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Neanderthals Time Frame: This species lived between 28,000 and 300,000 years Range: Skeletal material and

lithic artifacts thought to represent the evidence of Neanderthals have been found throughout Europe and western Asia. The Neanderthals were the first human species to live outside of the temperate zone of the world, at sites such as Weasel Cave, Russia. Physical Traits: Neanderthals walked upright, and had hands, feet and body forms similar to early modern humans (EMH). Neanderthals are recognisably human but have distinctive facial features and a stocky build that were evolutionary adaptations to cold, dry environments. Body size and shape Neanderthals were generally shorter and had more robust skeletons and muscular bodies than modern humans males averaged about 168 centimetres in height while females were slightly shorter at 156 centimetres. Brain brain size was larger than the average modern human brain and averaged 1500 cubic centimetres. This is expected, as Neanderthals were generally heavier and more muscular than modern humans. People that live in cold climates also tend to have larger brains than those living in warm climates. Skull distinctive skull shape that was long and low, with a rounded brain case back of the skull had a bulge called the occipital bun and a depression (the suprainiac fossa) for the attachment of strong neck muscles thick but rounded brow ridge lay under a relatively flat and receding forehead mid-face region showed a characteristic forward projection (this resulted in a face that looked like it had been pulled forward by the nose) orbits (eye sockets) were large and rounded nose was broad and very large Jaws and teeth jaws were larger and more robust than those of modern humans and had a gap called the retromolar space, behind the third molars (wisdom teeth) at the back of the jaw. jaw lacked the projecting bony chin that is found in Homo sapiens. teeth were larger than those of modern humans. Limbs and pelvis limb bones were thick and had large joints which indicates they had strongly muscled arms and legs shin bones and forearms tended to be shorter than those of modern humans. These proportions are typical for people living in cold climates. pelvis was wider from side to side than in modern humans and this may have slightly affected their posture.

Life Expectancy: The oldest Neanderthals appear to be just over 30. In some cases, such as at Chapelle aux Saintes, it is clear that Neanderthals lived well beyond their capacity to fend for themselves, meaning that Neanderthals took care of their elderly and sick. Diet The very oldest Neanderthals were likely scavengers, who recovered food from other hunting animals as well as used vegetation. However, by the late Middle Paleolithic, Neanderthals are thought to have become adept with using a spear in close-quarters hunting strategies. Technology Stone Tools: The group of tools associated with the Neanderthals in the Middle Paleolithic (before about 40,000 years ago) is called by archaeologists the Mousterian lithic tradition, which includes a tool making technique called Levallois; later they are associated with the Chatelperronian lithic tradition. Tool Types: Types of tools associated with Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals include all-purpose scrapers and tools made from stone flakes. The shift in tools that marks the transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic is marked by increased complexitythat is, tools were created for specific tasks rather than all-purposeand the addition of bone and antler as raw material. Mousterian tools were used both by early modern humans, and Neanderthals. Fire, shelter and clothing The Neanderthals built hearths and were able to control fire for warmth, cooking and protection. They were known to wear animal hides, especially in cooler areas. However, there is no physical evidence that Neanderthal clothing was sewed together, and it may have simply been wrapped around the body and tied. Burials and Ceremony: Some evidence of intentional burial, perhaps some grave goods, but this is rare and controversial as yet. Some evidence that babies and infants were buried in shallow pits, and others in natural fissures as well as shallow excavated graves. Possible grave goods include bone fragments and stone tools, but these are again somewhat controversial. Social Strategies: Neanderthals apparently lived in small nuclear families. There is clearly evidence for some amount of social networking, including interaction between family or neighboring groups.

Language: It is not known whether Neanderthals had a language. They had a big enough brain and they apparently had the vocal equipment, so it is quite possible. Art: Marks on animal bones are known to have been created by Neanderthals. A recent find in France appears to be a purposefully chipped face. Use the information to answer the questions:
1. Which age would this species fall into? 2. Where did they prefer to live? Why do you think this is so?

3. What is significant about their brain capacity?

4. What did they have in common with humans?

5. What were their unique features?

6. How does their skeleton/ skull compare to homo sapiens?

7. What was their diet? 8. Did they use tools? If so what did they use?

9. What was their culture like?