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CHAPTER 2: BODY A. Background of Corruption in the Philippines B. Laws governing Anti-Graft & Corrupt Practices and How it is implemented C. Alarming rends of Corruption in the Philippines !. Corruption cases in the Philippines ". #ighting Graft & Corruption in the Philippines




$n political terms% Corruption takes place when government officials a&use their power for illegitimate private gain. Corruption in the Philippines is still widespread despite the attempts of the new government to clean up its different sectors. $t results to the slow growth of the social and economic aspect of the countr'. Cases of Corruption and the methods(actions taken &' the government will &e provided in this research to give the reader a &etter understanding of what corruption reall' is as an international aspect and as how it is done inside the countr' and how it c'cles and greatl' damages the s'stem of the government. Corruption in general is spiritual or moral impurit' or deviation from an ideal. Corruption includes activities like &ri&er' and em&e))lement. he forms of corruption var'% &ut includes &ri&er'% e*tortion% cron'ism% nepotism% patronage% graft and em&e))lement. Government% or +political,% corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental emplo'ee acts in an official capacit' for his or her own personal gain. he topic would &e particularl' focusing on pu&lic officials and law enforcement authorities as to the reason that the' considered as the most corrupt and a&users of power. he


necessar' actions taken &' the government will also &e included in the stud'. he forms refers more to the pu&lic officials who are entrusted in appropriating funds of the pu&lic for the purpose of the countr' and its citi)ens. Pu&lic officers are those who according to the AntiGraft and Corrupt Practices Act% includes elective an appointive officials% permanent or temporar'% whether in the classified or unclassified or e*empt service receiving compensation from the government. such. he practice of this act has &ecome a wa' of life% despite attempts of the government and the citi)ens in e*tinguishing

Bac !round o" Corru#tion in t$% P$i&i##in%'

Corruption in the Philippines traces &ack to the era% where the countr' was under the -panish coloni)ation. .a/orit' of its rulers composes of greed' -paniards who a&solutel' has given an' importance in upgrading the social and economic status to the land and to its inha&itants. According to an article in the Philippine -tar written &' -erafin 0uiason in 1233 that4

+In the second half of the 17th century in Manila, things were

pretty much what they are today. Smuggling, illegal trade, secret agenda, false labels flourished. The rulers were the worst offenders and foreign governments and traders made the most of greed in high places. Identities remained hidden and religion kept both eyes on heaven. The poor were never considered e cept as sources of hard, often forced, labor, the ta es and servility they provide. The bureaucracy was so plagued with corruption, that bribery was a deeply ingrained part of the game at the Manila !ustoms "ouse.#

(Guerrero-Nakpil, 2009)


!uring almost 677 'ears of -panish control% economic and

political power was restricted to a small 8mesti)o9 elite known as the principalia. $n 1:33 with the arrival of the ;nited -tates% the power of these families was further consolidated. $n order to gain their support and lo'alt' <necessar' to pacif' the islands=% Americans introduced local elections in 1371% elections for a national legislature from single-mem&er districts in 137>% and finall' elections for the senate in 1312. he domestic political process was dominated &' powerful clans in the provinces. "arl' on% provincial aristocrats like .anuel 0ue)on and -ergio ?sme@a% -r. e*tended their power% with local patronage politics graduall' seeping up to the national level legislature and the President9s ca&inet.

Political participation in the Philippines was never &ased on a model. Given the long histor' of patron-client


relationships% the provincial caci$ues held tremendous clout &ased on their a&ilit' to deliver votes. Comple* and la&or-intensive political machines soon evolved. he Blite &osses knew how to mo&ili)e opinion leaders% poll watchers% and enforcersC their power was unDuestioned within their own spheres of influence. Power was a great dominance factor in the political arena% the powerful 'ou are the tendenc' that more people will &e under 'ou even politicians. -ince there was no efforts in removing corruption from how the political process operates in the Government% it grew and &ecame worst especiall' during the administration of #ormer President #erdinand .arcos in the late 27Es. .arcos during his first term as President was a&le to &oost the econom' &' attracting investors to the countr'. But when he was elected in his second term as President of the Philippines in his re-election was a first% economic growth then slowed% and crimes increased.
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(Robinson, 2013) (Henderson, 2000)


!espite his proficienc' in knowledge and strategic planning for the countr' he still failed to stand&' his ethical standard &' remaining a good pu&lic servant to the people. he following are those enumerated corrupt acts done &' .arcos during his term as president. #irst act was that &illions of peso was plundered &' .arcos and his famil' for personal gain that was supposed to &e for the citi)ens and for the improvement of the countr' itself. -econd% a&use of power was e*ercised not onl' &' the President himself &ut also &' his appointed officials &' placing some of his and $melda .arcos Ffamily members in the cabinet and especially in the military...,. Gesistance was not enough to put a stop on .arcosE regime.

+Marcos declared martial law on September %1, 1&7%, and

did not lift it until 'anuary 17, 1&(1. )uring this time, he called for self*sacrifice and an end to the old society. "owever, in the +,ew Society# Marcos-s cronies and his wife, former movie actress Imelda .omualde/*Marcos, wilfully engaged in rampant corruption. 0ith her husband-s support, Imelda Marcos built her own power base. She became governor of Metropolitan Manila and minister of human settlements. The previously nonpolitical armed forces became highly politici/ed, with high*ranking positions being given to Marcos loyalists. In 1&7& the 1nited States reaffirmed 2hilippine sovereignty over 1.S. military bases and continued to provide military and economic aid to the Marcos regime. 0hen martial law was lifted in 1&(1 and a +,ew .epublic , proclaimed% little had actuall' changed% and .arcos easil' won reelection., he e*istence of Corruption did not stop in the overthrowing of President .arcos. $nstitutionali)ed graft at the top levels of Government has% &' all accounts% &een reduced since .r. .arcos left the countr' in #e&ruar' 13:2. But as some #ilipinos put it% the

(The ra o! "erdinand #ar$os, n%d%)


looting has &een democrati)ed% with pett' officials often demanding larger sums in the current% less centrali)ed atmosphere.

#rom cronies to political d'nasties% nothing has changed

much as to their misuse and a&use of the pork &arrel s'stem during the strongmanEs rule in the 13>7Es as it is toda'. ;p to now% massive corruption activities is still on-going despite the attempts of the new government% under the rule of President Benigno -imeon C. ADuino in his &attles of removing corruption officials and re-organi)ing its departments. As of toda'% the countr' is facing a 17 &illion peso scandal which was plundered &' a wealth' &usinesswoman Ianet Japoles through a scam which diverted tons of allocated pro/ects funds to her pocket and to some mem&ers of the Congress and government officials.

+3ilipinos are hardened to corruption. 2oliticians are assumed

to be on the take and the rich are assumed to be nearly untouchable. 4ut an alleged 15*year embe//lement scam worth 6%%7 million 8 a whopping figure even by 2hilippine standards 8 has stunned the nation and caused a top cardinal to publicly sob. 9ll that cash was meant to benefit a largely impoverished public. 4ut whistleblowers cooperating with the ,ational 4ureau of Investigation 8 the 2hilippines- answer to the 34I 8 insist it was swallowed up by a network of politicians and their conspirators. 9n affidavit claims government funds were poured into +ghost pro:ects#; sham pork barrel programs run by private business owners colluding with elected officials to secretly hoard the money.# A good e*ample of corruption within the government of the Philippines is the famous and controversial $mpeachment rial of #ormer Chief Iustice Genato Corona. After he was removed from office% news started to circulate that those -enators who voted in favor of his impeachment% were to receive additional H7 million in
& .

('(N)*'( *% "+,)* R-, 2013) (/inn, 2013)


their Priorit' !evelopment Assistance #unds <P!A#=% a fund used for pro/ects these legislators will provide. $n connection to this issue% months after the P!A# -candal started% e*posing a &usinesswoman named Ianet Japoles% who through defrauding the government using a scam was a&le to divert a&out 17 &illion into her pockets and to some mem&er of the Congress and other government officials.

Aside from the plunder of government funds% Corruption also e*ist through the infamous political d'nasties which up to now e*ists. hese d'nasties functions through the acDuisition of different government positions which will then &e limited to the famil' mem&ers or relatives of a current political famil' ruling a certain cit' or province.


-ome e*amples of families entered into the said d'nasties

are the ADuinoEs with President Benigno ADuino following the footsteps of his father and mother% from &eing a former -enator and then now% the current President of the Gepu&lic of the Philippines. Ke also have the Bina'Es under the spearheading of Lice- President Ie/omar Bina' then followed &' his daughter Janc' Bina' as -enator and son Iun-Iun Bina' as .a'or of .akati and the unrul' Ampatuans who violentl' dominated .aguindanao% wherein their families used their positions for personal wealth and power which resulted to the massive killing of /ournalists last Jovem&er 5A% 5773.

(0abi1ao, 2013)








Practic%' Act and $o( it i' i,#&%,%nt%d

!ue to the rapid growth of corruption in the countr'% the government has esta&lished laws and standards to &e followed and o&serve &' pu&lic officials in the conduct of their positions. Provisions of the .epublic 9ct. <71= or the Code of "thical -tandard is set to provide guidelines for government officials and emplo'ees. According to -ection 1 of this Gepu&lic Act% +M :It is the policy of the 2hilippine >overnment, in line with the principle that a public office is a public trust, to repress certain acts of public officers and private persons alike which constitute graft or corrupt practices or which may lead thereto., $t was approved &' the -enate on August 1>% 1327. Kithin the provisions% it clearl' defines the different acts that would constitute corruption in the discharge of duties &' the pu&lic servants. And it also ela&orates that ever' pu&lic officials% must declare through their -tatement of Assets% Lia&ilities & Jetworths <-ALJEs= their 'earl' income upon assuming position% in order for the pu&lic to determine whether% the' commit crime of plunder% through the taking of pu&lic funds for personal use.
Corruption is criminall' penali)ed and is esta&lished clearl' in

Gepu&lic Act A713% the acts which would constitute such wrongdoing

of a pu&lic officer. $n connection with GA 2>1A% the former provision is

2 9

('epar34en3 o! )n3erior and *o$al Go5ern4en3, 2010) ((NT)-GR("T (N' 0-RR+6T 6R(0T)0 , (0T , n%d%)


enumerating such act which then would &e considered as an illegal practice done &' these officials. $ncluded in the list are inducement to another pu&lic officer to violate the rules and regulation set upon the law% receiving gift or favors &' reason of his position tantamount to what he shall onl' get% hiring his famil' mem&ers or relatives to &e an officer in a private or pu&lic entit'% and directl' &ecoming interested in personal gain on an' government material or transaction. .ost of these mentioned are presentl' violated &' our politicians themselves instilling fear upon those who decides to oppose their /udgments.

Another provision is provided &' the Constitution stating that4,

Article N$ of the 13:> Philippine Constitution% titled +Accounta&ilit' of Pu&lic ?fficers,% states in -ection 1 that +pu&lic office is a pu&lic trust. Pu&lic officers and emplo'ees must at all times &e accounta&le to the people% serve them with utmost responsi&ilit'% integrit'% lo'alt' and efficienc'% act with patriotism and /ustice% and lead modest lives., -ection $$ of the same article states that the President% Lice-President% mem&ers of the Constitutional Commissions and the ?m&udsman ma' &e removed from office on impeachment for &ri&er' and graft and corruption .

o criminali)e the act of plunder <corruption= provides Gepu&lic

Act Jo. >7:7 also known as the Act !efining and Penali)ing the Crime of Plunder stating that the act penali)es an' pu&lic officer who &' himself or in connivance with mem&ers of his famil'% relatives &' affinit' or consanguinit'% &usiness associates% accumulates or acDuires ill-gotten wealth% through a com&ination of series of event criminal acts% an aggregate amount to total value of at least fift' million pesos <PH7% 777%777=.

he 13:> Philippine Constitution has created constitutional

&odies to deal on graft and corruption and to effectivel' implement


(6hilippine 0ons3i3u3ion7 (r3i$le 8), 2009) (Republi$ ($3 7020, n%d%) (60T0 6(6 R -N GR("T (N' 0-RR+6T)-N, n%d%)

11 12


the provisions of pu&lic accounta&ilit'.

hese &odies are granted

fiscal authorit' to ensure their independence and their actions are appeala&le onl' to the -upreme Court. ?ne is the ?ffice of the ?m&udsman <?.B=% which investigates and acts on complaints filed against pu&lic officials and emplo'ees% and serves as the +peopleEs watchdog, of the government.


-econd% is the Commission of Audit <C?A=% which is the

watchdog of the financial operations of the government. $t is empowered to e*amine% audit% and settle all accounts pertaining to the revenue and receipts of% and e*penditures or uses of funds and propert' under the custod' of government agencies and instrumentalities. $t promulgates accounting and auditing rules and regulations for the prevention and disallowance of irregular% unnecessar'% e*cessive% e*travagant% or unconsciona&le e*penditures% or use of government funds and properties. hird is the -andigan&a'an% which has /urisdiction over civil and criminal cases involving graft and corrupt practices and such other offenses committed &' pu&lic officers and emplo'ees. $t is in charge of maintaining moralit'% integrit' and efficienc' in the pu&lic service.

#ourth is the !epartment of Iustice <!?I=% together with

the Jational Bureau of $nvestigation <JB$= & Philippine Jational Police% which conducts preliminar' investigations on complaints of a criminal nature against pu&lic officials that are filed with the !epartment% su&/ect to the approval of the ?.B if the offense investigated was committed &' the pu&lic official in relation to his office. he !?I also prosecutes in these cases if the pu&lic officials involved &elong to ranks lower than salar' grade 5>. And conduct fact-finding investigations on graft cases.
13 14

(60T0 6(6 R -N GR("T (N' 0-RR+6T)-N, n%d%) (60T0 6(6 R -N GR("T (N' 0-RR+6T)-N, n%d%)


A&ar,in! tr%nd' o" Corru#tion in t$% P$i&i##in%'









ransparenc' $nternational% Philippines remains as one of the most corrupt countries &' garnering a score of A6 in a scale of 1 to 177 wherein reaching the peak of 177 would constitute a countr' clean from corruption. his was onl' conducted last 'ear% 5715 and still despite the change of administration the lessening of corruption is still too low. his /ust shows that no matter how 'ou change the persons in charge to run the countr' as long as the traditional concept of em&e))ling pu&lic funds for their personal gain will not &e removed from the minds of these greed' politicians then no change shall take effect. he surve' result is considered +another &lack e'e for the Philippines.,

he President of the ransparenc' $nternational- Philippines irona stated that +The %51% !orruption 2erceptions


Inde , which covered data gathered between )ecember %515 and September %51%, showed that the 2hilippines has to take more action to improve how things are done in the country. ?ne of these actions is the +immediate# passage of the freedom of information bill @3?IA.This means we still have to do a lot more. 0e must go beyond this ranking and think of what we can do .,

Corruption led to the growth of the povert' rate in the

countr'% having the rich getting richer and the poor poorer. A stud' was also released &' the Philippine $nstitute for !evelopment -tudies <P$!-=% which noted an +alarming trend, in the data of povert'. he institute said the countr'Es povert' rate increased to nearl' AA percent in 5772 from A7 percent in 577A.

1& 1. 17

(,ala5erria, 2012) (,ala5erria, 2012) (R6 43h 4os3 $orrup3 on (sia-6a$i!i$ lis3, 2010)


Corru#tion ca'%' in t$% P$i&i##in%'

?ne of the most famous and current case of corruption is the Priorit' !evelopment Assistance #und <P!A#= scandal% headed &' mastermind &usinesswoman% Ianet Japoles% who through a pro/ect scam was a&le to attain to attain 17 &illion pesos allocated for pro/ect developments% for her personal use and to some mem&er of the Congress and government officials.

he scam was first e*posed in the Philippine !ail' $nDuirer

on Iul' 15% 571A with the si*-part e*posB of the $nDuirer on the scam pointing to &usinesswoman Ianet Lim-Japoles as the scam9s mastermind after Benhur O. Lu'% her second cousin and former personal assistant% was rescued &' agents of the Jational Bureau of $nvestigation on .arch 55% 571A four months after he was detained &' Japoles at her unit at the Pacific Pla)a owers in #ort Bonifacio.

$nitiall' centering on Japoles9 involvement in the 5776 fertili)er

fund scam% the government investigation on Lu'9s testimon' has since e*panded to cover Japoles9 involvement in a wider scam involving the misuse of P!A# funds from 577A to 571A.

$t is estimated the Philippine government was defrauded of

some P17 &illion in the course of the scam% having &een diverted to the pockets of Japoles% participating mem&ers of Congress and other government officials.

Aside from the P!A# and the fertili)er fund maintained &' the

!epartment of Agriculture% around P377 million in ro'alties earned from the .alampa'a gas field were also lost to the scam. he scam has provoked pu&lic outrage% with calls &eing made on the $nternet

12 19 20 21

(*lanes, 2013) (*lanes, 2013) (*lanes, 2013) (*lanes, 2013)


for popular protests to demand the a&olition of the P!A#% and the order for Japoles9 arrest sparking serious discussion online.

$n developed political democracies% the political parties are he' represent ideologies and aggregate

the organi)ation of note.

interestsC the' serve as focal points for competition for power and influence% incu&ators of future government leaders% and generators and advocates of policies and social action programs. Personalit' and patronage often trumps principles% su&verting governance% leading to corruption% inefficienc'% and(or indifference and unresponsiveness. $t also often leads to the entrenchment of elite politics% where +whom 'ou know, counts over skill and talent% or dedication and perseverance% locking out the ma/orit' from political participation. he result% in the conte*t of weak political parties% is d'nastic politics% often dominated &' families whose mem&ers succeed each other in power. Jonetheless% the tendenc' of d'nastic politics does not trend towards democrati)ation or accounta&ilit'% an infirmit' the Philippines can ill affordMreflected in Article $$% -ec. 52 of the Philippine Constitution% &ut not in legislation called for &' the Constitution.

According to well-known /ournalist Gand' !avid% +$n a political

setting where political parties have lost their clout and meaning% families have remained the main fulcrum of our political s'stem., $t is from their own families that politicians draw their closest advisers and successors% mainl' &ecause these people% &' virtue of &lood and up&ringing% can &e trusted to maintain a famil'Es heritage% good name%









But the e*tent to political d'nasties in the Philippines is off the

chart compared to an' other countr' in the world. 27P of congresspeople elected in 577> had a previous relative who were also in congress.
22 23 24

(9i:a, 2013) (;i4ene<-'a5id, 2013) (Robinson, 2013)


-i!$tin! )ra"t and Corru#t Practic%' in t$% P$i&i##in%'

he government% through the President of the Philippines% Benigno -imeon C. ADuino upon assuming his position% immediatel' esta&lished a protocol +.atuwid na !aan, in &attling against Corruption. ?ne his primera advocacies is the fight against cron' officials% starting with famous impeachment of #ormer Chief Iustice Genato Corona. hrough series of trials% Corona was found to &e guilt' of Article 5 of the Articles of $mpeachment% which is failure to disclose his -tatement of Assets% Lia&ilities and Jet worths <-ALJEs=. Corona% &eing a pu&lic officer is declared &' law under Gepu&lic Act Jo. 2>1A and of the Constitution% that he is reDuired to provide his -ALJ upon assuming position.

+The 2hilippines had shown improvements in its fight versus

corruption and the administration of 2resident 4enigno 9$uino III was $uick to claim credit for it. The Social 0eather Stations @S0SA, in its preliminary report of the %51% Survey of Bnterprises on !orruption, the polls showed +radical progress# has been noted in the government-s fight against corruption. The preliminary report, based on interviews of e ecutives of (%< companies @%(1 large, C7C smallDmediumA over 'uly 1< to September 17, %51%, shows a great deal of progress against corruption between %55& and the present .,


("elon1$o, 2012)


LanDuishing illegal practices done &' the government and its officials is not an eas' task. B' proving enough that Corruption is still intact in this countr' will constitute a difficult process and will definitel' take time. here are a lot of laws% policies and programs that can &e initiated to strengthen the pu&licEs &attle against greed' officials.

A good e*ample of transition was the countr' of -ingapore

who &ack then% had no enough resources to &oost the econom' due to the deformation of -ingapore with .ala'sia. here was no source of income since the area was not sufficient to esta&lish agricultural and industrial power. he government and its &ranches was still anew and was still recovering from a ma/or loss due to its separation with the .ala' countr'.

But through the dedication and innovation given &' its #irst

Prime .inister and #ather of -ingapore Lee Ouan Qew% he was a&le rise the countr' to &e economicall' developed. Like an' other countr'% -ingapore had also its &attles against corruption that is wh' under the leadership of Qew% he introduced legislation &' giving more power to Corrupt Practices $nvestigation Bureau <CP$B= to &e a&le to conduct searches% arrests% and investigations to suspected corrupt pu&lic officials. from corruption. he onl' hope is for ever' #ilipino to &egin toda' a decided effort to &e honest and to not allow himself to &e corrupted% and to refuse to &elong to a horde of arrogant opportunists who walk and drive on our streets ever' da'. $f corruption should stop% it has to &egin with usR Ke can and we must do itR he government seems to &e in no position to cure a malad' that it has nurtured through the 'ears.
2. 27

his was a great strategic plan for the

countr' as it is considered as one of the most countries who is free

(Hean, n%d%) (Hean, n%d%)


A small countr' like -ingapore was a&le to resist off its demons% so whoEs stopping the Philippines who has far more resources in relinDuishing corruption from its tradition... -trict enforcement of the law must &e applied and greater punishments shall &e implemented. he citi)ens must also &e dedicated in &attling against greed' officials &' spreading the information of how corruption ruins the countr'. Khat the government can do is% even &efore a certain individual decides to run for pu&lic office% the' should conduct &ackground checks on the Dualifications of this certain candidate done &' an agenc' of the government% &efore allowing these candidates to run. $t should create procedural standards% so that #ilipino citi)ens% who will elect them will not onl' &e hoping on their promises &ut also to the Dualit' of service the' will &e a&le to provide. ?n the part of the people% as the one instilled to elect the &est person into pu&lic positions must &e properl' educated as to not onl' elect those who promises to do things &ut also to the &est of their service that the' can provide to the people. changed. $n regards to the political d'nasties% the Articles of the Constitution to put a stop on these unrul' cron' families. A new law should &e enacted proposing a stricter enforcement against it% and these pu&lic officials should o&serve the conduct so that there is a &etter chance for an'one who is Dualified to run for office. $t will encourage future generations to activel' participate in the politics and to remove the dirtiness in the /o&. he traditional thinking of the #ilipinos in regards to the political aspect must &e



<5717% August=. Getrieved from !epartment of $nterior and Local Government4 http4(('peTra 9,TI*>.93T 9,) !?..12T 2.9!TI!BS 9!T . <n.d.=. Getrieved from !eparment of Iustice Philippines 4 http4(( Ca&igao% -. -. <571A% April=. It .uns In The 3amily- The Making ?f 2olitical )ynasties In The 2hilippines . Getrieved from ;niversit' of the Philippines4 http4(('-themaking-of-political-d'nasties-in-the-philippines( !AJ$L!A L. #;-$L"G?% .. !. <571A% -eptem&er=. Marcos- corruption and abuses alive 71 years later. Getrieved from !avao oda' 4 http4((davaotoda'.com(main(571A(73(55(marcos-corruption-anda&uses-alive-61-'ears-later( #elongco% G. P. <5715% -eptem&er=. 2hilippines makes progress in fight against corruption, survey shows . Getrieved from Gulf Jews.com4 http4(('-shows-1.17>:AAH Guerrero-Jakpil% C. <5773% Ianuar' =. "istorical 4ackground to the !orruption of 2hilippines. Getrieved from orn and #ra'ed in .anila4 http4((tornandfra'ed.t''ed(5773(71(historical-&ackground-to-corruption-inthe-philippines.html Hean% -. O. <n.d.=. !?..12TI?, !?,T.?E I, SI,>92?.B. Getrieved from L$-$ $JG "NP"G -E PAP"G-4 http4((www.unafei.or./p(english(pdf(G-UJo:7(Jo:7U13L"UHean1.pdf Henderson% C. <5777% Jovem&er=. 2hilippine 2olitics and !orruption; 9 Sociopolitical )igression . Getrieved from Pearl of the ?rient -eas4 http4(( Iimene)-!avid% G. <571A% April=. )ynasties, pro and con. Getrieved from ?pinion $nDuirer4 http4((>7>(d'nasties-pro-and-conVi*))5hmoet6) Llanes% I. <571A% -eptem&er=. 2ork barrel F Gnowing the issue. Getrieved from -unstar4 http4(( 2!T! 292B. ?, >.93T 9,) !?..12TI?,. <n.d.=. Getrieved from PC C4 http4(( 2hilippine !onstitution; 9rticle HI. <5773% Ianuar' =. Getrieved from Philippine Constitution 13:>4 http4((philippineconstitution13:>*i( .epublic 9ct 75(5. <n.d.=. Getrieved from Jational Bureau of $nvestigation Philippines4 http4((www.n&>7:7.pdf Go&inson% !. A. <571A% Ianuar' Kednesda'=. 2olitical )ynasties in the 2hilippines. Getrieved from Kh' Jations #ail4 http4((wh''nasties-in-the-philippines.html .2 7th most corrupt on 9sia*2acific list. <5717% .arch=. Getrieved from rade ;nion of the Phiippines4 http4((*.php(5717(7A(rp-6th-most-corrupt-on-asia-pacific-list( -alaverria% L. B. <5715% !ecem&er Kednesda'=. 2hilippines remains one of most corrupt countries8 survey. Getrieved from $nDuirer Glo&al Jation4 http4((glo&' The Bra of 3erdinand Marcos. <n.d.=. Getrieved from agalog Lang4 http4(( hePhilippines(Histor'(the-era-of-ferdinand-marcos.html Li@a% !. . <571A% .a'=. The facts on political dynasties. Getrieved from .anila -tandard oda' 4 http4((manilastandardtoda'.com(571A(7H(7>(the-facts-on-political-d'nasties(= Kinn% P. <571A% -eptem&er=. 2hilippines; 9 rich young woman-s Instagram e ploits stoke mass outrage . Getrieved from .iniPost4 http4(('oungwoman-s-instagram-e*ploits-stoke-mass-outrage