic in the mix (Ruckel et al., 1982, Fu et al., 2010). It has been considered as best to mix when the water content of the material is at fluff point; i.e, the water content that gives the material its maximum loose volume (Sakr and Manke, 1985, Bowering and Martin, 1976, Brennan, 1983). This is approximately 65% to 85% of OMC as determined by the modified Proctor test (Ruckel, 1978, Abel and Hines, 1979, Academy, 2009). This range was also validated by Fu et al., 2010 by investigating the mixng phenomenon by combined micromechanics observations and mechanical testing. In this study the MWC was always in this range with some exceptions where 65% of OMC has also needed to consider. It should be noted that, in the present study the mixing and compaction water contents are the same as the specimens are compacted directly after mixing and therefore it is assumed that there is no loss of the water content during compaction. In view of this fact many studies have been focussed on the optimisation of compaction water content (CWC). (Lee, 1981)) and (Bissada, 1987 ) optimised CWC with reference to Marshall stability and found that the optimum CWC was very much dependent on other mix design variable such as amount of fines and bitumen content. (Sakr and Manke, 1985)), related the CWC to the mix design 5

variable and recommended a linear relationship among them to obtain optimum CWC. However, the work was performed on a FB stabilised sand mixture which did not have any coarser fraction of aggregate. Moreover, the work was based on optimising the density, without considering any mechanical properties. The concept of optimum fluid content was later borrowed from emulsion mix design in which the sum of the water and bitumen content should be close to OWC (Castedo-Franco and Wood, 1983, Muthen, 1998). This concept considers the lubricating action of the binder in addition to that of water. Thus the actual water content of the mix for optimum compaction is reduced in proportion to the amount of binder incorporated. However, the works of (Kim and Lee, 2006) and (Xu et al., 2012); which optimised CWC based on both density criteria and fundamental tests (ITS and tri-axial tests) on Marshall specimens, question the lubricating action of bitumen in the mix. Although the above discussed works are very informative, they have their limitations as discussed and little attention has been paid to optimising CWC with the gyratory compactor. Therefore, the present work aims at obtaining a rational range of CWC for mix design and to study the lubricating action of the bitumen during the gyratory compaction with the help of fundamental tests such as ITS, ITSM and the volumetric composition of FBM. 2.2.7 Compaction As density achieved is crucial to the ultimate performance of the mix, special attention needs to be paid to the compaction phase of mix design. Because of the presence of the water phase in FBM, this makes the compaction mechanism different from that of HMA. Various laboratory compaction methods such as Marshall compaction(Brennan, 1983, Muthen, 1998, Kim and Lee, 2006, Xu et al., 2012), vibratory compactor (Shackel et al., 1974, Bowering and Martin, 1976, Jenkins, 2000), gyratory compactor (Brennan, 1983, Maccarrone et al., 1994, Jenkins et al., 2004, Saleh, 2006b) in the past. There are very well established guidelines for Marshall compaction (Wirtgen, 2004) and vibratory compaction (Wirtgen, 2010, Academy, 2009). However, there are no established guidelines for gyratory compaction of FBM in terms of compaction effort (number of gyrations and compaction conditions (gyratory angle and gyratory pressure). Past studies have evaluated the feasibility of using the laboratory gyratory compaction on FBM. In these studies efforts were made to obtain the design compaction effort in terms of compaction pressure, compaction angle and number of gyrations (Table 2-1). The compaction pressure recommended by Australian guidelines (0.24kPa) and 1.38kPa from Table 2-1 were given earlier to SHRP work on HMA and seems to require major adjustments. (Jenkins et al., 2004) tabulated conditions were based on by single water content and single FB content. From preliminary trials it was found that 30 gyrations (recommended Kim and Lee, 2006) were too few to achieve modified Proctor densities. The ideal compaction effort has to produce mix densities that are achieved in the field. However, this is not possible in laboratory compaction as the field densities are very much mixture specific. Therefore modified Proctor density, which is used worldwide for monitoring laboratory densities, is used as reference in the present study.

Table 2-1 Gyratory compaction effort on FBM by different researchers

Summary of gyratory compaction effort on FBM by different researchers Number of Compaction Compaction gyrations pressure angle (N) (kPa) (degrees) reference density Brennan, 1983 20 1.38 2.25kg/m3 Maccarrone et al.1994 85 0.24 2 field density Jenkins et al., 2004 150 0.6 1.25 Modified proctor density Kim and Lee, 2006 30 0.6 1.25 Marshall density (75 blows) Saleh, 2006b 80 0.24 2 Australian guidelines for HMA The literature review indicates that the past studies although informative still had some limitations warranting additional study and the mix design compaction effort needs to be established. The present work aimed at determining the mix design compaction effort with gyratory compactor required to match practical field densities obtainable. 2.2.8 Curing Curing is the process in which FBMs lose their water content at elevated temperatures. (Bowering, 1970) found that FBMs gain their full strength only if they expel a large amount of their mixing water content. From the literature (Bowering and Martin, 1976, Acott, 1979) it was found that pavements with FB treated layers exhibited premature distress in days rather than in weeks or months after construction indicating the need for expulsion of water for performance of pavements with FBM. Ruckel et al., 1982 , concluded that the sample water content was the most important parameter affecting mix strength. Therefore, a laboratory mix design procedure needs to simulate the field curing process in order to correlate the properties of laboratory prepared mixtures with those of field mixtures. An accelerated laboratory curing procedure which is curing at elevated temperature is the best available option. From the literature it was found that an elevated temperatures of 40C or 60C have usually been used to accelerate the laboratory curing mechanism. Most of the previous researchers (Acott, 1979, Maccarone et al., 1995, Muthen, 1998, Lane and Kazmierowski, 2003) adopted 60C curing temperature which was proposed by Bowering, 1970. However, Ruckel et al., 1982 expressed his concern over a curing temperature of 60C which is above the softening point of many bitumen grades used for foaming. This high temperature may cause a change in mix properties, which is not desirable. Ruckel et al., 1982 recommended curing at 40C for 3 days which is for long term curing. Jenkins et al., (2004), (Marquis et al., 2003) adopted this method of laboratory curing at 40C for 3 days. The present study has also adopted this curing regime of for mixture design purposes.

2.2.9

Materials

2.2.9.1 Bitumen Penetration grade 70/100 supplied by Shell was used in this study. The properties of the bitumen are tabulated in Table 2-2.
Table 2-2 Properties of 70/100 bitumen used in the study

70/100 grade bitumen properties Specific gravity 1.03 Penetration Index at 25C 90 Softening Point (C) 45 Viscosity at 135C(mPa-s) 321 2.2.9.2 Virgin aggregates The virgin mineral aggregate used in this study is limestone from Dene quarry, Derbyshire, UK. It has been stored separately in stockpiles of size fractions31.5mm, 20mm, 14mm, 10mm, 6mm, dust and filler (<0.075mm). Particle size distribution was determined according to BSEN 933-1:1997. The individual gradations are shown graphically in Figure 2-1. The particle density and water absorption were determined in accordance with BS EN 1097-6:2000 and BS EN 1097-7:1999 for filler particles and tabulated in Table 2-3.
120 100 80 % Passing 60 40 20 0 0.01 0.1 1 Seive size (mm) 10 100 31.5mm 20mm 14mm 10mm 6mm Dust Sand

Figure 2-1 Individual gradation of each fraction of the virgin aggregate used in the study Table 2-3 Physical properties of virgin aggregate used in the study

Particle Density (kg/m3) and Water Absorption (%) (BS EN1097-6:2000) Size (mm) 20 14 10 6 dust Oven dried 2633 2607 2608 2427 2668 Surface saturated dry 2653 2634 2640 2526 2674 Apparent 2685 2679 2693 2696 2686 Water Absorption 0.74 1.03 1.2 4.1 0.26

filler 2623 N/A N/A N/A

2.2.9.3 Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) The RAP material used in this study was supplied by Lafarge Aggregates Limited obtained from Elstow Asphalt Plant in Bedfordshire. A visual inspection of the material as supplied indicated that the RAP aggregate material included particles comprising of slate, broken glass, wood and tiny plastic components. The RAP aggregate material from the quarry was initially air dried at room temperature in the laboratory at 205C for 24 hours and then placed in a thermostatically controlled oven at a temperature of 40C for 24 hours and stored in sealed containers for the further use. A composition analysis of the RAP aggregate material was also conducted in order to determine the properties of the RAP and its extracted components. The composition analysis conducted conformed with BS 598-102:2003, BS 598-101:2004 and BS EN 933-1:2012. The results of the composition analysis and the gradation of the RAP after binder extraction are stated in Table 2-4 and Table 2-4, while Figure 2-2 Gradation of RAP and recovered aggregate shows the gradations of both the RAP aggregate material as obtained from the quarry and the RAP aggregate material after binder extraction.
Table 2-4 Physical properties of RAP used in the study Table 2-5 Properties of recovered bitumen from RAP

Particle Density (kg/m ) and Water Absorption (%) (BS EN1097-6:2000) Size (mm) 20mm-4mm <4mm Oven dried 2420 2570 Surface saturated dry 2470 2670 Apparent 2540 2860 Water Absorption 1.86 3.99

Recovered bitumen properties Binder Content (%) 5.5 Penetration at 25C (dmm) 20 Softening Point (C) 64.2 Viscosity at 135C(mPa-s) 1077

120 100 80 % Passing 60 40 20 0 0.01 0.1 1 Sieve size (mm) 10 RAP Recovered aggregate 100

Figure 2-2 Gradation of RAP and recovered aggregate

2.3

Methodology

2.3.1 Introduction This section discusses the methodology adopted in the study to develop practical FBM mix design methodology. A detailed and careful experimental design was prepared for the study and is tabulated in table. The factors were selected considering the findings of previous work done at the University of Nottingham. Figure shows a flow chart that illustrates the methodology that was adopted in this laboratory experimental study. For optimising MWC/CWC only 100%VA mixture was considered. Whereas for optimising compaction effort and bitumen content 50%RAP and 75%RAP mixtures were also considered.
Table 2-6 Experimental design for mix design study.

Mix design parameter Bitumen type Foam Characteristics Foaming conditions

factorial levels 90pen (70/100 grade) Erm = 10 HL (seconds) = 6 Temperature (C):150,160,170 FWC(%): 1,2,3,4,5 Pug mill type mixer lime stone 31.5 fuller, 31.5 finer, 20mm fuller, 20mm finer % of OMC: 65,75,85,95 % of total mix: 2,3,4,5 dry density, % air voids ITS-dry, ITS-wet, ITCY

Remarks constant throughout the experiment Recommended by Sunarjono, 2008 for 70/100 bitumen Recommended range by Sunarjono, 2008 constant throughout the experiment constant throughout the experiment to study the effect of fines variable to be optimised variable to be optimised to study bitumen-water interaction to obtain design binder content

Mixer type Aggregate type Aggregate gradation MWC/CWC FB content Volumetrics Mechanical tests

Step 1 Foamed bitumen was produced using a laboratory mobile foaming plant type Wirtgen WLB 10 in which the bitumen was foamed at a water pressure of 6 bars and an air pressure of 5 bars. As seen in Table 2-6 Experimental design for mix design study., the present study is limited to single grade 70/100 (90pen) bitumen. The characteristics of foamed bitumen (ERm and HL) were obtained by applying different foaming water contents (FWC) (1% to 5% of the amount of bitumen by weight) and temperatures (150C, 160C and 170C). The magnitude of these foam characteristics were obtained by collecting foam produced by 500 grams of bitumen in a 275mm diameter steel bucket. A Wirtgen measuring instrument (dipstick), which is calibrated to measure the ERm if 500 grams of bitumen is sprayed into the bucket, was used to record ERm and HL. A stopwatch was used to find out the time the foamed bitumen took to collapse to half of its maximum volume. The Figure 2-4, Figure 2-5 and Figure 2-6 show the effect of FWC on expansion ratio and half-life respectively. A minimum half-life of 6 seconds and expansion ratio of 10 were adopted as selection criteria. The 10

optimum foam characteristics were obtained by plotting ERm and HL versus FWC. The procedure recommended by Asphalt Academy, (2009) was adapted to obtain optimum FWC and the findings are discussed in section 2.4.1. Step 2 The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum water content (OWC) of each mixture gradation (Figure 2-8) that was studied were determined using modified Proctor in accordance with BS EN 13286-2: 2004. Obtain Npre, the number of gyrations required to compact the aggregate and water mixture to attain densities that were obtained, by compacting mixture with gyratory compactor. Compaction was carried out on the aggregate in the gyratory compactor at different water contents (95%, 85%, 75%, 65% of OWC). The densities were optimised to obtain optimum trial mixing water content (MMC-trial). The MMC-trial determination for a mixture is shown in Figure 2-8. The Npre, MDD, OWC, MWC-trail are tabulated in Table 2-7. Step 3 In this step each graded aggregate was mixed at a water content of MWC-trial and a FB content of 3% and compacted to the optimised density obtained in Step2. Mixing was carried out in laboratory scale mixing unit, WLS 30, which is a twin shaft mixer. The mixer was positioned in such a way that the foamed bitumen can be sprayed directly on the mixture in the mixer and mixing was carried out for 60 seconds. Before foamed bitumen was sprayed, the aggregate and water were mixed for 60 seconds. After mixing the mixture was riffled and transferred into gyratory compactor moulds. The gyratory compaction was carried out on the mixture targeting the optimised density that was obtained in Step 2. Step 4 The moulds were placed in a forced draft oven at 40C for 24 hours before samples were extracted. The extracted specimens were cured for 3 days at 40C in oven. The cured specimens were then tested for indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) and indirect tensile strength (ITS). The results are as plotted in Figure 2-9 and Figure 2-10 and are discussed in section 2.4.2. An aggregate gradation was selected based on ITSM and ITS results. Step 5 Mixing and compaction was carried out on the aggregate of each selected gradation with varying water content (95%,85%,75% and 65% of OWC) and varying foamed bitumen content (2%, 3%, 4%, 5% by weight of aggregate) to study the interaction of water and bitumen and to optimise the mixing water content (MWC). The two compaction methods, modified Proctor compaction and gyratory compaction, were studied. After mixing the mixed material was compacted in using modified Proctor equipment and densities were obtained. This was done for all possible combinations and the results are as plotted in Figure 2-11. The same mixtures were also compacted using the gyratory compactor to Npre gyrations. Step 6 In this stage, all possible combinations of mixtures were mixed and compacted to the modified Proctor densities that were obtained in Step 5. Gyratory compacted moulds after compaction were kept at room temperature for 24 hours and then specimens were extracted. The extracted specimens were cured at 40C and water content of the mix was monitored. The mechanical tests 11

were carried out on the cured specimens after 3 to 5 days depending on the amount water in the specimen. The tests were carried out on all specimens at the same water content (in between 0.6% and 0.65%) to eliminate the effect of the factor, water content in the mix, on the measured mechanical properties. The effect of mixing water content on the mechanical properties can be seen in plots in the figures 2.12-2.15. The findings of optimisation of MWC with respect to mechanical properties are discussed in section 2.4.3. Step 7 Plots of wet densities from gyratory compaction from Step 5 versus number of gyrations were plotted (figures 2.17 2.20) and number of gyrations required to reach the modified Proctor densities were identified using these plots. Ndesign was identified from the range of gyrations that were obtained. Step 8 Mechanical test (ITSM, ITS-dry, ITS-wet) were performed on the specimens compacted to Ndesign gyrations and an OMWC obtained. The tests were performed on all mixture types (100%VA., 50%RAP and 75% RAP mixtures).

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Obtain FB characteristics (ERm and HL) @T (C): 150, 160, 170 @FWC(%):1,2,3,4,5 (Section 3.2 and figure) Step1 and Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5

Obtain OMC and MDD for selected four gradations ( BS 13286-2: 2004) (Step2, Figure 2-8 and Table 2-7)

Determine of Optimum FWC from ERm and HL data (Step1 and Figure 2-6)

Obtain Npre for all gradations by compacting the aggregate at OWC to MDD (Step2, Figure 2-8 and table 2-7)

Compact aggregates of all four gradations @MWC-trial and trial FB content of 3% and cure the specimens at 40C for 3days (Step3)

Optimise densities for all four gradations and obtain MWC-trial in terms of %OWC (Step2 and Figure 2-8

Test the specimens for ITSM (BS EN 1269726:2012) and ITS (BS EN 12697-23:2003) (Step4, Figure 2-9and Figure 2-10)

Select deign gradation

Mix the aggregates @FB content(%): 2,3,4,5 and @MWC(%OWC):65,75,85,95,105 (Step5)

Obtain densities at all combinations using Modified Proctor compaction (Step5 and Figure 2-11) Compact the mix using gyratory compactor to Npre gyrations (Step7)

Compact using gyratory compactor to modified Proctor densities obtained in Step5 (Step6)

Test the specimens for ITSM, ITS-dry and ITS-wet (Mechanical tests) (Step6)

Obtain Ndesign using gyratory compaction data and densities obtained by Modified Proctor compaction (Step7 and Figure 2-162-20)

Optimise mechanical properties obtain OMWC (Step6 and Figure 2-12-2-15)

Mix the aggregate at OMWC and compact to Ndesign at varying FB content of 2%,3%, 4% and 5%

Test for mechanical properties and obtain design FB content (Step8 and Figure 2-24-2-28)

Figure 2-3 Flowchart of methodology implemented in mix design study

13

2.4 Results and Discussion


2.4.1 Optimum foam characteristics The results of the foaming experiment that was conducted on 70/100 grade bitumen are shown in Figure 2-4 and Figure 2-5. The experiment was conducted varying FWC and temperature and keeping all other factors constant. It can be observed from the plots that as foaming temperature increased from 150C to 170C, the expansion ratio increased while the half-life decreased. This trend in expansion ratio and half-life is because of increasing thermal energy available to convert water to steam at higher temperatures. This leads to formation of foam bubbles of large volume and hence higher ERm. The trend could also be attributed to the viscosity of bitumen at higher temperatures. As the viscosity of bitumen has an inverse relation to temperature; its viscosity decreases and hence the bigger size of the bubbles at higher temperatures. The reason for the trend of half-life is as the foam temperature increases, the temperature of the foam increases and leads to less stable foam. The ERm value increased with increase in FWC while the HL decreased. This trend is because of lack of enough thermal energy to convert larger volume amount of water available into steam. It has to be noted that HL values decreased with increase FWC and at higher FWC, HL values tends to be constant.
Expansion Ratio vs FWC (70/100 grade) 35 30 Expansion Ratio 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 FWC(%) 4 5 150C 160C 170C 6

Figure 2-4 Sensitivity study on ERm with FWC

14

Half-Life vs FWC (70/100 grade) 25 Half-life(seconds) 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 FWC (%) 4 5 6 150C 160C 170C

Figure 2-5 Sensitivity study on HL with FWC

Foam Characteristics at 170C


35 30 25 ER and 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 FWC (%) 4 5 6 0 ER HL 10 5 Half-life (seconds) 15 20

Figure 2-6 Optimising foam characteristics

2.4.2 Design gradation As discussed in Section 2.2.4, the gradations were selected in such a way that the study should understand the importance of the amount the fines (63m passing) and their interaction with the available surface area of the coarser fraction of aggregate. It is a known fact that smaller the maximum size of aggregate the more the surface area. The results of mechanical tests that were performed in step 4 are plotted and can be seen in Figure 2-9 and Figure 2-10. For FB operations, it is recommended that the minimum amount of aggregate passing 63m or 75m sieve size should be 5% and it can be seen from Figure 2-7 that the amount of fines in the aggregate gradation studied was always greater than 5%. The results of ITSM and ITS tests that were performed on specimens compacted at OMWC-trial (Table 2-1) and 3% FB and to Npre gyrations are presented in Figure 2-9 and Figure 2-10. Both ITSM and ITS values on the mixtures with 31.5mm-finer and 20mm-finer 15

gradations were found to be higher than those of mixtures with the fuller gradation. This result shows the importance of fines in the mixture. However, it has to be noted that though 31.5 mmfiner and 20mm-fuller have the same amount of fines, their mechanical properties differ significantly, this can be seen especially ITS values. The reason for this is that the amount of mastic produced was not enough to weld the coarser fraction of 20mm gradation which has more surface than 31.5mm gradation coarser fraction. Based on these observations it was understood that though the amount of fines in the mixtures is a very important mix design parameter, it is not possible to specify an optimum amount of fines for all gradations. This parameter very much depends on the maximum size of the gradation.
100 90 80 70 % Passing 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.0 0.1 1.0 Sieve size(mm) 10.0 20mm finer 31.5mm finer 31.5 fuller 20mm fuller 100.0

Figure 2-7 Aggregate gradation considered in the study

45 2350 2300 Dry density (kg/m3) 2250 2200 2150 2100 2050 2000 3

55

65

75

% OMC 85

95

105

115

125

20mm finer Npre = 200gyrations OWC = 6.5% Gyratory compactorOMWC-trial = 85% of OWC Npre gyrations Modified Proctor 4 5 6 7 8

Moisture content (%)


Figure 2-8 Modified compaction and gyratory compaction comparison

16

Table 2-7 Summary of modified Proctor compaction and gyratory compaction study

Gradation (% fines) Parameter 31.5mm fuller (5%) 31.5mm finer (7.5%) 20mm fuller (7.5%) 20mm finer (10%)

modified Proctor compaction OMC MDD(Kg/m3) (%) 6.5 2170 7 2210 6 2155 6.5 2250

Npre 190 230 180 200

gyratory compaction OMMC-trial density (kg/m3) (% of OMC) 75 2218 80 2247 80 2178 85 2298

Effect of gradation on ITSM


2700

2600

ITSM(MPa)

2500

2400

2300

2200 31.5mm-finer 31.5mm-fuller 20mm-finer 20mm-fuller

Figure 2-9 ITSM results on FBM with different gradations

17

Effect of gradation/amount of fines on ITS


550

500

ITS(kPa)

450

400

350

300 31.5mm-finer 31.5mm-fuller 20mm-finer 20mm-fuller

Figure 2-10 ITS-dry results on FBM with different gradations

4.25 2400 2350 Wet Density (kg/m3) 2300 2250 2200 2150 2100 65

4.75

5.25

5.75

6.25

6.75

7.25

2%FB 3%FB 4%FB 0%FB 75 85 Moisture content (% of OWC) 95 105

Figure 2-11 Modified Proctor test results on FBM

2.4.3 Optimum mixing water content (pre wet water content) The mechanical properties (ITSM, ITS-dry and ITS-wet) on gyratory compacted and cured specimens were plotted against MWC in Figure 2-12, Figure 2-13,Figure 2-14 and Figure 2-15. Each ITSM value in the plot is an average of tests on 8 specimens and ITS-dry and ITS-wet are averages of 4 18

specimens. The properties were all measured at the same water content of the specimens (0.60.65%). As can be seen from the figures, the peak ITSM values were 85% of OWC, except for 2%FBM. When ITS-dry results were considered, the optimum MWC was seen at 85% of OWC for 2%FBM and 3%FBM; and for 4% FBM and 5% FBM the peak was at 75%. For ITS-wet values the optimum was found at 85% except for 5% FBM. Over all, the optimum MWC for all mixtures was consistently found between 75% and 85% of OWC of the mixture.

2 % FBM - Mechanical properties (100% VA)


400 350 300 ITS(kPa) 250 200 150 100 60 65 70 75 80 % OMC
Figure 2-12 Optimisation MWC for 2% FBM

1900 1800 1700 1500 1400 1300 ITS-dry(kPa) ITS-wet(kPa) ITSM (MPa) 85 90 95 100 1200 1100 1000 ITSM (MPa) 1600

3% FBM- Mechanical properties (100% VA)


500 450 400 ITS (kPa) 350 300 250 200 150 100 60 65 70 75 80 % OMC
Figure 2-13 Optimisation MWC for 3% FBM

2400 2200 2000 1800 ITS-dry(kPa) ITS-wet(kPa) ITSM (MPa) 85 90 95 100 1600 1400 1200 1000 ITSM(MPa)

19

4% FBM- Mechanical properties (100% VA)


600 500 400 ITS(kPa) 300 200 100 0 60 65 70 75 80 %OMC 85 90 95 100 ITS-dry(kPa) ITS-wet(kPa) ITSM (MPa) 3000 2500 ITSM(MPa) 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Figure 2-14 Optimisation MWC for 4% FBM

600 500 400 ITS(kPa) 300 200 100 0 60 65 70 75 80 % OMC


Figure 2-15 Optimisation MWC for 5% FBM

3000 2500 2000 1500 ITS-dry(kPa) ITS-wet(kPa) ITSM (MPa) 0 85 90 95 100 1000 500

2.4.4 Optimum compaction effort To study the optimum compaction effort and to obtain the design number of gyrations (Ndesign ), the heights were obtained from the gyratory compactor during compaction. From the height data density was calculated and plotted against number of gyrations (Figure 2-17, Figure 2-18,Figure 2-19 and Figure 2-20). The marks on the curves are the target densities that were obtained from modified Proctor data (Figure 2-8). It can be seen from the plots that, though the target densities were different, the number of gyrations that were required to compact to those target densities are in a similar range. That means, a design number of gyrations that are required to compact modified Proctor densities can be established. Ndesign for all FBMs considered were in the range of 120-160 gyrations. An average of 140 gyrations was adopted as Ndesign.

ITSM(MPa)

20

2300 2250 Dry Density (kg/m3) 2200 2150 2100 2050 2000 3 4 5 6 Water Content (%)
Figure 2-16 Modified proctor test results on mixtures considered in the study

0%RAP 50%RAP 75%RAP

2400 2300 Wet density (kg/m3) 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 0 40

0%FB - 100%VA

Target density = 2330kg/m3) MWC = 80% of OWC = 5.2%

80

120

160

200

Number of gyrations
Figure 2-17 Obtaining Ndesign for mixture with 100%VA and 0% FB at OM WC

21

2%FB - 100%VA
2400 Wet Density (kg/m3) 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 0 40 80 120 160 200 Number of gyrations
Figure 2-18 Obtaining Ndesign for mixture with 100%VA and 2% FB at OMWC

target density Target density = 2280kg/m3 MMC = 80% OMC = 5.2%

3%FB - 0%RAP
2400 2300 Wet dewnsity (kg/m3) 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 0 40 80 120 Number of Gyrations 160 200 target density

Target density = 2260kg/m3 MMC = 80% OMC = 5.2% Ndeg = 120 - 160gyrations

Figure 2-19 Obtaining Ndesign for mixture with 100%VA and 3% FB at OMWC

22

75% RAP
2400

2300

0% FB 3% FB

Wet Density (kg/m3)

2200

2100

2000

Target density for 0% FBM = 2230kg/m3 Target density for 3% FBM = 2200 /m3 OMMC = 80% OMC = 4.8% Ndeg = 80 - 120gyrations

1900

1800 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 Number of gyrations


Figure 2-20 Obtaining Ndesign for mixture with 75%RAP FBM at OMWC

2.4.5 Mixture volumetric composition The effect of MWC and bitumen on mixture volumetrics was studied by means of two compaction methods; modified Proctor compaction and gyratory compaction. Bulk densities of specimens that were compacted to 140 gyrations (Ndesig) for mixtures with different bitumen content were plotted against MWC. The densities of the specimens increased as the foamed bitumen content increased. This result indicates that FB increases the compactability of the mixture. The magnitude of this behaviour can only be studied from water-bitumen interaction curves. This phenomenon was supported by a shift in peak of the curves towards the left from 100% OWC. However, this shift was not considerable, and was negligible from 4% FB to 5% FB. Thus replacing water in the mixture with bitumen doesnt give required level of compactability. Air voids of specimens after curing were plotted against FB content (Figure 2-22). The theoretical maximum densities were mathematically calculated from the aggregate and bitumen densities data. Overall, the air voids decreased gradually as FB content increased.

23

2250 2200 2150 2100 2050 2000 60 65 70 75 80 % OWC 85 90 95 100

dry density (kg/m3)

2%FB 3%FB 4%FB 5%FB

Figure 2-21 Influence of FB content on densities

22.00 21.00 20.00 19.00 Va (%) 18.00 17.00 16.00 15.00 14.00 13.00 12.00 60 65 70 75 80 % OWC 85 90 95 100 2%FB 3%FB 4%FB 5%FB

Figure 2-22 Influence of FB content on air voids

24

30.00 28.00 26.00 VMA (%) 24.00 22.00 20.00 18.00 60 65 70 75 80 % OWC 85 90 95 100 2%FB 3%FB 4%FB 5%FB

Figure 2-23 Influence of FB content on VMA

2.4.6 Selection of Foamed Bitumen content (Mechanical tests) The results of mechanical tests on the mixtures that were compacted at optimum MWC which is 80% of OWC and to Ndesign , and varying FB content were plotted in Figure 2-24, Figure 2-25, Figure 2-26, Figure 2-27 and Figure 2-28. As can be seen in the plots there is a clear optimum ITSM value for all mixtures. For 100%VA mixtures, the optimum was found at 4% FB content. Similarly, the optimum ITSM values for 50%RAP and 75% RAP mixtures were found at 3.5% and 3% FB content respectively. It has to be noted that, though the mixing and compaction was carried at room temperature, the mixtures with RAP have optimum ITSM values at lower FB content than 100%VA mixture. This indicates that in FBM design it is not correct to treat RAP just as fresh aggregate, which means that a separate mix design for mixtures with RAP is imperative. If ITS-dry values are considered, there was not any optimum for 100%VA mixtures. ITS-dry values for these mixtures increase with increased in FB content without any optimum value. However, an optimum could be located for both the mixtures with RAP (50% RAP and 75% RAP mixtures). The optimum values were found at 3% FB for both mixtures. When ITS-wet results are considered, the optimum ITS-wet was found only for 75% RAP mixtures, which is at 3% FB content. There was not any optimum for any mixtures if ITSR was considered. However, it can be noted that, though ITS-dry values were higher for 100%VA mixture than for mixtures with RAP, the ITS-wet and ITSR values were found to be superior for mixtures with RAP. This indicates that the mixtures with RAP have better resistance against water than mixtures without any RAP. This could be attributed to the presence of fully bitumen coated RAP aggregates in the mixture. Overall, from the results, at 4% and 3% FB contents, optimum mechanical properties were found for 100%VA and 75% RAP mixtures respectively. However, optimum FB content was not very clear for 50% RAP mixtures. So, a value between 3.5% and 3%; which is 3.25% was finally adopted as the design FB content for 50% RAP mixtures. Though UCS tests were performed on all the mixtures, the results (Figure 2-28) were not considered for the selection of optimum FB content.

25

2900 2700 2500 ITSM(MPa) 2300 2100 1900 1700 1500 2 2.5 3 3.5 % Foamed Bitumen 4 4.5 5 100%VA 50% RAP 75%RAP

Figure 2-24 Effect of Foamed bitumen content on ITSM

550 500 ITS-dry(kPa) 450 400 350 300 2 2.5 3 3.5 % Foamed Bitumen 4 4.5 5 100%VA 50% RAP 75%RAP

Figure 2-25 Effect of Foamed bitumen content on ITS-dry

26

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 % Foamed Bitumen Contnet 4.5 5

ITS-wet (kPa)

100%VA 50% RAP 75% RAP

Figure 2-26 Effect of Foamed bitumen content on ITS-wet

70 65 60 ITSR (%) 55 50 45 40 35 30 2 2.5 3 3.5 % Foamed Bitumen 4 4.5 5 100%VA 75% RAP 50% RAP

Figure 2-27 Effect of Foamed bitumen content on ITSR

27

4.00

3.50 UCS (MPa)

3.00 100%VA 2.50 50% RAP 75%RAP

2.00 2 2.5 3 3.5 % Foamed Bitumen


Figure 2-28 Effect of Foamed bitumen content on UCS

4.5

2.5 Conclusions
The conclusions that were drawn in accordance to the mix design parameters that were considered in the study are: 1. The limited study on the gradation of aggregate with two different amounts of fines showed the importance of fines in the mixture and dependence of its amount on maximum size of the aggregate (surface area available). From the detailed literature review in conjunction with the results of this study, it was understood that for a good FBM, the amount of fines in the mixture should be more than in an HMA mixture and also even more than in bitumenemulsion cold mixtures. However, there is an optimum to this amount as well; where beyond this optimum the mechanical properties deteriorate. However, finding an optimum amount of fines is not in the scope of this study. 2. The role of the bitumen during compaction was studied. The study showed that the bitumen helps in compaction of the mixture but not as effective as water. The bitumenwater interaction studies also revealed that total fluid (water + bitumen) is not a valid parameter in mix design of FBM. 3. A rational range of optimum mixing water content (OMWC) was suggested; which is 75-85% of OWC obtained by modified Proctor test. 4. It was found that a unique design number of gyrations (Ndesign ); the compaction effort equalling modified Proctor compaction can be established for FBM with a specific aggregate gradation. In addition to the above findings, the following conclusions can also be drawn from the present study on mix design parameters. 5. The study showed that gyratory compaction resulted in higher unit weights and lower optimum water contents than those obtained by the modified Proctor compaction test.

28

6. The parameter MWC needs to be addressed with reference to OWC obtained from the modified Proctor test, as this is a parameter obtained from modified Proctor test whose parameters depends on amount of fines; which an important mix design parameter. 7. It was found that stiffness measure (ITSM) was more sensitive to FB content with clear optimum than other mechanical properties such as ITS-dry and ITSR. 8. The mixtures with RAP showed more resistance to water than mixtures without RAP. 9. It was observed that the presence of RAP influenced the design FB content; which means treating RAP as black rock in FBM mix design is not appropriate.

29

3 Study on accelerated curing


Foamed bitumen mixtures gain strength with time after compaction. This is due to loss of mixing water in the mix over time. This process of gaining strength of FB mixtures with expulsion of water is called curing. With the reduction of water in the FB mixtures strength (compressive and tensile) and stiffness increase (Academy, 2009). It is obvious that the laboratory samples used for mix design and to determine engineering properties should be representative samples of field placed mixtures. Hence, the aim of this study is to develop a standard laboratory curing regime(s) at which it is sensible to conduct performance tests that represents conditions in the field. To fulfil this aim the following objectives were considered on FBM. 1. 2. 3. 4. To study influence of curing temperature and time on stiffness and water loss in the mix. To study influence of cement and RAP on curing (stiffness gain and water loss). To develop stiffness maturity (time-temperature factor) relationships. To study performance in terms of permanent deformation of mixtures at the different curing conditions those are being followed by different agencies.

The need for development of a curing regime protocol and maturity concept was discussed in the year 1 report and is not repeated here. The specimen fabrication method was discussed was discussed in Chapter 2. In this method after the specimen was compacted, the specimen was left in the mould at room temperature for 24hours and then extracted at which time the average water content was 4.72%. The water content in the specimen was monitored for 30 days. (It is planned to monitor for a longer period, however, in this report only the first 30 days period is presented) by observing the change in the specimens weight over time.

3.1 Scope of the study


1. In order to avoid ageing of bitumen, it was recommended to cure the specimens below softening point of the bitumen used in the mixture, which is 45C for the 70/100 grade bitumen used in this study. Hence, curing temperatures of 40C, 30C, 20C and 5C were considered. Though curing at 20C and 5C are not to be considered as accelerated curing, these temperatures were included to study the effect of this temperature on curing. 2. To study the effect of RAP and cement, the following mixtures were considered (a) 100% VA (b) 100%VA+1%Cement (c) 50% RAP (d) 50%RAP+1% Cement (e) 75% RAP+1% Cement 3. The Non-destructive stiffness (ITSM) test was selected for assessing curing of the specimen. This is in order to carry out the test on the same set of specimens to nullify variability in the mixtures and to derive reliable trends for curing evaluation.

3.2 Effect of time and temperature on water loss


The water content in the specimen which was monitored over time is plotted in Figure 3-1. A trend line which is a power curve is also included. The initial water content in the mixture during compaction was 5.2% (80% of OWC). The plots showed that water content in the specimen reached about 25% of the initial amount after 24 hours of curing at both 30C and 40C. Similarly, water content reached to about 50% of initial amount when specimens were cured at 20C and 5C. The trend suggests that the rate of water loss is proportional to the amount of water present in the mixture. In other words, the rate of water loss decreased with time. It is clear from the plot and also obvious that the water loss is dependent on curing temperature. The higher the curing temperature 30

the faster was the water loss. However, all curves, except the 5C curves, seem to reach a constant amount after which the loss is negligible.
3 2.5 Moisture content (%) 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0 5 10 15 20 Number of days 25 30 35

40C 30C 20C 5C Power (40C) Power (30C) Power (20C) Power (5C)

Figure 3-1 Effect of time and temperature on water loss

3.3 Effect of time and temperature on stiffness


The stiffness (ITSM) values that were measured over time on the specimens that were cured at different temperatures are plotted in Figure 3-2. The plot shows a stiffness monitored for a period of 30 days and at curing temperatures of 40C, 30C, 20C and 5C. Trend lines were also included in the plot. The trend line is a logarithmic with positive tangential slope. As can be seen from the figure, for all conditions, stiffness increased with time of curing. However, this gain was most rapid for specimens cured at higher temperatures. This is because rapid curing takes place at higher temperature; the rapid loss of water yields higher stiffness values with time. This phenomenon can be seen in Figure 3-3 in which, water loss and stiffness gain of specimens cured at 20C is presented.

31

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 Number of days 25 30 35 40C 30C 20C 5C Log. (40C) Log. (30C) Log. (20C) Log. (5C)

Figure 3-2 Effect of time and temperature on stiffness

ITSM (MPa)

3000 2500 2000 ITSM(MPa) ITSM m/c Log. (ITSM) Power (m/c) 500 0 0 5 10 15 20 Number of days 25 30 35 1500 1000

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

Figure 3-3 Effect of time on curing

Water Content(%)

32

3.4 Effect of water content on stiffness


Figure 3-4 shows the plots of stiffness (ITSM) versus water content for the specimens that were cured at different temperatures. As a general trend, with decrease in water content the stiffness was increased. However, as can be seen from the figure when individual temperatures were considered it was found that temperature has a significant additional impact on the stiffness of the mixture. For example, the specimens which were cured at 40C having water content around 1% showed better stiffness (ITSM) than the specimens cured at other lower temperatures at same water content in the specimen.
3500

40C 20C 30C 5C Log. (40C) Log. (20C) Log. (30C) Log. (5C)

3000

2500 ITSM (MPa)

2000

1500

1000

500 2.5 2 1.5 1 moisture content in mix (%) 0.5 0

Figure 3-4 Effect of water content on stiffness

3.5 Effect of RAP and Cement on stiffness


Figure 3-5 shows ITSM results for two curing conditions, 20C for 3 days (early stage of curing) and 40C for 3 days (long term curing). The Figure 3-5shows the importance of cement in FBM especially during early stages of as construction of FBM layer. The presence of RAP has positive influence on the stiffness values in early stages of curing. It has to be noted that during early stages of curing, mixtures with RAP showed better stiffness than mixtures with 100%VA. This could be because of presence of fully bitumen coated aggregates which provide some deformation resistance. However, for fully curing regime, 100% VA mixtures showed better stiffness values. This could be because slower water loss in the mixture with RAP.

33

4000

ITSM (MPa) after 3 days curing

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 100%VA 1%Cement 50% RAP 20C 100%VA 1%Cement 50% RAP 40C

Figure 3-5 Effect of RAP and Cement on ITSM

3.6 Conclusions
The following conclusions can be drawn based the work so far 1. The effect of curing temperature and curing period on water loss and stiffness gain was studied. 2. It was found from the experimental results that temperature and time both have a significant influence on stiffness and water content in the mixture. 3. The presence of cement enhances the mechanical properties (ITSM); its presence is especially important during early stage of curing.

3.7 Further curing study


The further study in the present curing study includes (May2013 July 2013) 1. A curing study on mixtures with cement and RAP is in progress. 2. The possibility of Stiffness-maturity relationship development will be studied. 3. Curing study in terms of performance (permanent deformation) and strength (ITS-dry and ITS-wet) characteristics will be studied. As these are destructive tests only the following conditions will be considered.
Table 3-1 Curing regimes considered for destructive testing

Fully Temperature Wrapped 5C 28 days 20C 40C 28 days 28 and 3 days

Unwrapped combination n/a n/a 7days (unwrapped) + 21 3days days(fully wrapped) 28 and 3 days n/a

34

4 Further study
The further work that has to be done includes

4.1 Generating inputs for Pavement analysis and design (June 2013 August 2013)
The structural design of pavement ensures that it serves its purpose structurally and functionally in an economically viable manner with in estimated design life. Such design can be achieved by empirical method or mechanistic method or mechanistic-empirical method. The mechanisticempirical method of design of pavements will be considered. Huang (2004) reported that the mechanistic-empirical method is based on the mechanics of materials that relates an input, such as a wheel load, to an output or pavement response such as strain or stress. The response values are subsequently used to predict distress from laboratory-test and field performance data. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of pavement distresses; permanent deformation on subgrade and fatigue in FBM base layer. For this, two mechanistic analysis tools namely KENLAYER and MEPDG (Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide) will be considered. The MEPDG is an improved pavement design method adopted by AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation). This methodology depends on the pavement material characterisation of the fundamental engineering parameters. The design method is an iterative process using the analytical results based on the trial designs postulated by the designer. A trial design is analysed for adequacy against user input data. KENLAYER is a flexible pavement response analysis application in KENPAVE computer program developed by Huang (2004) will be for analysis. Unlike MEPDG, this gives only the response of the pavement to a given load. Distress models in KENLAYER are fatigue cracking and permanent deformation. From the preliminary studies and from literature it was understood that FBMs exhibit non-linear behaviour. Hence, non-linear elastic analysis is considered. For this type of analysis using KENLAYER, the K- model and its parameters are used. In KENLAYER for non-linear analysis, three methods were recommended. Out of these three first method which is sub dividing the stress dependent layers is considered in this study. 4.1.1 Specimen Fabrication The mixture data consists of dynamic modulus frequency sweep tests on specimens for five temperatures and four rates of loading. The specimens should have a diameter of 100 mm and a height-to-diameter ratio of 1.5. 4.1.2 MEPDG inputs frequency sweep test The MEPDG software uses the material properties to calculate incremental and accumulated pavement damage based on the expected variation in environmental and traffic loading. This process, as defined by the user-selected reliability, allows the designer to judge whether or not the input design thickness and/or materials meet the expected performance during the design period. In the current version of the MEPDG procedure, three input levels can be used based on the availability of materials characterization data. The site-specific laboratory-measured values of the material properties are used as Level 1 input parameters. Predicted values determined from basic volumetric properties of as constructed mixtures are considered Level 2 input parameters. Level 3 input parameters are provided as default values in the software based on mixture gradation and the 35

performance grade (PG) of the binder. In the present study the dynamic modulus (|E*|) which is Level 1 input will be measured by frequency sweep tests at different temperatures. |E*| tests will be performed with the NU14 testing machine in accordance with AASHTO TP 62 (AASHTO, 2007a). Tests were performed on 150 mm tall by 100 mm diameter specimens as previously mentioned. Four testing temperatures ranging from 5C to 50C will be used. Six testing frequencies ranging from 0.1 Hz to 25 Hz will be used. To measure against damage to the test samples, the tests will be conducted starting from the coldest temperatures to the warmest temperatures. In addition, at each test temperature, the tests will be performed starting from the highest to the lowest frequency. Each sample will be conditioned at the testing temperature for a minimum period of 3 hr before the test was started. Load levels were selected in such a way that at each temperature-frequency combination, the applied strain was in the range that ensure testing will conducted in the linear viscoelastic range of mixture, a necessary requirement for a valid |E*| test. All tests will be conducted in the uniaxial mode without confinement in line with current standard AASHTO specifications. 4.1.3 Material constants generation for non-linear elastic analysis The inputs will be generated in accordance to BS EN 13286-7:2004 which is cyclic load triaxial test for resilient modulus. The K1 and K2 values obtained from this resilient modulus test.

4.2 Analysis and design (September 2013 January 2013)


4.2.1 Non-linear elastic analysis using KENLAYER Since, one of the objectives of the present study is to evaluate the performance of FBMs, the structural analysis will be studied by examining the stress and strain responses distribution in pavement with FBM base layer using non-linear elastic analysis using the parameters obtained in resilient modulus test. This response data will be used to obtain the life of the pavements with FBM layer. 4.2.2 Sensitivity analysis of distress types to FBM inputs For sensitivity analysis on input parameters of MEPDG, the sensitivities of five MEPDG performance measures to inputs will be studied by varying one input parameter per trial using the MEPDG. The distresses that will be studied during this analysis are alligator cracking, longitudinal cracking, thermal cracking, rutting and smoothness for flexible pavements. While for sensitivity analysis using KENLAYER only fatigue cracking in base layer and permanent deformation on subgrade will only be considered.

4.3 Fatigue and durability study (February 2014-June 2014)


For comparing the fatigue resistance of different mixes, and to understand the effect of cement and RAP addition on fatigue behaviour, a plot of number of cycles (N) against N divided by vertical deformation (VD) will be used. The N value at which N/VD reaches its maximum value will be considered as N critical. The N value at which the specimen fails will be considered as N failure. This method of representing fatigue behaviour was actually used by Read (1996) to define the initiation and propagation phase of fatigue. It was understood from literature that durability (water sensitivity) of FB mix is an important factor to be considered for better field performance. The test method for durability that will be employed in this research is testing strength parameter (ITS and 36

UCS) before and after vacuum saturation conditioning. This permits the calculation of a ratio that gives an indication of the water sensitivity of the FB mix. The lower the ratio, the more sensitive is the mix to the effect of water.

5 References
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