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THROUGH SPECTACLES

AGNOSTIC

THROUGH SPECTACLES

AGNOSTIC

BY

ALEXANDER

KADISON,

M.A.

NEW

YORK

THE

TRUTH
1919

SEEKER

CO.

COPYBIGHT,
By ALEXANDER

1919,
KADISON

MAR -3 i91S

DCLASH

780

TO

I.

D.

FRIEND

AND

COMRADE

TRUE

LOVINGLY

INSCRIBE

THIS

LITTLE

BOOK

PREFACE

"My
"Lines
to

Creed,"
to

"The
and

Enigma
"From

of

Life,"

I. D.,"

Metaphysics published
for and

Agnosticism"
the

were

originally
Guide

in

London

Literary
1915,

July,
uary, Jan-

1914,

October,
1918,

July,

1916,
"The

respectively.
based
in New Faith upon
a

Enigma
led
in the

of

Life" the

was

discussion
of

by

author,
of the of

the

fall
York and

1913,

columns

Times. Filth"
and

"The

Golden

Age
"

was

first
few the

published
minor
author's Truth

without
from

notes,
the in
"

with

deviations

reading
the
New
1914.

of

manuscript
Seeker
for

York The
half-

October

31,

manuscript
dozen
it trivial

reading

(barring
is here

some

alterations)
been
7

restored;

has,

moreover,

materially

amplified

MEFACE

by

the

addition
are

of
in
text to

rather
the

copious notes,
and

which

given
in

appendix
superior

dicated in-

the

by

figures.

"The

Summons
in the

Prayer"
Seeker
and

originally appeared
for November
companied ac-

Truth

14,

1914.

"Piety by
a

Plagiarism,"

brief

biographical note,
article
in

was

the

first

and

leading
December

the

Truth For
the

Seeker

for

25,
more

1915.

catchy sub-title, even


than the
main and

highly
author

alliterative
was

title,the
can

not
no

responsible
credit. Editors named
to

therefore

claim The

of
are

the

two

Rationalist thanked
for

journals

hereby

permission
It may

repubhsh.
well the
to

be in
as

state

that

nothing
is to
be

appearing
construed

follov/ing pages
been of the

having
the

prompted
writer
to

by
the

hostility on personality

part

of Jesus

of Nazareth.
8

Though

PREFACE

the

author

holds

no

brief

for

Jesus

the

Son

of

God,

or

for

his

reputed

Father,
will

or

for

any

gods
that

that

be

or

were

or

be,

he

beheves

Jesus

the

Son

of

Man
"

the

human

Jesus,
the

with

whose

name

is

ciated asso-

pure

and

lofty
will
"

ethic

of

the

Sermon

on

the

Mount

justly
mankind

remain

source

of

inspiration

to

when

dogmatic

Christianity disappear

has

completely
it
must.

appeared dis-

"

^as

A.

K.

May,

1918,

CONTENTS

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

fSS^

Cree"

Reason Blind Nor God Is Bows Salvation Far better


to

my

final
is

arbiter barred from know creed Neither

shall

be;
my

faith

philosophy.
deity

nor

Christ

my

Man;
no

my

fetish.
in

do the

crave

life

beyond
mankind

grave: earth
to
save

strive

on

Through

word

and

deed.

15

FROM

METAPHYSICS AGNOSTICISM

TO

"r

iHE

great

uncertainty

found
writes

in

metaphysical
Franklin,

reasonings," referring "disgusted


of

Benjamin
youthful
I

to

his and

speculations,
that kind

me,

quitted
others

reading

and Are

study
we

for

more

satisfactory."
this
that the

to

conclude

from

future

man, states-

once

having

ceased

applying

himself pated emanciwhich

to

metaphysics,
from
the

was

thenceforth attitude
for the

intellectual
accounted

had

previously Apparently

tice? pracno;

yes, of his

but

in

reality
albeit
"

for

to

the
not

end

long
a

life

he

was

primarily
remained,
in

metaphysicist
of

"

Franklin

spite

himself,

in-

16

METAPHYSICS

TO

AGNOSTICISM

delibly stamped
of mind. The mental

with

metaphysical

cast

experience philosopher,

of the far
out

celebrated

American

from of the

being
the lives
dinary, or-

unique

or

even

markedly
be

might
countless
and other

paralleled
both
or

in

of

thinkers,
Whether

professional
not

amateur.

the

nomenon phe-

be factors it cannot
once

traceable
basic and

to

temperamental
nature,
persons, take the

of

ineradicable
that certain

be

denied
or

blessed
choice
to
"

cursed

"

let the desire


to

reader

his
cosmos

^with its very

the

probe

bottom,
become of

persist

therein of

even

after
utter

they

have

convinced

the Like

futility
of
the

such

investigation. they
time
must

Tantalus
make

the

myth,
to

needs
time

effort

drink
and

and

again, though
to

time

time

again

they fail
Can

quench
that

their
are,

thirst. after

it be

they
17

all, never

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

quite
truth
an

convinced is
a

that one?

the

quest of ultimate
Can
must

barren

it be be renewal

that

in

ever-recurring
reason

doubt
constant

sought
of
a

the

for which
as

the the

search

mind It I
am

repeatedly
is not here

nounces re-

hopeless?
which the

the

search

for I

deity
assume

with
that

concerned:
of
us are

majority
doctrines
the in

agreed
or

in

rejecting such
to

as

posit
of
a

profess personal

demonstrate

existence

God,

and

maintaining
with

definitelyAgnostic
other
more or

attitude

regard phases
to

to

less

attenuated reference
men

of

Theism.
fact that

What many
not
a

I have

is the

thinking
few the whose realm
to

and

women,

including

Negativism
of

and
are

Agnosticism unequivocal,
take the
a

in
seem

theology
it

find

possible
as

to

positive
of

mental

stand

respects
"

field

general metaphysics
is, to what
18

to

give aptly

assent,

that

sometimes

is

METAPHYSICS

TO

AGNOSTICISM

designated
Yet there

as

''philosophical
no more

creed.''

can

be

justification,
for

intellectually speaking, positive position


the in
the

assuming
case

one

than

in

other, since in both


of the
human

spheres
mind

the
are

natural

limitations

equally

pronounced.
Shall
or
a

I declare

myself

Logical

Monist

Logical
Nominalism shall
of

Pluralist?
or

Shall Platonic
as

I subscribe

to

to

Realism? ultimate
or

Which criterion coherence? the doctrine

regard
"

the

truth Can

perception
accept,
or

logical
I
ject, re-

must

substance of
to

hypothesis?
valid,
of host
or

Is
must

the
it
lution? evo-

eternahsm the doctrine and


a

give

way

creative
of other

These

idle him

problems
whose
to

continually
is not

arise

to

trouble

mind

released

from

bondage
And what

metaphysical
Leslie

speculation.
in An

Sir

Stephen,
19

Agnostic'^

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

Apology

asserts
y

of

natural

theology
of
is

is

applicable
"

to

the

entire that

field "there the

physics metanot
a

namely,
...

single proof
has the
not

of which maintained "State Leslie


a as

negative
as

been

vigorously
one

affirmative."
says

any

tion," proposiin

Sir

little farther
now

the

course

of his essay,

speaking

more

particularlyof metaphysical inquiry, "in


which admit
a

all
it to

philosophers
be

agree, any
one

and

will
has

true;
of

or

which

manifest that

balance
it is

authority, and
But
so

I will

agree every

probable.

long

as

philosopher flatly

contradicts

the

first
affect

principles of
certainty?
.

his
.
.

predecessors, why
There
true

is

no

tainty." cer-

It is, indeed, too

that

every

position
without

in

ontology

and

epistemology,
itself in the last than
a mass

exception, resolves
more

analysisinto nothing yerbiage, inasmuch


as

of

all

positionsare

of

20

METAPHYSICS

TO

AGNOSTICISM

necessity grounded

upon

axioms

or

priori

convictions

"

that

is, upon

unde-

monstrable And

propositions.
consists the clue
in the
to

herein

the

ennial per-

involved difficulty
to fathom

endeavour

absolute fact of the that

reality.

ing Notwithstandlies at
even

the the basis

logic inevitably

all human
nature

reasoning,
the
case,
can

logic,in

of

never

demonstrate ''and other


so as

its

own

fundamental

ises; premto
can

it is
no

logicallyprior
other
science "Let

all do

deduction,

either"

(W.

T.
man,

Marvin).
and

there

be but
on

light!" says
only
the
can a

there

is

light;

glimmer.
of the

Darkness

still rules
for

face

deep, and,
to

aught

that
ever

be conceived her

the

contrary, Avill

continue As
an

sway.

example
to

of the
even

ible well-nigh incredthe


most

lengths
of
men

which
may

liant bril-

be
21

led

by

continued

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

wandering metaphysics,
Mark

in

the
the

deceptive labyrinth
recently
issued
work

of

by

Twain,

entitled
to

The
be

Mysterious
cited.
The

Stranger,^
book

deserves

represents

the
on

renowned human

humourist's life been


a

maturest

thought
and,

and

on

the

universe,

having
may, in

mously posthusense,

published,
be termed
his It

double
last
a

intellectual

will

and

testament.

is, in
Its

general,
trenchant of

masterly
and
answerable un-

performance.

criticisms

the

prevailing
it later for

creeds,
affords
years

together
that abandoned the

with

the

revelation
in

author his

his Deism

earlier

Atheism
of
course,

"pure
unusual

and

undefiled,"
interest
for

possess, alists. Ration-

However

"

and

this

is

point
By

to

The

Mysterious

Stranger:
151 pp.,

A with

Romance.

Mark
7^.

Twain.

(Harper.)

illustrations;

6d.

pet.

[In

the

United

States,

$2.00

net.]

METAPHYSICS

TO

AGNOSTICISM

which attention

I
"

would this

here

direct

particular
to

Atheism,

strange
not
as

say,
a

rested

metaphj^sically,
foundation,

upon

materialistic almost is

Atheism
upon of

invariably does,
the

but

what jective sub-

perhaps

grossest paradox

idealism!
On the last page Satan
"

of

the who in

book
is

the

acter charthe
cluding con-

called

really
"

philosopher-humourist
the

disguise mighty
declares:

disclosure

of the

secret

which

he

has

just revealed,
that
no

"

**It is true,
there is
no

which

have
no

revealed
human It is all

to race,
a

you:
no

God,

universe,
no

earthly life, no
. . .

heaven,
exists
.

hell.
you.

dream.
are

Nothing
.

but

And forlorn

you

but the

thought

wandering

among

empty

eternities

Now,

this pronouncement,
with the pages
a

taken

in

junction con-

which

immediately

precede it, is simply

categoricalavowal

1?3

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

of

the

grotesque

trine eighteenth-century docto

generally
of

referred

under
that

the

name

Solipsism
"

the

doctrine valid

the human
of

mind

can

have
of that than find
a

knowledge
but itself.
and

the it

existence
appears
a

nothing
no

Thus

less
the

gifted
Mark

illustrious
Twain of
was

person
to

late

able

specious
beset him

solution
in the
most

the
tastic fan-

problems
of from
retreats

that
all

speculative positions
"

tion posi-

which

the he

Solipsist begins
to

himself

the moment
to turn

expound

his views
If
we

others.
to

the

special problems
various

of
"

metaphysics

which

the

sciences and

physics, chemistry, biology,


rest
"

all the tations limithat

have of

raised, the
formal
the

same

inherent confront of
us

logic

constitute

stumbling-block
The

general
are

metaphysics.
built very

sciences,
a

moreover,

largely upon
24

body

of

concepts

METAPHYSICS

TO

AGNOSTICISM

which,
of

however

well

they satisfythe
that

test

scientific
of

utility (and them),


are

is all that

is

required
but
not

notwithstanding
may
or

hypothetical
be

entities that existential.

may

truly
these

Prominent

among

conceptual

objects
in

whose

is their value great justification the

ing explainnone

facts of

experience, but
claim the

which

the
are

less cannot the

phenomenal
and

reality,
the
dulating un-

atom,
ether

molecule,
to

supposed

permeate
so

all

space.

So

eminently useful,
are

universally
tions "construc-

accepted,

these

and

other

of the scientific is

imagination" sight
to

that

one

only

too

apt

to to

lose

of their
a

true

character, and

ascribe

them

physical meta-

validityas far-reaching in
as

plicatio its im-

its

assumption

is naive

and

unwarranted. Unlike main


is

religion,however,
modest,
and does
25

science

in the

not

profess abil-

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

ity

to

penetrate
who
of in
most

the

all-enshrouding
themselves
are

veil. the
day to-

Those

devote

to

pursuit
as

knowledge
the
can

best

aware,

past, how
ever

exceeding
to

little cause "Beof

humankind
I sand
on

hope
a

know.

have the

stirred

few

grains
the
able vener-

shore/'

queried

French

entomologist,
his
I

Henri
at

Fabre,
age
to

shortly

before "am
of

death
in
a

the

of

ninety-one,
the

position
Life

know
fathomable un-

depths

the

ocean? Human the

has

secrets.

knowledge
archives
of

will world the


nature

be

erased
we

from
possess say

the that

before
has
a

the last word


us.

gnat
is
to

to

to

Scientifically,
a

riddle

without

definite

lution so-

satisfy man's

curiosity. Hypothesis
the and
how
not

follows
rubbish

hypothesis;
accumulates
To

theoretical truth
to
ever

heap
us.

eludes

know the

know

might

well

be

last word
26

of

wisdom."

METAPHYSICS

TO

AGNOSTICISM

Aye,

even

so,

by day

But

in the

silent,

solemn, sombre
million the very
stars

night, beneath
of heaven, of those
one

the
seems

myriad
to

hear

voice

who

in their knowledge-ignor

declared, of old time, that

they
*

knew

not

that

they

knew

not!"^

[For
"

well-stated

"

though,
of

as

of

course

feel, illas

founded

adverse

criticism

Fabre's
of

position
the

cated inditaken

above
in

(and, by
three

implication,
of

position
see

the

last

paragraphs
p.

this

essay),

Literary

Guide,

Feb., 1918,

30.]

27

THE

ENIGMA

OF

LIFE

*'

ALL

roads the

lead

to

Rome"
"

so

runs

-^^^
the

ancient
that all

dictum.
mental

How

true

analogy

paths,

if
to

but

logically pursued,

lead

inevitably
and from attack

nosticis Agthe

Approach
riddle
of the universe

whatsoever result
as

angle

you

please,
the
same.

and As

the far

will

ways al-

be of

the

ment attainit is
the

definite

goal
whether

is concerned,
one

quite
cosmos

immaterial itself
as

treat

the

point
and
work

of

departure
inward,
so

of
to

one's

speculations
towards the
or

speak,
concrete

finite,
entities and the
one

or

whether be
work

some

entity

adopted
outward
To

as

the

starting-point,
the

in who

direction
in

of

infinite.
company

him
it be-

meditates

Reason's
28

l^HE

ENIGMA

OP

LIJPE

comes

increasingly evident
mystery
of

that, just
in
so

as

the

the

cosmos

its

totality

defies each

unravelment
and every

by

man,

in its turn
fuses, re-

constituent

part of it
up

sphinxlike, to yield
secret.

its eternal

From

time

immemorial,
Providence
a

believers have

in

an

all-benevolent vain the lower


to

sought theory

in of the

formulate
and of

reasonable
some

purpose

utilityof
plant
and
are

of

types

animal
hideous

life.
and

Many

living organisms

repulsive beyond
to

description, and
whatever;
a

appear
ber, num-

have

no

value
are

great

indeed,
then,
are

noxious. positively here?" asks


the

"Why,
Theist. in brief,

they

"Why
can

were

they created?
existence
be of

How,

their

reconciled God?"
not to

with

the

supposed goodness
Modern

teleologistsare
may

the

first,

and,

one

safely venture
29

assert, will

THROUGH
not

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

be the last, to
is
a

propound
one

this
than

question,
it would

which
on

far
of

deeper
it appear

the

face
ago

to

be.
to

Fifteen
account

centuries

St.
of

Augustine,

for the existence

repulsive and

harmful that both

organisms, confidently declared


the had of
animal incurred and
a

the divine

vegetable kingdoms
curse

in consequence
About three

Adam's

disobedience. later
and

centuries confirmed ''fierce and for that

Bede,

in

his Hecccemeron,
the
were

emphasised
animals

view

that

poisonous

created
foresaw

terrifyingman
he would
aware

(because
in order final
,

God

sin)

that

he

might
of

be made hell." In

of the

punishment
Peter later

the twelfth

century
and

bard, Lom-

in the

Sententioe,
John

Martin lar simi-

Luther

and

Wesley, expressed

views.
But

since

geology, anthropology,
irrefutably exploded
30

and the

ethnology

have

THE

ENIGMA

OF

LIFE

legend
and
as

of the and
in

creation
of

of

plants, animals,
sin and fall

man,

the

latter's

narrated

Genesis, all the


animals
that
no

theological
and

reasoning regarding
which
was

plants
hered ad-

based for

on

story, and

to

centuries, is
must

longer
in

tenable.
that

And

yet it

be has

borne

mind

Science

herself

answered

the

question

only negatively, not


A little reflection

positively.
should make
it manifest

that

the

true

answer

(ifthere
of
our

be

any)

is, and
ever

by
must to
us,

the

constitution
an

faculties
tery mys-

remain,
inasmuch

impenetrable
as

every

attempted
a

explanation
guess

is, after
does
not

all, but
admit it

shallow

which

of verification.

This

conclusion,
to

be

noted,

conforms

perfectly
*

the
main

Spencerian*
argument
it may
no

system
is

of
not

[Though
the
state

the

here
be

advanced

in
to

least

affected,
the

not

entirely irrelevant
adheres
to

that

author
of

longer

the
in

metaphysical

variety

Agnosticism
31

expounded

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES other

philosophy, which
things,
which
that

teaches, among
is
a

there
human

certain

boundary
its very

the

intellect, by

nature,
this

cannot

pierce,
unknown

and
"

that

beyond
the

limit

is the

possibly

unknowable.

So

far,

so

good.

But

do

we

stop here?

Assuredly

not;
for

this has
a

been
or

only
an

ping-sto step-

plant by
man

animal

harmful
not
a

to

or

disliked
in need

is

certainly

whit
man

more

of

an

explanation
to

than

himself, who

is harmful
every
we were

and

disliked

by

practically
If

other

habitan in-

of the earth.
to

seriously
noxious
or

endeavour

to

say

in what

way

and

repulsive organisms
First
"

might
rather
more
"

might
certain

Spencer's
modifications

Principles,
the and purer

but and

with

to

nearly
170-171;
188-190,

genuine
Benn, Clodd,
220-221,
p. "64;

Agnosticism History
Thomas

taught
Modern

defended

by Huxley.
pp.

Cf.

of

Philosophy,
Huxley,
pp. p.

Henry
Guide,

126,

Literary

Jan.,

1902,

11;

April, 1917,

Oct., 1917, p. 160.]

32

THE

ENIGMA

OF

LIFE

not
we

be useful should do

in their relation
so

to

mankind,

at

the

risk

of

appearing
we

naively anthropocentric.
to
we

What

desire
that

be
are

understood unable
to

as

stating is simply
the existence

explain
in any
way;

of

these

organisms
and

solute, non-relative, aband


to not

ultimate

only
lower

is

this forms

statement

applicable
it

the

of

life,but

applies with
to
as

equal

and

undiminished
not

force
man,

the well.

higher forms,

excluding
As
for

anthropocentricism Agnostics
of

and the

all
last

it
to

connotes.
lose

should that

be

sight
been

the

fact

it has Its doom

already
was

long
sounded

overthrown.

by Copernicus
ago,

and

Galileo
the

some

centuries

for

when

geocentric
sister

theory theory,

fell the
could

anthropocentric,its long
survive;

not

and hands

it

ceived re-

its
Darwin
at

death-blow the time the


33

at

the

of

doctrine

of evolu-

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

tion in its

biologicalaspect
the

was

first that

ciated. enun-

All

meaning, then,
is

these

lines seek

to convey
a

that, life itself being


we

ultimately
account

mystery,
for

cannot

hope

to

ultimately

the presence

of any

livingorganism.
''But,"
exclaims
the

teleologist in

spair, de-

"if the

scientists,philosophers,and
are

theologians

unable for
are

to

provide
of

any

adequate
forms
and

reason

the

existence

low

of life that have


no

repulsive and
purpose,
reason

hideous
if there
man

obvious

and
even

is

no

discoverable be
there of

why

should
"If

here, then
is
no reason

why

propagate?
whatever
upon
space;

for

the this if

existence

living organisms
as

lump
these

of

dirt

it hurls

through
are

living organisms
of if

merely

the

produc byter; mat-

motion,
exist of

commotion,
for
a

and

they

only

moment,
two

just pieces

as

spark

light does
34

when

THE

ENIGMA

OF

LIFE

of
of
to

flint
common

come

together, why,
sense,

in the do

name

should and

we

anything
tion ac-

assist
on

such the

unjust

purposeless

part of Nature?

"The
man

little fish is eaten the

by
and
no

the

big fish;
eats

eats

big fish,
there

Nature

man.

But

since

is

discoverable

reason

for the

enactment

of this gruesome

tragedy, why
it may be said

keep
that the

it

going?

To

be

sure,

man

is dominated

by

instinct, just as
life
are

lower

forms

of animal is

but
an

to make

that assertion

really

to commit

evasion.

"I

am

not

suggesting
to

reform,'' the
"I
am

hastens teleologist

add.
can

simply
a

asking
reason

whether

anyone

give
should

logical
be
tinued con-

why
at

the human

race

the

frightful expense

of the

dividual in-

"logical reason"
existence
! 35

for The

the

continuance

of human

inane

question,

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

which

is

inseparably
of
to

connected
in

with

the

problem properly ontology.

existence
the realm

general, belongs
metaphysics,
or

of

Yet

the

metaphysicians, being
never

only human,
to
answer

have
a

found
manner.

it

possible
All
all the

it in

rational

scientists, all

the

philosophers,
of
a

the

teleologistsand
have failed
to

theologians
furnish And
us

the

past,

with
no

tory satisfac:

explanation.
only finite, they comprehend
The
scope.

wonder

being
to

have

naturally

failed

the

infinite.
is
was

problem
Socrates that
human very

manifestly beyond right


when
at

our

he

tained main-

knowledge
little indeed And
to

its best
nay,
to

amounts

to

"

practicallynothing.
are so

yet

we

humans
that
"

conceited

as

imagine

we

"

insignificant specks
expect
to
or

in the

universe

may

solve

any !
36

problem,

however

weighty

profound

THE

ENIGMA

OF

LIFE

What this is
:

is the

upshot

of and

it all? all its


a

Simply
phases,
day toour

That

life,in any
as

ultimately just
as

much

mystery
of

it

ever

was,

and, by virtue
must

mental
a

make-up,
To

necessarily remain
a

mystery.

attempt
is
:

solution

of

the
In
selves our-

inscrutable

enigma
of

futilityitself. "Why
trouble

the words

Huxley
matters

about

of which, however

portant im-

they
and
can

may

be,

we

do know

nothing,

know

nothing?"

37

THE FAITH

GOLDEN
AND

AGE FILTH

OF

DURING
origins
the
the

the
of

past

fifty

years

the been

Christianity
critical

have

object
part
various

of of

much

investigation
ing representIt the is

on

numerous

scholars
of

schools

thought.
that

matter of

of

common

knowledge
researches
to

sults re-

their

have
the

proved
least,

fully painto

disconcerting, upholders Strangely


little
work has which

say

the

of

tradition

and

superstition. precious
that

enough,
been

however,
done in best faith

lar particuthe

realm

perhaps
of the

reveals of

amazing

putridity
"There

dom. Christenwrites

is, if I
his

mistake

not,"

Lecky

in

monumental
38

History

of

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

European
literature

Morals,
the

"no

department
of which the
were

of

importance
realised
than saints

is

more

inadequately
saints."^
real
sense

lives of the
in
a

The

early

very it
at

makers

of

and Christianity,
to

is therefore
no

earnestly
date
a

be

hoped
number devote

that
of

distant

greater
may and

vanced ad-

Freethinkers
to

selves themof

the

study
than

exposition
done
so

the

hagiographa
The

have

until of

now.

acknowledged
St.

patriarch (c. 251-c.

mon-

achism,
born in

Anthony

356),^ was
was

Egypt.^
years in of of
a

When of

he

about
up his

nineteen habitation the


a

age*

he

took

grotto, and

thereafter, till
himself
to

day

his death,

subjected
an

mode

disciplineof
character. his
career

ingly uncompromisare

ascetic

There

certain
suredly as-

phases

of
not

which,
to at

though
refine any
rate

calculated

one's pos-

aesthetic sensibilities, may


39

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

sess

some

interest

for

the

Rationalist

reader. We
learn in his
,

from

St. Athanasius St.

(c. 296that his the


science, con-

373)

Life of "daily
a

Anthony,
to

latter

was

martyr
in the

and

contending
He had the
a
.

conflicts
of hair
was

of
on

faith.
. .

garment
outside
his end.

the which

inside, while
he

skin,
he

kept

until his

And
to

neither

bathed from
nor

body

with did
so

water

free wash
as

himself his

filth, nor
even

he

ever

feet,
them

endure
unless

much

to

put

in^ water,

compelled
he
never

by

necessity."^ Furthermore,
succumbed
of
to

once

the
or

intensely

human
his

ness weak-

removing
a

changing
not
was

clothing^
eightythe

during
six years

period
P

of

less than St.

Such father and

Anthony,

illustrious

founder

of Christian

monasticism." There is
no

valid

ground
40

for

question-

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAlTtt of the passage

ing the

substantial

accuracy

adduced,
editors

for, in the words


and

of the reverend

of McClintock

Strong's
St.

ard standAtha-

theological encyclopaedia,
nasius

"enjoyed

personal
we are

association
in justified in
no

with
struing con-

Anthony."^^
this

That last

statement

purely
from of his

figurative sense
the
manner

will become which


the

evident

in

Archbishop
for

Alexandria^^
extreme

extols

St.

Anthony

squalidity.
eminent his friend,

The that
to

theologian goes
on

on

to

say

realisinghe
two

was

about
who in

die, suummoned
a

of his followers had been


upon

for

number

of years of

serving

the
gave

capacity
them

attendants with his them ''To


one

him, and
to

directions

regard
and
him

the

final

disposition of
He bade

body

of

his and the

effects. divide

bury

his garments. said

Athanasius

bishop,"

he, "give
41

sheepskin

and

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES I

the

garment
gave

whereon
me

am

laid, which
which
the with

he
me

himself has
grown

new,

but

old.

To

Serapion

bishop
the hair

give

the other

sheepskin, and
"^^

keep

garment
one

yourselves.
the fortunate "each
of the
worn

St.

Athanasius,
forms in-

of
us

heirs, hereupon
of those who

that

received and
as a

the the

sheepskin
garment

blessed

Anthony guards
it

by
For
to

him

precious
them he
to

treasure.

even

to

look

on

is

as

it

were

behold

Anthony;
seems

and

who

is clothed his

in them

with

joy
the

bear

admonitions."^^
not state

Though
he

saint
saw

does fit to

whether
the

actually

perform

delightful experiment preceding sentence,

suggested
the

in the

implication is, of
how
could make

course,

that have

he

did,
been

for

he
the

otherwise

qualifiedto
"Even with

assertion?^*
is small

if this account

compared

his merit," continues


42

the writer, "still

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITtt the

from
man

this reflect how of

great Anthony,
One
of the
reasons

God,

was."^^

assigned
for fact old his

for his

greatness
man

(or, it

may

be,

being
St.
was

"the

of

God")

is the

that age

Anthony
subdued

"neither

through
desire
of

by

the

costly food,
his

nor

through
the
even

the

infirmity of
of his clothing,

body changed
nor

fashion

washed

his feet with from

water,
harm.

and
" .

yet remained
He
.

entirelyfree

remained while

strong both
all
men were

in hands

and

feet; and

using
divers and

various

foods, and
he

washings
more

and

garments,
of greater Then the Church

appeared

cheerful

strength."^"
Athanasius,
who

St.

that
an

Father
ably immeasur-

of

has

exerted
upon

profound
and that

influence

Christianity
is named

Christendom,

he after whom creed


which

despicable

consigns
that do

to

everlasting perdition
43

those

not

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES and
on

keep

the

faith his

"whole encomium
to

undefiled,"^^
him his who
so

concludes

lamentably body

failed

keep
cap

miserable

undefiled.
his

To

the

climax,
these

he

enjoins

disciplesto
to

"read

words,
that

therefore,

the

rest

of the
the

brethren
life of noted

they ought
the

may
to

learn be."^^

what
It

monks that
a

should did

be

monastic

spirit

indeed his

receive
ings. writof

powerful

impulse
was

from

various
true

This

especially Anthony,

his

biography
was

of

St.

since

that

work made of the

translated

into
to

Latin, and
the
very

hence
mass

readily
Roman For
a

accessible

great

people,

at

early
of

date.^^ ever, time, howalmost


tirely en-

considerable

length
was

Christian
restricted the made West

asceticism
to

the

Eastern be

wing
to

of

Church.
any

It

cannot

said

have
the

appreciable
the last

headway
of

in

until

quarter

the

fourth

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

century.
Church

Its

rapid
that
to

progress

in the Roman

from

period
Jerome

onward

is

attributable
more

St.
any
name.

(c.340-420) single
individual
parted im-

than
we

to

other

that

might by
him
to

The

stimulus
in

monasticism
one

particular

rendered

that institution features


of the

of the fundamental

religion of Europe
to
come.

for about
at

twelve

centuries

Only
so-called,

the the

Protestant

Reformation,
meet

did

system

with

its first serious

setback.
It

is not
it
was

at

all difficult to St. Jerome's have


In

understand

why

that

potency
so

in

this direction
and
we so

should

proved

great

lasting as
remember

it did. that

the first Jerome

place,
was

must

St.
and

one

of the Christian

early teachers
theology,
In
the

expounders
a

of

and

Father

of
tribution con-

the

Church.
to

second

place, his

Christianitywas
45

exceedingly

THROUGH
so significant,

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

much he

so

that
been

since

the

early-

Middle Roman the

Ages

has

recognised byover as

Catholics

the world
Doctors three

one

of

original
the

four

of

the

Latin

Church,
the

other

being

St.

Gregory
St.
not to

Great,
Add

St.
to

Augustine,
this the
of

and

brose. Amthe the

fact

that

least Church
and

important
was

his

services of the

his

production scarcely
had

Vulgate,
that the sequent sub-

one

need

wonder
to

history has
of his

bear

stamp

authority.^^
St. Jerome

To

matrimony
and
he

was

thing some-

inherentlyvicious,
decried
it.

constantly
the
ceno-

His
no

enthusiasm

for his him


finer

bitic life knew zeal in

bounds;
it brands

quenchless
as a

promoting
devoid which
heart. my heart of

being
nobler from
of
to

utterly
affections
the human
nor

those

and

ordinarily emanate "My


breast

is not
wrote

iron

of stone,"^^ he
46

THE who

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

one

had

determined

to

forgo

the
the

austerities immediate

of monastic
context

seclusion,^^ but
his words: you in

behes
on

member "Re-

the

day
with

which

enlisted,
you

when,
swore

buried

Christ

baptism,
for

fealty to him, declaring that


you
.

his
nor

sake

would

spare

neither
your
no

father

mother.
. .

Should
your your

little nephew

hang
should and
at

on

neck, pay
mother
rent

regard
ashes
you
on

to

him;
hair

with show
you,

her

garments
which
your

the

breasts her
on

she

nursed

heed

not;
the
go

should

father

prostrate himself
under
eyes

threshold, trample him


your way. of With the

foot

and
to

dry
cross.

fly
such

the
cases

standard

In

cruelty
"Now her

is the it is
a

only

true

affection.
.

widowed
arms

sister who you.

throws
Now it

caressing

around

is the
cry:

slaves, your
'To
what

foster-brothers, who
are

master
47

you

leaving

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

us?' and
a

Now

it is

nurse

bowed

with

age,
a

body-servant
exclaim:
us

loved

only

less than till


we

father, who
die and

'Only
to
our

wait

follow
an

graves!'
with

haps, Per-

too,
bosom and
with

aged

mother, brow,
she
to
once

sunken

furrowed which

recalling the
soothed The
you,

lullaby
adds
may her

entreaties
if

theirs.

learned sole support The love

call you,

they please, 'the


your

and of God

pillarof
and the bonds.
us

house.'^^
of

fear

hell

will
you

easily
will

break
argue, whoso

such bids loves

Scripture,
our

obey
them

parents.
than

Yes, but
loses

more

Christ

his

own

soul."^^
a

What between
not

striking similarity one


infamous ominous passage
one

detects and
other an-

this less
of

occurring
P' And

in

the
an

Gospel

St. Matthew
of that

this is

outgrowth they
say,

religion whose
!

note, key-

is Love
48

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

In

desert

in

the
as an

vicinity of
anchoret
and

Antioch from
374

St. Jerome
to to

lived

379,'^ "rolling in sackcloth

ashes/'^^
He
was

employ

his

own

expression.

firmly convinced
long
In hair
are

that

"chains, squalor, and


of sorrow."^"

by right tokens

what

is

probably
affords
us

his most
an

celebrated
what
tive nega-

he epistle^^
we

insight into
term

might euphemistically
character
of his my

the

cleanliness.

cloth "Sack-

disfigured proudly

unshapely
"and become
my
as

limbs," he
skin
from
as an

declares,
had
In

long neglect

black
saint

Ethiopian's."^^
the where
of

386

the
at

became

head
he

of

monastery
"

Bethlehem,
a

passed
two

apart
"

from

period
of his

about

years

^the remainder

life.^^ While

dwelling in
a

the

desert
on

St. Jerome St. Paul the the

composed
Hermit

brief
228-c.

treatise

( ?c.

341)
49

.'' In

course

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

of

this

tract

the

author

admiringly
"monks
of whom and

counts re-

the
one was

case

of certain
up

shut

for and

thirty years muddy


.
.

lived while self him-

on

barley
in
on

bread
an

water,
.

another alive
As

old

cistern

kept

five dried

figsa day."^^ subject


one

for

St. Paul,
be

the

of

the

course, dis-

it may he
grey

said, for
habit
"^^

thing, that keeping


without
of "his

had

the

pleasant unkempt.
as

of Not

hairs

nifica sig-

respects the odour


be

sanctity

which

may

presumed
is his last

to

have

pervaded

his presence,
to

request, addressed
whose

St.

Anthony
we

of

Egypt,

ance acquaint"Be
fetch
you,
so

have
he

already
to

made.
go

good,"
cloak
wrap

asked, "as

and
gave As

the
to

Bishop
my

Athanasius

poor

body

in."^^

St. Jerome

explains the matter,


"that
at

he solicited this favour

he

might

soften

his friend's

regrets

his decease."^"
60

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

Equally
reference

naive
to

is the

Roman of

Breviary^s
St. Hilarion
was a temporary con-

the

filthiness

(c.291-371),
of initiated

who St.

likewise

Anthony^^
monastic of

and

who

Christian Under

life in Palestine.^^ mortal of


are

pain

incurring

sin

and

the

consequent
the Catholic

forfeiture

"divine

grace,"
the
to

clergy

obliged,on

feast-day of
recite

this

disgusting
or

individual/^

either fact

publicly
that
quo

privately
cubabat. amictus
cum

^^

the Nee

edifying
vero

"humi semel

saccum,

est, unquam
supervacaneum

aut

lavit,aut
esse

mutavit,
mun-

diceret,

ditias in cilicio
our

quserere."*^ Rendered
this

into of that the

vernacular,

imposing
means

array

unciceronian St. Hilarion The

phrases
''was

merely
to

used

sleep

on

ground.
alone
never

piece of
himself

sackcloth
he
never

wherewith washed and


was

he clad

changed, saying
61

that

haircloth

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

thing

not

worth

the

trouble

of

ness."^^ cleanli-

And avowed
the

yet,

mechanically
of such

echoing

the

sentiments
as

dignitaries of
Cardinal
man/^ New-

Church

the and

late

the devout
to

unenlightened laity,

the

overwhelming
so

majority
Greek,
as

of

whom in the
in

Latin,
lives

to

speak,

is

exult

of

their
and

saints
in

recorded

the
are

Breviary,

their

ignorance
for

happy.
know As
not
we

Reader,
what
have

forgive them;
do ! had aim

they

they

already

occasion
at

to

serve, ob-

the St. Jerome's


was

underlying

the

basis

of

activities, literaryand
the

wise, otherof he

widespread propagation
asceticism.
To

communistic

this

end

pubHshed,
Hilarion/'^
detailed

in the
to

year
we

390, his Life of St.


owe

which

most

of

our

information and
from

respecting
which
62
a

that

sonage, per-

few

quotations

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

may

not

be

thought inopportune

in

this

connection.
After
company

having spent
of

two

months

in the

St.

Anthony/^

who

provided apparel/^
the
to

him

with

the customary withdrew He

eremitic
from

St. Hilarion
age

society at
his
an

of
a

fifteen.^^

idohsed when
as

host

such

degree that,

old

man

he visited

the spot where


he

St.

Anthony
He it upon
were

had the

passed
saint's
warm,
seems

away, bed would


to

'Svould
as

and,

though

still He
pray

affectionatelykiss
been accustomed

it."^^
to

have

with
a

his head

bowed literally
still

in the among

dust,"^*
many

practice

in
at

vogue

Oriental St. such

peoples
Hilarion

the

present day.
abhorred
about of the year

"particularly
were
. . .

monks
or

as

careful
some

expense, those

raiment,
which shaved
53

or

other

things
"He

pass

away
once

with
a

world."^^

his hair

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

on

Easter

Day,
to

and lie
on

until the The


he
never

his death
bare

was

accustomed
on a

ground

or

bed
once

of

rushes.

sackcloth

which
and
to

he
he

had used

put

on

washed,

to

saj^ that

it

was

going goats'

too

far

look Nor he
wore

for did

cleanliness
he

in

haircloth. the
one

change
almost

his shirt unless


in

was

rags."^^
St.
and

In

his

thirty-fifthyear growing
with
To
to
an a

Hilarion his whole and

found

"his eyes

dim

body

shrivelled

scabby eruption
these would odd

dry mange."^^
he had
recourse

remedy
what

disorders,

to-day

be

regarded
"he
to

as

unusually
his

expedient:
and
up

added the

oil to

former

food

sixty-thirdyear
course.

of his life followed


"^^

this temperate About rion's


a

year
was

after

his burial

St. Hila-

corpse friend

surreptitiouslyremoved
from

by
of

his

Hesychius
whence
it
54
was

the

island
to

Cyprus,

transferred

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

the
The

monastery
selfsame
for the

at

Majuma,

in Palestine.^* who

biographer glowing

is responsible St.
spite deus

description of

Hilarion's all

reprehensible bodily habits,


he has the

written, would
mourners

have
at

believe

that

present
whole
so

the
as

reinterment

beheld if

"the and

body

perfect
sweet

as

ahve,
that
one

fragrant
suppose

with it to

odours been
a

might
P^

have But

embalmed" still the


the
more

amusing
is
a

''miracle"

lated re-

of for which

saint

ridiculous

incident
Doctor

distinguished Latin

offers
that
to

the

matter-of-course
man was

explanation by
and
grace ments, gar-

''the old

enabled
of

tell from
and

the

odour

bodies

the

things
demon
was

which
or

anyone

had vice
be
to

touched, by what
the
sure,

with
"^^

what
To

individual this

distressed.

sounds

extremely
then
56
we

childish

modern

ears,

but

should

bear

in

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

mind

that

Christ

himself

was

staunch

believer
as

in the

existence

of
no one

devils;" and,
will doubt

for

odours,

surely

that would with


even

St.

Hilarion's have

personal experience
tended
to

naturally

endow

him

skill in matters that he had


not

olfactory, assuming
had the inestimable

advantage
If anyone the
that

of "divine is heard and

grace."
to

give

utterance

to

complacent
''cleanliness and
of

hackneyed
to

remark

is next

the godliness,"^^

obvious
truth

unanswerable dictum
in the
most

reply
not

is that

the

the

does

shine

forth

conspicuously
Christendom's
case

lives and

writings
saints.
to

of

venerated
in

other An-

in

point,

addition
of

those

already enumerated,

is that

St. Abraham little admirable the


the

(sixth century).
known man"^^ of this

What and

is

"perfect

is derived

chieflyfrom
and

Life of Life of

St. Abraham

the Hermit
56

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

St.
of

Mary
St.

the Harlot,

both

from

the .^^

pen

Ephraem
Abraham
he

(sixth century)
was

St. when

twenty
his bride
to

years

old^^ the

deserted
an

enjoy

blessings of
as

ascetic

existence.^^

It was,

St.
of

Ephraem
an

intimates, by "leading the


on

life

angel
that "at

earth"^^

for

half

century^*
earned looked

its consummation

he
that

perpetual
at

glory."^^

"Who

his

face, which
not

displayed
feel the ?"^"

the

image
of

of

sanctity, did
him
more

desire

seeing
St.

often virtues
so

Abraham's

simply
were

eluded

comprehension;^^
that

manifold the last should


even

they
of the

(to quote

from "if
,

verse

fourth
every

Gospel)
one,

they

be written
the

suppose
not

that

world
that
come

itself should
near

would be his

contain "Oil

the did
for

books
not

written."
; his

body

face,
never

or

that

matter

even

his feet, were

washed

from

the

57

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

day

of his conversion.
.

His
. .

ance appearand

was

just like
the

an

unfading flower,
of

in his face

purity
In

his soul

was

cernibl disof

all the

...

fifty years
the
ing cover-

his abstinence
of

he

did not
in

change
he

goats'

hair

which

had

been

clothed."^^ St. Abraham


the
most

Ephraem
a

claims

for

the relics of

St.

remarkable maladies.
nature

efficacyin healing
An his

deadly
of the

invalid, regardless ailment, had


of the any

of

but
man,

to

touch

the

vestments

holy delay

when,

presto!
"^^

''without
be

health
to
was

followed.
in

It may that

interesting
Abraham
no

observe

passing

St.
of

apparently
in

conscious
a

gruity incon-

denouncing
threatened
to

devil
possess

that

he
as

imagined nothing
Here,

him,

short
it must
are

of

"most

filthydemon"
one's the

!^^
pathies sym-

be

confessed,
with

(as usual)
58

devil

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

rather

than

with

the

saint, whom

the

mighty, Alwith

forsooth, had
a sense

failed to enrich
and
to

alike of humour similar


touched

of

justice.
which

Examples
here

those

have
plied multimeans

been

upon

might
are

be
no

indefinitely.These
isolated instances. On and

by

the
in

contrary, they
main faithwho

represent
fuF^

typical

the

portraits of
influenced of

all the

early saints,
austerities

in turn

by

their

the

lives

innumerable

successors.^^
truth fact
a

pleasant Un-

though
it is nevertheless

the
a

may that

be to some,

Christianity
of

established asceticism.
"

itself upon
If
term

groundwork
is
so

the

foundation

rotten

and

the
one

is used

advisedly

"

^what

shall

say

of the

superstructure?
"the
was

Even Lord"^^ cleanliness

St.

James,
c.

brother in

of

the of

(d.
not to

63),^*
a

respect
the

whit

better

than

rest,
the
,

according

Eusebius
69

(c.260-c.

340)

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

"Father the

of

Church
of

History/"'
St.
razor

who

cites

testimony 180).

Hegesippus
never

(jB.c.
upon

150-c.

"A

went

his head, he and


in did
not

anointed
use a

not

himself His

with

oil,

bath."^^

practice
at
asteries mon-

the

last-named

respect
the

is followed of

the

present
and

day by
nunneries
not

inmates

in Roman in

Catholic
tries" coun-

lands

(though
like

"missionary
and the

England
as

United McCabe Dieu

States), perhaps, wittily suggests,


vous

Mr.

Joseph
"le

because

bon

verrait!"^^ St. Simeon

Stylites (c.390-459), surpassed


of the those of any

whose other
was on

excesses

far

in

the

calendar
account

canonised,
revered
to

that very all.


poem

the most

of them write
a

When

Tennyson
the

desired
extreme

depicting
by

rigour

manded de-

Christian
of

asceticism, he
verses

chose

as

the

subject

his
60

St.

Simeon,^^

THE

GOLDEN

AGE

OF

FAITH

the

personificationof everything

foul

and

repulsive/^
None
the
can ever

appreciate
effects of
of

in their totality

baneful that
upon

the
the of is
no

theological
soul

doctrine

salvation

is dependent

mortification It

''its worthless
mere

shell," the body.


that filled with number. the
the dismal and
mere

cidence coinwere

ages

of

faith

plagues
It is
no

pestilenceswithout
coincidence
natural
was means

that
in

employment
and

of

averting
a

curing

disease

considered
In
at

contravention
of

of the will of God.

the all
as

light

countless
that

facts, it is

not

astonishing
Christian
human

just

in

proportion
the

belief

diminished,

length

of

life increased.^^

The but

Day

of

Judgment
of

has

come

at

last,
on

the

Place

Judgment
on

is here

earth.

Christianityis Judge,
has
61

trial.

Man,
condemned

the

Supreme

already

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC many
to

SPECTACLES
and and

her
doomed

on

counts,
destruction
us,

she
final

is

now

lution.* dissoomit list of

Let
to

the
to

not plaintiffs,

add

ASCETICISM

the

endless

her
*

sins.f
[Cf. Preface,
small refer last

paragraph.]
figures,
notes
as

t [The indicated,

superior
to

has
are

elsewhere

been in the

the

which

given

appendix.]

62

PIETY

AND

PLAGIARISM*

SOME
in the

time
of columns

ago

Franklin Rev.
of the
comment

Steiner^s

posure ex-

the

William

Sunday
Seeker from the

Truth

evoked
New

considerable York

Times,

the

New

York and

Herald,
various

the
other known

Philadelphia
newspapers

Inquirer,
in

the

land.
be
to

The

well-

evangehst,
the supreme almost the

it will

recalled,
steal from
an

had
tire en-

had

audacity

oration works of

verbatim Colonel
to

the

late

Ingersoll
the

"

present
care

address,
of the
to

according
Devil.
Yet

ist, evangelbe
said

it must that

in
not

justice
the

"Billy"
divine

Sunday
of

he

is

only
title

guilty

"lifting" long
by
of
a a

[This

was

originally Ingersoll
"

followed
the Victim

sub-title Preacher's

reading:
Penchant

"Again
for

Is

Purloining."

See

Preface.]

63

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

passages
one

bodily
has

from

IngersoU.
the C.
same

Another offence
one

who

committed
Dr.

is the
of

Rev.

Madison

Peters,

Brooklyn's

most

prominent clergymen.
strangely enough,
infidel whose steal.
has Dr.

Both

gentlemen,
the hesitated
very

have

denounced neither
The
a

thoughts

to

present writer

in his

possession
entitled

book

by

the

Rev.

Peters,

The

Beautiful
Homes
Its

Way
and

of Life: Pictures

of

Happy
Mansions.
in the

Glimpses of Heavenly
purpose, assist
a

avowed
to

as

stated in

preface, was
his last God's

the

reader
of

finding
and
at

"earthly
an

life

Path

Glory,
neath be-

eternal

resting-place
The
with

Throne."
is

Beautiful

Way

of Life
to

replete

pious

ences refer-

God,

Jesus,

Heaven,
the
usual

Salvation,
clerical and
as

etc.,

and

includes
that
were

"proofs"
Jefferson

the

opinions
not 64

of Franklin

really heterodox,

PIETY

AND

PLAGIARISM

Freethinkers much On house


a

maliciously maintain.
of
303

So

by

way

introduction. and
304

pages of

of

this treasureis to
vs.

orthodox entitled
name

wisdom "Love
is

be

found
to

selection
no

Glory,"
In

which

appended.
the that Rev. ''The the
as

the

preface

to

the

book

Dr.

Peters
no-name

expressly
articles
or are

declares

either

from Inasmuch in

author's

pen

anonymous." question
natural

the passage first person,


it is from ever, howof

in the the

is written

the

implication
pen. of the

is that

"author's"
with
two

Comparison,
most

famous
the
"

Ingersoll'slectures*

yields

following

interesting "deadly parallels":

REV. A stood old


*

DR. little

PETERS while grave


"

INGERSOLL
ago I

A stood first

little

while tomb
a

ago

by

the

of the
a

by

the

of the magcur-

Napoleon
I

mag-

Napoleon,

quote from

the unauthorised

pamphlet-versions

65

THROUGH
REV. nificent DR. tomb fit

AGNOSTIC
PETERS of

SPECTACLES
INGERSOLL nificent tomb
fit

giltand
for
a

of

giltand
for here
in
a a

gold^
dead
upon

almost
"

gold,
dead
a

almost

deity and gazed the sarcophagus of

deity, and
there,

was

great circle, and


in

the
cophagus, sar-

black where ashes


man.

Egyptian
rest at

marble,
last the restless
over

bottom

rested the
man.

at

last

of

the

ashes I

of that looked
I
career

restless
at

I leaned

the

that

balustrade about the

and
career

thought
of of
I upon the

tomb,
about

and the

thought
of of As
the the I

greatest
modern him banks

soldier world.

the
saw

greatest
modern

soldier world.

walking
of

the
templating con"

looked could
up and

in
see

the

Seine,
suicide

imagination I him walking


the banks

I
"

down

saw
saw

him

at

Toulon

of the

Seine

ing contemplatI could I


see

him mob
"

putting
in

down
of him
see

suicide.
at

the

the

streets

Toulon;
at

could

Paris head

saw

him army him

at

the of

him

Paris, putting
mob;
I

of
"

the
saw

down
see

the him army


see

could of
I

Italythe with
hand
"

ing cross-

at

the of
him of

head

bridge
tricolour
saw

of

Lodi
in

the could the


the

Italy;

the
I

his
in

him

bridge
I

crossing Lodi, with


in

Egypt in the the pyramids


him
rent

shadows
"

of
saw

tricolour
saw

his
in

hand;

him

conquer
at

the
time of

Alps
the
Rev.

Egypt,
Dr.

fighting

battles
and

the

Peters'
Col B.

plagiarism
O.

later

collected

under The

the

title:

IngersolVs
of

44. Lectures. solFs


works

authorised
not

Dresden

edition

Inger-

had

yet been 66

published.

PIETY
REV. and DR. PETERS the

AND

PLAGIARISM
INGERSOLL under the shadow
I
saw saw

mingle
with
crags.

France of the
at

eagles of the eagles


I
saw

of the him him and


of

Pyramids; returning;
conquer

him

Marengo
in

"

at

Ulm
I
saw

the the with


I

and him

Austerlitz.

mingle
France of

Alps, eagles
the
saw saw saw

Russia^ where
of

the
snow

eagles
him him him the
at at in

infantry
and wild the blast

the

Italy;

cavalry
like leaves.

of

the his

Marengo,
Austerlitz Russia

I
; I

scattered

legions
withered him and
a

winter's I
in
saw

where of the

fantry in-

snow

and
his

at

Leipsic
"

defeat

the

blast

smote

disaster

driven

by
back

legions,when
the
I

death of
at

rode

million

bayonets
"

icy winds
saw

winter.

upon

Paris
a

clutched
"

him back
;

Leipsic;
Paris
saw

like

wild
to

beast

ished banI
saw

hurled banished
escape

upon I

Elba. and

and

him and

him
an

escape

retake force
I
saw

from
an

Elba

empire
his
upon

by
the

the

retake
force
saw

empire
his
at

of him

genius.

of
him

by the genius. I
field of fate
to

frightful
where
bined com-

the where

field of Waterloo^ chance


to

Waterloo,
and wreck their
saw

and wreck

fate the

chance the former


him
at

combined fortunes

tunes for-

of
I

of

their I
saw

former
him his

king.
St. Helena behind

king.
at

And

St.

Helena,
crossed
out

with

with his
upon
sea,

his

hands

hands

behind
upon
sea.

back,
the

gazing
and

out

him, gazing
sad and

the
I

sad
I

solemn of all

solemn of the he

and widows

thought
he had

thought
and

orphans
had
made

the of

made,
of

widows

all

the

orphans^

67

THROUGH
REV.
"

AGNOSTIC
PETERS that his had all been and
woman,

SPECTACLES
INGERSOLL
the shed
I
tears

DR. the shed of the


tears

of been and who

that his

had

for

glory,
woman

for

glory;
of
woman

only
loved
his

ever

him,
heart of said been
bition. am-

thought the only


ever

the

pushed by the
would
a

from cold And rather

who

loved from his hand


I I

him,
heart of
bition am-

hand
I

pushed by the
"

cold and
as

have

said

to

French

worn

and peasant, I wooden shoes; rather have


a

myself,
would
a worn

gazed,
have been and

rather

would
in
a

lived
vine

French wooden
in
a

peasant
little hut
over

hut

with
over

shoes, and
with the

growing
and the

the

door,
of

lived
a

grapes
in the
sun

growing
kisses
; I

vine

running
and the

purple
the rather
poor

door
grapes

purple
red
in

autumn

would that
my

growing
amorous

have

been with
my

the the would that

kisses
sun
"

of
I

peasant

autumn

loving wife knitting as


out

by
the

side,
died
my

rather
poor
to

have

been
ant, peas-

day
with
my

French
sit in my

of the

sky
upon

"

door,

children and
me

knees about
have

with

my my

wife side
upon
arms

knitting
and
my my

their
; I

arms

by
with
my

would
man

rather and

children

knees around

been down

that
to

gone

their neck have


"

the the
to

tongueless
dreamless have been

would and
known un-

silence

of

rather died

lived and

dust, than
that of force known
as

unnoticed

imperial impersonation
and

except
who

by
and

those

murder
the

loved
to

me,

Napoleon
so

down silence

the the

gone voiceless

Qreat.

And

would, 68

of

dreamless

PIETY
REV.
ten

AND
PETERS thousand

PLAGIARISM
INGERSOLL dust have
"

DR. thousand
"

would that than


to

rather French have

times.

''Beautiful Way of Life/' pp. 803-804..

been

peasant
been that

imperial
of force covered blood

personation im-

and rope Euand

murder

vrho

with
tears.
"

'^Intellectual

Development.^'
Now
compare

the

Rev. with

Dr.

Peters' version
tomb of

plagiarised selection
of

another
at

IngersoU's
and

meditations
most

the minor

Napoleon,

of the

the

ences differallel par"

occurring
are

in

above-quoted
accounted for:

immediately
PETERS while
grave
"

REV. A stood old

DR. little

INGERSOLL
ago

A stood old

little

while
grave
a

ago

by

the

of the
a

by

the

of the

Napoleon
tomb fit

mag-

Napoleon^
tomb^
in

of

giltand
for
a

nificent dead

magnificent fit for a and

gold^
dead
upon

almost
"

deity almost^
the the the bottom of

black where ashes

gazed the sarcophagus of Egyptian marble,


rest at

deity

and

gazed
at

great circle
it.

In

last

the

black
at

sarcophagus of Egyptian marble


rest

of

the

restless

last

the

ashes

of

69

THROUGH
REV.
man.

AGNOSTIC
PETERS
over

SPECTACLES
INGERSOLL

DR.
I leaned

the

that looked

restless
over

man.

I trade, balus-

balustrade
about the

and
career

thought
of of I
upon the the
saw

the
I

and about the

thought
of
see

greatest
modern
him

soldier world.

career

walking
of the

the
templating con"

I Napoleon. him walking banks of the

could
upon

the
templating con-

banks

Seine,
suicide

Seine suicide.

I I
saw
saw

I I down of the
of

saw saw

him him mob


"

at

Toulon^" down

him him mob


I

at

Toulon.

putting
in the I
saw

putting
in
saw

the

streets

of the of

the

the

streets

Paris head

him army

at

Paris. head

him
army

at

of
"

the
saw

of
I

the
saw

Italy
the with hand
"

him of

ing cross-

Italy. ing
I

him of

cross-

bridge
tricolour
saw

Lodi
in

the
saw

bridge
him
in

Lodi.

the I

his
in

Egypt
of the
him

him

Egypt in the shadows I the pyramids


"

of
saw

fightingthe pyramids.
cross

battle
I
saw

the the
with crags.

him and

conquer

the the

Alps

mingle
France of the
at

mingle
with crags.

France of the
at

eagles of the eagles


I
saw

and Alps eagles of the eagles


I
saw

him I
saw

him Ulm I
saw

Austerlitz. with and the his


army

Marengo
in

"

at

him

tered scat-

and him

Austerlitz.

dispersed
blast.
I when

fore besaw

Russia, where
of the

the
snow

infantry
and wild the blast

him army

at

Leipsic
was

his

cavalry
like leaves.

of

the his

defeated

and
I

scattered

he
saw

was

taken
him

captive.
I
saw

legions
withered him
at

winter's
I
saw

escape.

him

land

Leipsic

in defeat

French 70

again soil, and

upon retake

PIETY
REV. and
a

AND
PETERS

PLAGIARISM
INGERSOLL

DR. disaster
"

driven

by
back

an

empire
own

by

the

force
I
saw

million

bayonets
"

of his him and with

genius.
once

upon

Paris
a

clutched
"

captured again
his
at
arms

more,

like ished him


an

wild
to

beast

banI
saw

St. Helena behind


upon
sea

Elba. and

escape

retake force
I
saw

him, gazing
sad
I and

out

the
;

empire
his
upon

by
the

the

solemn of the

and

of him

genius.

thought
I

orphans
he had of the shed

frightful
where
bined com-

and

widows

field of Waterloo, chance


to

made.
tears

thought
had been

and

fate the

that his

wreck
their I

tunes for-

for

of

former
saw

of
ever

the

glory. I thought who only woman


him,
who from

king.
at

And

him his

loved

had
his

St.

Helena,
crossed
out

with

been heart of

hands

behind
upon
sea.

pushed by the
at

cold
and

hand
as

him, gazing
sad and

the
I

ambition;
the
I

solemn
of

looked

gus sarcophaI

thought
and
"

the he

orphans
had
that

said have

would been and


;
a

widows of the
shed

made had

rather

tears

French
worn

peasant
w^ooden rather shoes have
a

been and who

for

his

glory,
woman

of

the

only
loved
his

would

lived
vine

ever

him,
heart of
bition. am-

in

hut,
over

with

pushed by the
would
a worn

from

growing
and

the

door

cold And rather

hand
I

the

grapes
I

growing
in

said been

and
autumn

ripening
sun;

the would that wife dren chil-

have

French

and peasant, I wooden shoes; rather have


a

rather

have with

been
my my

peasant,

would in
a

lived
vine

by
71

my

side upon

and my

hut

with

knees

THROUGH
REV. DR.
over

AGNOSTIC
PETERS the

SPECTACLES
INGERSOLL

growing
and the

door,
of

twining
affection would that
ant

their about

arms

of I been
peas-

purple
the rather
poor

grapes in the
sun;

growing
kisses
I would

me;

rather
poor

have

autumn

French
gone

have

been with

that
my

and
to

down

at

peasant

last

the of

eternal the those


I times that

pro-

loving wife knitting as


out

by
the

my

side,
died
my

miscuity
followed loved thousand have been
me

dust,
who
a

day
with
my

by
;

of the

sky
upon

"

would rather French that


im-

children and
me;

knees

their
I would

arms

about
have

rather
man

peasant

than

been down

that
to

and

gone

the

tongueless
dreamless have been

perial personative of personation]


and would sand

[imforce
so

silence

of

the
to

murder;
ten

and

dust, than
that
tion

thousand
"

thou-

imperial impersonaof force


as

times.

''Liberty
and

and

murder the

of

Man,

Woman,

known Great.
ten

Napoleon
so

Child/'

And thousand
"

would,

thousand

times.

'^Beautiful Way of Life/' pp. 303-304,

It
a

is manifest

that

both

the

lecture that

on

Intellectual

Development"
of

and

on

''The Child"

Liberty
formed

Man,
basis
72

Woman,
of the Rev.

and Dr.

the

PIETY

AND

PLAGIARISM

Peters'
as

recast

version
in
as

of

IngersolFs Way

erie rev-

printed
Curious
say

The
to

Beautiful
what the

of

Life.

clergyman
him
a

might

in his defence, I sent the

letter
closed en-

containing
a

following
and

query

and

stamped
"

addressed

envelope

for his

reply:
you

'Would

kindly
in

inform
year

me,

if it is not

too

much

trouble,
was

what

The
I
was

Beautiful Way

of

Life

first the

published?
and
vs.

ested especially inter-

in

excellent Xove
out

inspiring Glory/
and
are

lines

on

pp. very your

303-304,
much pen
to
are
or

entitled
to

should from the

like

find

whether
I

they
that the

anonymous.

observe that

in

preface
articles

the

book
one

you
or

remark the

nameless

either

other."

The
seems,
as

somewliat aroused indeed the

unusual

question,

it

clergyman's suspicions,
it would.

I had of

expected
a

stead Inof

making

clean
sent
"

breast
me

the

matter,

he

immediately

ing the follow-

extraordinary reply:
73

THROUGH
'*My
I

AGNOSTIC
Mr.
to

SPECTACLES
In the from that

dear

Kadison: that
not

reply
to

to

your

quiry inyou
not not

beg

say
was

article
my due

which
I
was

have know

reference how The


as

pen.

do

it

happened
lines
you
are

credit G.

given.
The

from is I
a

Robert

IngersoU.
which
man

book,

know,
when
were

compilation
was a

hurriedly prepared
about books of
none

young of

of

26.

Those
were

the

days

subscription sayings
were

which

composed

largely

of the

distinguished writers,
in

I had
was

thought

there

existence,

as

it

published nearly thirty


number of and the
I
am same

years

ago.
am

**I will where dealers

enclosing
you
can

you

cards

which

take
you

to

manufacturers direct addition of


my
at

wholesalers

buy
and
in

price the
a

buy,

adding
on

few

discount
cost

cards.

Out

lectures
movement to

the
has

high
grown
to

of
it

this cooperative living,


means
a

and

saving

of

one-third cards. and

one-half
your
same name

people
and

who

are

using the
the cards

Write

address

on

retain

the

after

using.''
[Here
the Rev. follow Dr. the titles of
some

of

the

books

by

Peters.] "Very sincerely


yours,

"[Signed]

Madison

C.

Peters."

Why

is the

Rev.
74

Dr.

Peters

so

con-

fiKTY

AND

PLAGIARISM
the
in the

ciliatory? Why
coupons?
sense,

unsolicited
name

rebate
common

What,
rebate issue?

of
to

have
at

coupons
If I

do

with

the

question
at

know

anything
the

all

about

ministerial

psychology,
and
ing amus-

Rev.

Dr.

Peters'
of

unseasonable

outburst

generosity,
be

otherwise
on

so

is to inexplicable,

explained only

the

theory
to

that

the

minister, in his eagerness


hit
upon the
me

propitiate me,
scheme of money

dinary extraor-

presenting
as a

with

the

equivalent of
to

modest

ment induceany
pleasant un-

refrain

from

taking
have

steps I might
The does credit the
not
was

in mind. he due of

Rev, know
not

Dr.
how

Peters it

protests that

happened
Yet the

that

given. only
too

solution
In
a

riddle

is

simple.

book

intended
very

for circulation

exclusively among
a

orthodox

folk

of
never

generation
do
to

ago

it

would

obviously

let

it

be

75

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

known

that

perhaps
in the of the Dr.

the

most

remarkable
was

literarygem
from The the
crown

entire

collection

infidel of infidels. clares apologeticallydewas

Rev. that

Peters
book the

the both

hurriedly
of

pared. pre-

Yet and
the the

absence

misprints
of
trary, con-

positivelybeautiful testifyto
been
its

appearance
on

work

having,
with

the

prepared
after

exceptional
moreover,

care.

Passage
to

passage,

is

attributed
as

such

champions
and

of

religion

Talmage,

Beecher,

Margaret
that

Sangster.

Unfortunate,
name

is it not, should have

just IngersolVs
to

pened hap-

be omitted?

To

be

quite frank,
have

the

writer
too to

of

this

article
to

would

been

only
and

willing
refrain
as a

let

bygones exposing

be the

bygones
Rev.
it not

from

Dr. been

Peters
for the

literarythief, had
of
two

istence ex-

circumstances
76

which

made

PIETY

AND

PLAGIARISM

it

impossible
interest

to

suppress

the truth The


in

even

in

the of of

of

charity.
has

original draft
the
a

this
the

article

been

possession
year, and

present writer
to not

for half
the

his

decision

have
a

article
one, at
was

published
on

is therefore

hasty
arrived
than
1892

but,
after

the

contrary, has been

perhaps

longer
First:

deliberation
In

necessary.

the year The

{afterthe publicatio
Way of Life)
troversy con-

of there

Beautiful
the
course

occurred in the

famous of
to

IngersoU
which, after
the

an

unsuccessful York

attempt

boycott
for

New

Evening
the

Telegram

having published
"Christmas of

Agnostic
a

orator's of

Sermon,"
various of the

number

clergymen
the
say,

denominations

attacked needless
to
an

views

IngersoU, who,

made

masterly rejoinders only


make.

IngersoU
assailed

could

Among

those

who

the

distinguished

heretic
77

with

especial

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

venom

and C. find
to

malignity
Peters.
no more

was

the
it
was

Rev, who

Dr.
was

Madison able
to

He

delicate

epithets

to

^PPly

Ingersoll's arguments
"foamings,"
in and his and

than

"sneers,"

"ravings."
the

Ingersoll, gentleness
assailant

reply, exemplified
which

gentlemanliness

his

preached.
and
as more

Second,
Dr.

important:
discovered
on

The

Rev.

Peters,

I
a

further
"

examination,
that is to with
are

is

practised plagiarist
is

say,

plagiarism
"

apparently
his
a

habit
thefts him
1908

him

and

some

of
In

literary
book
late

of recent and

origin.

by
as

published
I

copyrighted
entire Here is

as

have

detected
matter.

pages
a

of

plagiarised
specimen:
REV.
A
man
"

choice

DR.

PETERS without
en-

J. A
man

O.

PECK without
is
an thusiasm en-

is

an

engine
78

thusiasm

engine

PIETY
REV. without brain
move

AND
PETERS Your will
water not

PLAGIARISM
J. without
train

DR.

O.

PECK Your unless

steam.

steam.

[sic]
unless the

won't
water

move

is
over

the
. . .

is

boiling.
bank the furnace.

boiling. Better
than Don't
your
man

boil
at

Don't fires
in your

not

boil the

all.
in
a

bank

fires
To

Pithily
editor
at to

said
a man

Western

furnace.

sneering
''There done
is in
citement." ex-

sneering
a

at

ment, exciteeditor
*'

excitement:
one

Western

only
this

thing

pithily replied: is only one thing


this world and
rot."

There
in
citement, ex-

world

without "What

done

is

without
that

that.""

"To
...

rot!" It

he

is to erates genthat
to

replied.
invincible hurl

thusias [enthe that noble

Enthusiasm the

generates

impulse
on

pulses
on

drives noble
arouses

manhood achievements.
a

manhood

It

achievements.
says: "A certain is
a a

Bulwer

supernatural
in

degree
power. natural super-

heroism forces. force makes


arouses sources
man

one's

own

of
...

temerity
It
arouses

It is the of

driving
it it
men;

character;

heroism
own

in

one's

strong
of without

forces."
is

siasm Enthu-

unsuspected ability. The


enthusiasm has life
lost

the

driving
thusiasm En-

force

of character. makes

strong
suspected un-

in

his
race
"

work of

men

arouses
.
. .

the

before

sources

of
man or

starting.

Beginning
''The

of

ability. A
woman

young work
race

Chap. VI,
Career"

ous Strenu-

without
in

asm enthusiof life

(Copyright, 1908). [The fact that the copyright is entered.


79

the

has

lost

the
"

before

starting.

Article

by

THROUGH
REV.
not

AGNOSTIC
DR. PETERS
name

SPECTACLES
J. O. 0. PECK

in

the but the from

of

the
of

one

J.

Peck,

in

author,
one
so

in

that

Peters'

of
far

publishers, mitigating,
the
of-

"Beautiful of Life/' pp. 271,

Way
272,
rearneces-

273,

(Sentences
where
conform
to

only aggravates
fence
it

ranged,
sary,

of

plagiarism;
the

for

to

the Dv.
ver-

involves offence

addi-

order Peters'
sion

of

the

Rev.

tional stolen

of
"

selling
pre-

goods

and

of

plagiarised 1908.)

sumably
pretences

under

false

!]

The chosen
similar

above
at
ones

is

only

single
among notice.

instance
many tically Prac32

random that whole


came

from
to my

the of
were

of

pages

30, 31, and


for

The

Strenuous "borrowed"

Career,
without

example,

ment acknowledgby
J. O. Peck.

from

the Dr.

same

article

The it
a

Rev.
safe

Peters
to

evidently thought
make

operation
from
an

wholesale
an

plagiarisms
writer of
a

article
or

by
more

obscure ago;

generation

by

his

own

inadvertent

admission
80

in his letter

PIETY

AND

PLAGIARISM

to

me,

he

was

under

the that

impression
article of its

that

the with
was

book the
no

containing

together

acknowledgment longer
may
extant.

authorship

There
in

be

more

cases

of
the I

plagiarism
Rev. should
Dr. be

other

works

allegedly by
for
were

Peters;
astonished

speaking
if there gone
to

myself,
not.

I have of

not,

however,

the trouble
unto

finding out day


is the

definitely.
evil thereof.
Dr.

Sufficient

the

Madison

C.

Peters,
Now,

stand

up!

"Billy"

Sunday,
shake

rise! hands!*

Reverend

Gentlemen,
*

[Among
were

the the
For

publications
San the

which
Star of E.

commented
and C.
see

on

this

article

Francisco remarks
in See

the

London

Freethinker.
of
a

T., conductress
Truth
in

woman's

department
1916,
p. 121.

the

Star,
also

Seeker,
Truth

Feb.

19,

editorial

Seeker,

Nov.

18, 1916,

p.

741.]

81

SPINOZA:

TRIBUTE

*'I

thank
. . .

Spinoza^
"A

the

subtlest Sermon''

of

men."

"

Ingersoll

(in

Thanksgiving

).

"All

our

modern

philosophers^
see

though
the

often

haps per-

unconsciously^
Baruch

through
"

glasses

which

Spinoza

ground/'

Heine,

EVEN
malice and

in

the

present
hundred
of be

year

of

grace

nineteen

and

eighteen,
are

"wickedness

heart"

often
ing actuat-

charitably
those

alleged
who

to

the
the

temper

urge the

arguments
of

of

Reason
but
we,

as

against
"wicked

dogmata
of

Faith;

the do

heart,"
the
one

knowing
mean

our

hearts,

well

to

ignore

and

ignoble
function

aspersion.
of of to

That

it is
to

glorious
bitter

Rationalism
the

revive

memories

past
lot
of

that the

better future

memories in
"

may

fall

the

this

8SJ

SPINOZA:

TRIBUTE

conviction

is to

be

found and

at

once

the

chologica psy-

mainspring
of

most

potent

spirati in-

militant
we

Rationalistic
who call

ganda. propa-

Thus, Rationalists, few be,


can

ourselves

and

scattered
not

though
the

we

be the

trusted

to

let of
on

world

forget
Bruno

harrowing

picture
death,

Giordano the entine Florlit

slowly meeting Campo


dei

Fiori, in flames
friars victim
"

by

the the Roman

hands

of

Dominican

Bruno basest
can

infidel, grandest
Catholic
not

of

persecution.
let

We

be

trusted
in
was

to

the

world Michael

forget how,
Servetus
of

the

city

of
at

Geneva,
the

burned

stake
"

by

order

the senter, dis-

godly,

devilish

Calvin
prey

Servetus rabid
of

the

undying
zeal
for

to

Protestant

the

greater
we

glory
trusted
same

God.
to
a

And

similarly can
world
"

be

not
or

let the fate

forget

that

the

like
"

^piost probably death

by stoning

would

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

have
was

befallen the

Baruch

de

Espinoza
called
if

(for so
before in

great Dutch

thinker

his his

formal

emancipation)
had been
in

Judaism,

day,

the

ascendant. survived the is he

Nor,
malevolence
on

because
of

Spinoza
his
less

saintly enemies, worthy


either

that

account

the veneration
the

of

mankind
or

than the

martyred
These

Bruno last

martyred

Servetus.

imperilled

their lives,and

succumbed;

Spinoza imperilled
but
and

his life, and

escaped;

he

did

not

fail to

justify,splendidly
his
career,

consistently throughout
observation allusion
to
"

the
m

made
"

two

centuries "to die for

later
the

him

that
:

truth, they say, is hard


for it r
""I*

harder

it is to live

^^

^V?

^*

Majestic

beyond
with

words
a

in and

its

plicity, sim-

invested

noble

solitary

grandeur, heroic, the figure of Benedict


84

SPINOZA:

TRIBUTE

Spinoza
ancient

stands

at

the
the of

entrance

to

that

temple

which

sages

of

Miletus,

first of the

giant-brood
to

mighty thinkers,
Familiar

consecrated

Philosophy.
at

enough

to

Rationalists,

spiring least, is the in-

story of Spinoza's pilgrimage: his


birth, at Amsterdam,
his

in 1632; his

his

infancy,

boyhood,
by

and

then

ised youth, character-

fearless, independent
at

thinking;
of

his excommunication,

the

age

twenty-

three, by the bigoted and rabbis, who


of Testament
the power would

densely ignorant
followed the

have

junctio in-

their
and

divinely inspired
him, had

Old had

stoned
so

they

to

do

his

unceasing application,
of his life, in

during
an

the
of

remainder almost and


the

atmosphere

perfect solitude,
meditation; while, of
and
his
the

to

philosophic study

unpretentious pursuit,
humble

calling"
"

the

grinding
he
was

ing polishtq

of lenses

by

which
85

enabled

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES to

gain

meagre,

though

him

lihood. ample, live-

Such

was

the

substance

of

the

first five but Had

chapters
for their

"

chapters single
the

uneventful

enough

dramatic whole would


who

incident.
of

they
name

formed

the

tale, the
away

"Spinoza"
with
him

have
bore
no

passed
it,and
But
" "

together
there
were

well,
there ^the

would

have
two

been

tale !
to

yet

chapters
and

be

added

first

sublime

never-to-be-forgotten, ever-to-be-deplored ;
construction for

the second

tragic and
sixth: of

chapter
of
a

the

Spinoza's

system

thought

unparalleled

sheer in its of

intellectual

subtlety,and
influence
upon

unequalled
the minds
his
timely un-

subsequent
and

men;*

chapter

the

last:

death, hastened tuberculosis, in the


*

by

the

ravages

of the
with

year

1677,

when
view

It

is

not

unnatural
the

that

Agnostics
influence

should
of

satisfaction For
on

ever-widening
of

Pantheism.

the

side

anthropomorphic
86

religion, and

ip-

SPINOZA:

TRIBUTE

deathless

heretic

was

only

in

the

golden

prime

of life.
* * *

Oh, how

much of

better

pleased

would
have

the been
the
want

gentle
with
mere

rabbis

Amsterdam
execution
to

Spinoza's

than

with

excommunication

which, for
felt ! ban

of

something
constrained the fiendish

deadlier, they
to

selves themness Wit-

have

recourse

wording

of the
on

which

was

publicly July, 1656,


who

pronounced,
upon the
not

the

27th
thinker Free-

of

youthful

would

play
"

the

Prag-

matist
"The

and
members

dishonestly recant:
of the council
of

do

you

to

wit

that and

they

have of

long
Baruch

known de

the

evil and

opinions
have tried

doings
deed
of

Espinoza,
grounded
is

by
a

all

theology
Pantheism
it is
as

upon
as

the the

idea
most

of

personal
less
and
are

God,
the

Atheism;
remote

creed-

of

creeds,
well to
serve

least
a

from house

Agnosticism;
for

it may

halfway
Promised

many
a

who

destined

reach

"the

Land"

by

devious

route.

87

THROUGH
divers from
in

AGNOSTIC
and
ways.

SPECTACLES
make
not
on

methods his evil

promises
As

to

him

turn

they

have

succeeded

effectinghis improvement,
received abominable and and
every

but,

the

contrary,
about and

have the

day

more

information he has

heresies other
as

which

practised
he has

taught,

enormities

which had
many

mitted, com-

they

have have said

trustworthy
and and testified have
in

witnesses

of this, who of and the


as

deposed Espinoza,
has

the

presence

victed con-

him;
in

all this the that and

been

investigated
been resolved should of lowing fol-

the

presence

of

rabbis,
the
cut

it has

with be

their

consent

said
off

Espinoza
the with

anathematised
now

from

people
the

Israel, and

he
:
"

is anathematised

anathema
'*

*With

the

judgment
the

of the
consent

angels
of God

and
"

with blessed

that be

of He

the
"

saints, with
and
of

all this of the

holy congregation,
law, and
are

before hundred

these

sacred thirteen

scrolls

the

six

and
we

precepts
cut

which

prescribed therein,
and
curse

anathematise,
de

off, execrate,
the anathema
with the

Baruch Joshua wherewith

Espinoza

with

wherewith
curse

anathematised Elisha which and lieth cursed


are

Jericho,
the

children, and
in

with

all the be be he he he

curses

written

the

law:

cursed cursed when and

by day,
when he
up;

cursed

be and

he

by night;
cursed he be

down,
be he

he

riseth be

cursed

when

goeth out,
88

cursed

he

SPINOZA:
when the he wrath cometh and

A
Lord
the

TRIBUTE
will Lord down the
name

in; the

not

pardon
be him of

him;

fury
and

of

will
upon

kindled all the

against
curses

this man^
which
are

bring
in

written

book from the

the under will

law;
the
cut

and

the

Lord

will
to

destroy
his

his

heavens;
him
curses

and^
from of the the

undoing,
tribes of

Lord

off

all the firmament law.

Israel, with
are

all the
in

which
ye

written

the the

book Lord "We him

of
your

But

that this

cleave

unto

God,

live all of you that


or no one

day

!'

ordain

may
nor

communicate show

with him
any
nor

verbally
nor

in

writing,
the of
same

favour,
be

stay under
four
or

roof
nor

with read

him,

within

cubits

him,

anything

composed

written

by

him."^

Conceived

and

framed

in the

vindictive infamous
to

spirit of
document

the

109th

Psahn,
but
to

this

serves

recall
it

the sesses pos-

modern
no

reader, for whom


further
Short

assuredly

the significance,
Treatise
on

circumand

*Cf.

Spinoza's
Sir

God,

Man,

His pp. and


thew Mat-

Weil-Being
xlv-xlvi;

(edited
Frederick p.

by
18;
in

A.

Wolf),
ed., 1899,

Introduction,
His

Pollock,
2nd

Spinoza:
pp.

Life

Philosophy, 1880,
Arnold,
307-308.

17-18; 1905,

Essays

Criticism,

1st

ser.,

pp.

89

THROUGH stance

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

that it
the

was

Judaism

that

originally
of
"

taught

thrice-damned
to

lesson

ligious re-

persecution
lesson

Christianity
learned

the
so

which and
the

the

pupil-faith
so

well

applied

remorselessly.
of

yond Be-

recording
say that

this familiar
Lord" hath

fact,
not

suffice

it to

"the
name

destroyed Spinoza's
heavens"! malediction
that

"from

under
the
to

the very

On
which the

the
was

contrary,

designed

render
sible, pos-

result
in

more

certain, made
reverse!

fact, precisely the

For,

as

has

been
was

eloquently said, the anathema,


for

in but

effect,
a

Spinoza

"not It

curse,

blessing in disguise.
from it

freed
tribal

him
siderations; con-

entirely

sectarian

and
to

helped

make
sect
men

him
of for
no

thinker

of

no

particular
but
for

and and

particular age,
times."
*

all

all

90

SPINOZA:

TRIBUTE

To-day,

"under

the

heavens,"

the

name

more "Spinoza" signifies*infinitely

than

the

name

"Jehovah."t
thinking
not count
mere
"

Among
does
Is

men

and

women,

of

course.

The

other

kind

except

numerically.
and bombast? it is, let him Should

this be

fustian
to

any
say,

reader
the

disposed
chapter
to

feel
Sir

that

peruse,

last

of

Frederick

Pollock's

standard

work,
vol.

referred
XXV,

above.

(Cf. Encyclopcedia
Pantheism:
Its

Britannica,

p.

691;

Picton,

Story

and

Significance, passim.)

91

THE

SUMMONS

TO

PRAYER

ON
the

the

first
of

Sunday

of

October*

titudes mul-

churchgoers
assembled

throughout
in

United

States houses of heaven

their

spective re-

worship
and

and earth

petitioned
that the

the
war

Ruler

of in

raging
struggle Prayer
has and

Europe
goes

might
on.

cease.

But

the

still
not

stopped
not

the the

war.

Prayer
And

cannot

will

stop
prayer
to

war.

yet

the

President's
is

day
very

mation procladefinite will

destined

effect

and

momentous

results.

What

they
For

be?
one

thing,

the

absence will
are

of
set

an

swer an-

to

their

supplications
These

many

thousands

thinking.
*

few

of

[1914."

See

Preface.]

92

THE

SUMMONS

TO

PRAYER

the

questions
:
"

which

they

will

ask

selves them-

"Can
continue?

it be If
to

that
he

God

wishes

the is the

war

to

does, what
If he

use

of

praying

him?

does, is he really
still
a

infinitely good?
God'?
Is

Or

is he

'jealous
cries:
a

he

still the

God If so,

who

'Vengeance
or
a

is mine!'?

is he

God

demon? God does wishes


it not end the
war

"If

not

to

continue,
Is God
the

why
not
war

immediately?
Why,
in

omnipotent?
ever

fact, did

begin?
God

"Is the what


when

omniscient,
does he
of
not

or

is he

not?

If

former,
the

know
war

in advance is to

result

the

be, and
to

it is to And

cease?

Why,

then, pray

him?
a

if he

is not

all-knowing,

is he

God "Is

worthy
there
a

of the

name?
or

personal God,

is there

not?"
93

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

Many

will smother

their

doubts will thus


be

by

voutly de-

murmuring,
little the

"Thy

done,"

suspecting that they

blaspheme
Others will will

very

deity they worship.


face
of

manfully
the verdict

the
reason.

facts, and
There

accept
one

is but will

possible
forced and

verdict. conviction

Upon

them

be

the

that, whereas
ever

God
secure

his churches
man

have and

failed

to

peace,

alone

unaided,

by adopting
in

different

tactics, may

yet succeed

ushering

in the

reign

of universal

hood.* brother-

At

the outbreak
a

of the present
of

European
London

holocaust

correspondent
14, 1918),
as

the

[To-day
to

(May
me

re-read and
a

this half

passage,
have

it

occurs

that the

exactly three
of

years

passed
three the short

since

date

its how

first

publication.
a

Only
have

and words

half

years:

yet

strange

sound

"universal

brotherhood"

acquired during
interim is

that

period!
"...

All

the
or a

Like

phantasma,

hideous

dream."]

94

THE

SUMMONS

TO

PRAYER the

Literary
that used
:
"

Guide

ventured

suggestion
be

the
in

following
the

form

of of

intercession all tions denomina-

churches

''Almighty
that
trust in

God

and

Father who
art

and
the
or

Protector

of

all of

Thee^
save

only by
few:

giver

victory^
''We

and

canst

by
in

many

implore Thee^ Thy


to
save

this

great calamity which


the madness the
speakable un-

has of

overwhelmed wicked
men^

people through
the world

from

horrors

of
two

war.

"For

nearly
that

thousand
canst

years

we

have
in

been of

taught

Thou

do

all

this

virtue

Thy
at

almighty
this
time
to

will.

We

therefore

implore
and

Thee
power

manifest

Thy

wisdom

by changing
means

the

implements
and

of destruction

into

the

of

health
to

wealthy by causing strife and


and

bloodshed

cease^

by

making

known

the

reality of Thy
"If know
our

goodness.
receives
no

prayer

response,

we

shall false
in

that

Thy
that

servants

have
is

deluded nowhere there


is

us

with

promises,
life of

Thy

hand

visible
no

the

the
in

world,
whose

and
we

that
may

heavenly

Father

love

trust."

Yes, indeed; the believer


95

in

personal,

THROUGH

AGNOSTIC

SPECTACLES

beneficent, overruling Providence

will

be

obliged
to

to

put

number

of

painful

tions ques-

himself.*
the

Thus
*

world

moves

on.

[Curiously enough,
of
a

vestiges
God may
of

of

belief

in

the

ficence beneas
even a

personal
in of

persist
childhood

(doubtless training)

result,
under

at

least

part,

the

guise
who

Agnosticism.
himself conceived
as

Thus,

Sir

Henry
to

Thompson,
backbone,"
the

regarded

"agnostic
beneficence

the of

nevertheless
and Eternal

"the

Infinite

Energy

[italicsmine]
that and
he of

to

be

proved
"no The

beyond

dispute," and
"the
existence and

maintained
wars

found

difficulty"in
letter
is

misery." ions opin"

containing

expatiating
the remark "were
not

upon that
strict

these
the

introduced

with

writer

whose ""became
ness

parents,
an

significantly, although
Clodd,
is the

Baptists"
sure-footedpp. 4"-49. Arnold.

"

Agnostic,

with

the

of

Huxley."
of

Cf.
course,

Memories,
case

"

More

familiar,

of

Matthew pp.

Cf.

Bury, History

of Freedom

of Thought,

218-219.]

96

Xines

to

f
.

2)*

Seek

not

through
must

prayer prove
to

the the

goal
quest
!

of

your

desire:

Vain Bend
not

the

knee

but behest

fabled !

Sire

At Have faith

priest's
have
"

faith

in

me!
"

and

let

me

be

to

you

What

only

Man

can

be
"

friend

and

comrade

true.

97

APPENDIX

"Not
turn

one

reader and

in

hundred

takes such

forwards, as references regwire."" MylesDavies: vol. ii, p. 192 tannicw, (London,

backwards

pains to appendicidar
the AthenwBn-

1716).

THE

GOLDEN
AND FlLTn"

AGE

OF

FAITH

NOTES

Lecky,

Histmy
vol.

of European
ii, p.
112; and
must

Morals,

1869,

vol.
48.

ii, pp.

119^120; 1904.
2.

BPA-

ed.. vol. ii, p.


cannot

The

chronology,

here

elsewhere,

be

mined deter-

with

precision, and
of salt.

frequently

be

taken

with

the

proverbial grain
3.

St.

Athanasius.

Life of St. Anthony,


p. 195.

in

Nuiene

and

Post-

Nicene
4

Fathers. Ibid
p

ZndseT..yo\.iy.
196.

Cf.

Cydopmdia
vol.

of Btbhcal.
250;

Theological.

aJt Ecclesiastical LUerature.


pedia.
p

i, p.

Catholic

Encyclovol.
p.
98.
is

vol.

i, p.

554;

Encyclopmdia

Britanmca. B.P.A. ed..


to

xvui,

687;
6.

Cassels,

SMperno"MraZ KeKffwra.
has
"

The

translator
in

into."
with the

for
best

which
modern

here

substituted,
iVew
6.

conformity

usage.

(Cf

"no/M
St.

Dictionorj/.

vol.

vii, p.
St.

1645.)

Athanasius.
2nd

Life of
ser.,

Anthony.
209.

^J^^^'^'^^i^ ^J"^
Cf. White.

Nicene

Fathers.

vol. vol.

iv. p.
u.

Warfare

of Science

with

Theology,

pp.

69, 71

note,

9?

APPENDIX
7. Cf. St.

Athanasius, Life of St. Anthony, in Nlcene


Fathers, 2nd
about
ser.,

and

Post-Nieene
8.

vol. iv, p. 209.


year

I.e., from

his

twentieth

(cf. p.

39) until

his death.
9.

Cf.

Catholic

Encyclopedia, vol. i,
vol. vi, p. 466; 687; 1849,

pp.

553,

555;

CyclO'

pcedia of Biblical, Theological,and


vol. i, pp.

Ecclesiastical

Literature,

250, 251; 96;

Encyclopcedia Britannica,
Neander,

vol. ii, p. Christian


10.

vol. xviii, p.

History of the

Religion and

Church,

vol. ii,p. 229.

Cycloposdia of Biblical, Theological, and


(edited by
John
p.

Ecclesiastical
and

Literature

McClintock,
468

D.D.,

James
Cf.

Strong, S.T.D.), vol. vi,


Athanasius, Fathers, 2nd
vol.

(unsigned article).
in Nicene and

St.

Life of St, Anthony,


ser.,

Post-Nicene

iv, p.

195;

Cassels,

Supernatural

Religion,R.P.A.
11.

ed., p. 99.
to

For
see

reference Catholic For

St. Athanasius

"

as

dria," Bishop of Alexansius (art. St. Athana"

Encyclopedia, vol. ii, p.


to 34

35

").
Nicene
564. 12.

reference
see

him

"

as
"

the

great

Archbishop
Creed

of Cf.

Alexandria,"
and

ibid.,p.

(art. Athanasian
ser.,

").

Post-Nicene

Fathers, 2nd

vol. iv, pp.

xxxvii,

St. Athanasius,

Life of St. Anthony, in Nicene


ser.,

and

Post-

Nicene
13. 14.

Fathers, 2nd
Ibid.

vol. iv, p.

220.

Besides, it
to
wear

seems

to

have

been
a

accounted deceased
"

ilege great privIt is

part of the
St.

apparel of
himself that

ascetic.

related
Easter

of and which

Anthony
he

on
"

the the
so

feast-days of
of

Pentecost St. Paul

always
Hermit

wore
"

tunic

palm"

leaves

the

had

long

worn

(St.
PostSt.

Jerome,
Nicene

Life of Paulus
Fathers, 2nd
concludes
"

the First
ser.,

Hermit, vi, pp.

in Nicene

and and

vol.

301,

302);
the

Jerome
that he

the much of

treatise
sooner

in

question with
Paul's tunic with

avowal

would

take with

its merits,
"

than

the

purple

kings

their

punishment

{ibid., p.

100

APPENDIX SOS).
friend

Of
and

St. Hilarion

it is related
"

that all his

he

bequeathed

to

his

discipleHesychius
to
"

riches," comprising,

in addition
"

copy

of the

Gospels," his eminently


"

filthy

sackcloth

tunic, cowl, and


cf. p. 315, and

cloak
see

(idem. Life of St. Hilarion,


51-54,

ibid.,p. 314;
15.

pp.

above).
and Post-

St. Athanasius,

Life of St. Anthony, in Nicene


ser.,

Nicene
16.

Fathers, 2nd
Ibid,

vol. iv, p. 221.

Cf.

Lecky,

History of European
109-110;

Morals,

1869,

vol. ii,p. 117;


p.

1904,

vol. ii,pp.

R.P.A.

ed., vol. ii,

47;

Westermarck,

Origin and
Maeterlinck,
in New York

Development
Miracle Times

of the Moral Anthony, of Books,

Ideas, vol. ii,p. 355;

of Saint
Review

passim

(summarised
p.

Aug. 11, 1918,


17.

349).
Creed. Cf.

The

Athanasian

Cyclopwdia

of Biblical,
560-562;
Britan-

Theological,and
Catholic

Ecclesiastical

Literature, vol. ii, pp.

Encyclopedia, vol. ii,pp. 33-35;


Bonner,
The

Encyclopedia
Hell, pp.

nica, vol. vii, p. 398;


18.

Chri"tian

7-8, 93.
and Post-

St. Athanasius,

Life of St. Anthony, in Nicene


vol. iv, p. 221.

Nicene
19.

Fathers, 2nd
Cf.

ser.,

Cyclopcedia of Biblical, Theological,and


vol. vi, p. 468; Catholic

Ecclesiastical

Literature, vol. i,p. 508;


vol.
X,

Encyclopedia,
"

p. 473.

20.

Cf.

arts.

"

Monasticism

'*

and

"

St. Jerome

in

Cyclo-

posdia of Biblical, Theological, and


Catholic

Ecclesiastical

Literature,
Catholic

Encyclopedia, and
v,

Encyclopcedia Britannica;
Nicene and Post-Nicene

Encyclopedia, vol.
2nd
ser.,

p.

75;

Fathers,

vol. vi, p. xi. Letter XIV


ser.,

21.

St. Jerome,

(to Heliodorus), in Nicene


vol.

and

Post'Nicene
22. p. 13. 23. 24.

Fathers, 2nd
Nicene
and

vi, p.

14.
ser.,

Cf.

Post-Nicene

Fathers, 2nd

vol. vi,

pedantic allusion
Letter

to

Virgil'sMneid,

bk.

xii, 1. 59.
and

St. Jerome,

XIV
ser.,

(to Heliodorus), in Nicene


vol. vi, p. 14.

Post'Nicene

Fathers, 2nd

101

APPENDIX
25. 26. p.

Matt.
Cf.

X.

34-39.

(Cf. Luke
Post-Nicene

xii, 51-53;

xiv, 26-27,
ser.,

S3.)

Nicene

and

Fathers, 2nd
341.

vol. vi,

xvii; Catholic
27.

Encyclopedia, vol. viii,p.


Letter XVII

St. Jerome,
and
was

(to the

Presbyter
ser.,

Marcus),
21,
or

in

Nicene letter

Post-Nicene written

Fathers, 2nd
from

vol. vi, p.
year 378

This
379

the

desert

in

the

{ibid., p. 20).
Ibid., p. 21.
Cf. Nicene and Post-Nicene

28. 29. p. 22. 30. 31. p.

Fathers, 2nd

ser.,

vol. vi,

St. Jerome,
Cf. Nicene

Letter and

XXII

(to Eustochium),
Fathers, 2nd

ibid., p. 25.
ser.,

Post-Nicene

vol.

vi,

xviii; Cyclopcsdiaof Biblical, Theological,and iv, p.


831;
Catholic

Ecclesiastical
vol.

Literature, vol.
p.

Encyclopedia,
pp.

viii,

341;
32.

Encyclopedia Britannica,
Nicene and Post-Nicene Catholic

vol. xv,

327-328.
ser.,

Cf.

Fathers, 2nd

vol.

vi,

p. 299;

Encyclopedia, vol. viii,p. 341;


xv,

Encyclopcedia
in Nicene Cf
.

Britannica, vol.
33.

p. 327.

St. Jerome,

Life of Paulus
ser.,

the First Hermit, vol. vi, p. 300. vol. ii,pp.

and

Post-Nicene

Fathers, 2nd Morals,


R.P.A.

Lecky,
1904, the

History of European
vol. ii,pp. First Hermit

1869,

114-115;
Paulus
"

107-108;
"

ed., vol. ii, p. 46.""


referred
to
as

is Cf.

to-day commonly
Catholic

St. Paul
590-591, in Nicene

the Hermit."
34.

Encyclopedia, vol. xi,


the First

pp.

St. Jerome,

Life of Paulus
ser.,

Hermit,

and

Post-Nicene Ibid.

Fathers, 2nd
pp.

vol. vi, p. 301.

35. 36. 37. 38.

(Cf.

41-42,

above.)

Ibid., pp.
Cf. p. 53. St.

301-302.

Jerome,

Life of St, Hilarion, in Nicene


ser.,

and

PosU

Nicene
39. 40. 1917

Fathers, 2nd
October Cf. Addis
21st.

vol. vi, p. 306.

and Rev.

Arnold's T. B.

Catholic

Dictionary, 9th
pp.

ed.,

(revised by

Scannell, D.D.),

04-95;

102

APPENDIX
of Biblical, Theological, and Cyclopcsdia
tare, vol. i, p. 886; Protestant

Ecclesiastical Litera'
p.

Encyclopcedia Britannica, vol. iv,


Charles H. H.

505;

Dictionary (edited by Rev.


Rev.
a

Wright,
Twelve

D.D.,
Years and
41.

and in

Charles

Neil),
R.P.A.

pp.

84, 85;

McCabe, idem.

Monastery,

ed., pp.

92-93;

Popes

Their

Church, p. 163. Romanum,


die xxi with Octobris

Breviarium

(October 21st).
69,

Cf. White,
71
note.

Warfare

of Science

Theology, vol. ii, pp.


and
not

4i2, Even

according given by
one

to

the

free

wholly
"

accurate

rendition

who,

in his
not

preface, protests
the

that

if,

(which he hopes and


itself, or
a

believes is

case,) either the

lation trans-

the

footnotes, should

contain

anything which
written

faithful Catholic
passage

ought

not

to

have

written, he has

such

inadvertently." Marquess
of
text

See

Roman

Breviary, translated
vol.
even

by

John,

Bute,

K.T.,
to
an

1879,
avoid

ii, p.
the

1323,

which

I cite in the of be

in order
to

remotest

appearance

desiring

force
to

unfavourable
a

translation.

Yet
the
"

it may

pardonable
the

point out, in
to

note

relegated

to

appendix, that according


to
or

the

Latin

version

St. Hilar ion did


was

used

sleep change
used
to

on

ground.
in

Nor,
which

indeed,
he
once

he

ever

wash since

the
say

sackcloth that it
"

clothed,

he in

was

superfluousto

look

ness for cleanli-

goats*haircloth

(cf.p. 54, above). passim;


see,

43.

Newman's

works,

e.g., his

Apologia
vol.

pro 85.

Vita
44.

Sua, 1882, pp.


Cf. Nicene

323-324.

Cf. Protestant

Dictionary, p.
ser.,

and

Post-Nicene

Fathers, 2nd

vi,

p. 303. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

St. Jerome,

Life of

St. Hilarion, ibid.

Ibid., p. 304.
Ibid.

Ibid., p. 311. Ibid., p. 304. Ibid., p. 310.

aO.

103

APPENDIX
51.

Ibid., p.

805.

Cf.

pp.

51-52,

above,
1869,

and
vol.

note

42;
115;

Lecky, History of European


1904, vol. ii,p. 108;
R.P.A.

Morals,

ii, p.

ed., vol. ii, p. 46;


71
note.

White,

Warfare
Post-

of Science
52.

with

Theology, vol. ii,pp. 69,


vol. vi, p. 305.

St.

Jerome,

Life of St. Hilarion, in Nicene


ser.,

and

Nicene
53. 54.
"

Fathers, 2nd
Ibid.

Ibid.,pp.

314-315.

St. Jerome
" "

unreservedly declares that


saint's

the
55.

holy

man

Hesychius
p. 315. 99-100.

stole the

body

"

(ibid.). Religion,

Ibid., ed.,
St.

Cf.

Cassels,

Supernatural

R.P.A.
56.

pp.

Jerome,

Life of St. Hilarion, in Nicene


ser.,
course,
an

and

Post-

Nicene
57.

Fathers, 2nd
That

vol. vi, p. if Jesus

310.
was

is, of

indeed
"

(as I believe
Cf. the

him

to

have

been)

historical character.

Gospels,

passim.
58.

Quoted

with
"

approval by ")"
in John who
error

"

though
Wesley
should

not,

as

generally
sermon titled en-

believed, originated
"

(Works:
have

On

Dress
was

known
"

better. of
to

Likewise,

Bacon
ever

in

declaring that
a

cleanness
reverence

body
God
"

was

esteemed

to

proceed from

due

(Advancement
ed.,
p.

of Learning,
cf. De
statements

Wright's

ed.,

p.

142;

Kitchin's

177;

Augmentis
similar in New

Scientiarum,
in purport, York The New

bk.
see,

iv,
e.g.,

chap. ii). For


arts,

recent

by Rev.
1916;

Frank

Crane,
1918."

D.D.,
Cf.

Globe, Sept.

22,
p.

Jan.

5,

Bonner,
p.

Christian York

Hell,

122;

Literary Guide, Jan., 1913,


p.

2;

Tribune,

Sept. 1, 1917,
1918,
p.

8, col. 5;

New

York

Evening Post, July 1,


Diseases,
p.

10, col. 3;

Hutchinson,

Preventable

98;

Westermarck,

Origin and
Catholic

Development

of the Moral
114.

Ideas,

chap, xxxix;
59.

Encyclopedia, vol. vii, p.


Vita Sancti Abrahce

St.

Ephraem,
in

Eremitae, Prologus
Series

Auctoris,

Migne,

PatrologicB Cursus,

Latina,

vol.

kxiii, col.

282.

104i

APPENDIX
60.

Not,

as

has

been

commonly

but

erroneously asserted,
Lives

St. Ephraem vol. iii, p. 275.


61.

Syrus.

Cf.

Baring-Gould,

of the

Saints,

Cf.

St.

Ephraem,

Vita

Sandce

Marice

Meretricis, in

Migne,
62. 63. 64.

PatrologicBCursus, Series
Idem,
Vita Sancti Abrahoe

Latina, vol. Ixxiii,col. 658. EremitoB, ibid., col. 283.


284.

Op. cit.,Prologus Auctoris, ibid., col.


Op.
cit., ibid., col.
658.

292;
Cf.

idem.

Vita

SanctcB Lives

Marias

Meretricis, ibid., col. Saints, vol. iii,p. 278.


65.

Baring-Gould,
Abrahoe

of the

St.

Ephraem,
in

Vita

Sancti

Eremites, Prologus
Series

Auctoris,

Migne,

Patrologice Cursus,

Latina,

vol.

cols. 281-282. Ixxiii,


06. 67. 68.

ibid.,col. Op. cit.,


Cf. op.

284.

cit., Prologus Auctoris, ibid., cols. 283-284.


292.

ibid.,col. Op. cit.,

Cf
.

Lecky, History of European


R.P.A.

Morals,

1869, vol. ii,p. 117;

1904, vol. ii,p. 110;


with

ed.,

vol. ii,p. 47;


pp.

White,

Warfare of Science

Theology, vol. ii,

69, 71
69.

note.

St.

Ephraem,

Vita

Sanctae

Marice

Meretricis, in Migne,
659.

col. PatrologicBCursus, Series Latina, vol. Ixxiii,


70. 71.

Idem,
To
a

Vita
sure,

Sancti it

Abrahce

Eremitce, ibid., col. 291.


maintained saints
to
own

be

might

conceivably be
for

that
have and

it

was

sheer
as

physical impossibility
filthy as they
are

the

been
in
one

quite

portrayed in their
two

another's
are

accounts.

The either

possible alternatives,
saints
were

however,

plain enough:

the

indeed the the

as

superlativelyfilthy as
about themselves would
not
as as a

depicted, and
one

proudly
in which

told
case

truth

and be well

another
or

"

tion objecthey only slight


tion resolu-

taken;
condition

what else, in fulfilling of salvation,

regarded
as

necessary

they

were

dirty

they could

possibly be, and


I
am

supplied the
to

deficiency by falsehood.
of

content to

leave
may

the

this

exquisite dilemma
105

those

who

have

at

APPENDIX
heart the reputation and

good

name

of

the Christian

hood. saint-

72.

For

brief
see

references

to

additional
pages
ser.,

cases

of

saintly
cited;
126;
248

filthiness,
Nicene and

Lecky
PosUNicene

and

White,

elsewhere vol.

Fathers, 2nd
in
a

xiii, p. ed., p.

McCabe,

Twelve in Truth Ideals Putnam and


pp.

Years

Monastery,
11,
School

R.P.A.
p.

(quoted

Seeker, Nov.

1916,

727);

Ferrer,

Origin and McCabe),


Lectures 2nd
ser.,

of the Modern

(translated by Joseph
Cf.

ed., p. 52; R.P.A.

ed., p. 38.
pp.

IngersoU,
114, 117;

Essays
142,

(Watts),
150;

1st

ser.,

65, 111,
to

Bentham,

Introduction
pp.

the Principles

of Morals
The
73. 74.

and
pp.

Legislation, 1879,
186, 187.

11-12;

BoxaU,

Anglo-Saxon,
Eusebius,

Ecclesiastical

History, bk. ii,chap, xxiii.


2320.

Encyclopcedia Biblica, vol. ii,col.

(But cf.

note

57, above.)
75.

Cf.

Cyclopcedia of Biblical, Theological,and


356;
Catholic
954.

cal Ecclesiastiv,

Literature, vol. iii,p.


p.

Encyclopedia, vol.

617;
76.

Encyclopcedia Britannica, vol. ix, p.


Ecclesiastical

Eusebius,

History, bk. ii,chap, xxiii.


ed., pp.

Cf.

Cassels,

Supernatural

Religion, R.P.A.
Morals,

268-269; 111-112;

Lecky, History of European


1904, vol. ii,p. 105;
R.P.A.

1869, vol. ii,pp.

ed., vol. ii,p. 45;

Catholic

clopedia, Ency-

vol. viii,p. 281.


77.

"The in
a

good

God

would

see

you!"

"

McCabe,

Twelve

Years note,

Monastery, R.P.A.
224, 225,
and
227.

ed., p. 133;

cf. pp.

16, 130, 150

168,

(See also

pp.

41,

76,

134.)" Cf.
38, 125;

IngersoU, Lectures

Essays (Watts), 3rd

ser.,

pp.

Parton, Life of Voltaire, vol. i, p. 303.


78. 79. pp.

See Cf.

Tennyson's Lecky,
121,

"

poem,

St. Simeon

Stylites."
1869,
vol.

History of European
138; 1904,
vol.

Morals,

ii,

118-119,

ii, pp.

111-112,

114,

130;

R.P.A.

ed., vol.

ii, pp.

47-48,

55', Evagrius,

Ecclesiastical

History, bk. i, chaps, xiii-xiv, in Theodoret


106

and

Evagrius,

APPENDIX
History of the Church,
with and

pp.

272-276;
69,
71

White,
note;

Warfare of Science
Origin
355-356.

Theology, vol. ii, pp. Development of the Moral


See, for
of
an

Westermarck,

Ideas, vol. ii,pp.


account

80.

admirable
to

of

the

historical

tion rela-

Christianity

sanitation. White,
Cf.

Warfare
The

of Science Mysterious

with

Theology, chap. xiv.


Rev. E.

Mark

Twain,

Stranger, p. 123;
in

Conybeare,
220

Highways

and York

Byways Evening

Cambridge and Ely, pp. 153,


Nov.

(citedin New

Mail,
275-276

9, 1916);

McCabe,

Bankruptcy of Religion, pp.


1917, p, 66); Literary
p.

(cited in Literary Guide, May,


Nov.,
1914,

Guide, Jan., 1908, p. 4;


180-181;
p.

173;
p.

Dec,
38;

1916,

pp.

Feb., 1917, p. 31; Dec,


1917,
p.

March,
Truth
p.

1917,

Oct., 1917,
pp.

155;

181;

Seeker, Jan.
For

13, 1917,

17-18;

Life, June
and

27, 1918,

1019.

modern

ments developof the

side-lights, see

Ferrer, Origin and

Ideals

Modern

School

(translated by

Joseph

McCabe),

chap, vii;
Nightingale, 9) ; Literary

Hutchinson,

Preventable

Diseases, pp. 97-98; Cook,

Clodd, Memories,

inscription facing p. 124;


vol. i,p. 479

Life of Florence
p.

(cited in Literary Guide, Jan., 1914,


1908,
p.

Guide, March,
p.

46;

Nov.,

1914,
pp.

p.

171;

April, 1916,
Aug.
p.

55;

Truth

Seeker, July 29, 1916,

484-485;
Feb.
pp.

26, 71;
For

1916, p. 549; Feb. 10,

Sept. 30, 1916,


p.

pp.

631-632; 1917,

3, 1917,
745.

1917,

88;
to

Nov. the

24.

744,
of

additional of
in the
no

references
text
"

uncleanliness of
"

saints

treated

the

collection exhaustive

references
e.g..

already given

being by
tian Smith and

means

see,

Dictionary of Chris(edited by Biography


For
a

Biography,

Literature, Sects, and

Doctrines

Wace), passim;

Dictionary of Christian
and

and

Literature

(edited by Wace
of from the Christian
a

Piercy), passim.

recent

indictment written

asceticism, interesting partly

because

Christian makes

(Methodist) point of view,


no

partly because
most

author

mention

whatever
see

of the Baines-

loathsome

aspect of the subject he discusses,


Brother

Griffiths, Our

of Joy, passim;

and

cf
.

Rt.

Rev.

C. H.

107

APPENDIX
Brent
pp.

(Episcopalian bishop),Splendour of
For
see

the Human

Body,
Janet,

9 et seq.

the

of specifically psychologicalsignificance

asceticism,

Hart,

Psychology of Insanity,
pp.

p.

4;

Major
March,
The

Symptoms
1918,
pp.

of Hysteria,
41-42;
and

8-10;

Literary Guide,
Swedenhorg;
or.

cf. Emerson,

Mystic, in Complete Works,

Centenary

Edition, vol. iv,

p. 97.

108

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