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MASONRIES STRUCTURES

PART 1 2013-2014

MASONRY TYPES
Masonry with insufficient reinforcement to be considered reinforced masonry (such as confined masonry, confined masonry with reinforce in horizontal joints, masonry with reinforced core). The confinement elements and the constructive reinforcement, under the present CODE shall not be considered for gravitational and seismic loads safety checking. Masonry provided with reinforced concrete elements for confinement in the vertical direction (column ties) and horizontal (beam ties) cast after the masonry laying. Confined masonry to that in the horizontal joints, steel or FRP reinforcement is provided, in order to increase the shear strength and the ductility of the wall. Masonry composed of two layers of masonry parallel with an inbetween reinforced grout space, with or without mechanical bond between layers and with the three components working together to retrieve all types of requests. Masonry consists of one or more layers of bricks with mechanical bond between layers, framed in a reinforced concrete/steel frame, made after the frame erection.

ZNA (URM)

UNREINFORCED/SIMPLE MASONRY

ZC (CM) ZC+AR (CM+RH)

CONFINED MASONRY CONFINED MASONRY AND REINFORCED IN HORIZONTAL JOINTS

ZIA (RCM)

REINFORCED CORE MASONRY

ZIC (IM)

INFILL MASONRY

STRUCTURAL MASONRY WALLS TYPES


MASONRY STRUCTURAL WALL Wall intended to resist against the horizontal and vertical forces acting essentially in its plane. CR6-2014: Masonry walls that meet the minimum geometric data from paragraph 5.2. who continued to the foundation and erected from materials referred to Chap. 3 and 4 are "structural walls" and will be calculated and composed according to the provisions of this CODE. Perpendicular wall to another structural wall, which is working on taking vertical and horizontal forces and contribute to its stability, in buildings with floors that download in a single direction, parallel walls to the main elements of the slab, which have no charge from direct vertical forces, but which take up the forces acting in the horizontal plane, are defined as bracing walls Wall that is not part of the main structure of the building, the wall of this type can be suppressed, without prejudice to the integrity of the rest of the structure, but only after a specialized technical expertise (survey). CR6-2014: nonstructural wall will be designed to answer the following charges: self-weight; weight of objects hanging on the wall; loads perpendicular to the plane (out of plane) from human action or earthquake. (National Annex tab. 6.12 NA SR EN 1991-1-1) Infill partition wall embedded in a RC/steel frame, which is not part of the main structure but which, under certain conditions, contribute to the lateral stiffness of the building and seismic energy dissipation; suppression during building exploitation or creating new openings for doors/windows in a these walls will be made only on the basis of justification by calculation (technical expertise or survey) and appropriate constructive measures. This wall will be designed to take orders from: when interacting with the frame for the seismic design; self-weight; weight of suspended/hanging objects; loads perpendicular to the plane (out of plane) for human action, earthquake and wind (for front panel).

MASONRY BRACING STRUCTURAL WALL

MASONRY NONSTRUCTURAL WALL (PARTITIONING WALL)

INFILL PANEL WALL

Types of identified degradation led to the following classification for structural elements of masonry: 1. coupling beams (spandrels), represented by the horizontal elements of masonry of the window or door openings; 2. piers consists of masonry vertical elements between the window openings; 3. structural wall or pillar of a structural wall.

1. Masonry elements Provisions of this Code shall apply to the design of all parts / masonry construction elements, structural and nonstructural, executed with the following types of masonry elements corresponding to standards: burnt clay masonry units - SR EN 771-1; masonry elements of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) - SR EN 771-4; 1.2. Masonry elements grouping 1.2.1. Grouping according to the confidence level of mechanical properties a. The average compressive strength of the element: the arithmetic average of the compressive strength of the elements. b. The characteristic compressive strength of the element: value of the strength of masonry having a prescribed probability of 5% of not being attained in a hypothetically unlimited test series. This value generally corresponds to a specified fractile of the assumed statistical distribution of the particular property of the material or product in a test series. A nominal value is used as the characteristic value in some circumstances. c. The standardized compressive strength of the element: the compressive strength of masonry converted to the equivalent strength of an "air dried" element of 100 mm width and 100 mm height. d. Masonry element Category I: masonry element for which the probability of failing to achieve declared average/characteristic strength is 5%. e. Masonry element Category II: masonry that does not meet the level of confidence of masonry category I.

1.2.2. Grouping on the basis of the geometrical characteristics


(1) Masonry elements are grouped according to the values of following geometrical parameters: a. volume of voids (% of GDP gross volume); b. volume of each void (% of GDP); c. minimum thickness of internal and external wall (mm); d. cumulative thickness of interior and exterior walls in each direction (% of the size of the item on that direction).

Figure 3.1. Internal geometry of a cored brick A - void-handling area; a - the current void-area; te - the thickness of the outer wall; ti - the thickness of the inner wall. The implementation of structural masonry walls shall be used only burnt clay bricks or masonry elements of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) assigned to groups 1 and 2, which have the properties from Table 8.1. P100-1-2013

GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES FOR MASONRY ELEMENTS


Characteristics Total voids volume (% from the gross volume) Each void volume (% from the gross volume) declared value of the inner and outer wall thickness (mm) Group 1 - burnt clay and AAC ag0.15g 25% >25%; 55% Group 2 Vertical cored bricks ag0.20g >25%; 45% - Each of multiple voids 2% - Each of handling voids 12.5% Inner wall Without requests ag0.15g 5 ag0.20g 10 ag0.15g 8 Outer wall ag0.20g 12

12.5%

Inner vertical wall elements shall be continuous throughout the length of the element (in the plane of the wall). For structural masonry walls, and other items can be used in group 2: burnt clay bricks and vertical cored blocks with special geometry (with thin walls - Group 2B) which satisfy the following conditions on the geometry of the block: a. voids volume 50% of the block; b. outer wall thick 11mm te <15mm; c. inner wall thickness 6mm ti <10mm; d. vertical interior walls are made continuously throughout the length of the element (the plane of the wall). Category II masonry can be used only for: structural walls in buildings of importance classes III and IV in areas with ag 0.15g; structural walls and household annexes temporary buildings in all seismic zones.

1.2.3. Grouping from the masonry exterior profile point of view In terms of masonry exterior profile faces the masonry elements are classified as follows: elements with all sides flat (no prints or profiles, with/without internal cavity for attachment); elements with mortar pocket; elements with mortar pocket or with mortar additional prints; elements with profile "tongue and groove".

1.2.4. Grouping element according to the apparent density in the dry state (1) The wall elements are grouped according to the apparent density in the dry state as follows: Elements LD (low density) - masonry elements with low density in dry conditions ( 1000 kg/m3) is used only in protected masonry Elements HD (high density) masonry elements of burnt clay masonry units with density in dry conditions > 1000 kg/m3 and masonry facade elements (masonry unprotected and protected).

(2) The burnt clay masonry for which, depending on the volume of voids, dry condition density is 1000 kg/m3 and all the AAC elements fall within LD (low density). (3) To compute the self-weight of the masonry (load on the structure and foundations weight subjected to seismic action, etc.) masonry elements density is calculated approximately as follows: For burnt brick elements the design density - with relation (kg/m3) = 1800 (1-vgol) where vgol is the volume of voids which develop along the entire height of the item (not including the fingerprints); For AAC elements the design density (which takes into account the average humidity in operation) - with relation (kg/m3) = 85 (fb +2) where fb is the average standardized strength in N/mm2. (4) To calculate the design weight for unplastered masonry LD elements and general use mortar (G) with normal thickness joints will take into account the weight of the mortar as follows: average thickness of a vertical and horizontal joints will take trost = 12 mm the average density of the grout will take m = 2000 kg/m3.

(5) To calculate the design weight for unplastered masonry LD elements and thin joints mortar (T) is taken equal to the design weight as defined above.
(6) To calculate the design weight for unplastered masonry HD elements, regardless of the type of grout (G or T) will be equal to the design weight as defined above masonry .

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MASONRY The provisions of this chapter refers to masonry wall structures made with these types of masonry: burnt clay, filled and hollow vertical (EN 771-1); autoclaved aerated concrete - AAC (EN 771-4). Vertical cored masonry used in areas with seismic acceleration ag0.20g must meet the following conditions: One void area 1200 mm2 Interior vertical wall continues throughout the length of the (the plane of the wall) In terms of specific design and execution established by this Code, for structural masonry walls, and other items can be used in group 2: burnt clay bricks and vertical cored blocks with special geometry (thin walls - Group 2B) satisfying the following conditions on block geometry : voids volume 50 % of the block; outer walls thickness 11mm te < 15mm; inner walls thickness 6mm ti < 10mm; vertical interior walls are made continuously throughout the length of the element (the plane of the wall). To implement structural masonry walls, regardless of design land acceleration ag, use only Category I masonry units, except buildings mentioned below. Category II masonry can be used only for: structural walls in buildings of importance classes III and IV in areas with ag 0.15 g ; structural walls and household annexes temporary buildings in all seismic zones.

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MASONRY For masonry charged only with gravitational loads type, the relevant design compression strength is in the direction perpendicular to the horizontal joints. In the case of seismic loads charged masonry, and in particular for masonry with vertical cored elements, the compression strength must be determined on both perpendicular and parallel to void directions, since the simultaneous action of the vertical and horizontal loads develop in the plane of the wall a bidirectional compression stress state with an important component parallel to horizontal joints (layer).

Determination of compressive strength of masonry RD 1 - perpendicular to the layer (D1) RD 2 - the plane of the wall (D2)

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY fb - uniform standardized compressive strength of masonry normal on the horizontal joint (layer) The compressive standardized strength is the strength to compression of masonry transformed into a dry masonry in equivalent air having 100 mm width x 100 mm height. On request, the manufacturer must declare standardized compressive strength. It is determined and declared by the manufacturer on the basis of average strength obtained by testing according to EN 772-1. Compressive strength fb standard is defined by two values, depending on the position of the compression force against the face of the alignment: normal to horizontal joint (layer) fb; parallel to the horizontal joint in the wall plane fbh (compression at the edges).

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MASONRY Depending on the intended use at the design, for items made of burnt clay used for outside walls, without protection or with limited protection, will consider the following physical properties as defined in EN 7711: apparent density and absolute dry; water absorption the masonry capacity to absorb mortar water and / or from the atmosphere greatly influence the mechanical resistance and durability of masonry; a part of the mortar water is absorbed by the element until an apparent condition surface saturation ; bricks with dry surface but which are moist on the inside gives the best grip. Active soluble salt content. For AAC masonry elements shall consider the following physical properties as defined in EN 771-4: The absolute and apparent density in the dry state, at the end of the autoclaving process the material contains water in a proportion of about 30 % by weight. While, after a period of 912 months, the excess water is eliminated to leave a water content of only 5 to 8% by weight (the equilibrium moisture). water vapor permeability; water absorption; thermal properties.

MORTARE Ensure the masonry body MASONRY MORTARS Linking masonry after rupture by adherence and friction; Transmit and standardize the internal efforts and some strains between the masonry elements; Assure the compressive , tensile and shear strength; Protects against water infiltration and air from outside the building; Participate at the plastic image of the building by color or special composition of joints (for apparent masonry / unplastered); In mortar the beds the reinforcements are included and fitted or possibly clamping parts (connectors, anchors); Method of defining the composition: Performing masonry mortar (designed mortar for) composition and method of obtaining is chosen by the manufacturer to obtain the specified characteristics; Recipe for masonry mortar (prescribed composition for masonry mortar); Composition of mortar for general use - Table 3.1
Mortar class
M2.5 c M2.5 c-v M5 c M5 c-v

Masonry mortars for general use: mortar not set special conditions of design and / or use

Cement
1 1 1 1 1 1

Sand
4 7 3 5 2.75 2.5

Lime
1 0.25 -

M7.5 c M10

How to make: industrial mortar for masonry (dry or fresh) and mix constituents are dosed in the factory; semi-industrial masonry mortar (pre-dosed or premixed) constituents are entirely dosed and delivered to site where they are mixed according to the recipe given by the manufacturer; Masonry mortar preparation at construction site, will be used to: Buildings of importance classes III and IV, in all seismic zones; Buildings of importance classes II in seismic areas ag0,15g; Household annexes and temporary construction Masonry mortars are classified according to EN 998-2, according to compressive strength, expressed by the letter M followed by uniform compressive strength in N/mm2 (M5 mortar with average unit compressive strength fm = 5N/mm2).

Thin layer mortar for masonry.

Performance mortar for masonry with the maximum aggregate size less than or equal to the value indicated; are cement mortar with polymer additives and other special components that aim to limit shrinkage and improve workability without increasing water; thickness 0.5-3mm, but their use requires processing to remove masonry production unlevelings, mortar is applied by brushing or dipping, used for brick masonry elements. Cement, sand, gravel mono granular aggregates <3.0mm and water; It can be powerful recipe or

It is a G type mortar.

GROUT

GLUE MORTAR

Performance mortar for masonry with cement, fine sand and glue (polymer); is used for thin beds and only masonry elements indicated by these specifications.

PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRY MORTAR

Adhesion to masonry

In a simplified manner, the phenomenon of adhesion can be explained by entering the pores of the masonry of a mixture of water and fine particles originating from the mortar cement which, after hydration, it hardens to form a crystalline film with specific properties different from those of mortar. It made in this way an intimate connection with the complex character of mechanical and chemical mortar with masonry. Adhesion depends on the properties of the mortar used (mainly for water retention capacity of mixing), the characteristics of the elements to be used together with the mortar (especially the initial water absorption rate) and quality of execution: quantify the adhesion bond strength / peeling plaster on the element; ensure the bonding mortar : resistance to tensile and / or shear loads from the exterior; resistance to dimensional changes due to internal efforts (of shrinkage or temperature); penetration of water and air tightness;
In operation, the deterioration of bond between mortar and masonry, is a fragile and can produce: exceptional character, after the action of high horizontal seismic forces, cracks can propagate rapidly and lead to severe damage or even collapse; foundation failure, deformations caused by temperature changes, cracks can be sources of water penetration when occurring in exterior walls.

UNITARY MORTAR STRENGTH Average unit compressive strength of mortar for masonry with elements of burnt clay brick elements used to design and specified as such in the project will be chosen so that, using the relations (4.1), (4.2a) or (4.2b), to obtain at least the minimum characteristic resistance fk and fkh required by P 100-1, tables 8.2 and 8.3, depending on design seismic acceleration ag of the site and building height. Class mortar for masonry determined according to (2) must satisfy the sustainability requirements of Cap.4.3. Adhesion shear strength declared the initial shear strength fvk0 Adhesion flexural strength - the characteristic strength for bending for breaking the plane parallel to the joints involved (fxk1); Adhesion flexural strength - the characteristic strength for bending for breaking the plane perpendicular to the joints involved (fxk2).

fm

fvko fxk1

fxk2

CONCRETE alveoli or voids fill for reinforced masonry special shaped elements; confinement elements for masonry elements (column and beam ties); reinforced core for reinforced core masonry (ZIA/RCM); coupling beams (spandrels) for masonry structural walls for doors / windows openings. fck (N/mm2) - characteristic compressive strength associated with resistance on cube / cylinder at 28 days; fcvk (N/mm2) - characteristic shear resistance;


Concrete is used for:

for items confinement minimum class C12/15 concrete will be. the middle layer of the walls of ZIA will use concrete mortar (grout) with characteristic compressive strength 12 N/mm2 fmbk or concrete class C12/15.

Concrete mortar (grout) is defined as a "very fluid mixture of cement, sand and water for filling the alveoli or small spaces." The material is used to fill openings in special forms used for reinforced masonry and central reinforced core masonry (ZIA/RCM). The ability to completely fill voids and other confined spaces should be considered the main requirement for grout. Unit strength for concrete: fcd - design compressive strength of concrete 6.6.3.3. (5) fcd * - baseline design compression resistance of concrete 6.6.3.3. (5) Rc * (baseline) fck - unitary characteristic compressive strength of concrete 3.3.1. (4), Rck

Mechanical properties of concrete for containment elements and ZIA - Table 8.6

Design values (N/mm2)


Tensile strength (yM=1.50) Compression strength (yM=1.35)

Casting height (cm)


150 <150 150 <150 150 <150 Anyone

Class of concrete / grout C12/15 0.55 0.65 5.8 6.7 0.115 0.135 24.000 C16/20 0.65 0.75 7.7 8.9 0.140 0.165 27.000

Shear strength (yM=1.50)


Elasticity Young Modulus

STEEL IS USED FOR THE REINFORCEMENT OF: confinement of the masonry elements beams and columns ties - ( ZC ) ; confinement of the masonry elements and reinforcement in horizontal joints ( ZC + AR) ; middle layer of the reinforce cored masonry ( ZIA ) ; other structural elements: floors, coupling beams (spandrels) and cored brick walls , stairs, basement walls , foundations The reinforce steels in Table 8.7.will be from ductility class B to ST 009 , except for steels used in seismic areas with ag 0.25g , the reinforcement for confinement elements (beam and column ties) , for the coupling beams (spandrels) and to reinforce masonry in joints or beds, on the ground floor of buildings with height P +2 E which will use steel ductility class C. The longitudinal modulus of elasticity for reinforcement will be Es = 200000 N/mm2. Coefficient of thermal expansion of steel will take ts = 12x10 - 6/1 C. Masonry reinforcement can have two objectives: enhancing the strength and ductility of the requests or perpendicular to the plane of the wall ; reduce cracking caused by local concentration of effort or movement from thermal effects or changes in humidity. OTHER MATERIALS FOR THE REINFORCEMENT OF MASONRY Masonry can be armed with: High- density polymer grids FRP insertion of products in bed joints; insertion of products in the plaster.

Minimum mechanical properties of steels used for confinement and reinforcement masonry and ZIA elements Steel type Strength category 2 Strength category 1 Yield limit Design dtrength

Re (Rp,02) (N/mm2)
340 240

fyd (N/mm2)
300 210

DESIGN VALUES FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MASONRY


All masonry unitary strength design values (fzd), for all requests are obtained by dividing the characteristic values (fzk) the partial safety factor for material . =

(2.1)

Partial safety coefficient (taking into account the uncertainties and dimensional variations for the model) is set differently depending on: load case for checking: fundamental and seismic; limit state check: ULS or SLS; quality of masonry elements and mortar; execution control type defined in applicable technical regulations. Partial safety coefficient values - To calculate the ultimate limit state (ULS), the fundamental load case for burnt clay masonry bricks - see Table 2.1. Element category 1st Category Mortar Reduced From recipe, prepared onto site (G) From recipe, industrially prepared (G) Performance (T) and (G) 2nd Category From recipe, prepared onto site (G) 2.7 2.5 3.0 Control type Normal 2.5 2.2 2.0 2.8 Special 2.2 2.0 1.8 2.5

From recipe, industrially prepared (G)

2.7

2.5

2.2

Partial coefficient values are taken as follows: for persistent design situation (the fundamental load case): o for the ultimate limit state (ULS) in Table 2.1 o for serviceability limit state (SLS) with values: = 1,50 for all parts / components of masonry buildings of importance assigned to classes I and II according to P 100-1 = 1,0 for all parts / components of masonry buildings of importance placed in classes III and IV. for seismic design situation (seismic load case): values of P 100-1, tab.8.13 for structural walls;

Table 8.13
Element category 1st Category Mortar Reduced From recipe, prepared onto site (G) 2.4 Control type Normal 2.2 Special 1.9

From recipe, industrially prepared (G)


Performance (T) and (G) 2nd Category From recipe, prepared onto site (G)

2.2
2.7

1.9
1.8 2.5

1.8
1.8 2.2

From recipe, industrially prepared (G)

2.4

2.2

2.0

To check the masonry strength for transient design situation (during construction), characteristic strength values set for the fundamental load case is increased by 25%. The conditions are considered as a normal control type for execution if: works are monitored on an ongoing basis by a RTA engineer ; designer look for / control, rhythmic the progress of work ; the RTA permanently verifies the materials quality and the work ; all preliminary checks are performed even for intermediate stages taking as reference the regulations. Conditions are considered as a reduce control type for execution if: works are not monitored on an ongoing basis by a RTA engineer ; designer does not look for / control, rhythmic the progress of work ; the RTA does not permanently verifies the materials quality and the work ; all preliminary checks are not performed even for intermediate stages taking as reference the regulations.

The definition of characteristic strength (Rk) of masonry: is "the masonry strength value whose probability of being reached is 5% in a series of alleged attempts (hypothetical) unlimited". According to this definition, if one accepts the assumption of normal distribution of the series of results, the characteristic strength is calculated from the average resistance values and coefficient of variation by relationship: Rk = Rmed (1-1.645vR) = =

- Average strength =

standard deviation

Coefficient of variation

fk

CHARACTERISTIC COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY UNIT With burnt brick masonry elements or AAC elements, erected with general use mortar (G) for normal loads to the joints horizontal plane shall be calculated on the basis of compression unit strength for masonry and plaster, with the relationship: . = . (4.1) Values of the constant K for ceramic brick masonry and mortar for general (G) Table 4.1.

Masonry element type

Constant K

Solid ceramic elements (group 1) Vertical cored elements (group 2 and 2S)
AAC elements (group 1)

0.55 0.45
0.55

Characteristic values for fk for burnt clay masonry elements in Group 1.2 and 2S, with the standardized strength fb = 5.0 15.0 N/mm2 with M2.5 M15 mortars strength, calculated with formula (4.1) in view of the conditions from (3) are given in Tables 4.2a and 4.2b.

fk

Characteristic compressive strength (fk n N/mm2) of burnt clay masonry elements from group 1 and general mortar (G) - weaving as fig.4.1b - Table 4.2a
Mortar strength (N/sq. mm) Standardize strength fb (N/sq.mm) M15 15.0 12.5 10.0 7.5 5.0 6.60 5.80 4.95 4.05 NA M12.5 6.25 5.50 4.70 3.85 M10 5.85 5.15 4.40 3.60 2.70 M7.5 5.35 4.70 4.05 3.30 2.50 M5 4.75 4.20 3.55 2.90 2.20 M2.5 3.85 3.40 2.90 2.35 NPS

Characteristic compressive strength (fk n N/mm2) of vertical cored masonry elements made of burnt clay in Group 2 and 2S and for general mortar (G) - weaving as Fig.4.1 and 4.1b - Table 4.2b
Standardize strength fb (N/sq.mm) 15.0 b a 12.5 b a 10.0 4.75 5.10 4.50 4.80 4.20 4.50 3.85 4.15 3.45 3.65 2.75 2.95 5.40 5.95 5.10 5.60 4.80 5.25 4.40 4.80 3.90 4.30 3.15 3.45 Weaving type Fig. 4.1. a Mortar strength (N/sq. mm)

M15
6.75

M12.5
6.40

M10
6.00

M7.5
5.50

M5
4.85

M2.5
3.95

b
a 7.5 b a 5.0 b

4.10
4.15 3.30 NA

3.85
3.95 3.15

3.60
3.70 2.95 2.75 2.20

3.30
3.35 2.70 2.55 2.05

2.90
3.00 2.40 2.25 1.80

2.35
2.40 1.90 1.85 1.50

fk

Characteristic compressive strength fk in N/mm2 for masonry solid brick elements in Group 1 and for general mortar (G) - weaving as Fig.4.1 - Table 4.2c
Standardize strength fb (N/sq.mm) 8.0 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 Mortar strength (N/sq. mm) M15 5.31 M12.5 5.03 4.58 M10 4.70 4.28 3.84 3.38 M7.5 4.31 3.93 3.53 3.10 2.66 M5 3.82 3.48 3.12 2.75 2.35 1.92 M2.5 3.10 2.83 2.53 2.23 1.90 1.56

Figure 4.1 Composition of masonry (a) without mortar joint parallel to the wall (b) with mortar bed joints parallel to the wall

fk

For structural walls with elements of burnt clay bricks and AAC: Table 8.2.Minimal required values for characteristic compressive strength fk (N/mm2) for structural walls of buildings of importance classes III IV Horizontal land design acceleration ag 0.10g and 0.15g 1.70 1.85 2.00 2.50 2.70 0.20g and 0.25g 2.15 2.30 2.50 3.00 0.30g and 0.40g 3.00 3.15 3.25 4.00 -

Number of levels nniv 1 2 3 4 5