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Written by: Engr.

Fakhr-e-Alam
Microsoft
Excel 2003 (Tutorial)
Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam
B.Sc (Elec. Engg.) from Pakistan,
ECD from China.
D.A.E (Elect.) from Pakistan,
Diploma in IT from Pakistan.

E-mail: alam091@yahoo.com

1st Edition – 2009

TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT SECTION


Human Resources & Administration Department
M.S Al-Suwaidi Industrial Services Co. Ltd.
P.O. Box. 991 Al-Jubail 31951
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
URL: www.suwaidi.com
+966 03 3407200 / +966 03 3407201
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Spreadsheet Basics…………………………………………………………...… 6
1.1 Screen Layout…………………………………………………………………… 6
1.2 Title bar……………………………………………………………….. ………… 7
1.3 Menu bar………………………………………………………………………… 7
1.4 Standard Toolbar……………………………………………………………..…. 7
1.5 Other Tools………………………………………………………………...……. 8
1.6 Task Pane……………………………………………………………………..…. 9
1.7 Adding and Renaming Worksheets……………………………………………... 9

2. Modifying Worksheets………………………………………………………... 10
2.1 Moving Through Cells…………………………………………………………. 10
2.2 Adding Worksheets, Rows, Columns, and Cells………………………………. 10
2.3 Resizing Rows and Columns……………………………………...…………… 10
2.4 Selecting Cells…………………………………………………………...…….. 11
2.5 Moving and Copying Cells………………………………………..…………… 11
2.6 Deleting Rows, Columns, and Cells…………………………………………… 12
2.7 Freeze Panes…………………………………………………………...………. 12

3. Formatting Cells……………………………………………………....………. 13
3.1 Formatting Toolbar……………………………………………………..……… 13
3.2 Format Cells Dialog Box……………………………………………...……….. 13
3.3 Formatting Worksheet……………………………………………………...….. 14
3.4 Dates and Times………………………………………….……………………. 15
3.5 Format Painter………………………………………………………………….. 15
3.6 AutoFormat………………………………………………………………….…. 15

4. Sorting and Filling……………………………………………………….…… 16


4.1 Basic Sorts……………………………………………………………...……… 16
4.2 Complex Sorts……………………………………………………………….… 16
4.3 Auto-fill………………………………………………………………………... 17
5. Page Properties and Printing………………………………………………… 18
5.1 Page Breaks……………………………………………………………….……. 18
5.2 Page Setup……………………………………………………………………… 18
5.3 Margins………………………………………………………………………… 18
5.4 Header/Footer………………………………………………………………….. 19
5.5 Sheet……………………………………………………………………….…… 19
5.6 Print Preview…………………………………………………………………… 20
5.7 Print………………………………………………………………………….…. 20

6. Formulas and Functions……………………………………………………… 21


6.1 Formulas Definition……………………………………………………………. 21
6.2 Formulas……………………………………………………………………….. 21
6.3 Formulas Bar…………………………………………………………………… 21
6.4 Linking Worksheets……………………………………………………………. 21
6.5 Relative, Absolute, and Mixed referencing……………………………………. 22
6.6 Function Definition……………………………………………………………. 22
6.7 Basic Functions………………………………………………………………… 22
6.8 Arguments……………………………………………………………………… 23
6.9 Operators……………………………………………………………………….. 23
6.10 Operator Order…………………………………………………………………. 24
6.11 Function Wizard……………………………………………………………….. 24
6.12 Entering Multiple Formulas All At Once……………………………………… 25
6.13 Editing & Deleting Formulas…………………………………………………... 25
6.14 AutoSum……………………………………………………………………….. 26
6.15 Errors in Formulas………………………………...…………………………… 26

7. Charts……………………………………………………………... 27
7.1 Chart Wizard…………………………………………………………………… 27
7.2 Chart toolbar………………………………………………………………...…. 29
7.3 Resizing a chart………………………………………………………………… 29
7.4 Moving a chart……………………………………………...………………….. 30
7.5 Formatting Chart Objects…………………………………………….. ………... 30
7.6 Chart Types…………………………………………………………………….. 30
7.7 An Overview on Formatting Charts and Cells…………………………………. 31

8. Commonly Used Features………………………………..……… 33


8.1 Comments…………………………………………………................................ 33
8.2 To Viewing Comments………………………………………………………… 33
8.3 Use Go To……………………………………………………………………… 33
8.4 Use Find and Replace………………………………………………………….. 33
8.5 Increase / Decrease Decimals…………………………………..……………… 34
8.6 Protecting your files (password to open)………………………………………. 35

9. Additional Readings………………………………………...……. 36
9.1 Tab Color………………………………………………………………………. 36
9.2 Hide / Unhide……………………………………………………………..……. 36

10. Excel Functions Overview……………………………….……….. 37


10.1 Statistical Functions Overview………………………………………………… 37
10.2 Math Functions Overview……………………………………………………... 37
10.3 Information Functions Overview………………………………………………. 38
10.4 Overview of Logical Functions……………………………………………...… 38

11. Appendix 1: Shortcut Keys…………………………………….... 40

11. Appendix 2: Important Formulas................................................. 44


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

1. Spreadsheet Basics
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet program that you can use to organize, analyze and attractively
present data such as a budget or sales report. Each Excel file is a workbook that can hold many
worksheets. The worksheet is a grid of columns, designated by letters, and rows, designated by
numbers. The letters and numbers of the columns and row called labels are displayed in gray buttons
across the top and left side of the worksheet. The intersection of a column and a row is called a cell.
Each cell on the spreadsheet has a cell address that is the column letter and the row number. Cells can
contain text, numbers, or mathematical formulas.

1.1 Screen Layout

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1.2 Title bar


The Title bar contains the name of the program Microsoft Excel, and the default name of the
workbook (Excel file) Book 1 that would change as soon as you save your file and give another name.

1.3 Menu bar


The Menu bar contains menus that include all the commands you need to use to work your way
through Excel such as File, Edit, View, Insert, Format, Tools, Data, Window, and Help

1.4 Standard Toolbar


This toolbar is located just below the Menu bar at the top of the screen and allows you to quickly
access basic Excel commands.

Note: If not all the list appears, press on the Toolbar Options button placed at the end of any
toolbar, and press on Add or Remove Buttons tag, then select Standard and you will get the possible
commands for this toolbar.

• New: Select File > New from the Menu bar. The New Workbook pane appears on the right hand side
of the screen. Under the title New select Blank workbook. An alternative is to click the New button
found on the Standard toolbar to create a new workbook.

• Open: Click File > Open from the Menu bar, or click the Open button found on the Standard
toolbar to open an existing workbook.

• Save: To save click on the Save button found on the Standard toolbar. Choose a directory to save
the file in. Specify a filename, and then press Save. This is done only the first time you try to save a file.
It is recommended that you save your changes every ten minutes. All you have to do is to press on the
Save button, or simply go to File > Save. This will update your initially saved file.

• Save As: To save a different copy or version: Click on the Save As option in the File menu, and save
your document under a different name, or the same name but in a different location.

• Print: Select File > Print from the Menu bar, or click the Print button found on the Standard
toolbar to print a worksheet.

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• Print Preview: Select File > Print Preview from the Menu bar, or click the Print Preview button
found on the Standard toolbar to preview the worksheet before it is printed.

• Spelling: Use the Spelling button found on the Standard toolbar to correct spelling errors on the
worksheet.

• Cut, Copy, Paste, and Format Painter : These actions are explained in the
Modifying Worksheets section.

• Undo and Redo: Click the backward Undo arrow to cancel the last action you performed,
whether it is entering data into a cell, formatting a cell, entering a function, etc. click the forward Redo
arrow to cancel the Undo action.

• Insert Hyperlink: To insert a hyperlink to a Web site on the Internet, type the text into a cell
you want to be the link that can be clicked with the mouse. Then, click the Insert Hyperlink button
found on the Standard toolbar and enter the Web address you want the text to link to and click OK.

• AutoSum, Function Wizard, and Sorting: These tools are discussed in detail in the
Formulas and Functions section.

• Zoom: To change the size of the worksheet that appears on the screen, choose a different percentage
from the Zoom option found on the Standard toolbar.

1.5 Other Tools


a. Formatting toolbar: used to format text, for example font type / size / alignment / color / text
indentation. Also, it is used to create bulleted / numbered lists, borders, etc.

b. Drawing toolbar: contains certain commands for drawing shapes, filling colors, etc.

Note: To add or remove a toolbar select from the Menu bar, View > toolbars and then select the toolbar
of your choice. A toolbar that is displayed has a check beside it.

c. Scroll bars: allow you to browse through a worksheet.

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

1.6 Task Pane


The Task Pane appears each time you start Excel. To display or hide the task pane:
From the Menu bar, select View > Task pane. To close it, click on the small X button at the top-left
corner. The Task Pane is a dynamic tool found in the Office XP and 2003 suite applications. It allows
you to perform certain actions/commands some of which are shortcuts to commands provided by the
Menu bar or Standard toolbar.

The task pane contains several options:


• Getting started: It allows you to connect to the internet to get more
information on Microsoft Excel. Moreover, you can open saved files from
your local PC and create a new workbook.

• Help: in case you are lost and you need some feedback. Under Search
for you can directly type your keyword and Excel will provide you with
information (on/offline).

• Search Results: Allows you to view the result of your previous search
under Help. It allows you to enter a new search at the bottom of this pane.

• Clip Art: allows you to search the Clip Art Gallery using keywords.

• Research: if you are doing a research Excel can provide you with online
information. You can choose what type of reference books you would like
Microsoft to take into consideration while searching online.

• Clipboard: a list of the items you have recently cut, pasted, or copied

• New Workbook: you can open a new blank workbook or select one
from the existing workbooks available in your local computer, or select
one of the templates saved in Excel.

• Shared Workspace: you can create a document workspace if you want to share a copy of your
document. A workspace also enables you to invite others, assign them tasks, and link to additional
resources.

1.7 Adding and Renaming Worksheets


The worksheets in a workbook are accessible by clicking the Worksheet tabs in the lower part of
the screen. By default, three worksheets are included in the default workbook. To add a sheet, select
Insert > Worksheet from the Menu bar. To rename the Worksheet go to Format > Sheet > Rename
or right-click on the tab with the mouse and select Rename from the Shortcut menu or double click on
the name of the sheet and when it is highlighted you can type in the new name. Press the Enter key after
having typed in the new sheet name.

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

2. Modifying Worksheets

2.1 Moving Through Cells


Use the mouse to select a cell you want to begin adding data to and use the keyboard strokes
listed in the table below to move through the cells of a worksheet.

Movement Key stroke


One cell up Up arrow key
One cell down Down arrow key or enter
One cell left Left arrow key
One cell right Right arrow key or TAB
Top of the worksheet (cell A1) CTRL + Home
End of the worksheet (last cell
CTRL + END
containing data)
End of the row CTRL + right arrow key
End of the column CTRL + Down arrow key
Any cell Edit > Go To (menu bar
command)

2.2 Adding Worksheets, Rows, Columns, and Cells

• Worksheets: Add a worksheet to a workbook by selecting Insert > Worksheet from the Menu bar.

• Row: To add a row to a worksheet, select Insert > Rows from the Menu bar, or highlight the row by
clicking on the row label, right-click with the mouse, and choose Insert.

• Column: Add a column by selecting Insert > Columns from the Menu bar, or highlight the column
by clicking on the column label, right-click with the mouse, and choose Insert.

• Cells:Add a cell by selecting the cells where you want to insert the new cells, Click Insert > Cells >
Click an option to shift the surrounding cells to the right or down to make room for the new cells.

2.3 Resizing Rows and Columns


There are two ways to resize rows and columns: The first way is to resize a row by dragging the
line below the label of the row you would like to resize (up/down). Resize a column in a similar manner
by dragging the line to the right of the label corresponding to the column you want to resize. To auto-fit
text inside a cell simply double click on the separator line (separating the two columns: the one you are
typing in and the one to its right).
Or
The second way is to click the row or column label and select Format > Row > Height or Format >
Column > Width from the Menu bar to enter a numerical value for the height of the row or width of the
column.

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2.4 Selecting Cells


Before a cell can be modified or formatted, it must first be selected (highlighted). Refer to the
table below for selecting groups of cells.

Cells to select Mouse action


One cell click once in the cell
Entire row click the row label
Entire column click the column label
click the whole sheet button (upper left
Entire worksheet
corner of the labels “empty label”)
drag mouse over the cells or hold down the
Cluster of cells
SHIFT key while using the arrow keys

To activate the contents of a cell or to edit it, double-click on the cell.

2.5 Moving and Copying Cells


Cutting Cells
To cut cells, highlight the cells the select Edit > Cut from the Menu bar or click the Cut button on
the Standard toolbar.

Copying Cells
To copy the cell contents first highlight the cell then select Edit > Copy from the Menu bar or click the
Copy button on the Standard toolbar.

Pasting Cut and Copied Cells


Highlight the cell into which you want to paste the content, and select Edit > Paste from the Menu bar
or click the Paste button on the Standard toolbar.

Drag and Drop


You can drag and drop content between cells. I recommend you use this method if the cells are adjacent
to each other. Highlight the cell you would like to move, simply drag the highlighted border of the
selected cell to the destination cell with the mouse. But be aware that the Drag-and-Drop method cuts
the contents the source cell and pastes it in the destination cell.

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

2.6 Deleting Rows, Columns, and Cells


Rows: select the row by clicking its number, Click Edit > Delete
Columns: select the column by clicking its letter, Click Edit > Delete
Cells: select the cells you want to delete, Click Edit > Delete

2.7 Freeze Panes


If you have a large worksheet with column and row headings, those headings will disappear as
the worksheet is scrolled. By using the Freeze Panes feature, the headings can be visible at all times.

1. Click the label of the row that is below the row that you wish to keep frozen at the top of the
worksheet.

2. Select Window > Freeze Panes from the Menu bar.

Note: To remove the frozen panes, select Window > Unfreeze Panes

Freeze panes have been added to row 1 in the image above. Notice that the row number 1 skip as the
worksheet is scrolled, row 1 will remain stationary while the remaining rows will move.

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

3. Formatting Cells

3.1 Formatting Toolbar


The contents of a highlighted cell can be formatted in many ways. Font and cell attributes can be
added from shortcut buttons on the Formatting toolbar. If this toolbar is not already visible on the
screen, select View > Toolbars > Formatting from the Menu bar, or right click on the toolbars area,
and select the Formatting toolbar.

3.2 Format Cells Dialog Box


For a complete list of formatting options,
right-click on the highlighted cells and choose
Format Cells from the Shortcut menu or select
Format > Cells from the Menu bar.

• Number tab - The data type can be selected from


the categories listed on this tab.
Select General if the cell contains text and number,
or another numerical category if the cell is a number
that will be included in functions or formulas.

• Alignment tab - These options allow you to


change the position and alignment of the data with
the cell.

• Font tab - Font attributes are displayed in this tab


including font name, size, style, and effects.

• Border and Pattern tabs - These tabs allow you to add borders, shading, and background colors to a
cell.

• Protection tab – Allow you to protect or hide a certain cell in your worksheet.

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3.3 Formatting Worksheet

1-Change horizontal alignment of data:


a. Select the cells containing the data you want to align.
b. Click one of the following:

Align Left
Center
Align Right
Justify

2- Change data color:


a. Highlight the cells containing the data you want to change to a different color
b. Click the Font Color button on the Formatting toolbar to choose the color you want to use.
To change the color, press on the arrow on the right side of the box and then select the color you want
by clicking on it.

3- Change cell color:

There are two ways to change the cell color:


1. Select the cells, click on the Formatting toolbar.
2. Select the cells, click Format > Cells, the Format Cells dialog box appears.
Click the Pattern tab, and choose a color.

4- Indent data:
a. Select the data you want to indent in the cells.
b. Click the Increase/Decrease indent button on the Formatting toolbar

5- Change alignment of data:


Excel automatically aligns data at the bottom of the cell. To change the position of data:
a. Select the cell
b. Click Format > Cells. Click the Alignment tab, under Vertical choose the way to align the data,
click OK to confirm.
Or
Perform the steps above a & b and find the box labeled Orientation. Double click in the
Degrees box and type the number you want your data to rotate by.

6- Add borders to cells


You can add borders to cells to enhance the appearance of your worksheet in two ways:
a. Click on the arrow beside the Borders icon on the Formatting toolbar then you can choose any
border option from the obtained list.
b. OR from the Borders list obtained (as above) click Draw Borders (Click the line style you want
from the Border toolbar).

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

3.4 Dates and Times


If you enter the date "January 1, 2001" into a cell on the
worksheet, Excel will automatically recognize the text as a date
and change the format to "1-Jan-01". To change the date
format, select the Number tab from the Format Cells dialog
box. Select Date from the Category box and choose the format
for the date from the Type box. If the field is a time, select
Time from the Category box and select the type in the right
box. Date and Time combinations are also listed. Press OK
when finished.

3.5 Format Painter


A handy button on the Standard toolbar for formatting
text is the Format Painter. If you have formatted a cell with a certain font style, date format, border, and
other formatting options, and you want to format another cell or group of cells the same way, place the
cursor within the cell containing the formatting you want to copy, then click the Format Painter button
found on the Standard toolbar (notice that your mouse pointer now has a paintbrush beside it).
Highlight the cells which you want to re-format. To copy the formatting to many groups of cells,
double-click the Format Painter button. The format painter remains active until you press the ESC key
to turn it off.

3.6 AutoFormat
Excel has many preset table formatting
options. You can add these styles by following these
steps:

1. Highlight the cells you want to format.

2. Select Format > AutoFormat from the


Menu bar.

3. On the AutoFormat dialog box, click to


select the format you want to apply to your
highlighted table. Use the scroll bar to view all
of the formats available.

4. Click the Options... button. This will open


the Format to apply section at the bottom of
the AutoFormat dialog box to select the elements
that the formatting will apply to.

5. Click OK when finished.

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

4. Sorting and Filling

4.1 Basic Sorts


In Excel you can execute a basic descending or ascending sort based on one column.
Highlight the cells that will be sorted (make sure you highlight the items with their corresponding data
so that information remains intact and no item loses its corresponding data) and click the Sort
Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button found on the Standard toolbar.

4.2 Complex Sort


To sort by multiple columns, follow these steps:

1. Highlight the cells, rows, or columns that will be sorted.

2. Select Data > Sort from the Menu bar.

3. From the Sort dialog box, select the first column for sorting from the Sort by dropdown menu and
choose either Ascending or Descending.

4. Select the second column and, if necessary, the third sort column from the drop-down menus labeled
Then by. Make sure before you sort that all the cells contain text or numbers, not formulas, otherwise
sorting might not function properly.
If the cells you highlighted include text headings in the first row, select the option Header row under
the title My data range has. Click the Options…button for special non-alphabetic or numeric sorts
such as months of the year and days of the week.

Click OK to execute the sort.

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4.3 Auto-fill
The Auto-fill feature allows you to quickly fill
cells with repetitive or sequential data such as
chronological dates or numbers, and repeated text.
If you want to auto-fill a column with cells displaying the
same number or date you must enter identical data in two
adjacent cells. Highlight the two cells and drag the handle
of the selection with the mouse.
The Auto-fill feature can also be used for alternating text
or numbers. For example, to make a repeating list of the
days of the week, type “Monday” into a cell in a column.
Highlight the cell and drag across with the mouse.
Auto-fill can also be used to copy functions. In the example below, column A and column B each
contain a list of numbers and column C contains the sums of columns A and B for each row. The
function in cell C2 would be "=SUM(A2:B2)". This function can then be copied to the remaining cells
of column C by selecting cell C2 and dragging the handle down to fill in the remaining cells. The auto-
fill feature will automatically update the row numbers as shown below if the cells are referenced
relatively.

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

5. Page Properties and Printings


5.1 Page Breaks
To set page breaks within the worksheet, select the row you want to appear just below the page
break by clicking the row's label. Then choose Insert > Page Break from the Menu bar.

5.2 Page Setup


The page setup allows you to format the
page, set margins, and add headers and footers.
To view the Page Setup select File > Page
Setup from the Menu bar.
Select the Orientation under the Page tab in the
Page Setup dialog box to make the page
Landscape or Portrait. The size of the
worksheet on the page can also be formatted
under the Scaling title. To force a worksheet to
be printed on one page, select Fit to 1 page(s).

5.3 Margins
Change the top, bottom, left, and right margins under the Margins tab. Enter values in the
Header/Footer fields to indicate how far from the edge of the page this text should appear. Check the
boxes for centering Horizontally or Vertically to center the page.

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5.4 Header/Footer
Add preset Headers and Footers to
the page by clicking the drop-down menus
under the Header/Footer tab.
To modify a preset Header or Footer, or to
make your own, click the Custom Header
or
Custom Footer buttons. A new window
will open allowing you to enter text in the
left, center, or right on the page.

Format Text – After highlighting the text


click this button to change the Font, Size,
and Style.

Page Number - Insert the page number of


each page.

Total Number of Pages - Use this feature along with the page number to create strings such as "page 1
of 15".

Date - Add the current date.

Time - Add the current time.

File Name - Add the name of the workbook


file.

Tab Name – Add the name of worksheet.

5.5 Sheet
Click the Sheet tab and check Gridlines
box under the Print section if you want the
gridlines dividing the cells to appear on the page.
If the worksheet is several pages long and only
the first page includes titles for the columns,
select Rows to repeat at top from the Print titles
section to choose a title row that will be printed at
the top of each page.

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5.6 Print Preview


Select File > Print Preview from the Menu bar to view how the worksheet will be printed or
press the Print Preview button from the Standard toolbar. Click the
Next and Previous buttons at the top of the window to display the next pages and click the Zoom button
to view the pages closer. Make page layout modifications needed by clicking the Page Setup button.
Click Close to return to the worksheet or Print to continue printing.

After a print preview, dotted lines appear on the document to show the borders of the document for
printing. These lines are virtual and do not appear on the printed copy.

5.7 Print
To print the worksheet, select File >
Print from the Menu bar or click on the
Print button from the Standard
toolbar.

• Print range –Select either All pages or a


range of Page(s) to print.

• Print what –Select Selection of cells


highlighted on the worksheet, the Active
sheet(s), or all the worksheets in the Entire
workbook.

• Copies - Choose the number of copies that should be printed. Check the Collate box if the pages
should remain in order.

Click OK to print.

****************************

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

6. Formulas and Functions


The unique feature of a spreadsheet program such as Excel is that it allows you to create
mathematical formulas and execute functions. Otherwise, it is not much more than a large table for
displaying text. This page will show you how to create these calculations.

6.1 Formula Definition


A formula allows you to calculate and analyze data in your worksheet. Formulas perform
calculations such as addition or multiplication; formulas can also combine values.

6.2 Formulas
Formulas are entered in the
worksheet cell and must begin with an
equal sign "=". The formula then
includes the addresses of the cells
whose values will be manipulated with
appropriate operators placed in
between. After the formula is typed
into the cell, the calculation executes
immediately and the formula itself is
visible in the Formula Bar. See the
example to the right to view the
formula for calculating the subtotal for
a number of textbooks. The formula
multiplies the quantity and price of
each textbook and adds the subtotal for
each book.

6.3 Formula Bar


The Formula bar is an area located at the top of the worksheet window that is used to enter or
edit values or formulas in cells or charts. The Formula bar displays the constant value or formula in the
active cell. To display or hide the Formula bar; select from the
Menu bar, View > Formula.

6.4 Linking Worksheets


When working with formulas, you may want to use a cell from a worksheet other than your
current worksheet. For example, the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet and cell A2 in the second
worksheet can be added using the format "sheet name! Cell-address".
The formula for this example would be "=A1+Sheet2! A2" where the value of cell A1 in the current
worksheet (since current worksheet means the active worksheet then there is no need to specify the
name of this sheet) is added to the value of cell A2 in the worksheet named "Sheet2".

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6.5 Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Referencing


Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as "A1") is called relative referencing.
When a formula contains relative referencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does not
create an exact copy of the formula. It will change cell addresses relative to the row and column they are
moved to. For example, if a simple addition formula in cell C1 "= (A1+B1)" is copied to cell C2, the
formula would change to "= (A2+B2)" to reflect the new row. To prevent this change, cells must be
called by absolute referencing and this is accomplished by placing dollar signs "$" within the cell
addresses in the formula. Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell C1 would read "=
($A$1+$B$1)" if the value of cell C2 should be the sum of cells A1 and B1. Both the column and row
of both cells are absolute and will not change when copied. Mixed referencing can also be used where
only the row or column is fixed. For example, in the formula "= (A$1+$B2)", the row of cell A1 is fixed
and the column of cell B2 is fixed ($ appears before row number however it doesn’t appear before
column name row is fixed and column isn’t).

6.6 Function Definition


A function in Excel is a built-in formula that performs a mathematical operation or returns
information specified by the formula. As with every formula created in Excel, each function starts with
an equal (=) sign.

6.7 Basic Functions


Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical operations than formulas. For
example, if you wanted to add the values of cells D1 through D10, you would type the formula
"=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10". A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and
simply type "=SUM (D1:D10)". Several other functions and examples are given in the table below.

Function Example Description

SUM =SUM(A1:A100) finds the sum of cells A1 through A100


AVERAGE =AVERAGE(B1:B10) finds the average of cells B1 through B10
MAX =MAX(C1:C100) returns the highest number from cells C1 through C100
MIN =MIN(D1:D100) returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100
SQRT =SQRT(D10) finds the square root of the value in cell D10
TODAY =TODAY() returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty)

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6.8 Arguments
An argument is the reference behind the function. The reference can be any of the following
type:

Argument Types
Argument Example
Numbers 1,2,3
Text “January”
Logical Values (True or False)
Cell References / Range B7 or B7:B20

6.9 Operators
Operators are mathematical symbols that are broken into four categories

Keystroke Operators
Arithmetic Explanation Example
+ Addition 2+3
- Subtraction 5-1
* Multiplication 7*3
/ Division 8/2
% Percent 90%
^ Exponentiation 7^2
Comparison Explanation Example
= Equal to B1=D1
> Greater than B1>D1
< Less than B1<D1
>= Greater than or equal to B1>=D1
<= Less than or equal to B1<=D1
<> Not equal to B1<>D1
Text Explanation Example
"Scott" & "Hi" produces
& Adjoins text or cell references
"Scott Hi"
Reference Explanation Example
Includes cells of a column or row
: B3 : B20
between the designated limits
, Separates arguments in a function (B3, B20)

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6.10 Operator Order


Formulas are calculated left to right, using order of precedence, the parentheses have high order
of precedence, i.e.: every thing inside them is evaluated first.

Excel performs operations in the order shown in the following table.

Excel's Operator Order


Arithmetic Operator Precedence Example
1 % Percent
2 ^ Exponentiation
3 *, / Multiplication, Division
4 +,- Addition, Subtraction
5 & Ampersand
6 >,>=,<,<=,=,<> Comparisons

Notice that percent has the highest precedence, multiplication and division have same order of
precedence, also addition and subtraction have same order of precedence.

Excel performs all operations within sets of parentheses first, and you can use this to get exactly the
order of operations you want. If multiple operations are encased in multiple sets of parentheses, the
operations are performed from inside to outside, then follow the order of operations, and then left to
right.

6.11 Function Wizard


The function wizard is designed to help provide the necessary arguments and descriptions for the
various Excel functions.

1. Select the cell in which you want the results of


the function to display.

2. Click the Insert Function button on the


Formula toolbar or select Function from the
Insert menu.

3. From the Insert Function dialog box, browse


through the functions by selecting a Function
category from the drop-down menu, and select
the function from the list below. As each function
name is highlighted a description and example is
provided below the two boxes.

4. Click OK to select a function

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5. The next window allows you to choose the


cells that contain the arguments of the function.
In this example, cell B2 and C2 are selected to
compute their sum. The values of the cells B2,
and C2 are respectively 2, and 3.

Excel identifies the range of the cells in the


function to (B2:C2). In the lower part of the
Function Argument dialogue box you can see
the Formula result.

6. Click the OK button.

6.12 Entering Multiple Formulas All At Once


To enter the same formula in several cells at once, follow these steps:

1. Select all the cells you want to enter the formula in.

2. Create your formula, but don’t press ENTER when finished.

3. When the formula is complete, press CTRL + ENTER. The formula is entered in all the selected
cells simultaneously.

6.13 Editing & Deleting Formulas


You can also edit or delete any formula. To delete a formula, click on the cell that contains the
formula, and press the DELETE key on your keyboard. If you need to alter the formula, follow these
steps:

1. Click on the cell that contains the formula.

2. Click on the Formula Bar and make changes to your function.

If the formula uses a built-in Excel function:

1. Click on the cell that contains the function to select it.

2. Click on the Insert Function button on the formula bar to edit the function arguments. Change the
appropriate argument(s) and click OK

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6.14 AutoSum
Use the AutoSum functions to add the contents of a cluster of adjacent cells.

1. Select the cell where you want the sum to


appear. This cell should be outside the
cluster of cells that you will select. Cell C2
was used in this example.

2. Click the AutoSum button (Greek letter


sigma) on the Standard toolbar.

3. By default, the group of cells that will be


summed will be highlighted, in this example
cells A2 through B2.

Press the ENTER key on the keyboard or click the green check mark button on the Formula Bar.

6.15 Errors in Formulas


When a formula is prevented to run normally, Excel will notify you with an error message. Each
error message helps users identify the problem they are facing. The following table lists common Excel
errors that you might face.

Error Values
Error Meaning How to Fix
The column is too narrow to display Widen the column
####
the result of calculation
Wrong type of argument or Check operands and
# VALUE
reference arguments
Change the value or the
cell reference so that the
#DIV/0! Data is attempting to divide by zero
formula doesn't divide by
zero
Be sure the name still
Formula is referencing an invalid
#NAME? exists or correct the
name
misspelling
Excel can't locate the referenced Click Undo to restore
#REF! cells(for example, the cells were references and then
deleted) change formula references
Reference to intersection of two Check for typing and
#NULL
areas that do not intersect reference errors

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7. Charts
A chart allows you to visually display your data. Charts help users compare data and identify
trends. This section explains how you can create simple charts from the data selection you have in a
worksheet.

Before you can create your chart you must enter data into a worksheet, and then highlight the data to
specify to Excel which information to use as part of the chart, then do the following:

1. Insert > Chart, the Chart Wizard appears or


2. Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar, the Chart Wizard appears or
3. Press F11 on your keyboard. The chart will be created using the data you selected.

7.1 Chart Wizard


The chart wizard brings you through the process of creating a
chart by displaying a series of dialog boxes.

1. Enter the data into the worksheet and highlight all the cells that
will be included in the chart including headers.

2. Click the Chart Wizard button found on the Standard


toolbar to view the Chart Wizard

3. In the Chart Type dialog box: Choose the Chart type and the Chart subtype if necessary. Click
Next.

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4. In the Chart Source Data dialog box: Select the data range in case different from the area
highlighted in step 1 and click Next.

5. In the Chart Options dialog box: Enter the title of the chart and titles for the X- and Y-axes. Other
options for the axes, Grid Lines, Legend, Data Labels, and Data Table can be changed by clicking on
the tabs. Click Next to move to the next set of options.

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• Chart title: is the title associated with the chart.


• Category (x) axis: is the axis (usually a vertical axis) that shows a scale of values by which the
data series are measured.
• Category (y) axis: is the axis (usually a horizontal axis) that displays a category labels for all the
data series.
• The Gridlines tab: You can add gridlines (both vertically and horizontally) to your chart. This is
important when you have a chart with values close to each other.
• The Legend tab: A color, text, or graphics “Key” identifying each series in the chart.
• The Data Labels tab: Text or values displayed at Data Points (an individually plotted value
associated with a specific category).

• The Data Table tab: Enables you to place a table below the x-axis. This feature aligns the
numeric data under the corresponding category.

6. The Chart Location dialog box: Click As


new sheet if the chart should be placed on a
new worksheet or select As object in if the
chart should be embedded in an existing sheet
and select the worksheet from the drop-down
menu.

7. Click Finish to create the chart

7.2 Chart Toolbar


To get the Chart toolbar, right click on the toolbar and click on Chart.

7.3 Resizing a Chart


To resize the chart, click on its
border and drag any of the eight black
handles to change the size. Handles on
the corners will resize the chart
proportionally while handles along the
lines will stretch the chart.

• The two vertical middle handles can


be used to change the height of the
chart.

• The two horizontal middle handles


can be used to change the width of the chart.

• The four handles at the corners can be used to change both the height and width of the chart.

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7.4 Moving a Chart


Select the border of the chart, hold down the left mouse button and drag the chart to a new
location. Elements within the chart such as the title and labels may also be moved within the chart. Click
on the element to activate it, and use the mouse to drag it.

7.5 Formatting Chart Objects


To select a chart object to format, click on the chart object or select the object from the Chart
Objects List and click the Format button. A window will then appear containing the properties of that
object. You can change these properties as you like.

• Chart Type: Click the arrowhead on


the Chart Type button to select a
different type of chart.

• Legend Toggle: Show or hide the


Chart Legend by clicking this
toggle button.

• Data Table view: Display the data


table instead of the chart by clicking
the Data Table toggle button.

• Display Data by Column or Row: Displays the data by columns or rows according to the data
sheet.

Angle Text - Select the category or value axis and click the Angle Clockwise or Angle
Counterclockwise button to angle the selected text by +/- 45 degrees.

7.6 Chart Types


Excel offers different kinds of charts. We will look at two types:

1. Column Charts: A column chart has vertical bars and plots as separate points over time. Column
charts are good for showing value amounts and quantities over time.

2. Pie Charts: Pie charts are used for showing a percentage of the whole.
One of the great features Excel offers with pie charts is that you can select the data point and drag it
away from the whole pie, thereby exploding the slice to highlight certain data point.

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7.7 An Overview of Formatting Charts and Cells


1. Formatting Chart Titles:
Right-click the chart title, and choose Format Chart Title from the Format Chart Title dialog box.
Select the font settings, effects, and alignment you want. Click OK.

2. Formatting Legends:
Right-click the legend, and choose Format Legend from the Format Legend dialog box. Select
the font settings, effects, and alignment you want. Click OK.

3. Changing the Background Color:


Right click on the chart area (the white area), and choose Format Chart Area from the pop up
menu. Under the Pattern tab select the color that you want. You can also select Chart Area option from
the Chart toolbar.

4. Formatting Axis Title:


Right-click the axis title and choose Format Axis Title from the pop up menu. Select the font
settings, effects, and alignment you want from the Format Axis Title dialog box.

5. Adding Picture/ClipArt Image:

You can add a picture or a clipart image to your chart or worksheet by:

a. Insert > Picture > ClipArt (To insert an image from ClipArt Gallery).
Or
b. Insert > Picture > From File (To insert an image stored in your local disk).

6. Rotating Text on Chart:

a. Click the text you want to rotate.

b. Click on the following buttons of the Chart toolbar:

Rotate Text downward by 45 degrees


Rotate Text upward by 45 degrees.

7. Wrapping Text in Cells:

You can display a long line of text within a cell by wrapping the text.

a. Click the cell containing the text you want to wrap

b. Click Format > Cells > Alignment tab, and under the Text Control section check the option Wrap
text, Click OK.

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8. Printing the Chart:


You can print the chart with or without worksheet data:
a. If you highlight the chart with the worksheet data, and click File > Page Setup you will get a
dialog box with Page, Margins, Header/Footer, Sheet tabs.

b. If you highlight the chart without the worksheet data, and click File > Page Setup you will get a
dialog box also with four tabs but with Page, Margins, Header/Footer and Chart tabs.

Here you have the option of a full page scale to fit the page or custom. You can also determine the
printing quality. Now click on Print Preview to preview your worksheet (then close).

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8. Commonly Used Features


8.1 Comments
A comment is a note that you attach to a cell, separate from other cell contents. Comments are
useful as a reminder, such as noting how a complex formula works, or to provide feedback to other
users. To add a comment to a cell:

1. Click the cell you want to add a comment to.


2. On the Insert menu, click Comment.
3. In the box that appears, type the comment you want to add. If you don't want your name in the
comment, highlight it and delete the name.
4. When you finish typing the text, click outside the comment box.

8.2 To viewing comments:


Excel provides several ways to view comments. Cells with comments have red indicator
triangles in their upper-right corners. If you rest the pointer over a cell that has an indicator, its comment
will appears. You can also make your comments be continuously displayed — either individual
comments or all the comments on the worksheet. You can also print out the comments, either in their
place on the worksheet or as a list at the end of the printout.

8.3 Use Go To
The Go To option takes you to a specific cell without scrolling down
to it. From the Edit menu, select Go To.

Enter a grid reference in the Reference box (for example type A400
in the Reference box) then click OK, and you go to cell A400.

8.4 Use Find and Replace


Use Find and Replace to locate specific text or numbers on
a worksheet to review or edit. You can automatically replace data
you find by using the replace option. You can choose to select all cells containing the same type of data,
formulas, or cells which content does not match the selected cell. To find text or numbers in a worksheet
or workbook select the range of cells on the worksheet that you want to search.

Note: If you want to search the entire


worksheet, click in any cell. From the Edit
menu, select Find. The Find and Replace
dialog box is displayed. In the Find what
field, enter the text or numbers that you want
to search for.
To perform a simple search, click Find Next.
The active cell is moved to the first
occurrence of the text you are searching for.
Click Find Next again to continue to find matching cells.

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Click the Options button to be able to specify further details of your search. To specify find options:

• The Within box: either search within the sheet or the workbook
• The Search box: select whether you want to search by rows or columns
• The Look in box: select the type of information you want to search for (formulas, values or
comments)
• The Match case check box: If you want to distinguish between upper and lowercase characters
in your search
• The Match entire cell contents check box: to search for an exact or complete match of a cell’s
content
• The Format button: you can identify the format of the text you’re searching for, choose between
specifying the format you are looking for or selecting a cell which contains the format you want
to find
• Click Find Next
To find all cells containing the specified text: Enter the find criteria and options as normal and click on
Find All. A panel is displayed at the bottom of the dialog box listing the cells where the search text is
found.

Note: To cancel a search, press the ESC key from the keyboard.

8.5 Increase/Decrease Decimal


To increase/decrease the number of digits after
the decimal point of a number, click on the Increase
Decimal or Decrease Decimal buttons of the
Formatting toolbar.
You can also select Format > Cells from the menu bar.
In the Number tag, choose Number from the
Category menu.
Change the number of decimal places from the Decimal
places menu.

Click on OK.

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8.6 Protecting your files (password to open)

• When you first try to


save your work, or
when you select File >
Save As, the Save as
dialog box appears.

• Click on the Tools


option and choose
General Options.

• Enter the password to


open and the password
to modify

• Click OK.

• The Confirm Password dialog box that appears, re-enter your Password to open so that you
confirm that you typed it correctly. Do the same for Password to modify.

Save your worksheet under any name you want. Whenever anyone attempts to open this worksheet,
he will be asked for a verification password.

******************************

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9. Additional Readings

9.1 Tab Color


To change the tab color, right click on the tab you want, and select Tab Color. From the color
list that appears choose the color you want.

9.2 Hide / Unhide

• To hide a column or a row, you have to highlight the whole column / row by right clicking on its
Letter/ Number, and choose Hide.

• To unhide a column or a row, highlight the columns / rows next to the hidden one, right click on
them, and choose Unhide.

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10. Excel Functions Overview


10.1 Statistical Functions Overview
Statistical functions are among the most widely used functions in Excel.

Function Function Description


AVERAGE(range) Calculates the mean (arithmetic average) of a range of cells
COUNT(range) Counts the number of values (cells containing numbers in a
range)
COUNTIF(range, value) Counts the number of cells that are the same as a specified
value.
MAX(range) Returns the maximum value of a data set.
MIN(range) Returns the minimum value of a data set.
MODE(range) Returns the most frequently occurring, or repetitive, value
in a range of data.
STDEV(range) Calculates the standard deviation of a sample.

Given that:
• Range: Represents the set of values (number1, number2…)

• Value: The criteria upon which you want to evaluate; it can be a number (14), a cell reference (G5), an
expression (E5>7), or text (“Victor”).

10.2 Math Functions Overview


Math functions in Excel can be used to perform calculations as stand-alone functions or
combined to create complex formulas. Excel has a great number of Math functions but the most
commonly used ones are:

1. Sum
2. Round
3. Ceiling
4. Floor
You can use the Round ( ), Ceiling ( ), or Floor ( ) function to round a number to any number of digits
you want.

1. Sum Function
• Adds the numbers in a range or multiple ranges of cells.
• Written as: Sum (number1, number2…)
• Number1, Number2..: are written as a number, a reference to a cell, or to a range of cells for
which you want the total value or sum.

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2. Round Function
• Rounds a number to a specified number of digits.
• Written as: Round (number, num_digits)
• Number: The value you want to round.
• Num_digits: The number of decimal places you want to round.

3. Ceiling Function
• Returns number rounded up, away from zero, to the nearest multiple you specify.
• Written as: Ceiling (number, significance)
• Number: The value you want to round
• Significance: The multiple you want to round to

4. Floor Function
• Rounds number down, toward zero, to the nearest multiple you specify.
• Written as: Floor (number, significance)
• Number: The value you want to round.
• Significance: The multiple you want to round to

10.3 Information Functions Overview


Information functions are generally made up of logical results and can be used in many business
situations. Combined with other functions, the information functions can manage lists of data and
provide feedback based on a logical result. The most useful function is:

Is Number Function
• Returns true if the value is a number.
• Written as: ISNUMBER (value)
• Value: this is the cell or range you want tested.

10.4 Overview of Logical Functions


Logical functions test cells & ranges and can return only: True or False. Commonly used logical
functions are:

1. AND
2. OR
3. NOT
4. IF

1. AND Function
• Returns True if all the logical arguments are true.
• Returns False if one or more arguments is false.
• Written as: AND (logical1, logical2 …)
• Logical Value 1, 2 … : The test results in a logical TRUE or FALSE return. Up to 30
conditions can be tested together.

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2. OR Function
• Returns False if all the logical arguments are false
• Returns True if one or more arguments is true
• Written as: OR (logical1, logical2…)
• Logical Value 1, 2 …: These are the conditions to be met to test a logical true or false result.
You can use up to 30 conditions within the formula.

3. NOT Function
• Returns the opposite of the logical value
• Written as: NOT (logical)
Logical : This is the value that can be evaluated with a True or False Condition. If True, NOT
returns False, if False, NOT returns True.

4. IF Function
• The IF ( ) function decides the contents of a cell on a spreadsheet based on whether a test
condition is true or false.
• It returns a value if one condition is True, and returns another value or result if the condition is
False.
• Written as: IF (logical_test, value_if: true, value_if_false)

Logical_test : Is any value or expression that can be evaluated to True or False.


VALUE IF TRUE : Is the value returned if the logical_test is True.
VALUE IF FALSE : Is the value returned if the logical_test is False

The operators in the logical_test of the IF function may be:

= Equal to
<> Not equal to
> Greater than
>= Greater than or equal to
< Less than
<= Less than or equal to

Note: Nested IF ( ) Function

If you wish to test more than one condition, you can nest an if () function within another

=if (logical_test, result_if_true, if (logical_test, result_if_true, if (logical_test,


result_if_true, result if false))

Example: If (I am married, If (I get a child, I will send him/her to AUB))

******************************

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Appendix – I
Microsoft Excel Shortcut Keys
Ctrl+A Select All None
Ctrl+B Bold Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Bold
Ctrl+C Copy Edit, Copy
Ctrl+D Fill Down Edit, Fill, Down
Ctrl+F Find Edit, Find
Ctrl+G Goto Edit, Goto
Ctrl+H Replace Edit, Replace
Ctrl+I Italic Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Italic
Ctrl+K Insert Hyperlink Insert, Hyperlink
Ctrl+N New Workbook File, New
Ctrl+O Open File, Open
Ctrl+P Print File, Print
Ctrl+R Fill Right Edit, Fill Right
Ctrl+S Save File, Save
Ctrl+U Underline Format, Cells, Font, Underline, Single
Ctrl+V Paste Edit, Paste
Ctrl W Close File, Close
Ctrl+X Cut Edit, Cut
Ctrl+Y Repeat Edit, Repeat
Ctrl+Z Undo Edit, Undo
F1 Help Help, Contents and Index
F2 Edit None
F3 Paste Name Insert, Name, Paste
Edit, Repeat. Works while not in Edit
F4 Repeat last action
mode.
While typing a formula, switch
F4 None
between absolute/relative refs
F5 Goto Edit, Goto
F6 Next Pane None
F7 Spell check Tools, Spelling
F8 Extend mode None
F9 Recalculate all workbooks Tools, Options, Calculation, Calc,Now
F10 Activate Menubar N/A
F11 New Chart Insert, Chart
F12 Save As File, Save As

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Ctrl+: Insert Current Time None


Ctrl+; Insert Current Date None
Ctrl+" Copy Value from Cell Above Edit, Paste Special, Value
Ctrl+’ Copy Formula from Cell Above Edit, Copy
Hold down shift for additional
Shift none
functions in Excel’s menu
Shift+F1 What’s This? Help, What’s This?
Shift+F2 Edit cell comment Insert, Edit Comments
Shift+F3 Paste function into formula Insert, Function
Shift+F4 Find Next Edit, Find, Find Next
Shift+F5 Find Edit, Find, Find Next
Shift+F6 Previous Pane None
Shift+F8 Add to selection None
Shift+F9 Calculate active worksheet Calc Sheet
Shift+F10 Display shortcut menu None
Shift+F11 New worksheet Insert, Worksheet
Shift+F12 Save File, Save
Ctrl+F3 Define name Insert, Names, Define
Ctrl+F4 Close File, Close
Ctrl+F5 XL, Restore window size Restore
Ctrl+F6 Next workbook window Window, ...
Shift+Ctrl+F6 Previous workbook window Window, ...
Ctrl+F7 Move window XL, Move
Ctrl+F8 Resize window XL, Size
Ctrl+F9 Minimize workbook XL, Minimize
Ctrl+F10 Maximize or restore window XL, Maximize
None in Excel 97. In versions prior to
Ctrl+F11 Inset 4.0 Macro sheet
97 - Insert, Macro, 4.0 Macro
Ctrl+F12 File Open File, Open
Alt+F1 Insert Chart Insert, Chart...
Alt+F2 Save As File, Save As
Alt+F4 Exit File, Exit
Tools, Macro, Macros in Excel 97
Alt+F8 Macro dialog box
Tools,Macros - in earlier versions
Alt+F11 Visual Basic Editor Tools, Macro, Visual Basic Editor
Create name by using names of
Ctrl+Shift+F3 Insert, Name, Create
row and column labels
Ctrl+Shift+F6 Previous Window Window, ...
Ctrl+Shift+F12 Print File, Print
Alt+Shift+F1 New worksheet Insert, Worksheet

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Alt+Shift+F2 Save File, Save


Alt+= AutoSum No direct equivalent
Ctrl+` Toggle Value/Formula display Tools, Options, View, Formulas
Insert argument names into
Ctrl+Shift+A No direct equivalent
formula
Alt+Down
Display AutoComplete list None
arrow
Alt+’ Format Style dialog box Format, Style
Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Ctrl+Shift+~ General format
General
Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Ctrl+Shift+! Comma format
Number
Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Ctrl+Shift+@ Time format
Time
Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Ctrl+Shift+# Date format
Date
Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Ctrl+Shift+$ Currency format
Currency
Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Ctrl+Shift+% Percent format
Percentage
Ctrl+Shift+^ Exponential format Format, Cells, Number, Category,
Place outline border around
Ctrl+Shift+& Format, Cells, Border
selected cells
Ctrl+Shift+_ Remove outline border Format, Cells, Border
Ctrl+Shift+* Select current region Edit, Goto, Special, Current Region
Insert, (Rows, Columns, or Cells)
Ctrl++ Insert
Depends on selection
Delete, (Rows, Columns, or Cells)
Ctrl+- Delete
Depends on selection
Ctrl+1 Format cells dialog box Format, Cells
Ctrl+2 Bold Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Bold
Ctrl+3 Italic Format, Cells, Font, Font Style, Italic
Format, Cells, Font, Font Style,
Ctrl+4 Underline
Underline
Format, Cells, Font, Effects,
Ctrl+5 Strikethrough
Strikethrough
Tools, Options, View, Objects, Show
Ctrl+6 Show/Hide objects
All/Hide
Ctrl+7 Show/Hide Standard toolbar View, Toolbars, Standard
Ctrl+8 Toggle Outline symbols None
Ctrl+9 Hide rows Format, Row, Hide
Ctrl+0 Hide columns Format, Column, Hide
Ctrl+Shift+( Unhide rows Format, Row, Unhide

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Ctrl+Shift+) Unhide columns Format, Column, Unhide


Alt or F10 Activate the menu None
Ctrl+Tab In toolbar: next toolbar None
Shift+Ctrl+Tab In toolbar: previous toolbar None
In a workbook: activate next
Ctrl+Tab None
workbook
In a workbook: activate previous
Shift+Ctrl+Tab None
workbook
Tab Next tool None
Shift+Tab Previous tool None
Enter Do the command None
Shift+Ctrl+F Font Drop Down List Format, Cells, Font
Shift+Ctrl+F+F Font tab of Format Cell Dialog box Format, Cells, Font
Shift+Ctrl+P Point size Drop Down List Format, Cells, Font

*****************************

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 43


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Appendix – II

Important Formulas

SUM
Horizontal
100 200 300 600 =SUM(C4:E4)

Vertical
100
200
300
600 =SUM(C7:C9)

Single
Cells
100 300 600 =SUM(C13,D14,E13)
200

Multiple
Ranges
100 400
200 500
3000 600
4800 =SUM(C17:C19,E17:E19)

Functions
100 400
200 500
300 600
800 =SUM(AVERAGE(C23:C25),MAX(E23:E25))

What Does It Do ?
This function creates a total from a list of numbers.
It can be used either horizontally or
vertically.
The numbers can be in single cells, ranges are from other functions.

Syntax :
=SUM(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to
Range30).

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 44


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Note :
Many people use the =SUM() function incorrectly.

This example shows how the SUM has been combined with plus +
symbols.
The formula is actually doing more work than
needed.
It should have been entered as either =C48+C49+C50 or
=SUM(C48:C50).

100
200
300
600 =SUM(C48+C49+C50) Wrong!

=SUM(C48:C50) Correct

=C48+C49+C50 Correct

SUM (Running Total)


Using =SUM() For A Running Total

Running
Month Sales Total
Jan 10 10 =SUM($D$7:D7)
Feb 50 60 =SUM($D$7:D8)
Mar 30 90 =SUM($D$7:D9)
Apr 20 110 =SUM($D$7:D10)
May 110 =SUM($D$7:D11)
Jun 110 =SUM($D$7:D12)
Jul 110 =SUM($D$7:D13)
Aug 110 =SUM($D$7:D14)
Sep 110 =SUM($D$7:D15)
Oct 110 =SUM($D$7:D16)
Nov 110 =SUM($D$7:D17)
Dec 110 =SUM($D$7:D18)

Type the formula =SUM($D$7:D7) in cell E7 and then copy down the table.

It works because the first reference uses dollar symbols $ to keep $D$7 static
as the formula is copied down. Each occurrence of the =SUM() then adds all
the numbers from the first cell down.

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 45


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

The function can be tidied up to show 0 zero when there is no adjacent value
by using the =IF() function.

Running
Month Sales Total
Jan 10 10 =SUM(IF(D7,$D$7:D7,0))
Feb 50 60 =SUM(IF(D8,$D$7:D8,0))
Mar 30 90 =SUM(IF(D9,$D$7:D9,0))
Apr 20 110 =SUM(IF(D10,$D$7:D10,0))
May 0 =SUM(IF(D11,$D$7:D11,0))
Jun 0 =SUM(IF(D12,$D$7:D12,0))
Jul 0 The =SUM() only takes place when there is data in
Aug 0 column D. Otherwise the value 0 zero is entered.
Sep 0
Oct 0
Nov 0
Dec 0

SUM using names


You can use the names typed at the top of columns or side of rows in calculations
simply by typing the name into the formula.

Try this example:


Go to cell C16 and then enter the formula =SUM(jan)
The result will show.
This formula can be copied to D16 and E16, and the names change to Feb and Mar.

Jan Feb Mar


North 45 50 50
South 30 25 35
East 35 10 50
West 20 50 5
Total 130 135 140

If it does not work !


The feature may have been switched off on your computer.
You can switch it on by using Tools, Options, Calculation, Accept Labels in Formula.

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 46


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

SUMIF
Item Date Cost
Brakes 1-Jan-98 80
Tyres 10-May-98 25
Brakes 1-Feb-98 80
Service 1-Mar-98 150
Service 5-Jan-98 300
Window 1-Jun-98 50
Tyres 1-Apr-98 200
Tyres 1-Mar-98 100
Clutch 1-May-98 250

Total cost of all Brakes bought. 160 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12)


Total cost of all Tyres bought. 325 =SUMIF(C4:C12,"Tyres",E4:E12)
Total of items costing £100 or above. 1000 =SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100")

Total of item typed in following cell. service 450 =SUMIF(C4:C12,E18,E4:E12)

What Does It Do ?
This function adds the value of items which match criteria set by the user.

Syntax :
=SUMIF(RangeOfThingsToBeExamined,CriteriaToBeMatched,RangeOfValuesToTotal)

=SUMIF(C4:C12,"Brakes",E4:E12) This examines the names of products in C4:C12.


It then identifies the entries for Brakes.
It then totals the respective figures in E4:E12

=SUMIF(E4:E12,">=100") This examines the values in E4:E12.


If the value is >=100 the value is added to the total.

PRODUCT
Numbers Product
2 3 6 =PRODUCT(C4,D4)
5 10 50 =PRODUCT(C5:D5)
3 7 210 =PRODUCT(C6:D6,10)
6300 =PRODUCT(C4:D6)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 47


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

What Does It Do ?
This function multiples a group of numbers together.
It is the same as using 2*3*5*10*3*7, which results in 6300.

Syntax :
=PRODUCT(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number30)
or
=PRODUCT(RangeOfNumbers)
or
=PRODUCT(Number1,Range,Number2...)

SUMPRODUCT

Item Sold price


Tyres 5 100
Filters 2 10
Bulbs 3 2

Total Sales Value : 526 =SUMPRODUCT(D4:D6,E4:E6)

What Does It Do ?
This function uses at least two columns of values.
The values in the first column are multipled with the corresponding value in the second
column.
The total of all the values is the result of the calculation.

Syntax :
=SUMPRODUCT(Range1, Range, Range3 through to Range30)

Example :
The following table was used by a drinks merchant to keep track of stock.
The merchant needed to know the total purchase value of the stock, and the potential
value of the stock when it is sold, takinging into account the markup percentage.

The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Case Price
to calculate what the merchant spent in buying the stock.

The =SUMPRODUCT() function is used to multiply the Cases In Stock with the Bottles
In Case and the Bottle Setting Price, to calculate the potential value of the stock if it is
all sold.

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 48


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Cases Case Bottles Bottle Bottle Selling


Product In Stock Price In Case Cost Markup Price
Red Wine 10 £120 10 £12.00 25% £15.00
White Wine 8 £130 10 £13.00 25% £16.25
Champagne 5 £200 6 £33.33 80% £60.00
Beer 50 £24 12 £2.00 20% £2.40
Lager 100 £30 12 £2.50 25% £3.13
=D39/E39 =F39+F39*G39

Total Value Of Stock : £7,440 =SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,D35:D39)


=SUMPRODUCT(C35:C39,E35:E39,
Total Selling Price Of Stock : £9,790 H35:H39)

Profit : £2,350 =E44-E43

Brackets in formula
Sometimes you will need to use brackets, (also known as 'braces'), in formula.
This is to ensure that the calculations are performed in the order that you need.
The need for brackets occurs when you mix plus or minus with divide or multiply.

Mathematically speaking the * and / are more important than + and - .


The * and / operations will be calculated before + and - .

Example 1 : The wrong answer !

10
20
2
50 =C12+C13*C14

You may expect that 10 + 20 would equal 30


And then 30 * 2 would equal 60

But because the * is calculated first Excel sees the


calculation as 20 * 2 resulting in 40
And then 10 + 40 resulting in 50

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 49


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Example 2 : The correct answer.

10
20
2
60 =(C27+C28)*C29

By placing brackets around (10+20) Excel performs this part of the calculation
first, resulting in 30 Then the 30 is multiplied by 2 resulting in 60

LCM
Least
Common
Numbers Multiple
6 20 60 =LCM(C4,D4)
12 18 36 =LCM(C5,D5)
34 96 1632 =LCM(C6,D6)

What Does It Do ?
This function calculate the Least Common Multiple, which is the smallest
number
that can be divided by each of the given numbers.

Syntax :
=LCM(Number1,Number2,Number3... through to Number29)

FACT
Number Factorial
3 6 =FACT(C4)
3.5 6 =FACT(C5)
5 120 =FACT(C6)
10 3,628,800 =FACT(C7)
20 2,432,902,008,176,640,000 =FACT(C8)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 50


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

What Does It Do ?
This function calculates the factorial of a number.
The factorial is calculated as 1*2*3*4..etc.
The factorial of 5 is calculated as 1*2*3*4*5, which results in 120.
Decimal fractions of the number are ignored.

Syntax
=FACT(Number)

Time Sheet
Week Mon Normal
beginning 05-Jan-98 Hours 37:30

Lunch Lunch
Day Arrive Out In Depart Total
Mon 05 8:00 13:00 14:00 17:00 8:00 =(F6-C6)-(E6-D6)
Tue 06 8:45 12:30 13:30 17:00 7:15
Wed 07 9:00 13:00 14:00 18:00 8:00
Thu 08 8:30 13:00 14:00 17:00 7:30
Fri 09 8:00 12:00 13:00 17:00 8:00
Total
Hours 38:45 =SUM(G6:G10)

Under worked by - =IF(G3-G11>0,G3-G11, "-")


Over worked by 1:15 =IF(G3-G11<0,ABS(G3-G11),"-")

This is simple example of a timesheet :

Instructions :
Use the format dd/mm/yy, the name of the day will appear automatically.
The date is then passed down to the Day column.

Type the amount of hours you are expected to work in G3, the Normal Hours.
This is used later to calculate if have worked over or under the required hours.

Type the times you arrive and leave work in the appropriate columns.
Use the format of hh:mm.

Note :
If the [hh]:mm format had not been used the Total Hours would show as : 14:45
If the [hh]:mm format does not show in the cell format dialog box
on your computer, it can be created using Format, Cells, Number, Custom.

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 51


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Split Forename and Surname


The following formula are useful when you have one cell containing text which needs to be
split up.
One of the most common examples of this is when a persons Forename and Surname are
entered in full into a cell.
The formula use various text functions to accomplish the task.
Each of the techniques uses the space between the names to identify where to split.

Finding the First Name :

Full Name First Name


Hussain Yousif Hussain =LEFT(C14,FIND(" ",C14,1))
Adil Ahmed Adil =LEFT(C15,FIND(" ",C15,1))
Hassan Mahdi Hassan =LEFT(C16,FIND(" ",C16,1))

Finding the Last Name :

Full Name Last Name


Hussain Yousif Yousif =RIGHT(C22,LEN(C22)-FIND(" ",C22))
Adil Ahmed Ahmed =RIGHT(C23,LEN(C23)-FIND(" ",C23))
Hassan Mahdi Mahdi =RIGHT(C24,LEN(C24)-FIND(" ",C24))

Finding the Last name when a Middle name is present :

The formula above cannot handle any more than two names.
If there is also a middle name, the last name formula will be incorrect.
To solve the problem you have to use a much longer calculation.

Full Name Last Name


Hussain Yousif Al-Shaikh Al-Shaikh
Adil Ahmed Al-Zahrani Al-Zahrani
Hassan Mahdi Al- Ashwor Al- Ashwor
=RIGHT(C37,LEN(C37)-FIND("#",SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","#",LEN(C37)-
LEN(SUBSTITUTE(C37," ","")))))

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 52


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Finding the Middle name :

Middle
Full Name Name
Hussain Yousif Al-Shaikh Yousif
Adil Ahmed Al-Zahrani Ahmed
Hassan Mahdi Al- Ashwor Mahdi
=LEFT(RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),FIND
(" ",RIGHT(C45,LEN(C45)-FIND(" ",C45,1)),1))

Percentages
There are no specific functions for calculating percentages.
You have to use the skills you were taught in your maths class at school!

Finding a percentage of a value :

Initial value 120


% to find 25%
Percentage value 30 =D8*D9

Example 1
A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.
The wages department need to calculate the increases.
Staff on different grades get different pay rises.

Grade % Rise
A 10%
B 15%
C 20%

Name Grade Old Salary Increase


Alam A SR 10,000 SR 1,000 =E23*LOOKUP(D23,C18:C20,D18:D20)
Sara B SR 20,000 SR 3,000 =E24*LOOKUP(D24,C18:C20,D18:D20)
Ali C SR 30,000 SR 6,000 =E25*LOOKUP(D25,C18:C20,D18:D20)
Hussain B SR 25,000 SR 3,750 =E26*LOOKUP(D26,C18:C20,D18:D20)
Khalifa C SR 32,000 SR 6,400 =E27*LOOKUP(D27,C18:C20,D18:D20)
Usman A SR 12,000 SR 1,200 =E28*LOOKUP(D28,C18:C20,D18:D20)

Finding a percentage increase :

Initial value 120


% increase 25%
Increased value 150 =D33*D34+D33

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 53


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Example 2
A company is about to give its staff a pay rise.
The wages department need to calculate the new salary including the % increase.
Staff on different grades get different pay rises.

Grade % Rise
A 10%
B 15%
C 20%
Name Grade Old Salary Increase
Alam A SR 10,000 SR 11,000 =E48*LOOKUP(D48,C18:C20,D18:D20)+E48
Sara B SR 20,000 SR 23,000 =E49*LOOKUP(D49,C18:C20,D18:D20)+E49
Ali C SR 30,000 SR 36,000 =E50*LOOKUP(D50,C18:C20,D18:D20)+E50
Hussain B SR 25,000 SR 28,750 =E51*LOOKUP(D51,C18:C20,D18:D20)+E51
Khalifa C SR 32,000 SR 38,400 =E52*LOOKUP(D52,C18:C20,D18:D20)+E52
Usman A SR 12,000 SR 13,200 =E53*LOOKUP(D53,C18:C20,D18:D20)+E53

Finding one value as percentage of another :

Value A 120
Value B 60
A as % of B 50% =D59/D58

You will need to format the result as % by using the % button on the toolbar.

Example 3
An manager has been asked to submit budget requirements for next year.
The manger needs to specify what will be required each quarter.
The manager knows what has been spent by each region in the previous year.
By analyzing the past years spending, the manager hopes to predict
what will need to be spent in the next year.

Last years figures


Region Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
North 9,000 2,000 9,000 7,000
South 7,000 4,000 9,000 5,000
East 2,000 8,000 7,000 3,000
West 8,000 9,000 6,000 5,000 Total
Total 26,000 23,000 31,000 20,000 100,000

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Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Last years Quarters as % of last years Total


Region Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
North 9% 2% 9% 7% =G74/H78
South 7% 4% 9% 5% =G75/H78
East 2% 8% 7% 3% =G76/H78
West 8% 9% 6% 5% =G77/H78
Total 26% 23% 31% 20% =G78/H78

Next years budget 150,000


Next years estimated budget requirements
Region Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4
North 13,500 3,000 13,500 10,500 =G82*E88
South 10,500 6,000 13,500 7,500 =G83*E 88
East 3,000 12,000 10,500 4,500 =G84*E 88
West 12,000 13,500 9,000 7,500 Total
Total 39,000 34,500 46,500 30,000 150,000

Finding an original value after an increase has been applied

Increased value 150


% increase 25%
Original value 120 =D100/(100%+D101)

Example 4
An employ has to submit an expenses claim for traveling and accommodation.
The claim needs to show the VAT tax portion of each receipt.
Unfortunately the receipts held by the employee only show the total amount.
The employee needs to split this total to show the original value and the VAT amount.

VAT rate 17.50%

Actual
Receipt Total Value Vat Value
Petrol SR 10.0 SR 8.51 SR 1.49 =D113-D113/(100%+D110)
Hotel SR 235.0 SR 200.00 SR 35.00
Petrol SR 117.5 SR 100.0 0 SR 17.50
=D115/(100%+D110)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 55


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Age Calculation
You can calculate a persons age based on their birthday and todays date.
The calculation uses the DATEDIF() function.
The DATEDIF() is not documented in Excel 5, 7 or 97, but it is in 2000.
(Makes you wonder what else Microsoft forgot to tell us!)

Birth date : 1-Jan-60

Years lived : 49 =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")


and the months
: 4 =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")
and the days : 3 =DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")

You can put this all together in one calculation, which creates a text version.
Age is 49 Years, 4 Months and 3 Days
="Age is "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"y")&" Years, "&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"ym")&" Months and
"&DATEDIF(C8,TODAY(),"md")&" Days"

Another way to calculate age :


This method gives you an age which may potentially have decimal places representing
the months.
If the age is 20.5, the .5 represents 6 months.

Birth date : 1-Jan-60

Age is : 49.34 =(TODAY()-C23)/365.25

AND
Items To Test Result
500 800 TRUE =AND(C4>=100,D4>=100)
500 25 FALSE =AND(C5>=100,D5>=100)
25 500 FALSE =AND(C6>=100,D6>=100)
12 TRUE =AND(D7>=1,D7<=52)

What Does It Do? :


This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true.
It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions.
It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit.
Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 56


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Syntax :
=AND(Test1,Test2)
Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.

Formatting :
When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.

Example
The following example shows a list of examination results.
The teacher wants to find the pupils who scored above average in all three exams.
The =AND() function has been used to test that each score is above the average.
The result of TRUE is shown for pupils who have scored above average in all three exams.

Name Maths English Physics Passed


Alan 80 75 85 TRUE
Bob 50 30 40 FALSE
Carol 60 70 50 FALSE
David 90 85 95 TRUE
Eric 20 30 Absent FALSE
Fred 40 60 80 FALSE
Gail 10 90 80 FALSE
Harry 80 70 60 TRUE
Ian 30 10 20 FALSE
Janice 10 20 30 FALSE
=AND(C38>=AVERAGE($C$29:$C$38),D38>=
AVERAGE($D$29:$D$38),E38>=AVERAGE
($E$29:$E$38))
Averages 47 54 60

OR
Order Payment Handling
No. Cost Type Charge
AB001 1000 Cash SR - =IF(OR(E4="Visa",E4="Delta"),5,0)
AB002 1000 Visa SR 5 =IF(OR(E5="Visa",E5="Delta"),5,0)
AB003 2000 Cheque SR - =IF(OR(E6="Visa",E6="Delta"),5,0)
AB004 5000 Delta SR 5 =IF(OR(E7="Visa",E7="Delta"),5,0)

What Does It Do?


This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true.
It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions.
Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF().

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 57


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Syntax :
=OR(Test1,Test2)
Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests.

Formatting :
When used by itself it will show TRUE or FALSE.

Example :
The following table shows a list of orders taken by a company.
A handling charge of £5 is made on all orders paid by Visa or Delta cards.
The =OR() function has been used to determine whether the charge needs to be applied.

Order Payment Handling


No. Cost Type Charge
AB001 1000 Cash SR - =IF(OR(E27="Visa",E27="Delta"),5,0)
AB002 1000 Visa SR 5
AB003 2000 Cheque SR -
AB004 5000 Delta SR 5

NOT
Cells To Test Result
10 20 TRUE =NOT(C4>D4)
10 20 TRUE =NOT(C5=D5)
10 20 FALSE =NOT(C6<D6)
1-Jan-98 1-Feb-98 TRUE =NOT(C7>D7)
Hello Goodbye TRUE =NOT(C8=D8)
Hello Hello FALSE =NOT(C9=D9)

What Does It Do ?
This function performs a test to see if the test fails. (A type of reverse
logic).
If the test fails, the result is TRUE.
If the test is met, then the result is FALSE.

Syntax :
=NOT(TestToPerform)
The TestToPerform can be reference to cells or another calculation.

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 58


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Example :
The following table was used by a library to track books borrowed.
The date the book was Taken out is entered.
The period of the Loan is entered.
The date the book was returned is entered.
The =NOT() function has been used to calculate whether the book was returned within
the correct time, by adding the Loan value to the Taken date.
If the book was not returned on time the result Overdue is shown, otherwise OK is shown.

Taken Loan Returned Status


1-Jan-98 14 5-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D33<=B33+C33),"Overdue","OK")
1-Jan-98 14 15-Jan-98 OK =IF(NOT(D34<=B34+C34),"Overdue","OK")
1-Jan-98 14 20-Jan-98 Overdue =IF(NOT(D35<=B35+C35),"Overdue","OK")

IF
Name Sales Target Result
Alan 1000 5000 Not Achieved =IF(C4>=D4,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Bob 6000 5000 Achieved =IF(C5>=D5,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Carol 2000 4000 Not Achieved =IF(C6>=D6,"Achieved","Not Achieved")

What Does It Do?


This function tests a condition.
If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE.
If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE.
Depending upon the result, one of two actions will be carried out.

Syntax :
=IF(Condition,ActionIfTrue,ActionIfFalse)
The Condition is usually a test of two cells, such as A1=A2.
The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers, text or calculations.

Formatting :
No special formatting is required.

Example :
The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets for sales reps.
Each has their own target which they must reach.
The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target.
If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown.
If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown.
Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved".

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 59


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Name Sales Target Result


Alan 1000 5000 Not Achieved =IF(C31>=D31,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Bob 6000 5000 Achieved =IF(C32>=D32,"Achieved","Not Achieved")
Carol 2000 4000 Not Achieved =IF(C33>=D33,"Achieved","Not Achieved")

Example 2 :
The following table is similar to that in Example 1.
This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated.
If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target, the Commission is 10% of Sales.
If the Sales do not reach Target, the Commission is only 5% of Sales.

Name Sales Target Commission


Alan 1000 5000 50 =IF(C43>=D43,C43*10%,C43*5%)
Bob 6000 5000 600 =IF(C44>=D44,C44*10%,C44*5%)
Carol 2000 4000 100 =IF(C45>=D45,C45*10%,C45*5%)

Example 3 :
This example uses the =AND() within the =IF() function.
A builders merchant gives 10% discount on certain product lines.
The discount is only given on products which are on Special Offer, when the Order Value is
£1000 or above.
The =AND() function is used with the =IF() to check that the product is on offer and that the
value of the order is above £1000.

Special Order
Product Offer Value Discount Total
SR
Wood Yes 2,000 SR 200 SR 1,800
Glass No SR 2,000 SR - SR 2,000
SR
Cement Yes 500 SR - SR 500
SR
Turf Yes 3,000 SR 300 SR 2,700
=IF(AND(C61="Yes",D61>=1000),D61*10%,0)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 60


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

AVERAGE
Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average
Temp 30 31 32 29 26 28 27 29 =AVERAGE(D4:J4)
Rain 0 0 0 4 6 3 1 2 =AVERAGE(D5:J5)

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average


Temp 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.667 =AVERAGE(D8:J8)
Rain 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =AVERAGE(D9:J9)

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average


Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 28.667 =AVERAGE(D12:J12)
Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 =AVERAGE(D13:J13)

What Does It Do?


This function calculates the average from a list of numbers.
If the cell is blank or contains text, the cell will not be used in the average calculation.
If the cell contains zero 0, the cell will be included in the average calculation.

Syntax :
=AVERAGE(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30)

Formatting :
No special formatting is needed.

Note :
To calculate the average of cells which contain text or blanks use =SUM() to get the total and
then divide by the count of the entries using =COUNTA().

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average


=SUM(D31:J31)/
Temp 30 No 32 29 26 28 27 24.571 COUNTA(D31:J31)
=SUM(D32:J32)/
Rain 0 Reading 0 4 6 3 1 2 COUNTAD32:J32)

Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Average


=SUM(D35:J35)/
Temp 30 32 29 26 28 27 28.667 COUNTA(D35:J35)
=SUM(D36:J36)/
Rain 0 0 4 6 3 1 2.3333 COUNTA(D36:J36)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 61


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

DAVERAGE
This is the Database
range.
Life Unit Box Boxes In Value Of
Product Wattage Hours
Brand Cost Quantity Stock Stock
Bulb 200 3000
Horizon 4.50 4 3 54.00
Neon 100 2000
Horizon 2.00 15 2 60.00
Spot 60 0.00
Other 10 8000 Sunbeam 0.80 25 6 120.00
Bulb 80 1000 Horizon 0.20 40 3 24.00
Spot 100 unknown Horizon 1.25 10 4 50.00
Spot 200 3000 Horizon 2.50 15 0 0.00
Other 25 unknown Sunbeam 0.50 10 3 15.00
Bulb 200 3000 Sunbeam 5.00 3 2 30.00
Neon 100 2000 Sunbeam 1.80 20 5 180.00
Bulb 100 unknown Sunbeam 0.25 10 5 12.50
Bulb 10 800 Horizon 0.20 25 2 10.00
Bulb 60 1000 Sunbeam 0.15 25 0 0.00
Bulb 80 1000 Sunbeam 0.20 30 2 12.00
Bulb 100 2000 Horizon 0.80 10 5 40.00
Bulb 40 1000 Horizon 0.10 20 5 10.00

To calculate the Average cost of a particular Brand of bulb.

These two cells are the Criteria


Brand range.
Type the brand name : sunbeam

The Average cost of sunbeam is : £1.24 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,F3,E23:E24)

What Does It Do ?
This function examines a list of information and produces and average.

Syntax :
=DAVERAGE(DatabaseRange,FieldName,CriteriaRange)
The DatabaseRange is the entire list of information you need to examine, including the
field names at the top of the columns.
The FieldName is the name, or cell, of the values to be averaged, such as "Unit Cost" or F3.
The CriteriaRange is made up of two types of information.
The first set of information is the name, or names, of the Fields(s) to be used as the basis
for selecting the records, such as the category Brand or Wattage.
The second set of information is the actual record, or records, which are to be selected,
such as Horizon as a brand name, or 100 as the wattage.

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 62


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Examples :

The average Unit Cost of a particular Product of a particular Brand.

Product Brand
Bulb Horizon

The average of Horizon Bulb is : £1.16 =DAVERAGE(B3:I19,F3,E49:F50)

This is the same calculation but using the actual name "Unit Cost" instead of the cell address.

=DAVERAGE
£1.16
(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E49:F50)

The average Unit Cost of a Bulb equal to a particular Wattage.

Product Wattage
Bulb 100

=DAVERAGE
Average of Bulb 100 is : £0.53
(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E60:F61)

The average Unit Cost of a Bulb less then a particular Wattage.

Product Wattage
Bulb <100

=DAVERAGE
Average of Bulb <100 is : £0.17
(B3:I19,"Unit Cost",E67:F68)

CHOOSE
Index
Value Result
1 Alan =CHOOSE(C4,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
3 Carol =CHOOSE(C5,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
2 Bob =CHOOSE(C6,"Alan","Bob","Carol")
3 18% =CHOOSE(C7,10%,15%,18%)
1 10% =CHOOSE(C8,10%,15%,18%)
2 15% =CHOOSE(C9,10%,15%,18%)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 63


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

What Does It Do?


This function picks from a list of options based upon an Index value given to by the user.

Syntax :
=CHOOSE(UserValue, Item1, Item2, Item3 through to Item29)

Example
The following table was used to calculate the medals for athletes taking part in a race.
The Time for each athlete is entered.
The =RANK() function calculates the finishing position of each athlete.
The =CHOOSE() then allocates the correct medal.
The =IF() has been used to filter out any positions above 3, as this would cause
the error of #VALUE to appear, due to the fact the =CHOOSE() has only three items in it.

Name Time Position Medal


=IF(D30<=3,CHOOSE
Alan 1:30 2 Silver
(D30,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=IF(D31<=3,CHOOSE
Bob 1:15 4 unplaced
(D31,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=IF(D32<=3,CHOOSE
Carol 2:45 1 Gold
(D32,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=IF(D33<=3,CHOOSE
David 1:05 5 unplaced
(D33,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=IF(D34<=3,CHOOSE
Eric 1:20 3 Bronze
(D34,"Gold","Silver","Bronze"),"unplaced")
=RANK(C34,C30:C34)

CONVERT
Amount Converting Converting
To Convert From To
1 in cm =CONVERT(C4,D4,E4)
1 ft m =CONVERT(C5,D5,E5)
1 yd m =CONVERT(C6,D6,E6)

1 yr day =CONVERT(C8,D8,E8)
1 day hr =CONVERT(C9,D9,E9)
1.5 hr mn =CONVERT(C10,D10,E10)
0.5 mn sec =CONVERT(C11,D11,E11)

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 64


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

What Does It Do ?
This function converts a value measure in one type of unit, to the same value expressed
in a different type of unit, such as Inches to Centimetres.

Syntax :
=CONVERT(AmountToConvert,UnitToConvertFrom,UnitToConvertTo)

Example
The following table was used by an Import / Exporting company to convert the weight
and size of packages from old style UK measuring system to European system.

Pounds Ounces Kilograms


Weight 5 3 2.35301
=CONVERT(D28,"lbm","kg")+
CONVERT(E28,"ozm","kg")

Feet Inches Metres


Height 12 6 3.81
Length 8 3 2.5146
Width 5 2 1.5748
=CONVERT(D34,"ft","m")+
CONVERT(E34,"in","m")

Abbreviations
This is a list of all the possible abbreviations which can be used to denote measuring systems.

Weight & Mass Distance


Gram g Meter m
Kilogram kg Statute mile mi
Nautical
Slug sg Nmi
mile
Pound mass lbm Inch in
U (atomic
u Foot ft
mass)
Ounce mass ozm Yard yd
Angstrom ang
Pica (1/72
Time in.) Pica
Year yr
Day day Pressure
Hour hr Pascal Pa
Minute mn Atmosphere atm
mm of
Second sec mmHg
Mercury

Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 65


Tutorial – I (MS-Excel)

Temperature Liquid
Degree Celsius C Teaspoon tsp
Degree
F Tablespoon tbs
Fahrenheit
Degree Kelvin K Fluid ounce oz
Cup cup
Force Pint pt
Newton N Quart qt
Dyne dyn Gallon gal
Pound force lbf Liter l

Energy Power
Joule J Horsepower HP
Erg e Watt W
Thermodynamic
c
calorie
IT calorie cal Magnetism
Electron volt eV Tesla T
Horsepower-
HPh Gauss ga
hour
Watt-hour Wh
Foot-pound flb
BTU BTU

These characters can be used as a prefix to access further units of measure.


Using "c" as a prefix to meters "m" will allow centimetres "cm" to be calculated.

Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation Prefix Multiplier Abbreviation


exa 1.00E+18 E deci 1.00E-01 d
peta 1.00E+15 P centi 1.00E-02 c
tera 1.00E+12 T milli 1.00E-03 m
giga 1.00E+09 G micro 1.00E-06 u
mega 1.00E+06 M nano 1.00E-09 n
kilo 1.00E+03 k pico 1.00E-12 p
hecto 1.00E+02 h femto 1.00E-15 f
dekao 1.00E+01 e atto 1.00E-18 a

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Written By: Engr. Fakhr-e-Alam 66