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CHAPTER 4

195

1m

L 3m r

Figure P4.25: Cylindrical shell.

Problem 4.26 If the charge density increases linearly with distance from the origin such that v 0 at the origin and v 40 C/m3 at R 2 m, nd the corresponding variation of D. Solution: v R a

v 0 a 0

bR

196 v 2 2b 40 Hence, b 20. v R  20R

CHAPTER 4

(C/m3 )

Applying Gausss law to a spherical surface of radius R,

D ds

DR 4R

V R 0

v d V 20R 4R2 dR 80

DR

5R2 (C/m2 ) DR R 5R2 (C/m2 ) D R

R4 4

Section 4-5: Electric Potential


Problem 4.27 A square in the xy plane in free space has a point charge of corner a 2 a 2 and the same at corner a 2 a 2 and a point charge of each of the other two corners. (a) Find the electric potential at any point P along the x-axis. (b) Evaluate V at x a 2.

Q at

Q at

Solution: R1 V with

R2 and R3 R4 .
Q 40 R1

Q 40 R2

Q 40 R3

Q 40 R4

Q 20

1 R1

1
R3

R1 R3 At x a 2, R1 R3 V

x x

a  2 a  2

  
2

a 2 a  2

a 2 a 5 2 Q 2 20 a

2
5a

0 55Q 0 a

CHAPTER 4
y

197

-Q

a/2 R3 -a/2 a/2 R4

Q R1 P(x,0) x

R2 -Q -a/2 Q

Figure P4.27: Potential due to four point charges.

Problem 4.28 The circular disk of radius a shown in Fig. 4-7 (P4.28) has uniform charge density s across its surface. (a) Obtain an expression for the electric potential V at a point P 0 0 z on the z-axis. (b) Use your result to nd E and then evaluate it for z h. Compare your nal expression with Eq. (4.24), which was obtained on the basis of Coulombs law. Solution: (a) Consider a ring of charge at a radial distance r. The charge contained in width dr is dq s 2r dr  2s r dr The potential at P is dV

dq 40 R

2s r dr 40 r2 z2

The potential due to the entire disk is

1 2


s 20

dV
0

s 20

a 0

r dr 2 r z2

1 2

s 2 r z2 20

1 2

a
2

z2

1 2

198
z

CHAPTER 4

E P(0,0,h)
h s dq = 2 s r dr

a dr

a x

Figure P4.28: Circular disk of charge. (b) E

V x x

V y y

V z z

s 1 z 20

The expression for E reduces to Eq. (4.24) when z h.

z a2

z2

Problem 4.29 A circular ring of charge of radius a lies in the xy plane and is centered at the origin. If the ring is in air and carries a uniform density l , (a) show that the electrical potential at 0 0 z is given by V l a 20 a2 z2 1 2 , and (b) nd the corresponding electric eld E.

Solution: (a) For the ring of charge shown in Fig. P4.29, using Eq. (3.67) in Eq. (4.48c) gives V R 

1 40

l dl R

1 40

Point 0 0 z in Cartesian coordinates corresponds to r z  coordinates. Hence, for r 0, V 0 0 z 

l a2

r2

2ar cos

0 z in cylindrical

z2

a d

1 40

a2

z2

a d

l a 20 a2

z2

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z

199

|R' | = a2 + z2

d'
a x l

a dl' = a d'

Figure P4.29: Ring of charge.

(b) From Eq. (4.51), E

l a 2 a z2 20 z

1 2

l a z 20 a2 z2

3 2

(V/m)

Problem 4.30 Show that the electric potential difference V12 between two points in air at radial distances r1 and r2 from an innite line of charge with density l along the z-axis is V12 l 20 ln r2 r1 . Solution: From Eq. (4.33), the electric eld due to an innite line of charge is Er E r Hence, the potential difference is

l 20 r

V12

r1 r2

E dl

r1 r2

l r dr r 20 r

l r2 ln
20 r1

Problem 4.31 Find the electric potential V at a location a distance b from the origin in the xy plane due to a line charge with charge density l and of length l . The line charge is coincident with the z-axis and extends from z l 2 to z l 2.

200
z l/2 dz l z R' V(b) b

CHAPTER 4

|R' | = z2 + b2

-l/2

Figure P4.31: Line of charge of length .

Solution: From Eq. (4.48c), we can nd the voltage at a distance b away from a line of charge [Fig. P4.31]: V b

1 4

l dl R

l 4

l 2

l 2

dz z2

b2

l ln 4

l 2 4b2 l 2 4b2

Problem 4.32 For the electric dipole shown in Fig. 4-13, d 1 cm and E (mV/m) at R 1 m and 0 . Find E at R 2 m and 90 . Solution: For R 1 m and 0 , E E Hence,

4 mV/m, we can solve for q using Eq. (4.56):

qd sin 2 cos R 40 R3

E
q

qd
2 4 mV/m at 0 40 10  3 80 10  3 80 0 80 d 10  2 0 80 10  40 23
2

(C)

Again using Eq. (4.56) to nd E at R 2 m and 90 , we have E

R 0

 1 4

(mV/m)

CHAPTER 4

201

Problem 4.33 For each of the following distributions of the electric potential V , sketch the corresponding distribution of E (in all cases, the vertical axis is in volts and the horizontal axis is in meters): Solution:
V 30 3 -30 5 8 11 13 16 x

E 10 x -10

(a)
V 4

12

15

-4

E 4.20

12

x 15

-4.20

(b)

202
V 4

CHAPTER 4

12

15

-4

E 2.6

12

15

-2.6

(c) Figure P4.33: Electric potential distributions of Problem 4.33.

Problem 4.34

Given the electric eld 18 E R R2 (V/m)

nd the electric potential of point A with respect to point B where A is at B at 4 m, both on the z-axis. Solution:

2 m and

VAB Along z-direction, R z

VA VB

A B

E dl

and E z z 18 dz z z2

0. Hence,

VAB

18 for z z2

0, and R

and E z

18 for z2

 4

18 2 z dz z z

2 0

18 dz z z2

4 V

CHAPTER 4

203

z = 2m

z = -4m

Figure P4.34: Potential between B and A.

Problem 4.35 An innitely long line of charge with uniform density l 9 (nC/m) lies VAB at point in the xy plane parallel to the y-axis at x 2 m. Find the potential A 3 m 0 4 m in Cartesian coordinates with respect to point B 0 0 0 by applying the result of Problem 4.30. Solution: According to Problem 4.30, V

l r2 ln
20 r1

where r1 and r2 are the distances of A and B. In this case, r1 r2 Hence, VAB

2 m

42

2
17

17 m

9 10  9 2 8 85 10 

12

ln

117 09 V

204
z 4m A(3, 0, 4)

CHAPTER 4

r1

r2

2m

3m x

Figure P4.35: Line of charge parallel to y-axis.

Problem 4.36 The xy plane contains a uniform sheet of charge with s1 0 2 (nC/m2 and a second sheet with s2 0 2 (nC/m2 ) occupies the plane z 6 m. Find VAB , VBC , and VAC for A 0 0 6 m , B 0 0 0 , and C 0 2 m 2 m . Solution: We start by nding the E eld in the region between the plates. For any point above the xy plane, E1 due to the charge on xy plane is, from Eq. (4.25), E1 z s 1 20

In the region below the top plate, E would point downwards for positive s2 on the top plate. In this case, s2 s1 . Hence,

E E1

E2

s 1 20

s 2 20

2s1 20

s 1 0

, only change in position along z can result in change in voltage. Since E is along z

VAB

z
0

s 1 dz z 0

s1 z 0

6s1 0

6 0 2 10  9 8 85 10  12

135 59 V