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Channel Coding 1. Explain Hamming code in detail. 2. Explain Hamming distance.

Tabulate Hamming distance between binary words 0011, 1001, 1010, and 1100. Identify the pair with the maximum Hamming distance. 3. What is Hamming distance? Give the criteria for error detection and error correction capabilities of a code, respectively. 4. Construct a single-error correcting (7, 4) linear block code (Hamming Code) and the corresponding decoding table. 5. Find a generator matrix G for a (15,11) single-error correcting linear block code. Find the code word for the data vector 10111010101. 6. Confirm the possibility of a (18,7) binary code that can correct up to three errors. Can this code correct up to four errors? 7. Consider the following (k+1, k) systematic linear block code with the parity-check digit ck+1 given by Ck+1=d1+d2++dk (i) Construct the appropriate generator matrix for this code. (ii) Construct the code generated by this matrix for k=3. (iii) Determine the error detecting or correcting capabilities of this code. (iv) Show that cHT=0 and rHT=0 if no error occurs, rHT=1 if single error occurs. 8. Consider a generator matrix G for a nonsystematic (6,3):

9. Construct the code for this G, and show that the minimum distance between code words is 3. 10. Explain a (7, 4) linear block code with its generator matrix and its dual code.

11. Consider a (6,3) linear block code with the parity check matrix H given by

a. Find the generator matrix G. b. Find the code word for the data bit 101. 12. For a (7,4) block code generated by [G] below, explain how the error syndrome helps in correcting a single error.

13. The generator polynomial for a (15,7) cyclic code is g(X) = 1+X4 +X6+X7+X8 a. Find the code vector in systematic form for the message D(X) = X2+X3+X4 b. Assume that the first and the last bit of the code vector V (X) for D(x) = X2+X3+X4 suffers transmission errors. Find the syndrome of V(X) 14. Explain coding and decoding techniques for cyclic codes in detail with diagram. 15. The generator polynomial of a (7, 4) cyclic code is g(x) = 1+x+x3 . Find the code words for the following data (i) 1101 (ii) 0101 (iii) 1001 16. Construct a systematic (7,4) cyclic code using the generator polynomial g(x)=x3+x+1 for data words 1111, 1110, 1101 and 1100. 17. Explain (7, 4) cyclic code giving its generator polynomial and give the corresponding code words for at least four different data vectors. 18. What is mean square continuity? What is a convolution code? Mention its structural properties? 19. Explain convolution codes with an example. 20. Write a short note on Reed Solomon Codes. 21. Explain arithmetic coding technique in detail with example.