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Acknowledgement ........................................................................................................................................ 2 Abstract ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 4 Methodology ................................................................................................................................................. 9 Hypothesis .................................................................................................................................................. 10 Research Questions ..................................................................................................................................... 11 Literature Review........................................................................................................................................ 12 Research questions ...................................................................................................................................... 17 Conclusion .................................................................................................................................................. 23


First of all we would like to thanks All Mighty ALLAH for always helping us in every aspect of our life and with this project. We would like to thanks our instructor Professor Sajjad Naseer and our teacher assistance Ms. Maheen Haroon for making things quite simple and understanding for this course which further helped us in our research project. We would like to thanks our fellows Talha Khalid, Mohammad Iqbal Chaudhary for helping us and providing us relevant information through various sources which lead to the completion of this project.

This research paper examines the Soviet-Afghan war and Pakistans role in it, in this paper we have discussed the background of the war as well as the context in which the war was fought. Moreover, we have considered how Pakistan got involved in this war and the role that America played in the war. We have also discussed the conflict between the communist and western blocks in this study. We have divided our research into five major domains; the reasons for the invasion, the reason why soviets did not win the war, how the war ended and led to the demise of the mighty soviet empire, consequences of the war in Pakistan and how Pakistan emerged as a frontline state during the war. For the purpose of finding out answers to these questions we consulted various research articles, research studies and books to find out what scholars and researchers had to say on this matter.


In 1979, the USSR took control of the Afghan capital, Kabul, and tried through the following decade to gain control over the whole country and its people. The invasion was a failure, costing thousands of lives and having serious consequences still felt today.

To better understand the reason for the Soviet invasion and failure, first one must understand the geography and culture in Afghanistan. The land is mountainous and arid. Jagged, impassable ranges divide the country and make travel difficult. Due to these physical divisions, the people are extremely provincial, with more loyalty to their specific clan or ethnic group than to a government or a country. The people are Muslims, and extremely religious and conservative. The majority ethnic group is the Pashtun, but there are over ten minority groups.

Starting in the 1950s, the USSR began giving aid to Afghanistan. The Soviets built roads, irrigation and even some oil pipelines. In the 1970s, a Communist party overthrew the monarchy and tried to institute social reforms. The rural populations saw land distribution and women's rights as alien to their traditional Islamic culture, a culture in which polygamy, covering of women, and blood for blood practices are accepted. The Communist governments in Kabul in the 1970s lacked the popular support of the rural population.

The Soviets sent troops into Afghanistan in 1979 for a number of reasons. First, they wished to expand their influence in Asia. They also wanted to preserve the Communist government that had been established in the 1970s, and was collapsing because of its lack of support other than in

the military. Third, the Soviets wanted to protect their interests in Afghanistan from Iran and western nations.

The Soviets brought in over one hundred thousand soldiers, secured Kabul quickly and installed Babrak Karmal as their puppet leader. However, they were met with fierce resistance when they ventured out of their strongholds into the countryside. Resistance fighters, called mujahidin, saw the Christian or atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as of their traditional culture. Proclaiming a "jihad"(holy war), they gained the support of the Islamic world. The US gave them weapons and money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against the Soviets. They would attack or raid quickly, then disappear into the mountains, causing great destruction without pitched battles. The fighters used whatever weapons they could take from the Soviets or were given by the US. Decentralized and scattered around Afghanistan, the mujahidin were like a poisonous snake without a head that could be cut off. There was no one strong central stronghold from which resistance operated.

On the fatal day of 27 December 1979 three soviet motorized division cross the AMU river and advance toward mizare-shareef. On 28 December 1979 more soviet division with the soviet air force providing air cover, oquppied Afghanistan Herat province before continuing towards khandhar and Ghazni. Thus within four days of the invasion four of the largest cities of Afghanistan had come under the Soviet control. The red army was now at Pakistans door step. At the time Pakistan was passing through internal instability and international isolation, the soviet arriving at Pakistans border dramatically changed Pakistans situation.

Pakistan immediate reaction was to call for the unconditional withdrawal of soviet forces from Afghanistan. Six western powers also condemned the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and

describe it as a naked aggression and a violation of international laws. That situation alter the cold attitude of the US and its priorities, as Pakistan emerged the third central strategic zone in the path of soviet southward drive. The foreign policy makers of US designed Pakistan as a frontier State against the expansion of communism, Pakistan which shared a 1500KM long border with Afghanistan had become extremely vulnerable to the perceived Soviet threat.

The United States took the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as serious threat to American interest in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. The Soviet invasion came about within a year of the fall of the Shah in Iran, a reliable American proxy, which looked after Washingtons interest in the region. The developments in Iran and Afghanistan were considered as extra regional and intra-regional threats to the security and stability of oil rich and strategically located Gulf region. The US policy makers now began short-term and long-term planning for the defense of Washingtons own interest and these could be better served, if the defense of the states exposed to potential Soviet penetration was shored up. As Pakistan shared a long border with Soviet occupied Afghanistan, Islamabad became the most geopolitically relevant country in Americas global strategy. The United States calculated that Pakistan could be very useful for its policy goals in the Persian Gulf because of proximity and linkage with the region. Pakistan was, now considered a frontline state in the new American geopolitical strategy. The Afghanistan crisis had shifted the focus of super powers struggle for supremacy eastward, from West Asia towards South Asia. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan gave Pakistan the unique strategic position of being surrounded by three great powers, i.e. the Soviet Union, China, India, the geographic pivot of history and strategically the most important zone in Eurasia. Pakistans security was linked with the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and the Gulf region.

When the Soviet Union intervened in Afghanistan and Pakistan, General Zia-ul-Haqs military regime was ruling in Pakistan. There were suspicions about his government in the West. His government was considered by many in the West as illegitimate, and oblivious of human rights. However, after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan his government got quick legitimacy in the West.

In 1989, Soviet forces pulled out of Afghanistan. Fifteen thousand Soviet soldiers and countless Afghans had been killed in the decade-long war. Billions of dollars had been spent each year to support troops in Afghanistan. Unable to defeat the mujahidin and pressed by world opinion to leave Afghanistan, Soviet leader Gorbachev decided that the USSR had to get out. In part, the tide of the war had been turned by the introduction of US-made shoulder-launched antiaircraft missiles in 1987. With these missiles, the mujahidin shot down Soviet planes and helicopters every day, increasing the monetary and human cost of the war, and making Soviet strike tactics ineffective. Demoralized and with no victory in sight, the USSR's forces left Afghanistan.

The war had far-reaching effects on Afghanistan, the Soviets, and the US. Several million Afghans had either fled to neighboring Pakistan for refuge or had become internal refugees. In addition, millions more had died from starvation or from the Soviet bombings and raids. Among the survivors were a generation that had known only war, hatred, and fear. Homes, animals, and precious irrigation systems were destroyed, leaving the country barren and in ruin. Also, thousands of miniature land mines dropped by the Soviet planes continued to pose a hazard to the Afghan people long after the war with the USSR ended.

The USSR was also affected greatly by its failure. It lost fifteen thousand troops, but the true damage done was in the degradation of its image, and the billions of dollars it spent during the war. This fall from invincibility and vast expenditure of money to finance the invasion in part caused the USSR to fall apart in the early 1990s.

One long-term effect of the Soviet invasion and pull-out was the establishment of a weak state full of religious hatred and hatred of richer nations: a breeding ground for terrorism. Though supplying the Afghan resistance with American guns and anti-aircraft missiles seemed like a good idea for the US in the 1980s, and was the reason for the Soviets defeat, now as the US invades, they are met with their own guns. The significance of the sophisticated guns has yet to be determined. In light of the US involvement today in Afghanistan after the September 11th terrorist attacks, it is especially important to understand the history of the Soviet's involvement there so we can avoid making the same mistakes.

Soviet-Afghan war is a historical event and it is based completely on facts, so to conduct this research we have done no primary research, but a lot of secondary research has been done to collect the information about this topic. We took help from the number of articles. Research papers were also help full in collecting information. A thesis named impact of the AfghanSoviet War on Pakistan (From 1979-1989) written under the supervision of Pakistan research Repository was also used to make our research perfect.

At the time of the start of the soviet-afghan war the Pakistan was an isolated state internationally, but due to this emerging situation it became a central strategic zone and Pakistans position changed overnight, but we believe that the impact of this war on Pakistan was not favorable. Hypothesis# 0: The impact of Soviet-Afghan war had unfavorable consequences for Pakistan. Hypothesis# 1: The impact of Soviet-Afghan war led to favorable consequences for Pakistan.

Research Questions
Q1: Explain how the USSR became involved in a war in Afghanistan (1979-1988)? Q2: What were the obstacles that made the war unwinnable for the Soviets? Q3: How did the war end? What was the effect of the war on Afghanistan and Soviet Union? Q4: What were the consequences of the war in Pakistans political and social condition? Q5: How soviet-afghan war became the turning point for Pakistan and made Pakistan a third central strategic zone?

Literature Review
In their book The other side of the mountain; Mujahideen tactics in the soviet Afghan war Jalali and Grau (N.A) have given a detailed explanation of how the Afghan Mujahedeen resisted a technologically superior foe . Many experts believed at the time that with their unprecedented firepower the Soviets will prove too much for the Afghans but with native knowledge of the terrain and each tribe using different tactics against the soviet army, the soviets found themselves in a trap they could not get out of and after a decade long war the mighty soviets had to withdraw. When the invasion took place no one had given the Afghanis a fighting chance but with help from the West and the emergence of Pakistan as a frontline state, withdrawal was the only option that the soviets had.

Anthony Arnold, in his research, compares Soviet Union with a sick old man and Afghanistan as the pebble which this exhausted sick man stumbled on and fell. There are quite a number of authors who suggest Afghanistan as one of the considerable factors in the demise of the USSR, when the Soviet forces were compelled to withdraw from Afghanistan (April 15, 1989), the Soviet Union was beginning to undergo the initial stages of drastic reforms from above since the reign of Alexander II. At the eve of Russian invasion of Afghanistan, the rotting effects of absolute centralism and autocratic power on the national psychology. Thus the communist agenda of the soviets not only had pressures from the capitalist block but there were also pressures from within that led to the demise of the mighty soviet empire. Some sources focus on public opinion and the eventual escalation of protests during and then after the war, starting with underground papers and protest demonstrations at soldier's funerals and grave sites (which were on small scale). Although any protest was being immediately and severely put down (for the very

act of opposition against the political establishment was regarded as high treason) no force could control the popular discontent of the Soviets, thus, protests were becoming more frequent and better populated. "I believed - I really believed," said a retired Soviet schoolteacher, of her lifelong party membership, in fall of 1990.

The article Pakistans role in the Afghanistan wars outcome by Bruce Riedel (2010) compares the U.S.A- Afghan war to the soviet invasion of Afghanistan. He suggests that while the Americans goal of intervention in Afghanistan was self-defence after the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon in 2001. The Soviet invasion in 1979 was a different matter. Its goal was to shore up a communist regime that was on the brink of collapse. The Soviet leadership wanted an Afghanistan that would be like other Soviet satellite states, that is, under virtual Soviet imperial rule with only the faade of independence. The author has termed Pakistan as a Safe haven for the Americans. Pakistan played a crucial role in the Soviet invasion and with the help of American aid did everything in its power to drive the Soviets way form the neighboring Afghanistan. Today, again Pakistan plays a very crucial role in the success of the United States in Afghanistan, while many experts believe that Americans will suffer the same fate that the Soviets did, they undermine the key role Pakistan can play in making the Americans successful as opposed to the Soviets.

The article Soviet confrontations with Pakistan during Soviet-Afghan War (2004) states the direct encounters Pakistan and Soviet forces had during the Afghan war. Initially, Pakistani military was very concerned about the Soviet move, but subsequent analysis of the deployments

of the Soviet forces showed, that there was no imminent threat to Pakistan. Instead, for the first years of the war in Afghanistan, Soviets were predominantly engaged in establishing bases and keeping urban areas under control. From early 1981 onward, however, the number of flying units detached to the 40th Soviet Army was increased, and their aircraft and helicopters started patrolling along - or even behind - Pakistani borders. Initially, reconnaissance operations were flown, but very soon first attacks against camps for Afghani refugees on Pakistani soil were undertaken, as these were places where Mujahideen used to pull back for rest and training, and where Pakistani military services recruited fighters for the war in Afghanistan. Immediately, Pakistan turned to the USA with a request for better equipment, including new aircraft (foremost A-7 Corsair), SAMs, radars, as well as items for ECM and ELINT. By late 1981, the situation changed in so far, that the Pakistani military services were directly involved in organizing, supporting and managing the Afghan Mujahideen, and subsequently the USA decided to join this effort more intensively as well. Initially, the US offered support in arms and supplies for Mujahideen, but very fast, but, after aircraft of the V-VS started to operate over the Pakistani border more aggressively, a decision has been brought, to re-supply the PAF with F-16s. In December 1981, a letter of agreement between Pakistan and the USA was signed, preparing the way for the Pakistani Air Force (PAF) purchasing 40 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters. The author has stated various encounters between the Pakistani and Soviet army and air forces in which the Pakistanis mostly came out on top due to the latest technology provided by the Americans. The article shows that not only did Pakistan provide tarining to the Afgan Mujahideen but fought the war like it was their own war. This interview with Khaled Ahmed (Consulting Editor, The Friday times, Lahore , Pakistan) conducted by Harry Kriesler (2002) analyzes the impacts of the Soviet-Afghan war on Pakistan.

The Pakistani president General Zia-ul-Haq took advantage of the war and acquired massive aid from the U.S.A as Khaled Ahmed states, He definitely benefited from the largess of the United States. The economy was in a crisis when he took over, and the money that came later was a price for his cooperation in Afghanistan. In Afghanistan, he encouraged the formulation of religious militias, headed by people who were of dubious character but who served his purpose. Pakistan also chose its favorites, which I think was a shortsighted policy, which finally fragmented Afghanistan as a country. If there was a feeling that Afghanistan should become the strategic depth for Pakistan that was defeated, because we allowed that country to become disunited. As events later showed, it was Pakistan which became the strategic depth to the Taliban ideology. However, the consequences of the war were quite unintended and according to the author participating directly in the war was a mistake President Zia commited due to his short-sightedness, That tended to change Pakistan's society, because these warriors lived in civil society and were exempted from the law because they carried arms and were trained as military people. They were also protected against the normal process of law by the intelligence agencies. That led to a gradual diminution of the writ of the state in Pakistan. Then we reached a point when the state did not exist at all in certain cities. For instance, in Karachi we got used to having no state jurisdiction at all. The "exempted" militias ran the city and also ran the government. This article was published in the Middle East Journal by Marvin G. Weinbaum (1991) titled War and peace in Afghanistan: The Pakistani Role. The author states that the without Pakistan there could have been no effective resistance and little prospect of success against the Soviets. The Pakistanis allowed the Mujahedeen to organize military operations and Islamabad became an international conduit for the delivery of international arms for those fighting in Afghanistan.

In negotiations leading to the withdrawal of the Soviets Pakistan played a pivotal role, it opened up its borders and allowed 3.2 million Afghanis to take refuge in Afghanistan

Research questions
Explain how the USSR became involved in a war in Afghanistan (1979-1988)? Exactly why the Red Army wound up in direct military conflict, embroiled in a bitter and complicated civil warsome 3,000 kilometers away from Moscowis a point of historiographical uncertainty. The evidence available suggests that geopolitical calculations were at the top of the Kremlins goals. These were arguably to deter US interference in the USSRs backyard, to gain a highly strategic foothold in Southwest Asia and, not least of all, to attempt to contain the radical Islamic revolution emanating from Iran. The subsidiary goal of the invasion was to secure an ideologically-friendly rgime in the region. Furthermore, the fateful Politburo decision was not conceived by Brezhnev, but by a small, cabalistic group of the Soviet Unions most powerful figures. Little known and appreciated for its significance, the SovietAfghan War was one of the turning points of the late Cold War. On the evening of the 27th of December 1979, the Afghan government was effectively decapitated. During Operation Storm, a seven hundred-strong unit of Soviet special forces infiltrated the city of Kabul. They were disguised as regular Afghan soldiers, and had come to fulfil one objective: killing Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin. Two days earlier, the Fortieth Army had moved in thousands of armed personnel and vehicles from the Soviet border town of Termez. Within several weeks, all of the countrys cities and major roads were under Soviet occupation. Upon receiving intelligence reports to this effect, Jimmy Carters National Security Advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, wrote to the President: We now have the opportunity of giving to the USSR its Vietnam War. Indeed, he could add retrospectively, for almost ten years, Moscow had to carry on a warthat brought about the demoralization and finally the break-up of the Soviet empire. The most basic, yet contentious question is that of why the army was

brought in, to begin with. he Soviet Unions invasion of Afghanistan was primarily motivated by geopolitical interests in the region. Another obvious factor in the decision was related to the soft power commitments of socialist ideology, which predisposed the Soviet Union to safeguard a friendly rgime. After all, in the zero-sum game between both Cold War superpowers, one ally lost almost certainly meant an enemy gained. At this stage, however, a key historiographical problem arises. This is namely the profound difficulty of disentangling the two motives. Was raison dtat or ideology a more important factor in shaping the thinking of Soviet strategists in the late Cold War? It does not help that the Politburo was inherently secretive and opaque, leaving behind very few reliable records of the groups conversations. In practice, however, both motives were inextricably mixed. Soviet foreign policy, as Stalin had designed it, embodied this ambiguous approach. Explained Ronald Suny: In a circular way ideology was subordinated to state interests, but interests were understood in terms of ideology. It is imperative to note that the Soviet Union was ideologically-bound to the socialist rgime in Kabul. At their core, the Politburos aims were primarily statist. But the Soviets acted as selfinterested international players, concerned with advancing the USSRs own position in the Cold War contest.

What were the obstacles that made the war unwinnable for the Soviets? The Soviets faced several obstacles making their chances at winning the war not possible. The first obstacle occurred at the end of January of 1980 as the Soviet units began to seize Afghan cities and major highways. After securing these locations, the Mujahedeen began to resort to guerilla warfare. The Mujahedeen were essentially the Afghan rebel groups who fought against

Soviet influence. As the war continued, confrontations with guerilla warfare cause the confidence of the Soviets to decrease while the confidence of the Afghans increased. To make matters worse, the US began providing foreign assistance to the mujaheeden with the providing of transport vehicles, weaponry such as missile launchers and food. With all this assistance, the usage of chemical weapons or more troops for the Soviets would not help at all. Eventually in the April of 1988, the Soviet troops had withdrawn. How soviet-afghan war became the turning point for Pakistan and made Pakistan a third central strategic zone? The war ended in 1989 through a stalemate with both sides suffering heavy losses. The Soviets withdrew in 1989.The war caused the death of 1 million Afghans, and fleeing of 5 million Afghans to neighboring countries. Afghanistan, as a result of the war, entered a state of civil instability, which still continues into present day. The war caused 50,000 Soviet casualties and loss of 1000 pieces of equipment and 450 aircrafts. As a result of the war, Soviets were in billions of dollars of debt, which severely weakened the USSR. Their losses also caused the people to question the Soviets authority. It is arguably the factor that caused the downfall of the Soviet Union. What were the consequences of the war in Pakistans political and social condition? Political Impact The impact of the Soviet invasion of the Afghanistan and the ensuing guerrilla war by the Mujahedeen is still visible in Pakistans politics. The politics era and the conduct of the war show an opportunistic approach, and preservation autocratic rule in Pakistan. General Zia-ulHaqs military rule damaged democratic values, institutions, political parties, autonomous

groups, free judiciary, and responsible press all of which promote democracy. In eleven years of his rule the focus of his attention was on the western borders of Pakistan. He managed to stay in the office through constitutional amendments, which served to complicate Pakistans politics so that after him the countrys transition to democracy was not smooth. The secret arm of the state and military, made inroads in the internal political system. There are many analysts who speak out that the Inter Service Intelligence owing to the Afghan-Soviet war got the chance to destabilize of democracy in Pakistan. A prominent scholar S.Akbar Zaidi writes in his book that, The ISI, which played a dominant role in the decade of 1980s, and other bureaucratic and hierarchical non-democratic organizations and institutions began to interfere in Pakistans democratic transition and continued to create problems even after war ended. In 1988 after General Zias death in the plane crash, the army decided to return to the barracks and its role in Pakistans politics became less visible. The new democratic government of Benazer Bhutto 1988-1990 before it took oath was said to have assured the Army Chief that her government would respect the interests of the military. The world community had very strong reservations about Pakistan, its stubborn pursuance of nuclear weapons program. It was only in the aftermath of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan that the West felt it expedient to ignore both objections. The usual pattern in international relations is that great powers influence their smaller allies through economic and military aid. If the recipient state is heavily dependent on aid the influence of the donor state becomes greater. Sometimes the influence reverses, as was the case in US-Pakistan relations in the decade of 1980s, when the cold war was at its height and ousting the Soviet Union from Afghanistan was the American priority. Thus in the period 1979-1989 Pakistan was extremely important for the US, being a key ally of the US in Afghan-Soviet war. During that period, Washington did not try to stop

Pakistans nuclear program because it was important to keep Islamabad happy. On the eve of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, relations between Pakistan and the US were not in a good state. The US was ready to make any compromise to make Pakistan a frontline state therefore made changes in the Symington amendment, which before denied aid to countries developing nuclear weapons. The US saw Afghanistan on the top of the list of its priorities and Pakistan was the only source that could help in the achievement of this objective. Pakistan fully exploited the situation and continued its nuclear program.

Social Impact Over the decade there have been various internal and external factors and crises that have had a deep direct or indirect impact on Pakistans society. The Afghan-Soviet War 1979-1989 is one such crisis. During the war General Zias unelected government held the reins of power in Pakistan. As pointed out earlier, he seized office in July 1977, through a coup, against the first democratically elected Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. It is said that Zia had the backing of the US and the right wing Islamist parties. He kept on postponing the elections he had promised soon after he had seized power. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan strengthened his hold on power and gave him an opportunity to stay in office for another nine years after the Soviet invasion. In 1977 Bhutto was discredited because of alleged rigging of elections and the Islamist parties used opportunity to counter his slogan of Islamic socialism with that of Nizam-e-Mustafa.

How soviet-afghan war became the turning point for Pakistan and made Pakistan a third central strategic zone? At the time Pakistan was passing through internal instability and international isolation, the soviet arriving at Pakistans border dramatically changed Pakistans situation. The United States took the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as serious threat to American interest in the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean. The US policy makers now began short-term and long-term planning for the defense of Washingtons own interest. As Pakistan shared a long border with Soviet occupied Afghanistan, Islamabad became the most geopolitically relevant country in Americas global strategy. The United States calculated that Pakistan could be very useful for its policy goals in the Persian Gulf because of proximity and linkage with the region. Pakistan was, now considered a frontline state in the new American geopolitical strategy. The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan gave Pakistan the unique strategic position of being surrounded by three great powers, i.e. the Soviet Union, China, India, the geographic pivot of history and strategically the most important zone in Eurasia. Pakistans security was linked with the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and the Gulf region.

Pakistan emerged following the end of the Second World War after a long-drawn out struggle against an imperialist power and an oppressive religious majority.Pakistan had to deal with the Kashmir and Pushtunistan issues related to legacies of the imperialism. It was pertinent difficult for Pakistan to face hostility on two borders and consolidate its territorial integrity and sovereignty. Pakistan were facing crisis with its neighbor, India were building pressure on disputed territory on Jammu & Kashmir whereas at the western border, Afghanistan were demanding the rights of Pushtuns with its identity across the NWFP. In such circumstances, Pakistan prevail weak civilian leaders and confident top brass of the military were convinced that Pakistan need a strong Ally. Thus, Pakistan decided to support the west in opposing communism and signed four US-sponsored security pacts. However this agenda didnt favor Pakistan due to the military showdowns with India in 1965 and 1971 and as a result PAK-US relations lost much of their significance after the secession of East Pakistan. During Zulfikar Ali Bhutto era, tension on the border eased as Bhutto signed an treaty with India on Simla to normalize its relationship. Moreover, as an agreement Pakistan 90,000troops were release by Indian to strike positive relations. Furthermore, Afghan-Pak issues were resolving with strong Pakistan foreign policy that establish Afghan cell. When Zia took over Bhutto government, he more or less follow the same policy of Bhutto and in addition Zia Ul Haq Islamization strengthen the Islamic policy against the pro-communist government of Afghanistan and military establishment played an active role and increased its involvement in Afghan affairs.

During the 80s, Iranian revolution toppled Shah government which dramatically changed the geo-political priorities of the west. US policy in the Middle east focused on two pillars, Saudia Arabia and Iran. With the revolutionary policy in Iran, US was at a loss about protecting its strategic interest in Gulf region and therefore needed a new client that could protect US National Interest. Therefore, US eyes were on Pakistan to support in Middle East that was willing to assume the role previously played by Iran for the US in the region. Zia in his tenure, promoted religious extremism and intolerance with impunity and Islamic terminology which was used to stir religious fervor among the masses like Jihad,Muhajideen became the slogan to enlist people to fight against the Soviets. As soviet union which was a rival of super power invaded Afghanistan and thus, Muslim across the world join hands with Pakistan to fight under the agreement of Jihad against the Soviets. Madrassah culture were establish in Pakistan to fight with the soviets and it was succeeded. Afghanistan were facing economic and political crisis by that time, and US policy stressed more on Afghan affair than Iraq-Kuwait War. As a result, the successor Russia federation stopped backing the Najibullah regime in Afghanistan and therefore Mujahideen took over Kabul and it became an Islamic state. Pakistan had great short & medium advantages from the Soviet war with healthy economic and weapon aid. After the war, Pakistan faced once again on its nuclear programed and US had suppressed it. At that time, Pakistan was on the verge of having Nuclear power but US pressure did not give Pakistani the certification which was why US President stopped its aid to Pakistan. Pakistan surveillance was collapsing during the civilian government Benazir-Nawaz Sharif as sanctions were imposed on Pakistan of conducting its nuclear test. With no options left, Pakistan

could only revive through its policies and trade ties and Central Asia would have given a strategic development for Pakistan to trigger its economy. However, Afghanistan had been embroiled in civil war during the 90s. New elected government of Rabbani were not ready to accept Pakistans influence and instead they developed friendly ties with India and Iran. This displeased Islamabad as they played a proactive role in Afghan affairs and they wanted a close relation with Kabul. Later on, Pakistan were severally hit when their Trade convoy was abducted in Afghanistan by the Taliban (armed forces). These forces were the creation by Zia to fight with Soviets. Taliban which had strong connection with Pakistan military establishment provided a new opportunity to the Pakistani government as they were searching for the replacement of Hekmaytar a protg of Pakistan during the afghan jihad. With the support of Islamabad, Taliban became extremely unpopular internationally for it enforced extremely harsh interpretation of islam and oppressive polices especially with regard to wome. From here onwards, Talibanisation took place under the leader of Osama Bin Laden who also fought in the afghan-soviet war. The hosting by the Taliban of Osama Bin Laden exasperated the US. The tragedy of 9/11 left Pakistan no choice but to detach itself from the Taliban as the American President under the Junior Bush made it clear that Washington would make no distinction between those who carried out the attacks and those who sheltered the perpetrators.US secretary of State Condoleezza Rice stated United States cannot compromise on its National Interest and Sovereignty, and from here, Pakistan had to join hands under the military ruler Musharraf with US to fight against terrorism, given the fact that it was a threat to them. Till date, Pakistan has been facing the heat of the 9/11 incident and every other day in

Pakistan has been a 9/11 with twice as many lives lost with the creation of Nato Attack. Pakistan macroeconomic indicators have suggested that the country has witnessed many drastic cuts to the economy. One can see their money at foreign direct investment has reduced considerably but moreover even a number of Pakistanis have withdrawn their capital and shifted abroad to safer havens. With the creation of Taliban people of Pakistan has not only faced threat but even foreigners dont keen to visit Pakistan and one of recent examples could be the Sri Lankan Cricket team attack in Lahore. The people in the country are susceptible to terrorist attacks which have been a high occurrence now. Pakistan faces great tension from Afghanistan where theres even a city where people are paid prize money on killing Pakistanis. Coming back to the topic what has Pakistan achieve by the Afghan-Soviet war, when you have no investor to invest in such an instability country. The Post War has fragile Pakistan leaving them in crisis, conflicts on its border, and ruining its national interest. Zia Islamization has created loop holes in Pakistan itself. If Pakistan would have focused on its nuclear program than diverting its policy towards Afghan-Soviet war, they wouldnt have faced the sanctions in 90s Pakistan is still going through this trauma and with the likelihood of US forces leaving Afghanistan in 2014, will not only leave Pakistan in doom, but could face severe consequences in the future. et-afghan+war&ots=QORe_euRCz&sig=zviK_xfdajuv2w6xucSdK7fgBrk