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God-Fearers: A Solution to the Ancient Problem of the Identity of the Sabians (Times New Roman version)

Contents: Premise (pp.1-3) 1) The Etymologi al !o"el (pp.3-#) $) The %rigins o& the Name (pp.#-') 3) The (e)rew Root SHUBH (pp.*-+) ,) Conversion (pp.+-1-) .) Pagan !onotheism (p.11) #) The /Pio0s1 Roman Emperors (pp.11-13) ')The C0lt o& the !ost-(igh 2o". Titles an" %nomasti s (pp.13-1.) *) Eusbeia an" Gnsis (pp.1.-1#) +) 3in enti0s4 Tom) (1#-1*) 1-) Tertium Genus (pp.1*-$$) 11) 5a)ians 6 /7"herents o& the Prevailing Religion1 (pp.$$-$3) 1$) Hypsistarii, Sebmenoi/Phobomenoi tn Then, Metuentes, Theosebis, Massaliani8 Sabbtistai, aeli!olae, Huna"# (pp.$3-$#) 13) The 5a)ians a or"ing to Earlier 9slami 5o0r es (pp.$#-$+) 1,) The :irst ;atin Translation o& the $urn: 5a)ians 6 Christians< (pp.$+-3$) 1.) (arr=nians4 C0lt o& the !ost-(igh 2o" (pp.3$-3#) 1#) 7 5tri tly Etymologi al Proposal (pp.3#3*) Con l0sions (pp.3*-,1) ;ist o& 7))reviations (pp.,3-,.) Notes nrs.1-3,$ (pp.,'-+$).

Premise The aim o& the present wor> is to she" some light on a long-stan"ing mistery8 the i"entity o& the 5a)ians. :ive years ago8 in"ee"8 we p0)lishe" a short st0"y ?0st on the same s0)?e t 1 where we presente" a theory that no)o"y else ha" ever a"van e": the s0)stantial e@0ivalen e o& the 5a)ians with the loose religio0s gro0p o& the 2o":earers $ (or8 even )etter8 2o"-Aorshippers8 i%e% "evotees o& the !ost-(igh 2o" 3)8 whose importan e an" wi"e , "i&&0sion geographi ally an" hronologi ally is now a epte" .. 7lmost twenty-&ive years ago (1+'')8 the eB eptional ar haeologi al "is overy in the site o& the an ient ity o& 7phro"isia o& a )ig stele #8 pro)a)ly pla e" at the entran e o& the lo al synagog0e8 mentioning the names o& &i&ty-&o0r /pio0s 2o"-&earers1 (sioi theoseb&s) )esi"e those o& siBty-nine Cews (pl0s three proselytes ') in their @0ality o& "onors *8 in &a t8 seeme" &inaally to have p0t an en" to a &r0itless "is 0ssion8 whi h ha" )een going on &or no less than siBty years8 a)o0t the eBisten e o& this gro0p +. Dn&ort0nately8 the e"ition in 9talian o& o0r essay an" the small n0m)er o& li)raries an" s holars we o0l" onta t at that time limite" its impa t8 in spite o& the &avo0ra)le impression it ma"e 0pon the s holars who ha" the possi)ility to rea" the st0"y. This is one o& the main reasons why we have "e i"e" to ta>e 0p the s0)?e t againE the se on"8 an" more important one8 is that we have gathere" new an" relevant pie es o& in&ormation in s0pport o& o0r theory "0ring re ent last years8 a ir 0mstan e that allows 0s not only to a"" &0rther "etails to the pi t0re alrea"y "rawn in o0r previo0s st0"y8 )0t also to 0n"erline the eBtent to whi h Pag. 1

the &a ts olle te" relate to one another with more a 0ra y an" to point o0t )etter the weight o& ea h one o& them. :inally8 we have pai" more attention to the metho"ologi al aspe ts o& the resear h8 sin e we )elieve that the main a0se o& the 0ns0 ess&0l res0lts o& the "i&&erent a0thors who have )een on erne" with the 5a)ian /enigma1 "epen"s on metho"ologi al errorsE in other wor"s8 we will show that there was a systemati &a0lt in the s ienti&i means o& approa hing the matter8 espe ially on erning the etymologi al sol0tions to the pro)lem o& the meaning o& the term /5a)ian18 as well as how the histori al val0e o& teBt0al evi"en e has )een ta>en into a o0nt. Ae thin> it is onvenient to stress again the ever-lasting vali"ity o& the /Prin iple o& E onomy1: 0n"er the same on"itions8 it is )etter to hoose a theory whi h in eBplaining the &a ts worth less eB eptionsE that is8 the )est theory is the simplest one. The theory still most wi"ely a epte"8 as we are going to onsi"er now8 is &ar &rom )eing the simplest one. Tho0gh many s holars have spent their energies to solve /the 5a)ians4 mysteries1 1-8 tho0gh no "o0)t the pi t0re o& the religio0s )elie&s an" pra tises o& the (arranians (that is to say8 the sole representatives o& /the people o& the 5a)ians1 11 whose histori al eBisten e has )een prove" with ertainty) is now m0 h )etter "etermine" 1$ than a h0n"re" an" &i&ty years ago8 when 'ie Ssabier un( (er Ssabismus appeare" in 5t. Peters)0rg8 the lea"ing i"eas eBpresse" )y the R0ssian orientalist Faniel Chwolson in this mon0mental wor> 13 are still ommonly a epte"8 in parti 0lar: 1) the "i&&eren e )etween /tr0e 5a)ians1 (the Sabi#n @0ote" three times )y !0hamma" in the )ur#n si"e )y si"e with Cews an" Christians8 witho0t a""ing any more in&ormation a)o0t them 1,) an" /&alse 5a)ians1 (normally i"enti&ie" with the inha)itants o& (arr=n8 the 50mero-Ga)ylonian !oon-2o" S*n4s an ient 0lti apital in Dpper !esopotamia8 whose piety was still alive "0ring the !i""le 7ges 1.E $) the i"enti&i ation o& /tr0e 5a)ians1 with the small )aptismal gro0p o& !an"aeans who live" in !0hamma"4s times (as they "o now) in the marshy 5o0th!esopotamian region8 an" who were alle" sometimes )y the ni >name Subbi or Subba )y their neigh)o0rs 1#. Chwolson4s style o& arg0ing seems easy8 an" it an )e synthesiHe" as &ollows: sin e !0hamma" o0l" not in l0"e a pagan omm0nity in the /People o& the Goo>18 to whi h Cews an" Christians s0rely )elonge"8 the (arranians annot )0t lie when pro&essing themselves /5a)ians1 (an" in this sense the &amo0s story o& the meetingI"isp0te )etween Caliph al-!a4mJn an" the (arranians ontaine" in alNa"Km4s +ihrist hapter L plays a "e isive role8 as the per&e t thing &or this o asion 1' E on the other han"8 i& the (arranian people are not the Sabi#n mentione" in Suras 998 3 an" LL99 la oni verses8 there is no "o0)t that the Prophet ha" some)o"y else in min": )0t who are the mem)ers o& this 0n>nown monotheisti omm0nity< The phoneti li>eness Subbi-Sbi#n provi"es Chwolson with the answer he wishes 1*. G0t this sol0tion is only apparently easy: it re@0ires )oth a &alsehoo" on the part o& the (arranians who wante" to "e&en" at any ost their an ient religio0s tra"itions8 an" an intereste" mis0n"erstan"ing )y the 9slami a0thorities who were well"ispose" to t0rn a )lin" eye on a pagan omm0nity outran!e in eB hange &or money (the well->nown leit,moti- o& the Near-Eastern peoples4 innate orr0ption)E moreover8 it lets a Pag. $

very small religio0s gro0p grow 0p in !0hamma"4s min" 0ntil it )e omes a Dniversal Religion li>e Christianity an" C0"aism8 as it re@0ires a rather &ree 0se o& the r0les o& Etymology (an" it is not s0rprising that very soon the latter point in Chwolson4s thesis was )itterly riti iHe"). This is why we say that Chwolson &ails not only in wor>ing o0t the simplest theory8 )0t ?0st a simple one8 0nless one 0ses the wor" as a &a)le8 rather than as something worthy to the wor" 5 ien e. 9t goes witho0t saying that i& all the pie es o& evi"en e in the new pattern whi h we are going to provi"e were "emonstrate" 1+ )eyon" any "o0)t8 we wo0l" not have spent so many wor"s arg0ing an" riti iHing a )oo> written a h0n"re" an &i&ty years ago8 even i& as we have alrea"y sai" its theoreti al iss0es are those whi h are to )e &o0n" in most en y lopae"ias an" "i tionaries. G0t we )elieve that all means are vali" to show how m0 h the opening o& an alternative horiHon on the 5a)ian pro)lem is nee"e": it will lea" the s holars4 e&&orts in a "ire tion that might have )een totally ignore"8 witho0t the material olle te" here. 9n other wor"s8 we hope that8 with the help o& o0r s0ggestions8 new evi"en e will ome to light8 strengthening o0r arg0ments4 vali"ity.

The Etymolo.i!al Mo(el 9t is impossi)le to )e grate&0l eno0gh to the 9talian s holar 2iovanni 5emerano &or the wor> whi h he has arrie" o0t thro0gho0t his li&e (he is now ninety-two years ol"M) in the &iel" o& Etymology. 9n &a t8 no)o"y )e&ore him8 ha" prove" in the same "egree the 0n)elieva)le onservative power o& lang0age an" the pra ti al onse@0en es o& this &a t on a histori al level. :or those who "o not yet >now this learne" man or the str0ggles he ha" to &ight to ma>e his revol0tionary position >nown8 we nee" only to @0ote his main wor>8 /e ori.ini (ella !ultura europea $- (The 0ri.ins o" the European !ulture) an" the more re ent )oo> /#in"inito1 un e2ui-o!o millenario $1 (3n"inity1 a millenary mista4e)8 whi h another 9talian s holar8 the philosopher Eman0ele 5everino8 on e alle" /0na &esta "ell4intelligenHa1. Ahy s0 h a title< 7n" why sho0l" it represent /a &east o& the intelligen e1< $$ Ge a0se 5emerano &or the &irst time sweeps away an ol" i"ea8 whi h he "e&ines in terms o& /9n"oe0ropean !irage1 $38 implying that the ling0isti roots o& 9talian8 in parti 0lar8 an" those o& other E0ropean lang0ages8 more generally8 &or the most part go )a > to ol" 2ree> or to ;atin (more remotely8 to 5ans rit as well). The iss0es lin>e" to s0 h a wrong 0se o& Etymology4s r0les were o&ten @0ite &0nny: let 0s re all here only the on e ommon etymologi al eBplanation o& the wor" /9talia18 whi h the /9n"oe0ropean !irage1 went as &ar as onne ting to the ;atin term -itulus8 o)taining onse@0ently the 0rio0s res0lt: /9talia1 6 /Terra "ei 3itelli1 (/the Calves4 Co0ntry1)M $, 7gainst s0 h mira les o& ingen0ity8 in virt0e o& whi h everything )e omes possi)le8 5emerano rightly raise" the plain o)?e tion that the initial /i1 in the wor"

Pag. 3 /9talia1 is long8 whereas in the wor" -itulus it is short $.E this )rie&ly means that in the &irst ase the vowel /i1 )elongs to the wor"4s root8 while in the se on" one it "oes not: nothing else is ne essary to "emonstrate that s0 h an in&eren e is wrong8 an" with it tho0san"s an" tho0san"s o& others. 9t is now easy to 0n"erstan" why 5emerano &elt the nee" to re onsi"er "0ring his long an" not always happy li&e $# ro0ghly twenty-&ive tho0san"s wor"s $'8 )oth ommon no0ns an" proper names8 in ol" 2ree>8 ;atin8 9talian8 :ren h8 5panish8 2erman8 English8 5lavi 8 together with their allege" original 9n"oe0ropean roots systemati ally olle te" )y lassi al ling0ists. Th0s to a great eBtent8 he too> on the tas> o& rewriting E0rope4s ling0isti history8 an a tivity whi h oin i"e" event0ally with rewriting the history o& the E0ropean 0lt0re itsel&: a h0ge tas>8 in"ee"M 7s we are writing these pages8 we realiHe that it is the $' th o& Can0ary8 a "ate whi h 9taly an" other E0ropean o0ntries8 pl0s 9srael an" the D.5.7.8 "e i"e" a &ew years ago to ele)rate as a /!emorial Fay18 in or"er to show to the new generations the atro ities o& the (olo a0st the Shoah 5 "0ring the past 5e on" Aorl" Aar8 so that no)o"y ever &orgets NaHi-:as ist )ar)arity an"8 a)ove all8 so that s0 h horror sho0l" never repeat itsel& in the o0rse o& h0man history. The present re&eren e to anti-5emitism is not as0al. 9n &a t what 5emerano alls the /9n"oe0ropean !irage1 saw the light ?0st at the )eginning o& L9L ent0ry together with the )irth o& Comparative ;ing0isti s8 )0t it owe" its eBisten e to something that ha" nothing to "o with a s ienti&i an" ne0tral interest in an ient lang0ages: it was a &loating mine8 it was ra ism $*. The pro0" sense o& their own s0periority over 5emiti pop0lations eBpresse" )y the 2ermans an" other E0ropean peoples starte" &rom an 0n ons io0s hate that slowly trans&orme" itsel& into an open will o& "estr0 tionE an" it was ?0st the same a)s0r" spirit o& sel&-eB ellen e that invente" the legen" o& the )ea0ti&0l an" terri)le 9n"o-E0ropean ra e8 oming &rom the "eep 7sian steppes8 ri"ing on their &ast wil" horses8 whose assigne" "estiny was the on@0est o& the worl". /Ae have )een sear hing everywhere - 5emerano says - )0t8 in spite o& o0r sin ere e&&orts8 we have &o0n" no tra e o& the 9n"oe0ropeans at all1 $+. Nor o& their imaginary lang0age8 o& o0rse. Tho0gh s0 h a primary lang0age never eBiste" on the &a e o& earth8 it ha" a very )ig in&l0en e as every)o"y >nows - on a 0lt0ral level anyway. 9ts most important e&&e t in the &iel" o& the h0man s ien es was the onstr0 tion o& a strong high wall )etween the 7ryans an" most o& the Near Eastern peoples settle" along approBimately the same nat0ral )or"er-line8 the E0phrates river8 whi h in 9mperial times "ivi"e" the Roman 5tate &rom Persia so that no)o"y was a)le to ross it nor to loo> )eyon" it any longer. The E0ropeans pre&erre" to )e )lin" rather than to re ognise any sort o& >inship with their 5emiti neigh)o0rs. Ae have alrea"y stresse" the onse@0en es o& s0 h an attit0"e in onne tion to the term /9talia1: it is )etter to )e a>in to alves than to 7ra)s an" CewsM P0tting asi"e h0mo0r8 the s an"al o& the long silen es that the rea"er so o&ten meets when opening any ol" 2ree> or ;atin etymologi al "i tionary (with s0 h la oni eBpressions as /etymology: 0n>nown18 /ignorNe18 /in onn0e18 /0n)e>annt1)3-

was real8 )0t no s holar ever won"ere" or raise" o)?e tions in &ront o& the va 00m: in spite o& s0 h a great "istan e in terms o& spa e an" time8 it was to the an ient Pag. , 9n"ian iviliHation that ling0ists sho0l" ontin0e to present their @0estionsE i& 5ans rit "oes not answer8 the answer "oes not eBist at all 31. 7n" yet ?0st one step a ross a m0 h loser )or"er was nee"e" to &ill a lot o& those empty spa es: )0t who wo0l" )e o0rageo0s an" &earless eno0gh to "o it< Geyon" s0 h a thin an" har" to ross )or"erline8 in &a t8 a very ri h treas0re lies: the 7 a"ian leBi on 3$. There8 in the interiors o& s0 h a gol"en mine availa)le to ling0ists at least sin e the mi""le o& the L9L ent0ry 338 even the right meaning o& the no0n /9talia1 was hi""en together with a /host1 o& other ones8 so that it was not "i&&i 0lt at this point to onne t the 9talian term with the 7 a"ian lemma attalu 6 /o i"ent8 west8 s0nset18 oming th0s to the entirely intelligi)le res0lt /9talia1 6 /Co0ntry o& the Aest13,. Ae have alrea"y sai" it: sol0tions m0st )e easy or they are not real ones. Ahat "i" the ol" 2ree>s have in min" when naming the 9talian penins0la Esperia8 )0t /the o0ntry o& the west1< %n the other han"8 the initial letter o& the 7 a"ian wor" per&e tly agrees with &irst /i1 o& the 9talian no0n )y @0antity: th0s the present sol0tion is satis&ying not only &rom a logi al point o& view8 sin e it allows 0s to throw away a meaningless "e&inition in eB hange o& a meaning&0l one8 )0t also &rom the str0 t0ral re@0irements o& Phoneti s8 ?0st as it sho0l" )e. 9n the Near Eastern 7nti@0ity8 7 a"ian was the &irst international writing normally in 0se8 )e a0se it was the lang0age that was 0se" &or royal han ellery a ts an" all other sorts o& "o 0ments "0ring almost &i&teen h0n"re" years. That is the main reason why 7 a"ian has to )e hosen instea" o& 5ans rit: the &ormer was wi"ely sprea" many ent0ries )e&ore the latter ame into eBisten e. %ne sho0l" reverse the way &ollowe" )y lassi al s holars 0ntil now: when an ol" 2ree> or a ;atin root seems to go )a > to the 9n"ian milie08 these are ?0st s0r&a e impressions or8 even )etter8 mirror e&&e tsE when s0 h a ase "oes happen8 in &a t8 the 5ans rit root goes systemati ally )a > in its t0rn to an 7 a"ian ante e"ent8 ommon to )oth E0ropean lassi al lang0ages an" to 9n"ian ones 3.. The &in"ing o& a new original &ramewor> to )e applie" in etymologi al resear h represents a real Coperni an revol0tion 3# not only in the &iel" o& ;ing0isti s: it implies also an alternative histori al mo"el &or the "evelopment o& the Near East an ient iviliHations an" &or their m0t0al relationships8 in other wor"s a new i"ea regar"ing the progress o& man>in" an" its main starting points. 7s the entirely 0neBpe te" "is overy o& E)la )y 9talian ar haeologists ha" alrea"y shown at the en" o& the siBties an" even more in the neBt "e a"es8 )y stressing the a)sol0te importan e o& this part o& the 7n ient Aorl"8 one o& the most signi&i ant / 0lt0ral engines1 in the o0rse o& h0man history lay geographi ally in the 5yro-!esopotamian area: the art o& writing8 namely the most ommonly a epte" re&eren e-mar> &or the )eginning o& the histori al age8 &lo0rishe" in that region when men were still wan"ering partially in sha"ows along the Nile an" 9n"o river valleys 3'. 9n the neBt pages we will per&orm an operation whi h not even o0r o0rageo0s an" &earless pro&essor 5emerano8 notwithstan"ing his sin ere passion &or the tr0th8

manage"8 sin e s0 h a thing was o0tsi"e his own range o& a tivities. 9&8 as 5emerano has prove" with ertainty8 the in re"i)le en"0ring power o& 7 a"ian &orms has to )e re ogniHe" in the E0ropean lassi al lang0ages as well as into mo"ern ones8 there is no reason &or not s0pposing that a similar phenomenon ha" happene" in the Near Pag. . Eastern ling0isti sphere. 9n reality8 the in&l0en e o& 7 a"ian on the lang0ages o& the 5emiti )ran h is among the &a ts more ommonly a epte" )y s holars8 as orientalists have re ogniHe" &rom a long time similar inter-ling0isti relations8 )oth &rom a "ia hroni an" syn hroni point o& view: )0t m0 h wor> m0st still )e "one in this sense an"8 as it is evi"ent that the E0ropean 0lt0ral onteBt re@0ires it8 many past errors m0st )e orre te" in this &iel" o& resear h too. Ahat &aile" to )e 0n"erstoo" 0p to now8 in &a t8 is the &0ll importan e o& the entral role o& the 7 a"ian lang0age8 so that it appears to )e the primary pattern whi h one sho0l" ma>e re&eren e to when8 as general r0le8 etymologi al pro)lems are at sta>e. Ae shall try to show8 there&ore8 how strong the onservative power o& the 7 a"ian ling0isti )0l> ha" )een even in re&eren e to the pro)lem whi h we are on erne" with8 the 5a)ians: o)vio0sly8 it is a matter o& Etymology8 )0t we )elieve that o0r etymologi al sol0tion is worthy o& interest8 )y omparing it to the other ones whi h were propose" till now8 &or the simple reason that it is not an a)stra t hypothesis8 goo" &or some s holarly min"s8 as those wereE on the ontrary8 it stan"s on soli" theoreti al gro0n"s8 )e a0se it agrees not only with phoneti general r0les8 )0t also with the histori al "evelopments o& religions sin e 7nti@0ity 0p to the !i""le 7ges thro0gho0t the Near Eastern area. ;ast )0t not least8 o0r theory also &0l&ils the "0ties involve" )y the alrea"y @0ote" /Prin iple o& E onomy1: &or the &irst time8 it ma>es a lean sweep o& the arti&i ial "i&&eren e /tr0e 5a)ians1 - /&alse 5a)ians1 in a satis&a tory way8 namely witho0t resorting as C. Pe"ersen in the twenties (an" C. (?arpe who &ollowe" his opinion more re ently) "i" to the on ept o& 2nosis 3*. 9t is tr0e8 in &a t8 that Pe"ersen4s sol0tion gets over Chwolson4s in ongr0ities )y &in"ing a single name &or the s0)?e t implie" )y !0hamma"4s wor"s an" )y the religio0s-histori al &ramewor> to ome8 with the well >nown "i&&i 0lties o& a or"ing several sel&-style" or allege" /5a)ian1 omm0nities to the $oran4s enigmati gro0pE however the i"ea o& ren"ering in )oth ases the 5a)ians e@0al to 2nosti s "oes not eBplain anything8 )e a0se on epts li>e 2nosis an" 2nosti ism are in every)o"y4s opinion so haHy an" loose that they an never help to solve a pro)lem o& i"entity8 mostly when the pro)lem in @0estion is represente" )y s0 h a ompleB phenomenon as 5a)ianism.

The 0ri.ins o" the 6ame Ae sho0l" repeat here what we wrote in o0r previo0s st0"y. Gy o)serving the 0n ertainty an" the hesitations that an ient Oorani ommentators an" 9slami tra"itionists - )0t also !0slim !i""le 7ges4 historians8 geographers8 heresiologists

et . - show when the s0)?e t /5a)ians1 omes into play8 it is "i&&i 0lt not to have the impression o& "ealing with a non-7ra)i wor". 9n &a t there is no m0t0al onsent among all these learne" men a)o0t the tr0e meaning o& the wor" an" its ling0isti root8 neither a)o0t the right way o& writing an" prono0n ing it: so8 one may 0s0ally &in" )esi"e the 7ra)i pl0ral written &orm Sbi#n8 the olle tive &orms Sbi#a an" Pag- # SbaE in the meantime8 a or"ing to one o& the most &amo0s an ient mu"assirn8 alPama>hsharK8 Oorani sayers wo0l" have &re@0ently prono0n e" the wor" al,Sbn8 witho0t ham7a 3+. Those are ?0st a han"&0l o& eBamples8 )0t we )elieve that they are s0&&i ient to grasp the ling0isti on"itions o& the pro)lem. Con&0sion in reases8 )esi"es8 when one thin>s over the eBisten e o& two "i&&erent8 tho0gh very losely inter-relate" 7ra)i roots8 SB# an" SB88 an" onse@0ently o& two orrespon"ing ver)al &orms8 saba#a an" sab8 &rom whi h the name Sbi (sing.)ISbi#n (pl0r.) is generally s0ppose" to "erive ,-. Ae hope that o0r 3 Sebmenoi have eBplaine" the vario0s semanti val0es o& these ver)s ,1 learly eno0gh8 an" we &in" it 0nne essary8 there&ore8 to loo> )a > to the histori al reasons that pro)a)ly gave )irth to s0 h "i&&erent meanings on e again. No "o0)t8 the &a t that the wor" "oes appear &or the &irst time within the )ur#n annot prove anything a)o0t its own origins8 )e a0se it is not )y evi"en e o& this >in" that one may >now whether the no0n )elongs or not to the 7ra)i ling0isti tra"ition: as the latest resear h has shown with more an" more ertainty8 poetry writings whi h tra"itionally were onsi"ere" to )e o& p0re 7ra)i pro"0 tion8 )e a0se o& their omposition going )a > to the so- alle" 9yym al,9rab8 )elong on the ontrary to the !0slim age an" are not a)le8 there&ore8 to give a real portrait o& the li&e o& those legen"ary "ays8 nor to in&orm 0s a)o0t the lang0age really spo>en in s0 h a "istant past ,$. 5o8 when one "oes not &in" the ver)s saba#a/sab nor the name(s) Sbi/Sbi#n (Sbi#a et .) among the lyri al wor"s 0se" )y the poets o& the 9yym al,9rab8 it "oes not mean that this gro0p o& terms is really ol"8 sin e the )ur#n as8 on the other han"8 it never ease" o& )eing onsi"ere" s0 h in the !0slim worl" is the p0re 7ra)i ling0isti prototype ,3. ;i>ewise8 we are not helpe" )y the teBt0al evi"en e ontaine" within several ha(ith an" s*ra4s writings ,,8 whi h C. Aellha0sen alrea"y olle te" an" ommente" on &or the most part one ent0ry ago ,.: the &a t that the ver) saba#a an" the no0n Sbi ,# (the latter )eing 0se" always in its sing0lar &orm ,') are applie" in these teBts in re&eren e to !0hamma" an" to the earlier mem)ers o& the !0slim omm0nity ,* "oes not imply that s0 h wor"s were o& ommon 0se in !0hamma"4s times or )e&ore him )y the 7ra)i spea>ers. Conse@0ently8 F.5. !argolio0th seems to )e right when eBpressing the opinion that /saba#a8 Qhe hange" his religion48 R appears to )e an in&eren e &rom the appli ation o& the name to !0hamma" an" his &ollowers1 ,+. 9n a)sen e o& other elements8 it is s0rely more orre t to &ollow this way o& reasoning8 an" th0s to thin> that at least in relation to one ()0t a very important one8 as we shall see) o& the semanti val0es o& the root SB# one has to "o with a vi io0s ir le. The reason why the 7ra)i ver) saba#a o0l" )e applie" to 9slam4s &irst proselytes an" to the Prophet who was anno0n ing 7llah an" (is (oly Aor" to man>in" wo0l" not )e that its meaning was /to hange religion1 or /to )e onverte"1 at those early times alrea"yE on the ontrary8 the ver)al &orm wo0l" have )een &or e" to in l0"e also that spe ial meaning later on8 only )e a0se all these people an" !0hamma"

with them - were 0s0ally "es ri)e" )y their !e an opponents )y an epithet li>e /5a)ians1 .-. Pag. ' The Hebre: ;oot 5(DG( 7 t0ally s0 h an opinion8 to whi h we s0)s ri)e" witho0t reserve in o0r previo0s st0"y8 o0l" only )e hal& a tr0th. There eBists in &a t the (e)rew root SHUBH whi h is very interesting &or o0r p0rposes8 even i& no)o"y as &ar as we >now ever re ognise" any inter-ling0isti relation )etween it an" the two 7ra)i roots whi h we are "ealing with. A.;. (olla"ay8 &or eBample8 when s0rveying in hapter 9 o& his The root SHUBH in the 0l( Testament, vario0s instan es o& /the root in ognate lang0ages18 re or"s the ver) ta:aba whi h /o 0rs in lassi al 7ra)i in a great variety o& meanings8 some o& them paralleling (e)rew 0sage. 7 or"ing to ;ane4s /e<i!on .1 the ver) in the &irst &orm has the meaning Qhe ret0rne" to a pla e to whi h he ha" ome )e&ore48 eBa tly the entral meaning whi h we shall assign to shbh1E then8 a&ter having remem)ere" two &0rther 0ses o& the ver) in the 93 &orm ( a0sative) an" in the L &orm (re&leBive)8 he re >ons among the /less ass0re" proposals1 a Ca o) Garth4s s0ggestion8 a or"ing to whi h /the a"?e tives sobhbh8 sobhbh Q"isloyal8 &aithless48 an" the no0n meshbh Q&aithlessness48 are to )e "isting0ishe" &rom the 5emiti root t:b8 an" to )e rather onne te" with the 7ra)i root s#b6syb8 Q&ree8 0ntrammele"4 1 .$. 7ll this is rather strange8 all the more so as the root SHUBH has )een st0"ie" at length )y s holars8 who have analyse" the a)0n"ant o 0rren e o& the relate" ver)s8 no0ns an" a"?e tives thro0gh %l" Testament teBts8 in or"er to "eepen8 in parti 0lar8 the on eption o& apostasy an" repentan e in an ient (e)rai so iety .3. Now8 it is tr0e that SHUBH an" SB#ISB8 "iverge &or many aspe ts an" so an )e only in part parallele"8 )0t their onvergen e is all the more stri>ing at least &or one essential point: )oth roots show a hara teristi am)ig0ity when eBpressing the relation )etween !an an" 2o"8 an am)ig0ity whi h sho0l" )e seen we )elieve - as a onse@0en e o& the histori al "i&&i 0lties o& &o 0sing the i"ea o& religio0s Conversion. 9n other wor"s8 )oth roots whi h - it is worth stating here in l0"e into their semanti &iel" some )asi meanings o& physi al motion witho0t &0rther impli ation8 s0 h as /to ret0rn8 to revert (in ownership)8 to hange into1 ((e)rew) an" /to in line8 to )e in line"8 to ten"8 to lean1 (7ra)i )8 show in re&eren e to religio0s meanings8 also in l0"e" )y &0ll right into their semanti &iel"8 a never-en"ing os illation8 a "iale ti s 2oo"-Evil )eing "estine" to never stop8 whi h reveals itsel& to )e essentially the same in )oth ases. 9&8 then8 the (e)rew root may eBpress the i"ea o& /going away &rom 2o"18 s!% o& /apostasy18 an" also at the same time that one o& /ret0rn to 2o"18 s!% o& /repentan e18 the 7ra)i root on the other si"e "oes not ease to hesitate )etween the i"ea o& /in lining in the wrong "ire tion (&ar &rom 2o")18 s!% o& /apostasy18 an" that one o& /in lining in the right "ire tion (towar"s 2o")18 s!% o& / onversion18 even i& the latter semanti val0e seems to &a"e in the )a >gro0n" in omparison with the &ormer one a or"ing to leBi ographers an" other interpreters .,.

To "well 0pon the reason why the semanti n0an e o& / onversion1 repla e" in 7ra)i the semanti n0an e o& /repentan e1 eBpresse" )y the (e)rew root wo0l" seem at &irst sight a waste o& time8 )0t we "on4t &in" it ompletely 0seless to spen" Pag. * some wor"s 0pon that aspe t anyway. 7ra)ians8 or rather !0slims8 "i" not get the %ne Tr0e 2o" &rom the )eginning8 an" ha" to wait &or tho0san"s o& years &or !0hamma"4s prophe y an" the han e to t0rn themselves to 2o" )y reno0n ing their ol" i"ols. 9t was the histori al event o& 7llah4s Revelation )y the Prophet that ren"ere" the i"ea o& Conversion ompletely real. 9n"ee"8 even )e&ore the )eginning o& the !0slim era8 it was possi)le &or any 7ra) to onvert himsel&. G0t to Ahat< To Ahom< There were persons among the 7ra)s onverte" to Christianity or to C0"aism8 o& o0rse8 namely Christian an" Cewish 7ra)ian omm0nities whose importan e was sometimes &ar &rom meagre mostly sin e the &i&th ent0ry C.E. onwar"s ..8 )0t it was a minority phenomenon8 hie&ly in relation to entral 7ra)ia4s "esert regions .#8 an" in any ase it la >e" time to in&l0en e the leBi on o& lassi al 7ra)i .'. The main pro)lem &or the Cews8 on the ontrary8 was always to go astray8 to &orget the ;aw o& 2o" an" to &all "own into i"olatryE the plain wor" /Conversion18 whi h every)o"y ta>es &or grante" nowa"ays8 meant nothing &or them8 sin e they were the ele t an" th0s they o0l" ris> losing 2o" only )e a0se o& their sins. There was no nee" to loo> &or (im8 (e was stan"ing )esi"e them8 with them8 sin e .* the Covenant )etween (im an" 7)raham ha" )een ma"e on e &or all: that is why the (e)rew root eBpresses the i"ea o& /going away an" oming )a > to the "epart0re point1 .+8 rather than that one o& /t0rning onesel& towar"s a ertain "ire tion1. 7s we shall o)serve8 the sit0ation hanges when Cews ome in lose onta t with other peoples8 that is when Proselytism )egins to grow till it )e omes a so ially signi&i ant phenomenon )oth in Palestine an" thro0gho0t the Fiaspora omm0nities #-. G0t in or"er to name these men an" women8 whose n0m)er in rease" as time passe"8 who hear" the all o& =ah: an" who &elt the nee" o& / rossing the )o0n"ary an" )e oming a Cew1 #1 or o& ta>ing part o& gro0ps "evote" to the (e)rai religion &ollowing some o& its many pre epts #$8 there generally eBiste" other te hni al terms8 or rather terms whi h gaine" over the o0rse o& ent0ries an 0nam)ig0o0s sense #3.

on-ersion 7 t0ally8 the general i"ea o& Conversion ha" a signi&i ant histori al "evelopment8 an" th0s in the &irst perio" o& the Christian era it was ?0st at its very )eginning8 tho0gh the pro ess ha" starte" ent0ries )e&ore an" was to progress &or many ent0ries. 9t is not possi)le to "is 0ss here the history o& the on ept o& Conversion8 nor to &ollow the very slow evol0tion o& the spirit0al sense in the h0man so ieties o& the an ient worl". Ae m0st limit o0rselves to loo> at some o& 2ree> ver)sIno0ns

most 0s0ally employe" )eyon" the term alrea"y note" to translate the event in @0estion8 s0 h as epistr>phein/epistroph> an" metano>in/metnoia #,8 or to loo> at the parallel wor"s in (e)rew when the teBts to analyHe are &or eBample the %l" Testament writings #.8 to realiHe how long an" tort0o0s was the way lea"ing to a &0ll ons io0sness o& that Pag. + phenomenon: there ame into light a spe ial >in" o& religio0s &eeling8 a psy hologi al event wholly "i&&erent &rom any other one8 an" a s0)se@0ent hain o& a tions a""resse" towar"s a well "etermine" goal8 whi h nee"e" only a single wor" in or"er to )e learly "enote". G0t where were the "i&&i 0lties< Ahat was so "i&&i 0lt to 0n"erstan" an" to say )y 0sing ?0st one wor"< To tell the tr0th8 spea>ing o& s0 h a theme )rings a)o0t a h0ge pro)lem8 an" this may eBplain why8 also in mo"ern times8 very &ew s holars &eel li>e ta>ing into onsi"eration this s0)?e t: 7.F. No >4s on-ersion% The 0l( an( the 6e: in ;eli.ion "rom 9le<an(er the Great to 9u.ustine o" Hippo ## is an a)sol0te eB eption on a )i)liographi al level8 mostly )e a0se as he himsel& states: /This pro ess o& attra tion has in the main )een st0"ie" &rom the Christian point o& view. Ahat 9 have here trie" to "o is to loo> at it &rom the o0tsi"e8 an" to that en" 9 have "evote" a s0)stantial part o& this )oo> to a presentation o& the a"van e in this same worl" o& other &orms o& religion8 many o& them eastern in origins8 an" o& other ways o& li&e whi h also won a"herents1. No > #' stresses ?0st &rom the o0tset a on ept0al "istin tion8 namely )etween the psy hologi al pro ess o& /Conversion1 an" a less )in"ing on"ition o& getting spirit0ally involve" s0 h as /7"hesion1 to a new religio0s 0lt an"Ior to new "eities generally importe" into one4s o0ntry &rom the o0tsi"e )y inva"ers #*. Nevertheless8 i& the "istin tion is s0rely important &or &o 0sing on what happens in a man4s so0l when he has to ma>e with this sort o& spirit0al an" o&ten pra ti al too - hoi es8 it is m0 h less signi&i ant &rom an histori al point o& view. 9n the latter sense8 what really o0nts a lot is another &a tor8 that is the "eep trans&ormational pro ess whi h a so iety 0n"ergoes when it is investe" )y a strong religio0s stream8 )y a high spirit0al &ever. 9t is not a i"ental that some s holars have presente" the religio0s gro0ps whi h are at the entre o& o0r attention 0n"er alternative names s0 h as /5ympathiHers1 #+ or ?0st as /7"herents1 '-8 instea" o& the 0s0al /2o"-:earers1 (Phobomenoi tn Then8 Metuentes 'eum) an"Ior /2o"Aorshippers1 (Sebmenoi tn ThenITheoseb>is8 olentes 'eum) '1: these names seem to orrespon" )etter to histori al &a ts8 sin e the people in @0estion o&ten "i" not hange very m0 h their way o& li&e an" their ha)its8 limiting themselves to )eing present at the synagog0e4s rites in @0ality o& simple atten"ants an" to o)eying to some pre epts o& C0"aism that generally en?oye" a large sympathy among pagans8 &or instan e Sabbath4s o)servan e with an"les an" oil lamps4 lighting "0ring :ri"ay night or a)stention &rom por> '$. 5o8 what is really the r0 ial &a tor &or the histori al "evelopment o& religio0s i"eas8 an" there&ore &or the h0man history itsel&8 is not the more or less spirit0al sel&involving o& in"ivi"0als in a new &aith or in new religio0s )elie&sE it is the ra"i al hange o& the religio0s horiHon "0ring the perio" in l0"e" we may &ollow here No >4s hronologi al mo"el &rom /7leBan"er the 2reat to 70g0stine o& (ippo1. 9t

is a spa e o& time m0 h longer than hal& a millenni0m8 )0t it is "i&&i 0lt to onsi"er a shorter one &or eBamining what happene" in men4s so0ls an" in their sensi)ility in respe t to the role whi h religion ha" &or h0man "estiny '3. Pag. 1- Monotheism Dn&ort0nately8 it is only very re ently that people have )eg0n to )e ons io0s not only that a ompleB so ial-religio0s movement spe ially "evote" to %ne !ost-(igh 2o" histori ally eBiste" an" was pro&o0n"ly an" wi"ely "i&&0se" in the allege" /Pagan Aorl"1 (into E0ropean8 Near Eastern8 North 7&ri an regions in l0"e" in the Roman Empire8 an" even )eyon" it)8 )0t also that this event event0ally ma"e it possi)ile to spea> a)o0t a phenomenon s0 h as /Pagan !onotheism1 ',. Thirty years ago8 in &a t8 an" even less8 pro)a)ly s0 h an eBpression wo0l" have )een seen ?0st as a )lasphemy: the on ept o& /(enotheism1 was the maBim0m that people were generally "ispose" to a"mit in re&eren e to the Pagans4 horiHon o& tho0ght '.E the on ept0al spa e o& /!onotheism1 was apologies &or the p0n a monopoly o& the Reveale" 2reat Religions8 a sort o& private property o& C0"aism an" Christianity. G0t the new &ramewor> o& ;ate 7nti@0ity4s /pagan1 piety whi h )egins step )y step to )e "rawn in the last years wea>ens to a ertain eBtent the tra"itional )o0n"ary line )etween Reveale"8 or Propheti 8 Religions an" Pagan Religions '#8 )e a0se - as the latest resear h ma>es more an" more lear what one tho0ght to )e still in eBisten e "0ring the &irst ent0ries o& the Christian Era plainly "i" not eBist any longer. 9t is o& se on"ary importan e to >now whi h 50pernat0ral Geings people )elieve" in8 whi h new8 or ol"8 "eities they were "evote" to8 as well as whi h >in" o& hopes an" eBpe tations they pla e" in them: what "eeply hange" was people4s attit0"e o& min" towar"s Religion in general8 not only in the sense that8 a&ter a ertain histori al perio"8 people )egan to see> into Religion an answer to their &ears8 a sol0tion to their pro)lems a)o0t "eath8 a virt0al salvation (soter*a)'' to their so0ls. Every)o"y >nows8 &or instan e8 that sin e the se on" ent0ry C.E. a new &aith in %riental 0lts (Cy)ele8 9sis8 !ithra8 !Sn8 5a)aHios8 Fyonisos et .) '* sprea" in the Roman Empire &or the same reasons that previo0sly ha" gaine" &ollowers to 2ree> !ysteri Religions8 %rphism an" Ele0synian !ysteries '+8 namely the novi e4s hope to o)tain his own so0l4s salvation a&ter having s0 ess&0lly passe" the initiation rites )y r0le an" a&ter having onse@0ently entere" to )e part )y &0ll right o& some omm0nity o& /Ele ts1. 9n"ee"8 it is not s0 h a thing whi h we mean )y saying / hange o& people4s attit0"e o& min"18 an" there&ore perhaps an eBample is nee"e" to eBplain )etter what we wish to eBpress.

The ?Pious@ ;oman Emperors 9n her )estseller Ha(rian#s Memoirs the :ren h writer !arg0erite To0r enar too8 a or"ing to a histori ally well- onsoli"ate" opinion8 lets the ol"-age" emperor4s hoi e &or his s0 essor to the imperial see &inally &all on /a ertain1 senator 7ntonin0s8 whose /greatest are in respe t o& the ol" weary &ather1 (who was o&ten Pag. 11 present with him at the 5enate4s assem)lies) ha" )ro0ght him the ni >name /Pio0s1: &or (a"rian this "etail seeme" s0&&i ient to onsi"er him a tr0stworthy person *-. The ane "ote was always so s0 ess&0l that no)o"y ever "o0)te" a)o0t its tr0th&0lness8 an" there wo0l" )e no pro)lem. The pro)lem arises8 nevertheless8 when one realiHes that8 0nli>e what happens in eBplaining in s0 h a simple way the allege" origin o& 7ntonin0s4 ni >name8 no reason is given to eBplain why Roman emperors a&ter him ontin0e" &or many ent0ries to )e name" in the same way i%e% ontin0e" to "isplay8 as Roman 9mperial oinage shows at great length8 )esi"e their own proper names an" the tra"itional epithet 9u.ustus (Sebasts in Roman Empire4s 2ree> oinage) *1 a &0rther an" meaning&0l one s0 h as Pius (Euseb>s) *$. Ahat has happene" sin e that time< Ahy ha" Roman Emperors to "e lare openly their religio0s &eelings8 to eBhi)it p0)li ly their stri t religio0s o)servan e< 9t is noteworthy that this 0sage "i" not ease with the en" o& the perio" o& the so- alle" /:oster-Emperors1 *3 whose h0man @0alities &or la > o& any "egree o& >inship )etween them (that is in a)sen e o& any &amily4s "ynasti line) ha" to )e &irst o& all wis"om8 ?0sti e an" o0rageE it is not possi)le8 in other wor"s8 to &in" any spe ial lin> )etween the )eginnings o& s0 h "isplaye" /"evo0tness1 )y Roman Emperors an" the h0man @0alities whi h they ha" to possess in or"er to )e onsi"ere" worthy o& s0 ee"ing to the throne8 as i& this "evo0tness was ?0st another way o& naming /Philosophy18 a "is ipline whi h !ar 0s 70reli0s was the )est entitle" among the Caesars to entr0st the government o& the 5tate to *,. G0t even more stri>ing is the hoi e o& the wor" itsel&8 pius/euseb>s8 when one re&le ts over the well->nown ir 0mstan e that the term pietas in ;atin8 ?0st li>e eus>beia in 2ree>8 is @0ite a haHy synonymo0s o& o0r /Religion1 *.: the i"ea o& pietas/ eus>beia8 in &a t8 ha" previo0sly so m0 h to "o with ivi a&&airs an" m0ni ipal "0ties *# that there were "ignities o& the state8 magistra ies8 ?0st having the assignment o& )earing the religio0s servi eE on the ontrary8 it ha" very little to "o with spirit0al &eelings. Ahen 7ntonin0s together with his s0 essors p0)li ly states to )e /Pio0s18 there&ore8 he is not simply a"mitting to )e the Ponti"e< Ma<imus as alrea"y % tavian "i" one ent0ry an" hal& )e&ore8 olle ting &or the &irst time in the history o& Rome into the han"s o& only one person the Prin!eps - the politi al an" the religio0s power *': we an )e s0re o& that. 9t wo0l" seem that the Cews8 whose str0ggles &or in"epen"en e ame to a &inal en" ?0st 0n"er 7ntonin0s4 prin ipality owing to their "e&eat "0ring the 5e on" C0"ai Aar **(in onse@0en e o& whi h the tolerant position o& the Roman government towar"s the Cews - whi h was not sel"om something more than that8 namely a politi al position in open s0pport o& them *+- so "eeply hange" that new laws starte" to )e p0t into &or e all over the Roman Empire

&or)i""ing ir 0m ision &or onverte" Cews 0n"er penalty o& "eath +-: an event whi h histori ally stoppe"8 or ra"i ally restraine" anyway8 the pro ess o& C0"ai Proselytism) +18 a&ter having lost the mat h on the )attle-&iel"8 too> their revenge on a 0lt0ral level8 &or ing the Romans to p0t asi"e their tra"itional religio0s toleran e towar"s s0)?e te" peoples8 an" almost to ompete with them in religio0s a&&airs +$. 7 p0HHling "o 0ment o& the spirit0al tren" in a tion sin e the )eginnings o& o0r Era onwar"s thro0gho0t the Roman Empire is a 0rio0s apo ryphal orrespon"en e Pag. 1$ 0s0ally title" 9ntoninus an( the ;abbi +3. Goth hara ters are not )etter "e&ine" )y the anonymo0s a0thor o& the teBt8 "ating )a > to the 999 . C.E.8 an" )elonging apparently to the Palestinian Cewry4s "o trinal milie0. G0t the interest whi h it represents &or the s holar is 0n@0estiona)le )eyon" any philologi al o)servation. 9t provi"es in &a t &0rther proo& o& a moral an" intelle t0al lan"s ape where the in&l0en e o& the most relevant &eat0re o& Cewish 0lt0re8 the &aith in %ne (!ost-(igh) 2o"8 is sprea"ing aro0n" with more an" more strength +, till it arrives8 as we have sai"8 to )e (@0asi-) 0niversally a >nowle"ge" in terms o& something "i&&erent &rom a stri tly religio0s sign: it has alrea"y gaine" the stat0s o& the iviliHe" man4s typi al re&eren e-mar> +.8 witho0t whi h no highly-"evelope" 0lt0re might )lossom. (ere8 long )e&ore Costantine4s Conversion to Christianity +#8 the Roman Emperor is seen as )eing rea"y to em)ra e !onotheism8 to whi h "o trine there&ore the Cewish tra"itionist8 the Ra))i8 gra"0ally e"0 ates him )y sweeping away his nat0ral 0n ertainties an" ma>ing him &inally onvin e" +'.

The ult o" the Most,Hi.h Go(1 Titles an( 0nomasti!s To )e a valoro0s military omman"er is no longer eno0gh to )e 3mperator8 Prin!eps8 'u<E in other wor"s8 the Emperor annot possess the moral @0alities ne essary &or )eing a goo" hie&8 o0rage8 ?0sti e an" wis"om8 witho0t proving that he is at the same time a religio0s man. 9& the Roman Emperors o& the 2ol"en 7ge an" later on too> 0pon themselves the responsi)ility o& Religion in s0 h a stri>ing way8 that o0l" not happen o0tsi"e o& the pre"ominantly spirit0al horiHon o& the perio". The pop0lar i"ea o& Religion hanges8 or rather it has hange" alrea"y. The )or"erline )etween euseb>s/eusebia an" theoseb>s/theosebia is not as sharp as it seems +*. 9t is tr0e that the gro0p o& the &irst no0ns 0s0ally re&ers to /pagan1 piety8 while the se on" one is as ri)e" to people who were mat0ring in themselves the i"ea o& an" the onse@0ent "evotion to %ne 50preme Feity8 who8 to s0m 0p8 were spirit0ally lose to a !onotheisti on eption ++. G0t it is ?0st the histori al "evelopment o& the events that re"0 es s0 h "i&&eren es. 7s long as the i"ea o& %ne 50preme Feity was entirely monopoliHe" )y the Cews8 a massive )o0n"ary-line )etween their religio0s views an" the other ones was &0lly ?0sti&ia)le: only /5ympathiHers1 or /7"herents1 to C0"aism in a""ition to native Cews an"

Proselytes8 o& o0rse - ha" the right to )ear s0 h a hono0ra)le title as theoseb>s 1--. G0t with the rise o& Christianity the religio0s 0niversal pattern )egins to move8 an" varia)le &a tors ome into play whi h were not &oreseen or &oreseea)le )y any)o"y: it is not )y han e8 &or eBample8 that ?0st the epithets euseb>s an" theoseb>s (o&ten in a s0perlative &orm) in the &i&th ent0ry C.E. have )e ome a sort o& hono0ra)le title tra"itionally )orne )y Christian )ishops or Christian pio0s men 1-18 while at the )eginnings o& the Christian Era (9-999 .) one almost always &in"s it in C0"ai onteBts8 even i& no)o"y o0l" )e very s0re o& s0 h C0"aiHers4 sin ere piety8 an" >now with ertainty whether their spirit0al approa h to C0"aism was "0e to a real /sympathy1 towar"s that /eBoti 1 Pag. 13 religion as a whole8 or towar"s a single aspe t o& it8 as it o&ten appears to have )een the &aith in %ne !ost-(igh 2o". 7n evi"ent in"i ation o& this >in" o& spirit0al attit0"e omes &rom the &iel" o& %nomasti s: the growing 0se o& names s0 h as Theo!tistes8 Theo(orus8 Theo(oulos )y in"ivi"0als who hoose to give to their sons similar names is a lear testimony o& that. 7s 5tephen !it hell rightly stresse"8 in &a t8 /the pre&iB theo, sho0l" not )e 0n"erstoo" in a loose sense as re&erring to any go"8 )0t pre isely to the highest8 the one an" only go"8 whom they revere"1 1-$. G0t even more relevant &or o0r p0rposes is a omplementary hain o& proper names8 whose semanti )0l> is represente" )y the on ept o& /piety18 an" whose ren"ering in 2ree> is there&ore seiHe" )y the wor"s eusbeiaI(theo)s>beia. Ae have to "o with a ling0isti reality whi h we )elieve to )e @0ite 0nparallele" thro0gho0t the whole history o& %nomasti s8 )e a0se there eBists a real /host1 &or s0re no less than one h0n"re"M - o& these names: we limit o0rselves to iting ?0st the )eginning o& this never-en"ing hain8 to s0ggest the "imensions that s0 h a so ial-religio0s phenomenon too>8 spe ially in imperial times: Sbaos, Sbos, Sbbos, Sbeos, Sbbeos, Sabb>os, Sabin, Sabia, Saba, Sab, Sbeis, Sbbeis, Sbis, Sa*b>os, Sabb>, Sabe, Sab>s, Sab>, Sabs, Saba*os, Sabba*os R 1-3. 9&8 moreover8 one onsi"ers that ea h no0n o0l" )e onne te" with several pre&iBes s0 h as theo, an" e0, 1-,8 an" that the pla e o& the &irst letter8 si.ma8 o0l" )e o 0pie" )y a 7eta or even )y a tau,7eta 1-. (whi h 2ree> letters are a ommon alpha)eti al trans ription o& the 5emiti alpha)ets4 emphati si)ilant) 1-#8 one an easily imagine how h0ge the n0m)er o& the possi)le ompo0n"s might )eM The pro)lem is that sometimes the tr0e nat0re o& these names is8 in o0r opinion8 mis0n"erstoo" )y s holars as a onse@0en e o& the R /9n"oe0ropean !irage1 on e againM 7 )rie& s0rvey o& 2re o-5yrian epigraphi &in"ings is eno0gh to )e ome aware o& that: here8 in &a t8 very o&ten the proper name Sbaos re 0rs whi h8 a or"ing to the s ienti&i "ominant opinion8 sho0l" )e the written ren"ering in 2ree> o& the 7ra)ian name Sabah (hypo>oristi>on Shubayh) 1-'. 7gainst s0 h a ling0isti orrespon"en e8 two important &a tors play a r0 ial role yet: 1) a very meagre presen e8 in"ee"8 o& the name Sabah thro0gho0t the orpus 3ns!riptionum Semiti!arum 1-*8 whi h )y no means ?0sti&ies a similar /host1 o& these names in 2re o5yrian epigraphyE $) the interpretation o& the name given )y "i&&erent s holars8 who "o not agree with ea h other an" who onse@0ently ma>e one thin> that the allege" orrespon"en e Sbaos-Sabah is real only in a small n0m)er o& ases 1-+.

To s0m 0p8 we )elieve that Sbaos (an" most o& the names with similar spellings in 2ree> writing) is nothing else than one o& the several &orms o& the ommon (e)rew anthroponim Sambathios (/Sabbath o)servant1)8 to whi h s0)?e t T hri>ower "e"i ate" a lassi al st0"y 11-: )oth the hypo>oristi>on Sabbs8 Sambs8 alrea"y re or"e" )y T hri>ower 1118 an" the (e)rai eBpression Shabbos .oy8 pointing at the /stranger1 a)le to arry o0t the a tivities &or)i""en to Cews in "ays o& rest 11$8 seem to prove it s0&&i iently. 9t is worth remem)ering that to give to one4s sons s0 h names shape" )y the no0n Sabbath was &ashiona)le among the Pagans who as &or eBample C0venal4s &amo0s &ather metuens sabbata 113 sympathiHe" with C0"aism8 sin e that was a very impressive aspe t &or pop0lar imagination 11,. G0t in the meantime we Pag. 1, annot r0le o0t that a ling0isti interse tion o& these names with those lin>e" with the (theo)sbeia4s i"ea8 as well as with those other wor"s phoneti ally lose to it whi h we have o)serve"8 ha" o&ten ta>en pla e.

Eusbeia an( Gnsis 9t is "i&&i 0lt to say how m0 h the histori al phenomenon o& the rise o& Christianity ontri)0te" to the new pop0lar i"ea o& Religion whi h )e omes stronger an" stronger as time passes )y 11.. 50rely &or a ertain perio" it in rease" the on&0sion8 an" not only )e a0se o& the "i&&i 0lties in "isting0ishing )etween Cews an" Christians8 an" th0s to re ogniHe Christianity as an a0tonomo0s 0lt )y the Roman government an"8 more in general8 )y /the others1 11#. 7 t0ally8 as 5. !it hell opport0nely pointe" o0t8 /the 0lt o& Thes Hypsistos an" the monotheisti on eptions o& a wi"e-sprea" an" pop0lar religio0s 0lt0re were the see"-)e"s into whi h Cewish an" Christian theology o0l" rea"ily )e plante". Aitho0t them8 the trans&ormation o& an ient patterns o& )elie& &rom pagan polytheism to the pre"ominantly monotheisti systems o& C0"aism8 Christianity8 an" 9slam wo0l" not only have )een &ar less ti"y an" 0ni"ire tional than it was8 it might not have o 0rre" at all1 11'. That is one o& the reasons why8 in o0r opinion8 the on ept o& /(enotheism1 nee"s to"ay to )e onsi"ere" ol"-&ashione" an" o0t-o&-"ate. 9t o0nts &or little that the (ighest 2o" r0les )y (imsel& or with the help o& more or less n0mero0s s0)or"inate "eities. Piety o 0pies now a spa e m0 h larger than )e&ore8 namely the moral-ethi al oneE it has )e ome a sort o& intelle t0al a&&air8 a @0ality whose a)sen e loo>s li>e )eing in open on&li t with the on ept o& evolve" iviliHation in itsel&. 7s was to happen in the 9slami worl"8 when 2ree> philosophy an"8 more generally8 (elleni 0lt0re )egan to )e >nown an" love" )y !0slims8 &or many o& whom it was in on eiva)le that Plato or 7ristotle ha" wor>e" o0t their "o trines a)o0t the 50preme 2oo" or the Primal Ca0se witho0t )eing !onotheists 11*8 in the Roman

worl" too a !onotheisti tren" @0ite rapi"ly )e ame the ommon ha)it o& min" o& every e"0 ate" person. 5o8 i& Ci ero might still state A !o.nitionem (eorum, e 2ua oritur pietas8 th0s maintaining in the &oregro0n" the i"ea o& the pl0rality o& go"s 11+8 5ene a ha" ma"e a r0 ial an" irreversi)le step &orwar"s )y writing a senten e s0 h as 'eum !olit 2ui no-it 1$-. G0t here8 there is also something more than that: one re ogniHes in &a t that a strong lin> )etween Religion an" Onowle"ge8 Eusbeia an" Gnosis 1$1 has ome alrea"y into eBisten e8 a ir 0mstan e whi h )ears witness to what we were saying a)o0t the 0lt0ral &ramewor> gaining gro0n" sin e the 99 ent0ry onwar"s into ;ate 7nti@0ity. Ds0ally8 the onne tion )etween these two &a 0lties8 )y stressing mostly the se on" one8 is seen as a "isting0ishing mar> o& (ermetism: one &in"s in the orpus Hermeti!um a senten e stating that /Piety is the Onowle"ge o& 2o"1 1$$8 or very similar ones. The reason is lear: >nowle"ge is no longer the min"4s ontemplation o& Pag. 1. eternal tr0thsE it has )e ome a tion8 te hni al operation8 an" there&ore it annot )0t invest the sphere o& (oliness8 )e a0se it m0st &or e all the powers o& Nat0re an" Far>ness the will o& go"s8 angels an" "emons - in or"er to &0l&il what one "esires. G0t esta)lishing s0 h a lin> ha" happene" long )e&ore entering into the (ermetists4 program 1$38 sin e &or many people it was alrea"y a &a t o& ommon sense. That is not to laim that people "i" not try to "e&en" the originality an" the 0ni@0eness o& their own religio0s position: !. 5imon &or instan e ha" rightly stresse" how are&0l Aestern Christianity was in sele ting the ;atin "ivine attri)0te &or naming the 50preme (eight o& 2o" in its lit0rgy. Christians8 in &a t8 were per&e tly aware o& the "anger that their 2o" might )e on&0se" with other (ighest Feities8 an" so they pai" spe ial attention to that8 )y wavering &or a long time )etween epithets s0 h as Summus8 9ltissimus8 E<uperantissimus 1$, et . in or"er to ma>e a leBi al hoi e a)le to state 2o"4s a)sol0te trans en"en e witho0t )eing at the meantime am)ig0o0s &or the )elievers 1$.. 9n"ee" Christianity8 as we shall see )etter later on8 "i" r0n a ris> o& on&0sion with other religio0s gro0ps whose prin ipal &eat0re was the ommon &aith in %ne !ost-(igh Feity8 even i& s0 h a phenomenon was pro)a)ly limite" to ertain geographi al areas an" to ertain histori al perio"s 1$#. (ere8 we wish to re or" ?0st one eBample in this sense8 )e a0se o& its onne tions with o0r main theme whi h as &ar as we >now no)o"y till now ha" ever noti e".

Bin!entius# tomb 3in enti0s4 tom) in Rome has )een st0"ie" at length )y ar haeologists sin e its "is overy in 1*.# in the site o& PraeteBtat0s4 Cata om)s 1$': we are "ealing with a &0nerary ham)er ho0sing the graves o& 3in enti0s an" his wi&e 3i)ia8 whose walls are painte" with &res os ill0strating 3i)ia4s ?o0rney "own to the Dn"erworl". :rom the &irst8 the pla e o& the tom) reate" a )ig pro)lem: tho0gh its owner was

0n"o0)tly a 5a)aHios priest8 it shares its spa e with a Christian emetery8 so that it seems to )e a part o& s0 h a &0nerary ompleB 1$*. %ne o& the most "iligent s holars who sear he" into the real nat0re o& the mon0ment8 the 9talian ar haeologist :ather 20ar"0 i8 engage" himsel& in "e&en"ing at any ost the eBa t lo aliHation where8 a or"ing to him8 the tom) sho0l" have )een8 )y arg0ing that8 in spite o& all appearan es8 it lay ertainly o0tsi"e the Christian ompleB 1$+. Ae "o not &ollow 20ar"0 i in his learne" an" ompli ate" analysis o& the 0n"ergro0n" la)yrinth o& this emetery8 sin e we are not intereste" in >nowing whether he is right or not 13-8 even i& it seems to 0s that his arg0ments leave m0 h to )e "esire" anyway 131. Ahat is really interesting8 we )elieve8 is that "is 0ssions a)o0t s0 h a pro)lem sho0l" have arisen8 )e a0se s0 h a &a t itsel& "emonstrates that an am)ig0ity histori ally eBists. Aitho0t paying 0n"0e attention to some religio0s onne tions ma"e in a syn retisti >ey )y C0mont long time ago (1*+') 13$8 &or whi h he was )itterly riti iHe" 1338 we may remem)er here what the great s holar wrote8 ta>ing as a starting Pag. 1# point the &amo0s teBt o& the ;atin historian 3aleri0s !aBim0s a)o0t the Cews4 eBp0lsion &rom Rome )y praetor Corneli0s (ispal0s in 13+ G.C.E. (3u(aeos, 2ui Saba7i Co-is !ultu ;omanos in"i!ere mores !onati erant, repetere (omos suas ! 13,: /;a mention Ntrange "0 C0piter 5a)aHi0s "ans e teBte a gNnNralement NtN eBpli@0Ne par 0ne on&0sion ave le 9ahvN Pe)aoth8 le Fie0 "es armNes8 "e la Gi)le. Cette on&0sion8 &on"Ne s0r 0ne assonan e &ort0ite8 parait ertaine8 mais elle n4est pas "0e8 omme on sem)le le roire8 = 0ne simple erre0r "es Romains. Fans les Symposia4 problmata "e Pl0tar@0e8 0n "es onvives "Nmontre "o tement @0e le Fie0 "es C0ives n4est a0tre @0e Fyonisos-5a)aHios. Ta ite onnait a0ssi ette assimilation et roit "evoir eBpressNment la repo0sser. En&in Cean ;y"0s8 "ans 0n passage oJ il rNs0me sans "o0te CornNli0s ;a)Non8 no0s a&&irme @0e Fyonisos8 5a)aHios et Sabath sont "es synonymes1 13.. 9n or"er to give an answer to some &0n"amental @0estions a)o0t the 5a)ians8 in l0"ing the orre t etymology o& the name itsel&8 assonan e is in &a t not less important than /real1 ling0isti relationships8 )e a0se it o0nts &or m0 h what people so0ght to re ogniHe in ertain wor"s8 mostly when they were o& &oreign origin 13#. 7lso8 then8 a wrong etymology s0 h as that re >one" )y some lassi al s holar in relation to the names o& two an ient 9tali pop0lations s0 h as the Sabini an" the Sabelli - the allege" root o& whi h sho0l" )e8 a or"ing to them8 the 2ree> parti ipial &orm that we alrea"y >now (oi) sebmenoi 13'8 an" whose tr0e roots are8 on the ontrary8 on e again 7 a"ian ones meaning respe tively /people in lose proBimity8 in the neigh)o0rhoo"s1 (sb,in,it*) an" /people in high position8 in elevate" pla e1 (sb, elu) 13* - is an evi"en e whi h helps the st0"ent to 0n"erstan" what people ha" at that time in their min"s8 even i& here we only have to "o with learne" men or at least with people spea>ing 2ree>. ;et 0s ret0rn to 3in enti0s an" his wi&e4s 0n"ergro0n" &0nerary ham)er. Ae have o)serve" that it is not impossi)le &or a priest o& 5a)aHios to )e )0rie" in a Christian emetery8 pro)a)ly )e a0se this go" was pop0larly seen as not so "i&&erent &rom the :ather 2o" worshippe" )y Christians: in spite o& what is generally a"mitte" )y s holars8 &or instan e8 we &in" it "i&&i 0lt to r0le o0t any lose relationship

)etween the )ronHe votive han"s (representing the go"4s han" )lessing his )elievers) 13+ an" a well->nown Christian gest0re as the bene(i!tio latina 1,-. 9n"ee"8 tho0gh resear h on erning this s0)?e t has re ently ma"e great progress8 there is @0ite a lot to investigate a)o0t 5a)aHios8 its origins an" its nat0re 1,18 )e a0se even its name still >eeps many se rets an" sha"ows: &or the moment8 we will limit o0rselves to saying that8 )y re ogniHing &or the &irst time in the no0n saboi (whi h re 0rs among the wor"s rie" o0t )y 5a)aHios4 )elievers "0ring the "an ing pro essions in hono0r o& him Ueuo* sabo* ues 9ttesV 1,38 a or"ing to Femosthenes4 grotes@0e tale) the presen e o& the alrea"y @0ote" 7 a"ian no0n sbu (/people8 pop0lation8 army8 servants1)8 a pioneer s0 h as 5emerano has opene" a way whi h may )e very &ar rea hing 1,$8 tho0gh Chwolson ha" hastene" to eB l0"e this evi"en e8 along with many other elements 1,,. ;oo>ing at the walls o& the ellar8 one soon noti es8 among the &ig0res whi h 3i)ia meets in her ?o0rney a&ter-"eath8 two sing0lar hara ters who annot )0t attra t o0r attention: !er 0ri0s 1,.8 who es orts her to Pl0to4s ('is Pater) transm0n"ane o0rt Pag. 1' o& ?0sti e8 an" a 2oo" 7ngel (9n.elus Bonus) 1,#8 who intro"0 es her to seven /happy1 g0ests (bonorum iu(i!io iu(i!ati) ta>ing part in a )an@0et 1,'. 9s it a simple oin i"en e to &in" here some tra"itional &ig0res o& an (ermeti environment s0 h as (ermesI!er 0ri0s an" 7gatho"aimonI7ngel0s Gon0s8 whi h all teBt0al so0r es 0niversally point to as )eing the two greatest (arranian prophets< 1,* G0t8 provi"e" that o0r )asi hypotheisis is orre t8 we have more. The wor"s omposing 3in enti0s4 epitaph again attra t o0r attention8 sin e they are: 6uminis antistes Saba7is Bin!entius hi! est 2ui sa!ra san!ta 'eum mente pia !oluit. Aell8 i& the last wor"s have a te hni al sense8 i&8 onse@0ently8 the senten e !olere 'eum mente pia "e&ines a spe ial lass o& )elievers8 namely people lose to a !onotheisti religio0s view as the e@0ivalent 2ree> eBpressions sbein/sbesthai tn then learly "o8 an" i&8 &inally8 the entral meaning o& 7ra)i Sbi#n is pre isely /mi"-Converts1 1,+ 8 or rather /people t0rning themselves towar"s the Theos Hypsistos# 0lt18 )e a0se o& the heavy8 massive in&l0en e o& the semanti )0l> arrie" on )y s0 h 2ree> ver)s an" )y the parallel 2ree> no0ns (sebmenos/oi tn then8 theosebs/is: we leave asi"e the orrespon"ing ;atin ones)8 we have &o0n" here a signi&i ant set o& religio0s onne tions with (arr=n an" the (arr=nian 5a)ians whi h8 we )elieve8 "eserves &0rther investigation.

Tertium Genus Ae are now going to &a e a r0 ial point8 )y analysing a series o& names s0 h as 2entiles8 Ethnoi8 Hllenes8 2ree>s8 Huna"# (sing. Han*"). 50&&i e it to re all here that the last one or rather the parallel no0n in 5yria : Hanp (sing.: Hanp) 1.- - is

0s0ally employe" into 5yria -Christian literat0re to translate the 2ree> no0ns Ethnoi8 Ethni4i8 Hellenes8 an" it is onse@0ently ass0me" as an e@0ivalent &or /Pagan1 1.18 tho0gh the same 7ra)i term Han*" in 9slami 0sage is onsi"ere" on the ontrary as a lose synonym &or /!0slim1: in !0hamma"4s min"8 the name Han*" "e&ines in &a t a sort o& primary !onotheist8 in parti 0lar the religio0s position o& 7)raham who /was not a Cew8 nor was he a Christian8 )0t he was a Han*"8 a !0slim8 an" not o& the Polytheists18 a or"ing to the Sura 9994s &amo0s verse 1.$. Ae have to on&ess that we have never 0n"erstoo" the )itter opposition to the semanti orrespon"en e )etween the names Han*"IHuna"# an" SbiISbi#n8 propose" long ago )y Pe"ersen 1.38 whi h s holars have generally maintaine" 1.,. 9t is s0&&i ient to rea" the titles o& the 5a)ian Th=)it i)n W0rra4s wor>s to realise that they an )e eB hange" witho0t "i&&i 0lties: it is tr0e that8 in three ases o0t o& &o0r8 we &in" Hanp an" ?0st in one Sbhy 1..8 )0t the &a t is very pro)a)ly "0e to the relatively re ent "e ision to ass0me the name Sbi#n )y the (arr=nian people at that time (Th=)it "ies in +-1 C.E.)8 the sole aspe t o& +ihrist4s story a)o0t the meeting )etween Caliph al-!a4mJn an" (arranians in *$3 C.E. 1.# whi h we &in" onvin ing an" whi h we there&ore s0)s ri)e to witho0t reserve 1.'. Pag. 1* %n the other han"8 thro0gho0t the passionate harang0e in "e&en e o& his own an" his oreligionists4 position (whose teBt8 as in the ase o& the wor>s4 titles in 5yria 8 was literally han"e" "own to 0s )y Garhae)re0s4 hrono.raphy)8 Th=)it i)n W0rra "enotes all o& them )elievers in a religion whi h8 in his opinion8 is the most an ient an" the no)lest one )y the 5yria term Hanp on e again8 while &or "e&ining the religion itsel& he 0ses the a)stra t no0n Hanpt 1.*. 9t is not "i&&i 0lt to 0n"erstan" that he "oes not mean )y similar eBpressions what we 0s0ally "o )y saying /Pagans1 or /2entiles1 on one si"e8 an" /Paganism1 or /2entilism1 on the other8 tho0gh at &irst sight it seems that there is no leBi al alternative 1.+: the )est thing wo0l" )e not to translate these wor"s at all8 as (?arpe - when ren"ering the whole teBt in :ren h rightly "i" 1#-8 )0t the pro)lem still remains anyway. 9t seems onvenient to re all here an apparently o"" opinion o& Roger Ga on8 who8 in spite o& his ompeten e in 7ra)ian-9slami iviliHation8 was in no "o0)t when @0ali&ying Th=)it8 namely the most important eBponent o& the 5a)ian-(arranian 0lt0re8 as /the greatest philosopher among all the hristians1 1#1E li>ewise8 when spea>ing a)o0t the religio0s on&li t that arose at a ertain moment )etween Th=)it an" his &ellow- itiHens8 the great orientalist 20stav :l0gel "i" not hesitate many ent0ries later (in his 'issertatio (e arabi!is s!riptorum .rae!orum interpretibus, 1*,1) to state that Th=)it a !oetu et so!ietate Christianor0m remotus et e<!lusus est 1#$. 9t wo0l" seem @0ite o)vio0s to thin> that a simple mista>e ha" )een ma"e )y )oth s holars: )0t how o0l" it happen an"8 a)ove all8 why< Ae have to "o with two very learne" men8 an" with a philosopher8 a s ientist8 a religio0s lea"er o& &irst magnit0"e: how is it possi)le to give s0 h in&ormation8 i& it is ompletely wrong< 9nstea" might it not )e interesting to thin> that there were serio0s histori al reasons &or ons io0sly eB hanging /5a)ians1 with /Christians18 namely that a similar

on&0sion ha" really happene" )e a0se people o&ten were not a)le to "isting0ishing &rom the other< 1#3 7s a matter o& &a t8 no)o"y till now ha" )een a)le to eBplain ompletely the ways in whi h the name Han*" ame to ass0me in the )ur#n an opposite meaning to the parallel term in the 5yria -Christian leBi on8 where it has a wholly negative onnotation 1#,. Ae go slightly &orwar" nevertheless8 )y noting that s0 h a semanti val0e is not arrie" )y the wor" itsel&8 sin e it has )een 0se" in that way only 0n"er ertain histori al on"itions8 namely a or"ing to a pre ise religio0s point o& view. 7s :aris an" 2li""en ha" "emonstrate" on e an" &or all8 )y analysing "ia hroni ally the wor"4s 0sage in "i&&erent inter-ling0isti an" inter- 0lt0ral onteBts8 the )asi meaning o& 5yria Hanp is /(ellenist18 /2ree>18 /o& (ellenisti e"0 ation1 1#.: so everything "epen"s on the religio0s meaning whi h one gives to these eBpressions. They may mean /Pagan18 ?0st as they may not: ertainly8 they "o not in l0"e the meaning o& /Pagan1 i& )y this wor" one wants to "e&ine a simple /(eathen18 an 0n iviliHe" /9"olater18 a /Peasant1 ontin0ing to worship age-ol" i"ols 1##. That is the entral point. 9n o0r 3 Sebmenoi8 we ha" s0ggeste" a p0HHling onne tion )etween the Oorani verses mentioning the 5a)ians an" the 9polo.y4s eB erpt where 7risti"e as well as some other (oly :athers o& the 93 ent0ry - eBpress the well->nown arg0ment o& the rise o& Christianity in terms o& Tertium Genus 1#'. 9t is worth-while remem)ering Pag. 1+ !. 5imon4s omments on this s0)?e t: /FSs lors @0e l4Eglise vi torie0se Nten" ses on@0Xtes ?0s@04a0B limites "0 mon"e ivilisN et ten" = se on&on"re ave l0i8 elle en reven"i@0e l4hNritageE et lors@0e les PSres "0 93e siS le rNpon"ent a0B C0i&s8 ils parlent non pl0s simplement en hrNtiens8 mais a0 nom "es gens "0 "ehors8 appellNs = rempla er 9srael: E!!lesia e< .entibus1 1#*. 9t is this s0perimposition o& the Ch0r h on the (elleni iviliHation whi h reate" a histori al on&0sion "i&&i 0lt to lear 0p 1#+. %n one han"8 a&ter having won the long str0ggle o& laiming its right o& eBisten e8 Christianity re eives (ella"4s inheritan e8 )e a0se (elleni 0lt0re was the previo0s ivilisation while now the iviliHation is the Ch0r h itsel&E on the other han"8 the wor" /(ellenes1 was >eeping8 in ertain onteBts s0 h as the 5yria one alrea"y o)serve"8 its nat0ral meaning o& an ethni al gro0p ompletely in"i&&erent8 i& not hostile an" oppose"8 to the Ch0r h 1'-: it is the ol" 2ree e4s mythi al worl" whi h s0rvives in the olle tive imagination with its anthropomorphi "eities8 with its apri io0s go"s8 with its 0p to "ate &antasti &ig0res. G0t s0 h a worl" eBists only as a lan"s ape o& the past8 so that it easily "isappears into the )ig an" 0n"i&&erentiate" mass o& )ar)aro0s polytheists. This &a t may eBplain why8 in the 2ree> version o& 7risti"e4s 9polo.y8 the /2ree>s1 ompletely vanish: Tr*a .ne eis*n en t(e t 4smo, n eis* oi par# um*n le.omnon then pros4yneta* 4a* 3ou(a*oi 4a* $hristiano* 1'1. The /2ree>s18 as it were8 split themselves in two parts8 )oth having )e ome invisi)le: the /goo" 2ree>s18 masters o& >nowle"ge an" eternal sym)ols o& "evelope" iviliHation8 have )een s0""enly in l0"e" into the Christian omm0nityE the /)a" 2ree>s18 the naives an" &ier e polytheists o& the past8 have on the other han" )een in l0"e" into the gro0p o& the 0n)elievers 1'$. The sit0ation hanges in the 5yria version8 where one omes

nearer to !0hamma"4s pattern o& worl" religions8 sin e one rea"s: /This is evi"ent to yo08 >ing8 that h0man ra es are "our: Gar)arians an" 2ree>s8 Cews an" ChristiansY 1'3. 7 t0ally8 one might have &o0n" an eBa tly orrespon"ing prototype o& the Oorani teBt8 i& the /2ree>s1 ha" )een part here as it is the ase &or the 5a)ians in the )ur#n o& the set o& the )elievers (the /People o& the Goo>1)8 )0t it is not so: the 5yria eB erpt o& the 9polo.y "isplays a s>et h-map o& the histori al progress o& Religion8 )y means o& the signi&i ant e@0ation Religions-Peoples whi h &rom this "ate )e omes very ommon 1',8 )0t these &o0r gro0ps are sharply "ivi"e" into two halves8 the omma leaves no "o0)t: into the latter the !onotheists are pla e"8 the Cews an" the /Thir" New People18 the ChristiansE into the &ormer8 as a whole8 9"olaters (Gar)arians) an" Polytheists8 namely the /)a" 2ree>s1 o)serve" a)ove8 where s0 h a presen e is a nat0ral iss0e o& what has )een sai" )e&ore a)o0t the e lesiasti al negative onnotation o& the term Hanp. En passant8 a phenomenon o& eBtreme gravity ha" happene": the histori al removal o& a so- alle" /thir"1 gro0p o& /2ree>s18 a h0ge m0ltit0"e o& persons whose n0meri al vol0me was8 as we sai"8 s0rely not smaller in ;ate 7nti@0ity than that o& the C0"ai omm0nity or o& the Christian one: the Pagan !onotheists8 the 2o":earersIAorshippers 1'.. Christian engagement in or"er to sweep away this 0neasy religio0s reality goes on &or ent0ries8 sin e any tra e o& its eBisten e m0st )e totally erase"8 even i& some stronghol"s o& the opposite &iel" ontin0e to o&&er resistan e to the >nives. (arr=n is one o& the most stri>ing eBamples o& that: (arr=nians8 in &a t8 Pag. $were normally i"enti&ie" with the /2ree>s18 even long )e&ore the ity )e ame an a tive entre &or the translation o& 2ree> s ienti&i an" philosophi al teBts into 5yria an" 7ra)i 8 &or whi h learne" wor> it has to )e viewe"8 in a""ition to its other relevant &eat0res8 as one o& the most important worl" hannels &or the transmission o& the (elleni 0lt0re to the Aest "0ring the !i""le 7ges 1'#. 9n Cal e"on Co0n il4s time8 the ity was alrea"y >nown as Hellenopolis or Hellnon Polis8 to )e 0n"erstoo" as /City o& the Pagans1 in"ee" (as the ;atin version o& the same Co0n il4s 9!ts eBpli itly states: Pa.anorum !i-itatis) 1''8 )e a0se o& its strong onservative spirit in religio0s matters an" its soli" lin>s with 2ree>-(ellenisti e"0 ation 1'*. 7lso 7ra)s ontin0e to perpet0ate s0 h a portrait o& the (arranians8 )y seeing them as the 2ree> iviliHation4s heirs or merely as the 2ree>s themselves: the philo-(elleni P0rity4s Grethren8 &or instan e8 "e lare: /R2ree>s Rhave got )y (to"ay4s) people "i&&erent names8 among whi h 5a)ians (Sbi#n)8 (arr=nians an" Hat"n (Hani"n <) 1'+1E while al-GKrJnK4s hronolo.y8 one o& the most eBtensive an" interesting so0r es a)o0t !e"ieval (arr=n an" its 5a)ian inha)itants8 witnesses what &ollows: /The (arr=nians R are the remains o& the &ollowers o& the an ient religion o& the Aest8 separate" ( 0t o&&) &rom it8 sin e the 9onian 2ree>s (i%e% the an ient 2ree>s8 not the ;oma*oi or GyHantine 2ree>s) a"opte" Christianity1 1*-. 5ome s holars s0 h as 7. 5prenger8 C.C. Torrey an" C.5. ;yall onne te" the 7ra)i term Han*" with (e)rew Hne"8 0s0ally translate" /hereti 1 or also /pro&ane18 rather than with the 5yria Hanp 1*1: in"ee"8 even in (e)rew the semanti val0e is somewhat am)ig0o0s8 i& the ommon opinion a or"ing to whi h the same /Eno h was a Hne"8 sometimes righteo0s (sa((*2)8 sometimes wi >e"1 1*$ arries any weight.

%n the other han"8 !e"ieval !0slim leBi ographers8 an" also some orientalists8 insiste" on the 7ra)i origin o& the name 1*38 )y seeing it as a "erivation &rom the 7ra)i ver) hana"a8 /to "e line8 to t0rn away &rom1 an" onse@0ently assigning it the meaning o& /one who t0rns asi"e or se e"es &rom his omm0nity in the matter o& religion1 1*,E while :ather ;ammens on his si"e pointe" o0t to the lose onne tions among the 7ra)i ver)s (3 &orm) tahanna"a, tahannata an" ta#allaha (the last ver) )eing - in i"entally - the &inal eBpression o& the saying arve" 0pon the "oor o& the maDma# o& the (arranian 5a)ians still at the )eginnings o& the 93 (.IL ent0ry C.E. a or"ing to al-!a4sJ"i: we will ret0rn to that) 1*. in relation with /les &ormes "iverses "e l4as Ntisme heH les an iens 7ra)es1 1*#. 9n reality8 we seem to remain always in the same semanti &iel"8 with the immanent "iale ti s 2oo"-Evil alrea"y o)serve" when "is 0ssing the (e)rew root SHUBH: everything "epen"s on one4s point o& view 1*'. G0t Han*" is stri tly asso iate" with the !0slim on ept o& "itra8 the /nat0ral "isposition18 an" may )e onne te" there&ore with the primary onstit0tion o& man>in": /5et thy &a e then8 han*"-&ashion towar"s the goal ((*n) 2o" hath "ispose" within the nat0re o& man (or a or"ing to the onstit0tion 2o" hath onstit0te" man)8 &or no hange an )e e&&e te" in the reation o& 2o"1 1**. ;eaving asi"e the Oorani 0sage o& the term8 we shall loo> )rie&ly at the main &eat0res o& those as eti s see>ing 2o" 1*+ a)o0t whom several 7ra) so0r es provi"e evi"en e. They are not Cews nor Christians8 )e a0se they are sai" to &ollow the millat 3brah*m8 the /way o& 7)raham18 an" in 7)raham4s times these 0lts "i" not eBist yet 1+-. 9t is8 however8 @0ite strange that8 when they ome in Pag. $1 onta t with a Christian o0ntry an" "well there &or a ertain time8 it is not 0n0s0al &or them to onvert to Christianity: three o0t o& &o0r Huna"# re or"e" )y 9)n 9sh=@ in the S*ra 1+18 )e ame Christians8 D)ay" 7ll=h i)n Cahsh in 7)yssinia an" Dthm=n i)n (0wayrith at Costantinople8 only Aara@a i)n Naw&al (the o0sin o& !0hamma"4s wi&e Oha"K?a) remaining in the region o& (i?=H4E the &o0rth also8 Pay" i)n 7mr8 travelle" a)roa"8 thro0gh 5yria an" !esopotamia8 in @0est o& the tr0e religion )0t8 0nli>e the others8 he "i" not &in" what he was loo>ing &or: anyway8 /he a)an"one" the worship o& i"ols8 a)staine" &rom eating that whi h ha" "ie" o& itsel&8 an" &rom )loo"8 an" &rom things sa ri&i e" to i"ols8 an" &or)a"e the )0rying alive o& in&ants. (e pro laime" that he worshippe" the ;or" o& 7)raham1 1+$.

Sabians E 9(herents o" the Pre-ailin. ;eli.ion Ahat "oes one learn &rom these stories< 7t least two things. The &irst wo0l" seem to orro)orate an eB eptionally &itting "e&inition o& the 5a)ians )y al-GKrJnK to whi h we shall t0rn at on e: eB eptional )e a0se it is 0ni@0e &or its eBa tness an" learness8 an" also )e a0se the great Persian polygraph shows that he is a)le to improve a

"e&inition o& the /real 5a)ians18 given )y him within his hronolo.y almost thirty years )e&ore8 whi h in o0r previo0s st0"y we &o0n" alrea"y very interesting an" s0ggestive. 7 t0ally we have to "o with two passages8 that are respe tively ontaine" in hapter 3999 an" hapter L3999 o& the )oo>8 )0t their remar>a)le similarity allows 0s to @0ote here only the &irst teBt: it is worth noting8 however8 that the writer &elt the nee" to repeat twi e what he ha" ome to >now on the s0)?e t8 )e a0se this "etail s0ggests that he was per&e tly aware o& the spe ial importan e o& s0 h an eBplanation o& the histori al rising o& 5a)ianism. (e writes: /The 5a)ians are the remnant o& the Cewish tri)es who remaine" in Ga)ylonia8 when the other tri)es le&t it &or Cer0salem in the "ays o& Cyr0s an" 7rtaBerBes. Those remaining tri)es &elt themselves attra te" to the rites o& the !agians8 an" so they in!line( (were in!line(8 i%e% 5=)i) towar"s the religion o& Ne)0>a"neHar8 an" a"opte" a system miBe" o& !agism an" C0"aism li>e that o& 5amaritans in 5yria1 1+3. Aell8 we per eive" that a similar version o& the &a ts s0""enly opene" a win"ow on the tr0th: what more o0l" one "esire than this< 9t was the eBtremely plain "es ription o& the phenomenon o& Proselytism in relation to the Cewish people 1+,8 o& its &irst hronologi al mani&estation R 1+, )isE or rather it was in this sense that we were tempte" to interpret the eB erpt: it seeme" in &a t to on&irm on the whole o0r hypothesis a)o0t the e@0ation 5a)ians2o"-:earers8 )y laying the &o0n"ation stone o& the theoreti al )0il"ing. Tho0gh pointing to the same "ire tion8 however8 the hronolo.y4s teBt says literally something slightly "i&&erent8 )0t in or"er to 0n"erstan" what s0 h a thing wo0l" )e we have to loo> at al-GKrJnK4s omplementary "e&inition o& the 5a)ians whi h we starte" &rom8 the one ontaine" in his $itb al, ta"h*m8 the Boo4 o" 3nitiation in the Elements o" the 9rt o" 9strolo.y. Pag. $$ (ere8 in the relevant se tion "ealing with the /(oros ope o& Religions1 1+.8 where the seven planets are p0t in orrespon"en e with ?0st as many 0niversal religions8 one &in"s the !oon - namely the lowest o& the seven heavenly )o"ies8 nat0rally asso iate" with (arr=n )e a0se o& the 50mero-Ga)ylonian 0lt o& the !oon-2o" S*n whose worship was still alive in this an ient ity8 pro0" o& its religio0s tra"itions8 "0ring the !0slim !i""le 7ges 1+# pla e" in parallel with the 5a)ians8 ?0st as one might have eBpe te". G0t really s0rprising is the &orm0la )y whi h al-GKrJnK "elimits 5a)ianism8 sin e 5a)ians )e ome now the /7"herents o& the Prevailing Religion1 (alla(h*na bi,(*n 4ulli .libin) 1+'. Per&e tly &ittingM 9mpe a)leM 9t is impossi)le to "e&ine in a )etter way the i"ea o& what has )een alle"8 to 0se a in&eli ito0s eBpression in"ee"8 /mi"-Conversion1 1+*. 7 general )0t not generi &orm0la8 where among many other things one re ogniHes also the "evotional position o& the &o0r Huna"# whom we have met a)ove: to ma>e Conversion a well-i"enti&ie" phenomenon8 one nee"s not only a private spirit0al &eeling enlarge" to massive "imensions8 )0t also a "ominant religion8 namely a 0lt a)le to have a prevalent position over the others. 9n any ase8 that was how the pro ess "evelope" in the o0rse o& history: only when a single religion8 Christianity8 )e ame the o&&i ial Religion o& the Roman Empire8 in &a t8 "i" Conversion )egin to )e a >nowle"ge" as a lear8 0n@0estiona)le &a t8 representing a so ial an" religio0s reality that people

o0l" event0ally on eive witho0t "i&&i 0lties an" there&ore eBpress witho0t ling0isti am)ig0ities.

Hypsistarii, Sebmenoi/Phobomenoi Euphemitai, aeli!olae, Huna"#





/7"herents o& the Prevailing Religion1: let 0s pay attention to the &irst term. /7"herents1 simply means /5ymphatiHers1 1++8 /Close to18 /To get rea"y &or18 it "oes not mean /:0ll Converts18 whi h is eBa tly the ase o& the 2o"-:earers. Pro)a)ly alGKrJnK sho0l" have a""e" to the last wor"s o& his "e&inition the attri)0te /!onotheisti 18 sin e we always have to "o with people who ma"e the &0n"amental step to t0rn themselves to the &aith in %ne !ost-(igh 2o"8 in %ne 50preme Feity $-in re&eren e to whom the other lesser "eities play o&ten the role o& heavenly messengers8 o& angels8 as the %ra le &rom %enoan"a that is &rom the Northern ;y ian site where one o& the rare Hypsistarii4s 0lt-pla es has )een &o0n" eBpli itly states )y 7pollo4s mo0th: /Gorn o& itsel&8 0nta0ght8 witho0t a mother8 0nsha>ea)le8 not ontaine" in a name8 >nown )y many names8 "welling in &ire8 this is 2o". Ae8 his angels8 are a small part o& 2o"1 $-1. G0t it is tr0e8 also8 that a&ter the &inal vi tory o& Christianity 2o"-:earers4 omm0nities whose names histori ally range &rom Hypsistarii8 Hypsistariani8 to Theosebis8 Sebmenoi tn Then8 aeli!olae et . - )0t also the lonely in"ivi"0als see>ing a&ter 2o" >nown )y the name Huna"# in the Near Pag. $3 Eastern "esert regions &elt the attra tion o& Christianity )y o&ten a hieving their spirit0al way thro0gh a &0ll Conversion to the Cross8 while in previo0s times they were gravitating aro0n" the prevalent !onotheisti gro0ps settle" thro0gho0t the geographi al areas where they live"8 whi h as a r0le were Cewish ones. 7l-GKrJnK4s &irst-@0ote" teBt also t0rns the rea"er4s tho0ght to the Cewish onteBt8 even i& the Persian writer seems to )elieve that the Cewish presen e along the E0phrates an" Tigris valley is onne te" to a religio0s reality that will ome along a&ter several ent0ries8 namely the migration &rom Palestine into 5o0thern !esopotamia o& some (emero)aptist se ts as El>esaits an" !an"aeans $-$. G0t i& one interprets the in&ormation )y means o& al-GKrJnK4s se on" eB erpt8 one sees rather the real in&l0en e that Poroastrianism ha" on (e)rai religion8 )e a0se it was pre isely "0ring the /Ga)ylonian aptivity1 that some typi al &eat0res o& (e)raism s0 h as the ?0Btaposition 2oo"-Evil an" 2o"-5atan or on epts s0 h as the ;ast C0"gement an" the Res0rre tion o& the Fea" ame into )eing $-3. To s0m 0p8 we have s0ppose" that al-GKrJnK4s &irst teBt was only to )e onne te" with s0 h a histori al phenomenonE on the other han"8 it ha" relations with the histori al rising o& Cewish Proselytism8 an" remin"e" &or eBample a well->nown teBt0al passage )y Coseph0s mentioning the trans&er o& the Cews &rom Ga)ylon to 7sia !inor )y 7ntio h0s 999 at the en" o& the 999 ent0ry G.C.E. $-,: it was &rom this original )0l> that many well-organiHe" Cewish

omm0nities sprea" thro0gho0t 7sia !inor an" elsewhere8 eBerting a strong spirit0al attra tion on the s0rro0n"ing 2entile milie08 as ar haeologi al &in"ings have prove" with ertainty. 9n 7&ro"isia $-.8 in parti 0lar8 2entiles4 involvement in the lo al synagog0e appears to have )een really massive8 sin e more than hal& o& the people atten"ing the 0lt-pla e were 2entiles whose stat0s range a ross the entire so ial spe tr0m8 &rom the highest ivi positions an" li)eral pro&essions to ra&tsmen an" simple wor>ers $-#: it is worth noting8 on e again8 that s0 h people were not &0llonverts8 )0t plain theosebe*s8 2o"-:earers8 whereas only three in"ivi"0als are re or"e" in the engrave" ins ription mentioning the "onors4 names o& the )ene&i ent instit0tion whi h they ontri)0te to as proselytoi $-'8 namely people legally onverte" to C0"aism $-*. Pro)a)ly the Roman laws prohi)iting ir 0m ision an" onversion to C0"aism sin e (a"rian4s times playe" a signi&i ant role in s0 h a meagre n0m)er o& persons laiming eBpli itly that /passing o& the )o0n"ary1 whi h C0venal so greatly &eare" an" )itterly mo >e": here8 in &a t8 most o& the no-Cews pre&er to remain in the more ne0tral religio0s position o& C0venal4s pater metuens sabbata8 worshipping nubes et !aeli numen an" a)staining &rom !arne suillam rather than that o& the son who "e i"es to ma>e the last step an" th0s mo< et praeputia ponit witho0t any reserve $-+. Geyon" s0 h vag0e elements8 we >now very little a)o0t the 2o"-:earers4 0lti pra ti es. :rom %enoan"a4s teBt one learns that sometimes their 0lt ha" solar &eat0res8 )e a0se o& the %ra le4s pres ription to the &aith&0l to pray in "ire tion o& the rising s0n8 namely &a ing east8 gaHing 0p at heaven an" o&&ering prayers to the allseeing 7ether $1-. 7 ten"en y to solar !onotheism omes also o0t &rom C. Dstinova4s spe 0lations a)o0t the 9ranian )a >gro0n" o& the religio0s position o& the thiasoi8 the 0lti asso iations alle" eispoieto* a(elpho* sebmenoi then hypsiston8 )0t also syno(os o& thiaseitai or thiastai worshipping Thes Hypsistos in Tanais an" in Pag. $, several other 2ree> olonies on the Northern shore o& the Gla > 5ea in the &irst hal& o& the 99 . C.E. $118 tho0gh we re?e t her general on l0sions $1$. Ae sho0l" not "well here on the onne tion esta)lishe" )y E. 5 h0rer more than one ent0ry ago )etween these gro0ps o& !onotheisti or @0asi-!onotheisti )elievers an" the metuentes atteste" )y epigraphi an" literal evi"en e in the ;atin Aest $138 )0t a)ove all with the sebmenoi (tn then)8 the phobomenoi (tn then)8 the Hellenes whom 5aint Pa0l reg0larly meets in the o0rse o& his in"e&atiga)le mission $1, in the synagog0es o& 7sia !inor an" 2ree e where he prea hes the evangeli al message ()0t in other meetingpla es also8 mostly a&ter Pa0l4s last theologi al )rea> with the Cews $1.: /Th0s 9 shall go to 2entiles1) $1#8 an" who onse@0ently appear to )e the original )0l> o& the emerging Christianity a or"ing to ;0>e4s 9!ts. :or the 0lti &eat0res o& the Aestern metuentes8 what we have o)serve" in C0venal4s satyri al verses $1' is perhaps eno0ghE in re&eren e to 2o"-:earers4 pra ti es in 9!ts one m0st rather stress the r0 ial "e ision o& Cer0salem4s Co0n il (.1 C.E.) $1*8 where the "0ties o& s0 h 2entile Converts to Christianity were &iBe" on e an" &or all: /Ahere&ore my senten e is8 that we tro0)le not them8 whi h &rom among the 2entiles are t0rne" to 2o": )0t that we write 0nto them8 that they a)stain &rom poll0tions o& i"ols8 an" &rom &orni ation8 an" &rom things strangle"8 an" &rom )loo"1 $1+. Ahat is that< 9t is ?0st the moral-religio0s o"e whi h8 a or"ing to ra))ini al tra"ition8 every

man is o)lige" to &ollow8 an" in parti 0lar the stranger8 the /resi"ent alien1 (.er toshb8 .er ash,sha#ar) in the 5tate o& 9srael $$-: the so- alle" /Noa hite ;aws1 $$1. There eBist vario0s versions o& s0 h pres riptions $$$8 )0t it is interesting to noti e now that a&ter this histori al "e ision Christians Converts oming &rom 2entilism8 namely 0n ir 0m ise" Christians (E!!lesia e< Gentibus) $$38 2o"-:earers8 at least the sebmenoi/phobomenoi (tn then)IHellenes onta te" )y Pa0l an" other apostles8 Huna"#8 at least the Han*" Pay" whose "evotional pra ti es are the only ones to )e eBpli itly state" in the S*ra $$,8 5a)ians8 whom many tra"itions onsi"er as Noah4s heirs an" onse@0ently &ollowers o& the /Noa hite ;aws1 $$.8 an" &inally (arranians8 whose apital ity is sai" to have )een &o0n"e" )y Noah or )y some o& his relatives (a son or a nephew) a&ter the :loo" $$#8 appear to share to some eBtent the same ethi alreligio0s "0ties. G0t let 0s go on he >ing the availa)le teBt0al evi"en e a)o0t 2o"-:earers4 )elie&s an" rites. Ahat 2regory o& NaHianH0s witnesses a)o0t the Cappa"o ian gro0p alle" )y him Hypsistarii is @0ite interesting8 sin e he is spea>ing a)o0t his own &ather8 onverte" to Christianity )y some )ishops en route to the Co0n il o& Ni aea (3$. C.E.)8 th0s han"ing "own a "ire t an" personal eBperien e: /The C0lt was a miBt0re o& two elements8 (elleni error an" a"heren e to the Cewish law R 9ts &ollowers re?e t the i"ols an" sa ri&i es o& the &ormer an" worship &ire an" lamplightE they revere the sabbath an" "o not to0 h ertain &oo"s8 )0t have nothing to "o with ir 0m ision. To the h0m)le they are alle" (ypsistarians8 an" the Panto4rator is the only go" they worship1 $$'. There may )e little "o0)t a)o0t the relations )etween this gro0p o& "evotees o& the (ighest Fivinity an" the /enigmati 1 $$* omm0nity o& worshippers o& the go" Sabbatist>s mentione" in a Cili ian ins ription "ating )a > to 70g0st0s4 time an" elsewhere alle" etair>a tn SambatiHstn $$+. The mem)ers o& s0 h a 0lti Pag. $. asso iation8 "enoting themselves )y the term eta*roi8 s0rely revere" the Sabbath8 even i& they o0l" not )e native Cews nor proselytes: as T heri>over rightly pointe" o0t8 in &a t8 Cews wo0l" never re&er to their 2o" as /the 2o" o& the Sabbath1 $3-. Ae are8 there&ore8 "ealing with a 2entile environment8 namely with o)servers o& the Cewish /5eventh Fay1 o& rest whose (ellenisti organiHation appears to )e similar to that o& the other gro0ps o& pagan )elievers in a Trans en"ental Feity. 7 passage &rom 2regory o& Nyssa4s ontra Eunomium is another lassi al so0r e a)o0t Hypsistiani: that is the name8 in"ee" very similar to the previo0s one re or"e" )y the other 2regory8 )y whi h he "enotes the mem)ers o& this !onotheisti gro0p8 )0t witho0t a""ing any relevant in&ormation eB ept &or the a >nowle"gement o& attri)0tes s0 h as /the highest1 an" Panto4rator given to 2o" )y them an"8 at the same time8 their re?e tion o& a Christian attri)0te s0 h as /:ather1 in re&eren e to 2o" $31 . The testimony o& Epiphani0s a)o0t Messalians (/Those who pray1)8 even alle" Euphemitai (/Those who )less1)8 happens "0ring the same perio" (3'# C.E.) an" is ontaine" in his Panarion where the s0)?e t is "is 0sse" at length. The Cyprian )ishop "isting0ishes )etween a Christian se t )y this name an" the /Pagan1 omm0nity $3$8 &or )oth o& whi h he shows very little sympathy in"ee"8 )0t we are &or

the moment only intereste" to re or" what the &amo0s heresiologist >nows a)o0t the latter: /They are simply pagans who a"mit the eBisten e o& go"s )0t worship none among themE they a"ore one 2o" only8 whom they all 7lmighty. They also onstr0 t &or themselves ertain ho0ses or spa io0s areas8 li>e "ora8 whi h they all proseu!hai. %& ol" there were ertain pla es o& prayer among the Cews whi h were o0tsi"e the ity8 an" among the 5amaritans8 as we &in" as well in the 9!ts o" the 9postles8 where ;y"ia8 a seller o& p0rple goo"s8 met those with Pa0l R Now these earlier !essalians8 who "erive themselves &rom pagans an" who appeare" on the s ene )e&ore those at present who "erive &rom the Christian religion8 have themselves onstr0 te" on the one han" ertain small pla es in ertain regions whi h are alle" proseu!hai or eu4teria8 while in other lo ations they have )0ilt &or themselves something li>e h0r hes8 where they gather at evening an" morning with m0 h lighting o& lamps an" tor hes an" lengthy singing hymns an" a lamations to 2o" )y the Healo0s among them8 thro0gh whi h hymns an" a lamations they &on"ly thin> to on iliate 2o"1 $33. %ne hanges geographi al area with Cyril o& 7leBan"ria8 whose in&ormation is worthy o& attention mostly )e a0se o& the name o& the gro0p that he mentions8 &or it re 0rs again 0n"er the &orm o& Theosebe*s8 whi h we have alrea"y en o0ntere". They live in Phoeni ia an" Palestina8 worship Hypsistos Thes )0t also other "eities s0 h as the 50n an" the !oon8 Earth an" (eaven8 an" the )rightest stars: ?0st as was the ase &or 2regory o& NaHianH0s4 Hypsistarii8 also Cyril laims that Theosebe*s4 )elie&s an" rit0al 0stoms are neither Cewish or Christian8 )0t are a sort o& miBt0re o& )oth $3,. 9n Northern 7&ri a8 &inally8 one &in"s a gro0p >nown )y the name aeli!olae in the &irst years o& the 3 ent0ry8 )e a0se it is mentione" in two onstit0tions o& the Theo(osian o(e (,-* an" ,-+ C.E.) $3.: these aeli!olae - whose maior se"0 ing many Christians into a sa rilegio0s se on" )aptism also 5aint 70g0stine is shown to have )een in onta t with $3# - are harge" with )eing a hereti al C0"aiHing se t an" are onse@0ently o0tlawe" )y the emperors (onori0s an" 7r a"i0s8 even i& it is not Pag. $# lear whether s0 h legal meas0res were ever s0 ess&0l $3'. Tet it is spe ially important &or o0r p0rposes that the same name is 0se" twi e in Be7a ;atin translation o& 9!ts: sin e the wor" is 0se" to ren"er the 2ree> term sebmenoi $3*8 in &a t8 one an ass0me with 5 h0rer that their )elie&s were @0ite similar to those o& the 2o"-:earers alrea"y atteste" in 7sia !inor an" elsewhere $3+. :rom this )rie& hronologi al an" geographi al s0rvey emerges a real religio0s &rontier8 whi h some a0thors have also re ogniHe" $,-. :or the rit0als8 it is not possi)le to go )eyon" the evi"en e8 so that one m0st limit onesel& to say that8 even when organiHe" omm0nities are on erne"8 2o"-:earers4 religio0s pres riptions were a)sol0tely not rigi" ones an" th0s an )e viewe" as a r0le within the loose horiHon in l0"e" )y the /Noa hite ;aws1 $,1. There was pro)a)ly sometimes a solar aspe t in the 0lt8 the weight o& whi h it is not possi)le to "etermine pre isely in the "i&&erent omm0nities8 an" whi h might also )e totally a)sent. 7ll this eBplains why - we )elieve - several !0slim interpreters o& the !i""le 7ges eBpli itly laim that the 5a)ians are /a religio0s gro0p whi h has no 0lt8 s ript0re an" prophet8 a"mitting only the ta:h*(8 the pro&ession o& &aith: QThere is no go" )0t 2o"4 (/ 9llah ill#

9llah)1 $,$: a religion whi h has no 0lt loo>s li>e a para"oB8 )0t a&ter what we have learnt a)o0t 2o"-:earers it eases to appear as s0 h. 9n the meantime8 this evi"en e among many other &in"ings - proves that the !an"aean hypothesis a)o0t Oorani 5a)ians is on the wrong roa" an" sho0l" onse@0ently )e given 0p.

The Sabians 9!!or(in. to +irst 3slami! Sour!es F0ring the &irst two ent0ries o& the 9slami Era8 Near Eastern a0thors "o not "isting0ish )etween /real1 an" /&alse1 5a)ians: this "istin tion8 in &a t8 ame to the light only in the &irst hal& o& the 999 (.I9L C.E. .8 namely a&ter the (arranians ass0me" the name /5a)ians1 to "e&ine their religio0s position in relation to the Gagh"a" Caliphate8 "0ring a perio" when the inter-religio0s "ialog0e was @0ite intense $,3. These s holars seem the )etter so0r e8 there&ore8 &or 0n"erstan"ing or at least &or oming as near as possi)le to the very nat0re o& the 5a)ians mentione" )y !0hamma" in the )ur#n $,,: a t0ally one won"ers at these interpreters4 honesty o& min"8 )e a0se they generally appear not to &ear )eing too lose to the teBt an" a""ing very poor in&ormation to what it literally eBpress. 7s &ar as the three Oorani passages re or"ing the Sbi#n are on erne"8 the (oly TeBt shows the &ollowing hains o& (0niversal) religions: Gelievers (Those who )elieve8 !0slims)8 the Cews8 the Christians8 the 5a)ians (Sura 998 #$)E Gelievers8 the Cews8 the 5a)ians8 the Christians (Sura 38 #+)E Gelievers8 Those who are the Cews8 the 5a)ians8 the Christians8 the !agians8 Dn)elievers (Those who set 0p go"s Uwith 2o"V8 Pagans o& ol") ( Sura LL998 1'). Aell8 with great oheren e all these so0r es state that the 5a)ians are a religio0s gro0p bet:een the Cews an" the Christians8 or bet:een the Cews an" the !agians8 or Pag. $' that they are a Christian se t8 or8 &inally8 that they are a separate religion: it is easy to see8 there&ore8 that here the "istan e &rom what the teBt literally says is very limite"8 or even noneBistent. 9t is important to remem)er8 )esi"es8 the name that "e&ines here the Christians8 i%e% al,6asra: sin e it is tr0e that al,6asra is the term 0s0ally employe" in the !0slim Aorl" &rom the )eginnings to name the Christians $,.8 )0t we >now that it was not ?0st the only one in 0se in !0hamma"4s times. 9t is eno0gh to @0ote the term rhib (pl. ruhb)8 /mon>18 /as eti 1 $,#8 )0t also /philosopher1 $,'8 )y whi h Christians were o&ten i"enti&ie" )y 7ra)s an" )y other people "welling in Near Eastern "esert regions or in the s0rro0n"ing geographi al areas $,*E or to remem)er a &amo0s religio0s omm0nity s0 h as al,3b(8 /The Aorshippers18 /The 5ervants (o& 2o")18 i%e% the Nestorian Christians living in al-(Kra $,+8 in 5o0thern !esopotamia. Regar"ing the 5a)ians4 )elie&s an" rites8 the &ollowing evi"en e omes o0t &rom these so0r es: 1) They )elieve in only %ne 2o" $.-E $) They "o not have any 0lt8 s ript0re or prophet $.1E 3) They state they are &ollowers o& the prophet Noah $.$E ,) They pray to the 50n $.3E .) They pray in the "ire tion o& the 2iblah $.,E #) They

worship the angels an" rea" the psalms (7abr) $..E ') They )elieve in the prophets $.#E *) They have . "aily rit0al prayers $.'E +) They &ast 3- "ays a year $.*. 9t is lear that there are some ontra"i tions among these statementsE it is evi"ent8 in other wor"s8 that some o& these s holars have in min" a ertain religio0s omm0nity8 a pre ise one8 pro)a)ly even the !an"aeans or another Gaptismal se t8 sin e some o& them live" as they still "o nowa"ays in the 5o0th o& 9ra@ $.+. G0t the pro)lem is not to "etermine whether the !an"aeans may )e in l0"e" among the 5a)ians an" may onse@0ently )e part o& the /People o& the Goo>1 $#-E the pro)lem is whether these &eat0res &it with their religion or not. Now8 we thin> that a statement s0 h as the se on" one8 namely that /they "o not have any 0lt8 s ript0re or prophet18 or that /they "o not have a ertain anoni al law18 or even that /they have no "istin tive religion1 is a very sing0lar &eat0re. 7 t0ally8 with the &inal s0mmary o& the )elie&s an" the rites o& the 5a)ians ma"e )y 5. 20n"0H8 the last an" resol0te eBponent o& the /!an"aean party1$#18 one annot appre iate thoro0ghly the real weight that the a)ove ite" "e&initions have a or"ing to these s holars8 while they re 0r very &re@0ently an" are parti 0larly stresse" )y many o& them $#$. G0t whi h religion "oes not have any 0lt< Aell8 we )elieve that s0 h a sing0lar &eat0re an only )e applie" to a loose gro0p o& )elievers s0 h as the 2o"-:earers: moreover8 their religio0s position per&e tly &its with many other elements o& the evi"en e olle te" a)ove8 an" in parti 0lar with the statements: 1) )e a0se the &aith in %ne (!ost-(igh) 2o" is the most hara teristi 2o"-:earers4 religio0s &eat0reE 3) )e a0se o& their lin>s with Noah whi h we have o)serve" when "is 0ssing the /Noa hite ;aws1E ,) )e a0se o& the 0lt4s solar aspe ts whi h we have sometimes note" among 2o"-:earers4 rit0al pra ti esE .) &or the same reason8 sin e the 7ra)i term 2iblah "e&ines in general the osmi entre8 not - as 20n"0H seems to )elieve /the 5o0th18 an" onse@0ently it may re&er to the "i&&erent positions o& the 50n in the s>y "0ring the $, ho0rs y le (th0s in l0"ing also the North) $#$ )is8 in whi h "ire tion the &aith&0l pro)a)ly a""resse" his prayers toE #) )e a0se o& the 0lt o& the angels whi h8 again8 we have re ogniHe" as )eing parti 0larly present among the 2o":earers (we leave asi"e &or the moment the pro)lem o& 7abr). Ae have no elements Pag. $* that help 0s to "e i"e whether the &inal three points o& o0r list are ongr0ent with the 2o"-:earers4 &aith: it is worth noting8 anyway8 that point *) may )e a nat0ral iss0e o& the 0lt4s solar aspe ts alrea"y mentione"8 whereas point ') may )e seen as a onse@0en e o& the Gi)li al tra"ition8 ertainly well->nown )y many o& these omm0nities4 mem)ers $#3E point +)8 &inally8 is re >one" )y ?0st one s holar8 Q7)J alPan="8 the same person who re or"s that /they )elieve in the prophets1 an" that /they have . rit0al prayers "aily1 with Piy=" i)n-7)KhK (an"8 ?0st &or the last statement8 with Wat="ah).

The +irst /atin Translation o" the $oran1 Sabians E hristiansI

Ae thin> it important to re all here the &irst a0thoritative ;atin version o& the Ooran ma"e in 5pain )y Ro)ert o& Oetton an" (ermann o& CarinHia4s sta&& o& translators a or"ing to Peter the 3enera)le4s will8 in the year 11,3 C.E. $#,. The eBpressions hosen )y those s holars hose to translate the name 5a)ians in the three Oorani passages in @0estion are in &a t very instr0 tive &or o0r p0rposes. ;et 0s rea"8 then8 the ;atin teBt: S!ien(um autem .eneraliter, 2uoniam omnis re!te -i-ens, 3u(eus seu hristianus, seu lege s0a reli ta in aliam ten"ens8 omnis s!ili!et 'eum a(orans, boni2ue .estor, in(ubitanter (i-inum amorem asse2uetur (998 #$) $#.E re(entes at2ue 3u(aei, et angelos lo o Fei a"orantes8 @0i s ili et legem pro lege variant8 hristiani etiam, omnes hi in2uam si in 'eum !re(i(erint, et iu(i!i (iem e<pe!tantes bene"e!erint, nihil timeant (38 #+) $##E 3am tibi !oelitus missa re mani"esta, 2uos -ult in -iam re!tam 'eus (iri.et1 2ui super omnia potens, illa (ie !re(entium et 3u(aeorum, a! leges varianti0m Christianor0m8 item et .entilium a! in!re(ulorum iu(e< at2ue (is!ussor inter erit (LL998 1') $#'. Ae m0st not &orget that we have to "o with a learne" translation8 whi h sho0l" virt0ally gather the )est so0r es o& in&ormation a)o0t the Oorani teBt $#*E )esi"es8 one an o)serve that in L99 ent0ry 5pain 9slami ivilisation ha" )een "eeply roote" &or h0n"re"s o& years8 an" it was there&ore the )est 0lt0ral milie0 to arry on s0 h a wor>. %n the other han"8 as every)o"y >nows8 5pain was the main 0lt0ral hannel thro0gh whi h most o& the ol" 2ree> wor>s ()0t Persian8 9n"ian et . ones also)8 lost in the Aest many ent0ries earlier8 were translate" in"ire tly &rom a /se on" han"1 7ra)i version into a ;atin one8 so that they event0ally )e ame availa)le to an E0ropean p0)li . 7nyway8 s holars generally a >nowle"ge that Ro)ert an" (ermann have a omplishe" goo" wor>8 )e a0se the translation $#+ is @0ite literal: it is not )y han e8 &or eBample8 that also the &irst 9talian translation o& the $oran (1.,') is )ase" 0pon s0 h an original ;atin version $'-. G0t let 0s )egin with the /5a)ian1 passage o& the Sura 99: it is not "i&&i 0lt to re ogniHe the e@0ation 5a)ians 6 2o"-:earers8 i& it is tr0e that the latter are really not &0ll Converts8 )0t ?0st people who have a)an"one" (at least in part) their previo0s )elie&s an" are see>ing a&ter (the ;atin parti ipial &orm ten(ens is here per&e tly Pag. $+ &itting) another religion8 not witho0t having "one in the meantime the &0n"amental spirit0al step o& )elieving in only %ne Feity8 the !ost-(igh 2o". The )a >gro0n" o& this in&ormation is8 li>ewise8 easy to i"enti&y: it is one o& the most signi&i ant semanti val0es o& the 7ra)i ver)s saba#a an" sab that al-Ta)arK an" many other interpreters too> in or"er to eBplain the name Sbi. The wor" means /someone who ta>es on a new religion other than his own18 the great Oorani ommentator states8 a""ing that the term is an e@0ivalent o& the no0n murta((8 /renegate18 /apostate1 $'1. 9n the /5a)ian1 passage o& the 50ra 3 it is perhaps possi)le to re ogniHe two "i&&erent >eys o& interpretation: the eBpression 2ui s!ili!et le.e pro le.e -ariant8 /who in other wor"s hange the ;aw into (&or) another one18 loo>s li>e a "etail s0ggesting ?0st as the rea"ing o& the 7abr8 the Favi"4s Psalms whi h we have met a)ove among the 5a)ian &eat0res $'$ a Christian milie0 rather than a 5a)ian oneE )0t we

shall soon see that s0 h a "istin tion pro)a)ly was not always ma"e )y eBternal o)servers8 so that one o0l" o&ten eB hange one &or the other. %n the other han"8 the senten e an.elos lo!o 'ei a(orantes is @0ite strange here8 )e a0se it seems to )e evi"ent that the gro0p in @0estion )elongs to the wi"er ategory o& the Gelievers8 the !onotheists: so what reason is there to s0spe t the a t o& /worshipping angels instea" o& 2o"1< Ae have noti e" that angels4 worship is an important &eat0re in the 0lt o& Theos Hypsistos )y the 2o"-:earers8 mostly in 7sia !inor where a lot o& ins riptions mentioning angels have )een &o0n" $'3. 7ngels play an important role in Cewish religio0s 0lt0re $',8 )0t at least in this region they appear to )e a ommon &eat0re o& Cews8 Christians an" 2o"-:earers: 5aint Pa0l in &a t reproa he" the Colossians &or their 0stom o& worshipping angels8 )0t we m0st a >nowle"ge that similar a"monitions were ma"e in vain8 i& Theo"oret4s ommentary on that teBt "oes not &ail to show that their 0lt was still alive in Phrigia an" Pisi"ia &o0r ent0ries later $'.. Then8 "o we have to "o with 2o"-:earers or with (hetero"oB) Christians here< The /5a)ian1 passage in the Sura LL99 is the most p0HHling one: here8 in &a t8 the la > o& a omma )etween -ariantium an" hristianorum o)liges the rea"er to 0n"erstan" the eBpression as a whole $'#E a t0ally8 it seems reasona)le to loo> at the Christians in terms o& the histori al /people1 who really hange" the (%l" Testament) ;aw $''8 even i& at this point the gro0p o& the 5a)iansI2o"-:earers eases ompletely to appear. Perhaps it is not 0seless8 there&ore8 to insist 0pon the histori al role playe" )y the 2o"-:earers "0ring the r0 ial perio" o& the rising o& Christianity8 at least a or"ing to the 9!ts4 version o& the &a ts an" to ;0>e4s witness a)o0t the sympathy that the phobomenoi/sebmenoi (tn then) &elt while listening to the evangeli al message8 o&ten onverting themselves to Christianity $'*. The histori al loseness )etween the two religio0s gro0ps also emerges with parti 0lar relevan e &rom the evi"en e olle te" in 5. Pines4 1+#* important arti le /The 9ranian Name &or Christians an" 2o"-:earers1. 2iven the spe ial interest o& the s0)?e t &or o0r area o& resear h8 we @0ote it at length: /9n Pahlavi8 5og"ian an" New Persian8 the meaning o& one o& the most ommon "esignations &or Christians is Q&earers4 (tars4n)8 whereas in (e)rew8 2ree>8 ;atin an" 5yria 8 similar wor"s8 with i"enti al meaning (o&ten8 )0t not always8 o0ple" Pag. 3with 2o"4s name)8 "enote the Q2o"-:earers4 (or =ir# shamayim)8 viH.8 2entiles who8 in the perio" )e&ore or imme"iately a&ter the )eginning o& the Christian Era8 )elieve" in the 2o" o& the Cews an" o)serve" some o& their pre epts R 9n all pro)a)ility8 the "esignation tars4 is R a vestige that testi&y to the &a t that8 in o0ntries in whi h 7ramai or an 9ranian lang0age was spo>en8 on the )or"ers o& the Persian Empire or within it8 the Christians8 "0ring a ertain histori al perio"8 were i"enti&ie" with the Q2o"-:earers48 in the te hni al sense o& the term R The "esignation o& the Christians )y the name tarsa4n is8 onse@0ently8 &0rther proo& o& the strong onne tions whi h eBiste" in the 9ranian regions (an" in the eastern )or"er-lan"s o& the Roman Empire) )etween primitive Christianity an" the ir les o& the sebmenoi1 $'+. Pines4 st0"y is espe ially important &or two reasons: in &a t it orro)orates o0r hypothesis a)o0t the presen e o& 2o"-:earers along the )or"ers o& the 7ra)ian penins0la or in the neigh)o0ring regions in the histori al perio" whi h we are "ealing

with8 an" it also s0pposes as we "o that a on&0sion )etween 2o"-:earers an" Christians o0l" sometimes have appeare". 50 h a on&0sion was pro)a)ly "0e to some similarities in 0lt pra ti es )etween )oth religio0s gro0ps8 as we have alrea"y o)serve"8 so that in ertain geographi al areas an" "0ring a ertain histori al perio" )oth omm0nities were perhaps alle" with an i"enti al name )y eBternal o)servers $*. 9& s0 h is the ase8 passages in the $oran a)o0t the Sbi#n o0l" )e interesting histori al testimonies o& )iling0alism8 s0 h as that one showe" )y the &amo0s !i""lePersian 9ns ription &rom $art*r: here8 the sim0ltaneo0s @0otation8 among other religio0s gro0ps8 o& n!ary an" 4ristiyn8 is eBplaine" )y !.;. Cha0mont8 who p0)lishe" an" translate" the "o 0ment8 in the &ollowing way: /;es mots n!ary et 4ristiyn se rapporteraient l40ne l4a0tre a0B hrNtiens ortho"oBes sans a0 0ne a eption "4hNrNsie. ;e0r ?0sBtaposition serait l4e&&et "40n )iling0isme @0i s4Ntait insta0rN "ep0is pe0 a0 sein "e la hrNtientN perse R 9l est trSs &rappant @0e "ans les 9!ta "e 5imNon )ar 5a))a4S les termes 4ristiyan et nasoray sont employNs omme synonymes. 7ve l4ins ription "e OartKr8 no0s sommes pe0t-Xtre = l4origine "e e "o0)le emploi. ;e rN"a te0r "0 "o 0ment8 s4il onnaissait l40n et l4a0tre vo a)le8 ne savait sans "o0te pas @04ils po0vaient s4appli@0er = la mXme religion1 $*1. 7 thir" testimony whi h we wish to "is 0ss here omes &rom one o& the Ha(*th teBts on erning the 7ra)i root SB#8 with the meaning / hanging one4s religion &or another18 /to apostatiHe18 whi h we alrea"y >now as a whole. The eB erpt omes &rom to hapter ;3999 o& al-G0>h=rK4s Sah*h8 onse rate" to al,Di7iya :a al,m:(a#a ma#a hl al,(himma :a al,harb8 namely to the r0les whi h !0slims ha" to >eep when oming in onta t with other pop0lations $*$: in these ases8 the pro)lem was whether to onsi"er these persons as )eing part o& /the People o& the Goo>18 the !onotheisti omm0nities en?oying the right o& toleran e (Cews8 Christians8 !agians an" 5a)ians)8 in eB hange &or the payment o& a spe ial taB8 the Di7iya8 &oreseen in these ases )y 9slami law. The title o& the paragraph whi h we are "ealing with is /7)o0t the ase when the enemies8 a&ter having )een won8 say: QAe (want to) )e ome 5a)ians (sab#na8 sab#na)48 witho0t having )een a)le to say orre tly QAe (want to) )e ome !0slims (aslamna8 aslamna)41 $*38 an" it narrates a @0ite strange story8 in"ee". Ahile Oh=li" in s0 h a sit0ation "i" not hesitate to sla0ghter every)o"y8 )eing riti iHe" Pag. 31 a&terwar"s )y the Prophet who >ept a "istan e &rom his &ier e )ehavio0r8 QDmar on his si"e laime" that8 when some enemy rie" o0t the (Persian) wor" MatrasM $*, (/Fo not &earM1)8 he ha" to )e save". Ahat is the meaning o& this episo"e< 7 t0ally it is not easy to interpret. 7s o&ten happens when one tries to "eepen the meaning o& the teBt0al evi"en e a)o0t the 5a)ians $*.8 the sense o& the "o 0ment is not ompletely lear in this ase either. 7t &irst sight it wo0l" seem that the wor" matras is a sort o& passwor"8 provi"ing the eBternal )o0n"aries o& the on rete religio0s goal whi h the people here at sta>e are pointing to. 7&ter what we have learnt a)o0t the Persian name &or Christians Tarsa4n - &rom Pines4 st0"y8 in &a t8 we an )e reasona)ly s0re that the in"ivi"0als in @0estion )y prono0n ing s0 h a wor" wo0l" ro0ghly inten" to em)ra e the i"ea o& /religio0s &ear1.

G0t the imperative &orm o& the ver) remains still @0ite pro)lemati : how is it possi)le &or a person van@0ishe" )y another to say (to him): /Fo not &earM1 < (as there ever )een a mista>e in the trans ription o& the ver)4s tense < Everything )e omes very m0 h learer8 tho0gh8 when one ta>es into a o0nt the well->nown %l" Testament &orm0la Jal,tir (/"o not &earM1)8 re 0rring in many "i&&erent literary an" so ial onteBts8 among whi h one in parti 0lar "eserves o0r attention )eing eBa tly parallele" )y the story han"e" "own )y al-G0>h=rK: the ((oly) Aar. The general en o0rages his sol"iers to &ight pre isely )y means o& the eBpression /"o not &earM18 whi h on the other han" )elongs to the /stereotype" phraseology1 o& holy war also )eyon" the )or"ers o& the Cewish 0lt0re $*. )is). Ae are there&ore a)le to state that the ommonly a epte" translation o& the ver) saba#na8 namely /we (want to) )e ome 5a)ians18 is very pro)a)ly not the right one8 an" that it sho0l" rather )e hange" into /we (want to) )e ome 2o"-:earers18 or /Christians18 as well as plainly /!onotheists1.

Harranians# ult o" the Most,Hi.h Go( The last pro)lem whi h we m0st "is 0ss is the (arranian religio0s position. 7s we have sai" more than on e8 the version ontaine" in al-Na"Km4s +ihrist o& the reasons why (arranians hose to ass0me the name /5a)ians1 "0ring the &irst hal& o& the 999 (.I9L C.E. ent0ry8 seems to 0s at least partially 0n)elieva)le8 an" we thin> with (?arpe that it an )e s0&&i iently eBplaine" thro0gh the nee"s o& religio0s ontroversy $*#: the histori al so0r e &rom whi h al-Na"Km ta>es this in&ormation is in &a t the Christian 7)J T0sJ& al-Wathii8 namely the a0thor o& the /Tal>ing (ea"18 the horri)le story re or"e" later )y the same +ihrist $*': no "o0)t8 there&ore8 a)o0t this person4s wish o& "enigrate the (arranian people an" their rit0al pra ti es8 )y she""ing on them all the most 0n&avo0ra)le light $**. Pag. 3$ Aell8 let 0s loo> more serio0sly at the pi t0re. 9t is not possi)le that (arranians o0l" have ontin0e" to &ollow their an ient tra"itions in the open air &or ent0ries i& their religio0s position was not a)le to )e in l0"e" within a !onotheisti pattern8 an" i& it ha" )een8 onse@0ently8 in stri>ing ontra"i tion with the s0rro0n"ing 9slami milie0 $*+. G0t we )elieve8 however8 that it was a)sol0tely not an a&&air o& orr0ption8 an" that it ertainly was not ?0st )y means o& a lot o& naive lies an" shame&0l )ri)es as the +ihrist an" other teBt0al so0r es o& the !i""le 7ges wo0l" have the rea"er )elieve $+- - that (arr=n (a entre whi h &or some years was the Dmmaya" Caliphate4s apital ityM $+1) o0l" >eep its an ient )elie&s an" rites alive witho0t 0n"ergoing any repression )y the "ominant !0slim government: on the ontrary8 as every)o"y >nows8 many (arranians en?oye" the Caliphs4 on&i"en e an" were hel" in high esteem )e a0se o& their philosophi al an" s ienti&i worth8 mostly in the &iel" o& astronomy an" mathemati s4 $+$8 an" it was s0rely not )e a0se o& a simple /varnish1

o& !onotheism s0 h as the one whi h the (arranian 5a)ians wo0l" have )oaste" a or"ing to !.C. Fe 2oe?e4s ol" opinion $+3. To "emonstrate that the highly sophisti ate" theology a"opte" )y the (arranian people orrespon"s to a !onotheisti point o& view is an a0tomati a tion: the Neoplatoni system whi h "ominates their on eption o& the 4osmos $+,8 with the spirit0al Geings living in it an" a ting as !e"iators )etween !an an" 2o"8 who "wells )eyon" all heavenly heights an" there&ore annot "ire tly omm0ni ate with him8 is evi"ent proo& o& that )y itsel& $+.. 9t is important to stress the eBpressions )y whi h s0 h a trans en"ental Feity was name" )y (arranians8 )e a0se it ma>es lear that their religio0s horiHon was per&e tly in >eeping with the theology o& Thes Hypsistos whi h we have re ogniHe" as the most hara teristi &eat0re o& the 2o":earers4 0lt. The "o 0ment whi h proves )eyon" any "o0)t that )oth onteBts share the same &aith in %ne !ost-(igh 2o" is the &amo0s man0al o& !agi 8 the Gayt al, Ha4*m (The 9im o" the Sa.e) $+#8 )etter >nown in its ;atin &orm Pi!atri< $+' 0n"er whi h it was wi"esprea" in E0rope "0ring the !i""le 7ges8 an" whi h represents moreover one o& the )est eBisting so0r es o& in&ormation a)o0t the (arranian 5a)ians. Aell8 in the intro"0 tory se tion o& the Gay to the /planetary prayers18 where the general pres riptions to )e o)serve" )e&ore the )eginning o& the rite are liste"8 the a0thor 0rges the &aith&0l to: /:irst o& all &ill yo0rsel& with &ear o& 2o"1: it is worth noting here that not only one &in"s o0t ?0st the /pass-wor"1 whi h we are eBpe ting8 the /!ost-(igh1 $+* (2o")8 )0t also the re&eren e to the spirit0al /&ear1 whi h we have learnt to )e a 2o"-:earers4 typi al attit0"e o& min". The &a t that s0 h eBpressions are not here )y han e is "emonstrate" later on8 thro0gho0t what we an all the /!onotheisti series1 $++ o& these astral invo ations8 )e a0se the repetition o& a parti 0lar &orm0la is re@0ire" every time that the worshipper a""resses himsel& to a planetary "eity to &0l&il his own "esires: the &orm0la in &a t )egins with the wor"s: /:or the sa>e o& the ;or" o& the (igh G0il"ing1 3--8 where the hint to 2o"4s EB ee"ing (ighness is eBpli itly ma"e on e again in or"er to o)tain the "ivine inter ession )e&ore 0n"erta>ing any rit0al a tion. Ahat no)o"y has ever prove" 0ntil now as &ar as we >now is that also the /pop0lar1 religion o& (arr=n o0l" orrespon" to a !onotheisti pattern8 that is the Pag 33 r0 ial move allowing 0s to set 7)J T0s0& al-Wathii4s al0mnies asi"e "e&initively. :rom this point o& view one an a""0 e in &a t 50matar (ara)esi4s evi"en e8 where many 5yria ins riptions "ating )a > to 1#. C.E. have )een &o0n" invo>ing /S*n8 the 2o"18 or S*n Marilah>8 or8 &inally8 simply Marilah> (/The ;or" o& the 2o"s1) 3-1. The open-air shrine o& 50matar (ara)esi lies a &ew >ilometres North-East o& (arr=n8 an" there an )e no "o0)t a)o0t the lose religio0s relations eBisting )etween )oth pla es: "espite 5egal4s spe 0lations a)o0t the i"entity o& Marilaha (that was his rea"ing o& the "ivine name8 /The ;or" 2o"1) with Baal Shamin8 the /;or" o& the (eavens1 o& the 5emiti pantheon8 the e@0ation Marilah> 6 !oon-2o" S*n has )een "emonstrate" with ertainty 3-$: in Neo-Ga)ylonian times (hal& o& the 39 G.C.E. .)8 the !oon Feity was a""resse" in i"enti al terms8 /S*n ;or" o& the go"s1 (S*n bl sh ilani) a or"ing to the &amo0s Na)oni"e4s ins ription "is overe" in (arr=n 3-38 as it happene" still in

93 (.IL C.E. . a or"ing to an (arranian 0lti alen"ar (;abbu Jllihati) han"e" "own on e again )y al-Na"Km 3-,. 9& one leaves asi"e the evi"en e o& (atra8 where some oins with the le.en(a S=6 M;/H# have )een &o0n" in 1+.* 3-.8 it wo0l" seem that 50matar ins riptions were the only epigraphi witness o& Marilah>4s eBisten e. G0t the 1+'- "is overy in Palmyra o& an engrave" )lo > o& stone mentioning again the /;or" o& the go"s1 moves hanges things. Even i& the i"entity S*n 6 Marilah is pro)lemati in Palmyra8 )e a0se the !oon-2o" at the hea" o& the pantheon is not 0n"er "is 0ssion here 3-#8 this evi"en e s0ggests8 on the other han"8 that s0 h a "ivine attri)0te in an 7ramai environment is to )e onsi"ere" similar8 i& not i"enti al8 to the 2ree> eBpression Thes Hypsistos8 so that it )e omes spe ially interesting &or 0s. 9n the same Palmyrian /Fio letian4s Camp0s18 11 "e"i ations to /the 0nname" 2o"1 - also invo>e" in terms o& /;or" o& the Aorl"1 an" /;or" o& the Dniverse18 /a0tant "e "Nnominations parallSles = elle "e Q5eigne0r "es "ie0B4 1 a or"ing to !. 2awli>ows>i who &irst p0)lishe" the "o 0ment 3-' - have )een &o0n" )y the Polish ar haeologi al mission wor>ing 0pon this siteE )0t the )iling0al ;atin-2ree> "e"i ation "is overe" in the near /Temple "es Enseignes1 even more eBpli itly &its o0r nee"s8 sin e we are "ealing with an e<,-oto to Keus Hypsistos whose name is rightly translate" )y 3uppiter 0ptimus Ma<imus in the ;atin version o& the same teBt 3-* . Ae are &a ing8 there&ore a lear !onotheisti onteBt here8 where "i&&erent ways to name the 50preme Feity appear sim0ltaneo0sly. The !onotheisti tren" in ;ate 7nti@0ity o&ten raise" to the hea" o& the pantheon ?0st one a.nstos thes8 one /7nonymo0s 2o"1 3-+8 )0t in many sit0ations this highest stat0s was rather ta>en )y the "ivinity that ha" )een previo0sly pla e" in the most prominent position o& the pantheon8 s0 h as it was the ase o& S*n at (arr=n 31-. The reason why it was impossi)le &or (arranians to 0se a "ivine epithet having a semanti val0e eBa tly e@0ivalent to Hypsistos is @0ite evi"ent: the !oon8 )oth in the /Cal"aean1 astronomi al mo"el an" in the /2ree>1 one 3118 o 0pies the lowest pla e among the planets8 so that it wo0l" have seeme" ontra"i tory to name the "eity r0ling over this heavenly )o"y with an attri)0te s0 h as /the (ighest18 in spite o& the go"4s paramo0nt ran> largely a >nowle"ge" )y his "evotees. Ae will &inally try to 0n"erstan" whether8 an" 0p to what limits the /pop0lar1 religion o& (arr=n o0l" )e a epte" )y the s0rro0n"ing !0slim 5tate witho0t any Pag. 3, pro)lem8 provi"e" that its nat0ral &eat0res orrespon"e" to a tr0e eBpression o& !onotheism s0 h as 5a)ianism8 namely /2o"-worship1ITheosbeia. :or this p0rpose8 we shall analyse a well->nown "o 0ment a)o0t the (arranians re or"e" )y al-!a4sJ"i8 the sole witness to have personally visite" as !. Tar"ie0 "i" not &ail rightly to stress 31$ - the ity o& the !oon-2o" at the )eginning o& the 93 (.IL C.E. ent0ry. 7&ter having eBplaine" the religio0s tra"itions o& this an ient people8 )y omparing their attit0"e o& min" with the position o& the 2ree> /philosophers1 3138 the great 7ra)ian historian on l0"es his paragraphs in the MurD a)o0t (arr=n )y @0oting the 7ra)i translation o& the 5yria saying engrave" 0pon the "oor o& the only temple still eBisting there at that time. The saying8 as ri)e" )y him to Plato8 re ites Man Jara"a (hata,hu ta#allaha 31,8 an" has )een "is 0sse" at length )y s holars

who have interprete" it in vario0s ways: Chwolson propose" the rea"ing /Aer seines (2ottes) Aesen er>ennt8 "er verhert ihn a0 h1 31. - tho0gh he was also aware that the senten e was learly mar>e" )a > to 7pollo4s pre ept .nthi sautn 31# - &ollowe" )y the &irst :ren h e"itor o& al,MurD a(h,(hab8 G. "e !eynar" (/Cel0i @0i onnaZt Fie0 le re"o0te1) 31'. Tar"ie0 - who olle te" in&ormation to "emonstrate the migration o& the last Neoplatonists8 a&ter C0stinian lose" the 7 a"emy o& 7then (.$. C.E.)8 &rom 2ree e to (arr=n8 where &rom then on Neoplatonist learning was to s0rvive 0neBpe te"ly &or ent0ries - )itterly riti ise" s0 h a translation8 )y remem)ering the se on" :ren h e"ition o& the MurD )y Ch. Pellat8 who rather translate" the maBim: /Cel0i @0i onnaZt sa nat0re "evient "ie01 31*. (e "i" not noti e8 however8 that an i"enti al (:ren h) translation ha" also )een given )y (. Cor)in in his st0"y /Rit0el sa)Nen et eBNgSse ismaelienne "0 rit0el1 31+8 pro)a)ly &or &ear that s0 h an o)servation o0l" ompromise his hypothesis a)o0t the Neoplatonist 7 a"emy4s s0rvival in (arr=n. 7 t0ally we thin> that &o0r virt0al translations are sim0ltaneo0sly a epta)le8 tho0gh it is evi"ent that8 a or"ing to whether one hooses one translation or the other8 the meaning o& the saying8 an" onse@0ently the (arranian position8 m0st also hange. Ae have alrea"y mentione" an eB erpt &rom 5ene a4s Epistle L B (leaving apart the pro)lem o& Plato4s allege" a0thority) almost orrespon"ing to the (arr=n maBim8 )e a0se it ?0st goes as &ollows: 'eum !olit 2ui no-it 3$-8 witho0t openly stating yet what it is the s0)?e t sho0l" >now8 whether 2o" or himsel&E 0s0ally8 however8 the statement is interprete" in general terms8 namely in terms o& 0niversal >nowle"ge8 an" is @0ite reasona)le. !oreover8 s0 h a translation is per&e tly in a or"an e with !0slim religio0s nee"s8 sin e a harge o& impiety an"Ior heresy against a similar senten e (with the "o trinal )a >gro0n" whi h it nat0rally implies8 o& o0rse) o0l" ertainly not )e )ro0ght8 so that it o0l" )e "isplaye" openly to the 9slami p0)li witho0t raising any s an"al. :inally8 most important o& all8 this hoi e en?oys a lot o& (@0asi-)e@0ivalent eBpressions thro0gh the (ermeti literat0re8 whi h is the 0lt0ral &ramewor> losest to the philosophi al-religio0s position o& the (arranian 5a)ians8 i& it is tr0e that pre isely (arr=n was one o& the most relevant motherhomes to (ermetism "0ring the !i""le 7ges 3$18 while its learne" men gave an eB eptionally heavy imp0lse an" new vital sap to the so- alle" /7ra)ian (ermetism1: we limit o0rselves to @0oting two items only8 the &irst one )y ;a tan e: .r eusbeia .nsis est* Pag. 3. to theo (/Piety is the >nowle"ge o& UtheV 2o"1) 3$$8 the se on" one ontaine" in the Treatise 3L o& the orpus Hermeti!um: eusbeia ( esti theo .nsis (/Piety is 2o"4s Onowle"ge1) 3$3E in these last senten es the meaning o& the 5ene an Epistle#s eB erpt (an" that o& the (arranian saying too) appears in &a t to )e really the same8 as it emerge" alrea"y &rom R. ReitHenstein4s remar>s a)o0t the (arr=n maBim whi h /.nosis 0n" eusbeia i"enti&iHiert1 3$,. 9t sho0l" not )e &orgotten that the i"ea o& /)e oming 2o"18 o& /"ei&ying onesel&1 ()0t see Fante4s 0n0s0al ver)al &orm /in"iarsi18 alsoM) 3$. )elongs &0lly to (ermeti on eptions8 an" there&ore we "o not a)sol0tely r0le o0t that s0 h a translation o& the 7ra)i ver) ta#allaha might )e possi)le nor that (arranians ha" ?0st this meaning

se retly in min" )y writing s0 h a wor" 0pon the "oor o& their great shrineE )0t it o0l" not )e propose" with s0 h a sense to the !0slim neigh)o0ring p0)li 3$#8 whereas the meaning /to worship18 /to a"ore1 et . (in a !onotheisti sense) is really plain an" "oes not raise any sort o& "i&&i 0lty 3$'. %n the ontrary8 it seems to 0s that there are not eno0gh elements allowing 0s to "e i"e whether the />nowle"ge1 mentione" in the &irst hal& o& the senten e pre isely re&ers to 2o" or to one4s own nat0re. Ae propose8 there&ore8 the &ollowing /open1 translation whi h is8 in any ase8 the nat0ral iss0e o& o0r whole "is 0ssion: /Aho >nows (is (o& 2o") nat0re is a man who worships %ne (!ost-(igh) 2o"18 an"Ior /Aho >nows his (own) nat0re is a man who worships %ne (!ost-(igh) 2o"18 where the &inal eBpression has to )e rather ren"ere" into the periphrasti &orm /who is a (%ne !ost-(igh) 2o"-worshipper18 or8 even )etter8 into the only wor" /who is a 5a)ian1.

9 Stri!tly Etymolo.i!al Proposal1 the 9!!a(ian 6oun 5=)0 7s &ar )a > as 1#,+8 the orientalist E. Po o > propose" &or the &irst time the i"ea o& i"enti&ying the 5a)ians with /the worshippers o& the heavenly army18 /the stars18 to whom the %l" Testament o&ten ma>e re&eren e (sab hash,shamayim) 3$*. Gy a"van ing a similar proposal8 the s holar ha" evi"ently in min" the astral !agi an" generally the astrologi 0lt0re whi h8 as a res0lt o& !aimoni"e4s opinion 3$+8 was >nown as )eing the 5a)ians4 most remar>a)le &eat0re: so no one won"ers why many a0thors "ealing with the /5a)ian enigma1 went on &ollowing his s0ggestions sin e that time8 as &or eBample the :ren h st0"ent !i hel Tar"ie0 who simply appears to )e the last eBponent o& this line o& tho0ght 33-. 7 t0ally the no0n sab means /sol"iers8 army8 military servi e1 3318 )0t we g0ess that8 i& the (e)rew root SB9 )oth in nominal an" in ver)al &orm has really some onne tions with the histori al )eginnings o& the 5a)ian @0estion8 it is a)sol0tely not )e a0se 5a)ianism is an astral religion or a &orm o& heavenly i"olatry8 sin e the (arranian 5a)ianism itsel& annot )e entirely re"0 e" to that. 9t is very tempting8 &or eBample8 to imagine that the wor" ha" some relations with the 0lt(s) pra tise" in a military environment8 namely within a h0man milie0 ma"e 0p o& miBe" ethni al elements8 )y vario0s nationalities8 where the /strangers4 1 "ominant presen e was the Pag. 3# r0le rather than the eB eption 33$. :or the moment8 however8 witho0t in reasing what ;. !assignon on e &eli ito0sly alle" /le roman syn rNtisti@0e "es 5a)Nens1 333 with other &r0itless spe 0lations8 it is worth paying more attention to the semanti val0es o& the (e)rew root8 onsi"ering the literary so0r es whi h allow 0s to see more in "etail its several pra ti al 0ses. :ollowing this theme8 one is given a gen0ine s0rprise: thro0gh the Torah8 in &a t8 the terms onne te" to this root systemati ally re 0r in relation with the parti 0lar priestly "0ties an" privileges o& ;evi4s tri)e. ;et 0s rea"8 &or instan e8 hapter 93 o& 6umbers8 verses 1-3: /7n" the ;or" spo>e 0nto !oses

an" 0nto 7aron8 saying: QTa>e the s0m o& the sons o& Oohath &rom among the sons o& ;evi8 a&ter their &amilies8 )y the ho0se o& their &athers8 &rom thirty years ol" an" 0pwar" even 0ntil &i&ty years ol"8 all that enter into the host8 to (o the :or4 in the ta)erna le o& the ongregation4 1 33,. 9t is not "i&&i 0lt to see the lose semanti lin>s )etween the military servi e an" the spe ial tas>s impose" on the mem)ers o& the ;evite lan whi h an )e parallele" )e a0se o& the similarity that eBists )etween the sol"ier4s heavy )0r"ens an" the ;evite4 weighty responsi)ilities onsisting in arrying o0t their sa er"otal "0ties in the Temple. G0t there is more than that. The on ept o& /servi e1 seems in &a t to re 0r not &ort0ito0sly thro0gh the availa)le teBt0al evi"en e a)o0t the 5a)ians8 sin e we have to "o with two items o 0pying a signi&i ant position in the alrea"y @0ote" 7ra)ian man0al o& !agi Gayat al,Ha4*m. The &irst one is a general "e&inition o& the /5a)ians18 where it is sai" that they are nothing else )0t /the Na)ataean ser-ants o& Chal"aeans1 33.E in the ;atin version o& the wor>8 the Pi!atri<8 the whole eBpression is slightly "i&&erent8 )0t the semanti )0l> o& /servi e1 remains 0nwavering: Kabii 6 servi !apti hal(aerum 33#. The se on" teBt is relevant )y itsel&8 )e a0se it is part o& the Gaya4s intro"0 tion to the 5a)ian planetary prayers: /7n" among the operations o& the 5=)ians is what al-Ta)ari the astrologer says on erning the "rawing "own o& the power o& the planets. (e says: QThat whi h is >nown to me on erning the "rawing "own o& the planets an" their servi es whi h 9 &o0n" attri)0te" to the lea"ers o& the 5a)ians an" the servants o& the temples8 is what 9 will say. They say R4 1 33'. Ae thin> that the Cewish ling0isti )a >gro0n" ha" ertainly playe" a very remar>a)le role in mo"elling the 7ra)i ver)(s) saba#a/sab an" 0pon the name(s) /5a)ianI5a)ians1 onne te" with them8 )oth &rom the point o& view o& the (e)rai wis"om an" &rom the ommon 0sage o& lang0age8 as we have learnt "ealing with the root SHUBH an" with some te hni al &ig0res o& the (e)rai 0lt0re li>e the .er toshb8 as well as with some proper names s0 h as Eli7abeth 33*% :rom a stri tly etymologi al point o& view8 however8 we are onvin e" that8 i& all these ling0isti elements are &0lly pertinent8 they m0st )e onsi"ere" at the same time in terms o& progressive semanti interse tions8 iss0ing with an ever-in reasing meaning&0lness &rom the original no0n whi h we )elieve "oes not ome &rom (e)rew. 7t this point8 we have )e ome &amiliar with a wi"e semanti &iel"8 the general o-or"inates o& whi h are eBpresse" )y terms an" on epts s0 h as /People(s)8 Nation(s)8 2ree>(s)8 5ol"ier(s)8 5tranger(s)8 5ervant(s)8 et .1. 9s there any oheren e in that< Ae thin> so8 mostly a&ter having a >nowle"ge" the histori al relationships )etween the parti 0lar roles playe" )y these gro0ps o& people in re&eren e to the Pag. 3' prevailing religion a or"ing to the "o0)le-&a e" perspe tive a or"ing to whi h s0 h a phenomenon was viewe" in ;ate 7nti@0ity8 also )eyon" the &rontier o& the Roman Empire. %n the other han"8 we have per&orme" a short )0t essential s0rvey a)o0t the thir" )ig !onotheisti omm0nity )esi"es Cews an" Christians o 0pying a signi&i ant pla e within the religio0s &ramewor> o& ;ate 7nti@0ity8 the 2o"-:earers. Even i& they "i" not "e&ine themselves )y the same variety o& names8 we have o)serve" a lot o& te hni al terms in "i&&erent lang0ages )y whi h their neigh)o0rs 0se" to all an"

re ognise these gro0ps o& )elievers: these eBpressions range &rom /2o"-:earers1 (Phobomenoi tn Then8 Metuentes 'eum)8 /2o"-Aorshippers1 (Sebmenoi tn Then8 Theosebe*s8 olentes 'eum)8 (eaven(s)-Aorshippers (=ere#i ash,shamayim8 aeli!olae)8 /Fevotees o& the !ost-(igh 2o"1 (Hypsistarii8 Hypsistiani)8 /Those who pray1 (Massaliani)8 /Those who )less1 (Euphemitai)8 /Those who leave their religion (&or another)1 (Huna"#). Gesi"es8 one an a"" perhaps the other two eBpressions 0se" &or naming Christians whi h we were "ealing with: /:earers1 (Tarsa4n) an" /The 5ervants1 (al,3b(). The inter-ling0isti ante e"ent parallel o& the a)ove o)serve" (e)rew term sab is8 as it not sel"om happens8 an 7 a"ian one. ;et 0s rea" what the hi!a.o 9ssyrian 'i!tionary a o0nts &or: /sbu: s. mas .E gro0p o& people8 ontingent o& wor>ers8 troop o& sol"iers8 army8 people8 pop0lationE &rom %7>>. onE mostly 0se" as a olle tive8 pl. sb8 &or sbiu (%a>>.) see "is 0ssion8 stat. onst. sb an" sbi8 wr. syll. an" (;D)ER9N.!E5(8 ER9N.O(;71 3,-. 7t &irst sight the no0n seems to )e in per&e t phoneti orrespon"en e with the 7ra)i ommon pl0ral Sbi#n as well as with the olle tive pl0ral Sbi#a (an" also with the more 0n0s0al &orms Sbn8 Sba). Con erning the meaning8 it is possi)le to imagine a semanti evol0tion someway similar to the well->nown pro ess 0n"ergone )y the (e)rew no0n .r8 whose primary meaning o& /stranger1 "evelope" as a onse@0en e o& the "eep hanges within the 9sraelite so iety in the o0rse o& ent0ries8 evolving there&ore &rom the original so ial meaning an" evolving towar"s the so ial-religio0s one o& /&0ll onvert to C0"aism18 namely o& /proselyte1 3,1. !ostly )e a0se the 7 a"ian no0n "oes not &ail to show a sing0lar religio0s val0e lin>e" as &ar as we 0n"erstan" 'i!tionary4s @0otations to the a tivity o& the temple4s spe ialiHe" /personnel1 3,$. 9& the last one is really the tr0e origin o& the wor"8 7ra)i Sbi#n wo0l" literally mean simply /People18 )0t with a parti 0lar religio0s n0an e "0e to the n0mero0s leBi al interse tions whi h we have met8 the most important o& whi h is s0rely that o& /leaving one4s religion in or"er to worship %ne !ost-(igh 2o"1. Pag. 3*

on!lusions The strength o& the i"ea o& i"enti&ying the 5a)ians with the 2o"-:earers8 namely the worshippers o& %ne !ost-(igh 2o"8 lies in the eB eptional orrespon"en e o& the latter gro0p not only with the three Oorani paragraphs mentioning Sbi#n8 )0t also with most o& the 7ra)-9slami so0r es o& the !i""le 7ges8 in spite o& the o&ten haHy8 loose8 or even ontra"i tory nat0re o& s0 h in&ormation. 7s &ar as the $oran4s passages are on erne"8 we )elieve that the hains !0slims-Cews-Christians-5a)ians (Sura 99)8 !0slims8 Cews8 5a)ians Christians (Sura 3) an" !0slims-Cews-5a)ians-

Christians-!agians-Dn)elievers (Sura LL99) sho0l" )e 0n"erstoo" in terms o& a s>et h-map o& the Dniversal Religions8 tho0gh not hronologi ally liste"8 in some way similar to the one ontaine" in 7risti"e4s 9polo.y or to the other one shown )y the &amo0s $art*r4s !i"-Persian 3ns!ription: onse@0ently8 we &in" it impossi)le that the pla e o& the 5a)ian gro0p within the !0slims4 (oly Goo> might )e o 0pie" )y a simple se t s0 h as !an"aeans8 even i& the last important wor> re ently p0)lishe" on the s0)?e t )y 5. 20n"0H goes on presenting this ol" theory on e again. G0t an even more important reason why only 2o"-:earers appear per&e tly a)le to ta>e 0pon themselves the pro)lemati i"entity o& this omm0nity is that no other one possesses the sing0lar &eat0res "rawn )y the "e&inition o& the 5a)ians o&ten re 0rring in many literary so0r es8 namely that they are /a religio0s gro0p whi h has no 0lt8 s ript0re an" prophet8 a"mitting only the ta:h*(8 the pro&ession o& &aith: QThere is no go" )0t 2o"41. 7 religion with similar &eat0res is a >in" o& a para"oB8 )0t 2o"-:earers prove that the ontrary is tr0e: the availa)le evi"en e a)o0t their )elie&s an" rit0al pra ti es8 in &a t8 is @0ite meagre8 as well as that a)o0t their gathering pla es8 so that on the whole one an ?0st state that they share" the 0niversal o"e o& moral-religio0s "0ties generally >nown )y the la)el o& /Noa hite laws1. Ae sho0l" remem)er that /Noah4s ;aws41 were also the limite" set o& o)servan es &oreseen )y the Cer0salem Co0n il (.1 C.E.) &or 0n ir 0m ise" Christians (E!!lesia e< Gentibus). Together with other ommon religio0s &eat0res share" )y )oth gro0ps8 this &a tor may eBplain why the &irst ;atin translation o& the $oran8 &0lly orro)orating o0r theory8 seems not to "isting0ish ompletely )etween Christians an" 2o"-:earersE the same things happene" as Pines "emonstrate" - in the regions where "i&&erent 9ranian lang0ages were spo>en8 sin e the name &or Christians in Persia is still to"ay ?0st Tarsa4n8 /:earers1: this histori al on&0sion may s0ggest that the /5a)ians1 mentione" )y !0hamma" might perhaps )e nothing else )0t an alternative name &or /Christians1. %0r theoreti al proposal is in a or"an e8 )esi"es8 with another important tra"itional opinion a)o0t the 5a)ians8 that they are a /people who leave their religion (&or another)1. 50 h an i"ea omes apparently &rom the 7ra)i root(s) SB#/SB88 )0t we have he >e" the (e)rew root SH8BH whi h it seems li>ely ha" a very signi&i ant in&l0en e 0pon the 7ra)i one(s). 7l-GKrJnK4s statement that the 5a)ians are /the a"herents o& the prevailing religion1 is losely onne te" with this line o& tho0ght8 even i& it seems not to "erive &rom leBi ographi so0r es. Nee"less to say8 the last "e&inition ?0st li>e the previo0s ones annot serio0sly )e applie" to any Pag. 3+ eBisting religion8 nor to a religio0s phenomenon s0 h as Conversion. 50rely one o& the &a tors whi h playe" a r0 ial role in this sense8 also &rom a ling0isti point o& view8 was the eBisten e o& an original gro0p s0 h as the 2o"-:earers8 who are not a"e@0ately "e&ine" )y a name li>e /Converts18 )0t rather )y that o& /!i"-Converts18 or even )etter )y one o& the a)ove re or"e" periphrasti eBpressions. Ae have o)serve" on the other han" the s0)stantial loseness )etween 2o":earers an" Huna"#8 who li>ewise are people in sear h o& 2o" witho0t having any 0lt8 s ript0re an" prophet8 generally &ollowing only the /Noa hite ;aws1. Tet there is perhaps one "i&&eren e8 namely that the latter are as &ar as we >now ?0st

in"ivi"0als8 whereas the &ormer are organiHe" gro0ps sharing the same !onotheisti &aith8 even i& is not possi)le to r0le o0t ompletely the eBisten e o& some s attere" Huna"# omm0nities. 5pea>ing a)o0t the (arranians8 the !onotheisti nat0re o& their )elie&s has ome to light not only in relation to the highly "evelope" Neoplatoni system a"opte" )y their learne" men8 whose apeB is o 0pie" )y a trans en"ental 2o" name" /the !ost(igh1 or the /;or" o& the (igh G0il"ing1 )y the &amo0s man0al o& !agi Gayat al, Ha4*m (Pi!atri<)8 )0t also in onne tion to pop0lar "evo0tness8 as it is shown )y the 0lti pla e o& 50matar (ara)esi not "istant &rom (arr=n8 where in the mi""le o& the 99 . C.E. the !oon-2o" S*n at the hea" o& the lo al pantheon was worshippe" )earing the title o& Marilah> (/;or" o& the go"s1)8 an 7ramai eBpression whi h8 as some &in"ings in (atra an" Palmyra allow one to 0n"erstan"8 is an e@0ivalent o& the 2ree> name Thes Hypsistos. Thro0gh o0r whole "is 0ssion a wi"e semanti &iel" somehow onne te" to the 5a)ian @0estion omes o0t8 the general )o0n"ary-lines o& whi h in l0"e wor"sI on epts o& "i&&erent ling0isti origin li>e /2ree>(s)8 People(s)8 Nation(s)8 5tranger(s)8 5ol"ier(s)8 5ervant(s)1 et . !eanwhile8 many eBpressions 0se" to name 2o"-:earers have emerge"8 in l0"ing wor"sI on epts li>e Changing %ne4s Religion &or 7nother8 (!i"-)Conversion8 To 7"here to the Prevailing Religion8 5ymphatiHers8 Aorshippers et . in onne tion with a "ivine &ig0re s0 h as the !ost-(igh 2o" sometimes on eive" as the (eaven(s). %n the other han"8 a possi)le lin> o& the (e)rew root SB9 (/army8 sol"iers18 )0t also /religio0s servi e1) with 7ra)i Sbi#n ha" )een propose" a long time ago. 7s a res0lt o& all these pie es o& evi"en e8 we )elieve that the parallel 7 a"ian lemma sbu (/army8 people8 pop0lation et .1) might )e a orre t etymologi al sol0tion &or the wor" Sbi#n: the original no0n wo0l" have 0n"ergone a ling0isti evol0tion somewhat similar to that o& the (e)rew .er(whi h8 &rom its primary so ial meaning o& /stranger18 ha" en"e" 0p in the o0rse o& time "enoting a so ial-religio0s &ig0re s0 h as a /proselyte1)8 )y means o& several ling0isti interse tions ((e)rew sab8 shubh8 sabbth8 Eli7abeth et .) the most important o& whi h is no "o0)t represente" )y the 2ree> ver)sIno0ns sbein8 sbesthai8 o* sebmenoi8 theosebe*s et . whose te hni al sense is well >nown. 50 h a histori al-religio0s pro ess sho0l" have ha" a very reasona)le iss0e8 that is /5a)ians1 6 1People who leave their religion in or"er to worship %ne !ost-(igh 2o"1. The "i&&i 0lty &or i"enti&ying orre tly the &ormer s0)?e t is that only very re ently has the histori al weight o& 2o"-:earers )een &0lly a >nowle"ge" )y s holars: having to &a e a sort o& a "o0)le 0n>nown-@0antity e@0ation (some s holars Pag. ,have even "o0)te" their eBisten eM)8 one annot &ail to won"er why the right sol0tion o& the pro)lem was not &o0n" &or a s0 h long time. This point is losely parallele" )y the non-a >nowle"gement o& a r0 ial religio0s &rontier8 on the )or"er o& a phenomenon whi h one an all /Pagan !onotheism18 namely the ever in reasing sprea" o& the Thes Hypsistos# 0lt an" o& a pop0lar !onotheisti 0lt0re in ;ate 7nti@0ity8 realities that on the ontrary have to )e viewe" as /the see"-)e" into whi h Cewish an" Christian theology o0l" rea"ily )e plante". Aitho0t them the

trans&ormation o& an ient patterns o& )elie& R to R C0"aism8 Christianity an" 9slam might not have o 0rre" at all1. Pag. ,1


73 6 7ra)i 3ersion ET 6 English Translation :T 6 :ren h Translation 2T 6 2erman Translation ;T 6 ;atin Translation 998G E 9bhan(lun.en (er 94a(emie (er 8issens!ha"ten in GMttin.en 9BS9 E 9nnual o" the British S!hool o" 9thens 9H'/M9 E 9r!hi-es (#Histoire 'o!trinale et /itt>raire (u Moyen 9.e 9C9 E 9meri!an Cournal o" 9r!haeolo.y 96;8 E 9u"stie. un( 6ie( (er rMmis!hen 8elt 90 E 9!ta 0rientalia 9;8 E 9r!hi- "Nr ;eli.ions:issens!ha"ten 9S E 9natolian Stu(ies B E :.C. :%7OE5 C7CO5%N O9R5%PP ;7OE e"s, The Be.innin.s o" hristianity, Part 9, The 9!ts o" the 9postles, 3ols. 9-38 ;on"on 1+$#-33 BE0 E Bulletin (#Otu(es 0rientales B3+90 E Bulletin (e l#3nstitut +ranPais (#9r! 0rientale BTh; E Bibli!al Theolo.i!al ;e-ie: BK98 E Beihe"te 7ur Keits!hri"t "Nr (ie 9lttestamentli!he 8issens!ha"t B) E The atholi! Bibli!al )uarterly 3S E E.N. ;7NE, orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii, EPR%8 1--8 3ols 9-9998 ;ei"en 1+*3-*+ H E orpus Hermeti!um 3G E orpus 3ns!riptionum Grae!arum 3C E C.G. :RET, orpus 3ns!riptionum Cu(ai!arum 9-99 3/ E orpus 3ns!riptionum /atinarum 3S E orpus 3ns!riptionum Semiti!arum ;93 E omptes,;>n(us (e l#9!a(>mie (es 3ns!riptions ;93B/ E omptes,;>n(us (e l#9!a(>mie (es 3ns!riptions et Belles /ettres S 0 E orpus S!riptorum hristianorum 0rientalium 'B E 'i!tionnaire (e la Bible E3 E En!y!lope(ie (e l#3slam E3Q E En!y!lope(ie (e l#3slam (eu<ime >(ition EC E En!y!lopae(ia Cu(ai!a Eph9n E Epi.raphi!a 9natoli!a EP;0 E Otu(es Preliminaires au< ;eli.ions (ans l#Empire ;oman E;E E En!y!lopae(ia o" ;eli.ion an( Ethi!s ErCb E Eranos Cahrbu!h

ETSE E Otu(es Sla-es et Est,Europeennes/Sla-i! an( East European Stu(ies G9S E :. 5EP29N, Ges!hi!hte (es 9rabis!hen S!hri"ttums, /ei(en RSTU,VW G S E 'ie Grie!his!hen hristli!hen S!hriststeller (er ersten (rei Cahrun(erte GG; E !.P. N9;55%N8 Ges!hi!hte (er Grie!his!hen ;eli.ion G/9CC E !. 5TERN, Gree4 an( /atin 9utors on Ce:s an( Cu(aism, 9-9998 Cer0salem 1+',-*, GPC E 3. TC(ER9O%3ER8 7. :DO58 !. 5TERN, orpus Papyrorum Cu(ai!arum 9-999 G;BS E Gree4, ;oman an( Bi7antine Stu(ies H9/9T E Hebrais!hes un( 9ramais!hes /e<i!on 7um 9lten Testament H; E History o" ;eli.ions HS Ph E Har-ar( Stu(ies in lassi!al Philolo.y HT; E Har-ar( Theolo.i!al ;e-ie: HU 9 E Hebre: Union 9nnual olle.e 3G/S E 3ns!riptions Gre!2ues et /atines (e la Syrie 3G; E R. C72N7T et alii, 3ns!riptiones Grae!ae a( ;es ;omanas Pertinentes 3/ B E E. F9E(;, 3ns!riptiones /atinae hristianae Beteres, Berlin RSTR 30S E 3srael 0riental Stu(ies C9 E Cournal 9siati2ue CE E The Ce:ish En!y!lopae(ia CHS E Cournal o" Helleni! Stu(ies C38E E F. N%T, Ce:ish 3ns!riptions o" 8estern Europe CCS E Cournal o" Ce:ish Stu(ies CP0S E The Cournal o" the Palestine 0riental So!iety C); E Ce:ish )uarterly ;e-ie: C;9S E Cournal o" the ;oyal 9siati! So!iety C;S E Cournal o" ;oman Stu(ies CSG;P E E.R. 2%%FEN%D2(, Ce:ish Symbols in the Gre!o,;oman Perio(, New Tor> 1+.3-#. CSC E Cournal "or the Stu(y o" Cu(aism CS6T E Cournal "or the Stu(y o" the 6e: Testament CSo!S E Ce:ish So!ial Stu(ies CSS E Cournal o" Semiti! Stu(ies CThS E The Cournal o" Theolo.i!al Stu(ies C8 3 E Cournal o" the 8arbur. an( ourtaul( 3nstitutes MB E Mus>e Bel.e M3'E0 E (e l#3nstitut 'omeni!ain (# Otu(es 0rientales MUSC E (e l#Uni-ert> (e St% Coseph M8 E The Muslim 8orl( 6e: 'o!uments E 6e: 'o!uments 3llustratin. Early hristianity 0G3S E 0rientis Grae!i 3ns!riptiones Sele!tae, e". A. F9TTENGER2ER, /eip7i. RSXY,RSXZ PB9 E Pro!ee(in.s o" the British 9!a(emy P PhS E Pro!ee(in.s o" the ambri(.e Philolo.i!al So!iety PG E C.P. !92NE, Patrolo.ia Gre!a P39SH E Pro!ee(in.s o" the 3srael 9!a(emy o" S!ien!es an( Humanities P/ E C.P. !92NE, Patrolo.ia /atina P0 E Pro!he 0rient hr>tien PS E Patrolo.ia Syria!a ;9 E ;e-ue 9r!h>olo.i2ue ;9 E ;ealle<i!on "Nr 9nti4e un( hristentum ;B E ;e-ue Bibli2ue ;E E P7D;T-A955%A7, ;ealen!y!lop[(ie (er !lassis!hen 9ltertums:issens!ha"t ;EC E ;e-ue (es Otu(es Cui-es ;+3 E ;i-ista (i +ilolo.ia e (#3stru7ione lassi!a ;HE E ;e-ue (#Histoire E!!l>siasti2ue ;H; E ;e-ue (e l#Histoire (es ;eli.ions ;3'9 E ;e-ue 3nternational (es 'roits (e l#9nti2uit> ;3PB E ;e-ue (e l#3nstru!tion Publi2ue en Bel.i2ue

;6 E ;e-ue 6umismati2ue R%5C(ER#s /e<i!on E A. R%5C(ER, /e<i!on (er .rie!his!hen un( romis!hen ;TPh E ;e-ue (e et Philosophie 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N, History o" the Ce:ish People E E. 5C(DRER, The History o" the Ce:ish People in the 9.e o" Cesus hrist, 7 New English 3ersion Revise" an" E"ite" )y 2. 3ER!E58 :. !9;;7R8 !. 2%%F!7N8 E"in)0rgh 1+'3 - 1+*# SEG E Supplementum Epi.raphi!um Grae!um SEP E Stu(ien 7ur Epi.raphi! un( Papyrus4un(e SC/9 E Stu(ies in Cu(aism in /ate 9nti2uity SP98 E Sit7un.beri!hte (er!h preussis!hen 94a(emie (e: 8issens!ha"ten S3 E Stu(ia 3slami!a ST E Stu(ia Theolo.i!a T/K E!he /iteratur7eitun. T89T E!he 8orterbu!h 7um 9lten Testament T86T E!he 8orterbu!h 7um 6euen Tetament B E Bi.iliae hristianae K98 E Keits!hri"t "Nr (ie 9lttestamentli!he 8issens!ha"t K'MG E Keits!hri"t (er 'euts!hen Mor.enl[n(is!hen Gesells!ha"t K68 E Keits!hri"t "Nr (ie 6eutestamentli!he 8issensha"t KPE E Keits!hri"t "Nr un( Epi.raphi4 KS E Keits!hri"t "Nr Semitisti4 un( Ber:an(te Gebiete 2enerally the Aor>s are @0ote" in the original lang0age8 an" the translation is ite" therea&ter. Ahen we @0ote a title in the original lang0age8 we re&er to the original e"ition o& the teBtE when we @0ote the translation8 we re&er to the translate" wor> (es.: 7;-G7;7F(DR98 +uth al,bul(n8 e". Geir0t 13+* (.I1+'*8 ET )y P.O. (9TT98 The 0ri.ins o" the 3slami! State8 New Tor> 1+1#: 7;G7;7F(DR98 +uth al,bul(n 6 73E 7;-G7;7F(DR98 The 0ri.ins 6 ET.

"! ES

1) 7. :R7T9N9 - C. PR7T%8 3 Sebmenoi Ftn ThenG1 Una ;isposta all# 9nti!o (ei Sabei8 Rome 1+'' (in 9talian8 with an English 50mmary). $) The literat0re a)o0t the s0)?e t is enormo0s. Ae re or" here ?0st some o& the relevant st0"ies hronologi ally pre"ating a )asi ally t0rning-point s0 h as 7phro"isiaE most o& the other ones will )e @0ote" in the o0rse o& "is 0ssion: E. 5C(DRER8 /Fie C0"en im )osphoranis hen Rei he 0n" "ie 2enossens ha&ten "er sebmenoi then hypsiston e)en"asel)st18 Sit7un.sberi!hte (er!h preussis!hen 94a(emie (er 8issens!ha"ten8 Phil.-(ist. Olasse8 Gerlin 1*+'8 pp.1++-$$.E O. ;7OE8 /Proselytes an" 2-" :earers18 in :. :%7OE5 C7CO5%N - O. ;7OE e"s.8 The Be.innin.s o" hristianity8 98 The 9!ts o" 9postles8 3ol. .8 ;on"on 1+338 pp.',-+#E 2. GERTR7!8 art. /Theose)Ss18 T86T 9998 pp.1$,-*E ;. :E;F!7N8 /Cewish Q5ympathiHers4 in Classi al ;iterat0re an" 9ns riptions18 T9P9, *1 (1+.-)8 pp.$---*E ;. R%GERT8 6ou-elles 3ns!riptions (e Sar(es8 98 Paris 1+#,8 pp.3+-,.E O. R%!7N9DO8 /Fie 2ottes&0r htigen im Ne0n Testament18 9e.iptus ,, (1+#,)8 pp.##-+1E T. O;7D5ER8 /Syna.o.> tn 3ou(a*on 4a* Theosebn. Fie 70ssage einer )osporanis hen :reilass0ngs hri&t ( 3;B '1) H0m Pro)lem "er Q2ottes&0r htigen418 C9 *I+

(1+#.)8 pp.1'1-#E G. ;9:5(9TP8 /F0 No0vea0 s0r les 5ympathisants18 CSC 1 (1+'-)8 pp.''-*,E :. 59E2ERT8 /2ottes&0r htige 0n" 5ymphatisanten18 CSC , (1+'3)8 pp.1-+-#,. 3) :or the hoi e o& a te hni al term s0 h as /2o"-Aorshippers1 instea" o& /2o"-:earers1 ()e a0se o& the evi"ent onne tion o& the latter eBpression to a Cewish )a >gro0n") see P. R. TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities in 9sia Minor8 Cam)ri"ge 1++18 p.$,# n.1: / Q2o"-worshipper48 a translation o& theosebs8 R is a more appropriate term than Q2o"-&earer48 a translation o& phobomenoi tn then8 whi h o 0rs only in 7 ts1E &. T. R7C7O8 /Cews an" Christians as 2ro0ps in a Pagan Aorl"18 in C. NED5NER - E. 5. :R9ER9C(5 e"s.8 To See 0ursel-es as 0thers See Us8 Chi o Cali&ornia 1+*.8 p.$... 5ee also 59E2ERT4s important st0"y /2ottes&0r htige 0n" 5ympthisanten1 @0ote" a)ove (n. $)8 ontaining the )est s0rvey8 at that "ate (1+'3)8 o& the literary an" epigraphi witnesses a)o0t 2o"-:earers. 9n the hapt. 13th o& the Boo4 o" 9!ts8 ;0>e intentionally repla es the latter eBpression with the &ormer8 whi h therea&ter "oes not appear any longer in the teBt. 7s !. A9;C%L (/The Q2o"-:earers4 in 7 ts: a Re onsi"eration18 CS6T 13 U1+*1V8 p.11*) rightly stresses: Y/The hangeover &rom phobomenos tn then to sebmenos tn then orrespon"s to a shi&t in emphasis in 7 ts &rom the )asi ally Torah- entere" piety o& the earlier part to the 2entile mission o& the later se tion R The &a t s0ggests that their 0se an" "istri)0tion mat hes ;0>e4s intention in his portrayal o& events1. Ahen we 0se /2o"-:earers18 there&ore8 we employ the eBpession in a non-rigi" sense. :or the /:ear o& 2o"1 in the 0l( Testament 0lt0re see 2. N72E;8 /Crainte et 7mo0r "e Fie0 "ans l47n ien Testament18 ;ThPhil $3 (1+,.)8 pp.1'.-*#E G. %;939ER8 /;a Crainte "e Fie0 omme 3ale0r Religie0se "ans l47n ien Testament18 in /es Etu(es ;eli.ieuses8 Paris 1+#-8 p.## (/R rainte "e Fie08 @0i re o0vre omme "ans to0t le mo0vement sapientiel l4ensem)le "e la pietN8 "e la vie morale8 "40ne religion "e la &i"elitN interie0re1) an" passimE (. G7;P8 art. /Phobo, phobomai18 T86T 9L8 mostly pp.1+'-$1#. ,) Ae 0se the eBpression eBa tly in the &ollowing te hni al sense: /2o"-:earers1 6 /People o& pagan origin worshipping the !ost-(igh 2o"18 witho0t investigating whi h >in" o& relation they ha" with the Cewish religio0s milie0. Ae &ollow there&ore 5. !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos )etween Pagans8 Cews an" Christians18 in P. 7T(7N75597F9 - !. :REFE8 Monotheism in /ate 9nti2uity8 %B&or" 1+++8 p.11+: /Theosebs was a spe i&i 8 te hni al term 0se" to "es ri)e themselves )y the worshippers o& Theos (ypsistos. 9t serve" to i"enti&y them )oth among themselves an" to the o0tsi"e worl". The pre&iB theo, sho0l" not )e 0n"erstoo" in a loose sense as re&erring to any go"8 )0t pre isely to the highest8 the one an" only go"8 whom they revere"1. There are many s holars thin>ing that the epithet /(ypsistos1 "oes not ne essarily imply Cewish in&l0en e: 7.F. N%CO - C. R%GERT5 - T.C. 5OE7T8 /The 20il" o& Pe0s (ypsistos18 HT; $+ (1+3#)8 pp.#,-+ (repr. in 7.F. N%CO8 Essays on ;eli.ion an( the 9n!ient 8orl(8 98 %B&or" 1+'$8 pp.,1,-,3)E ;. R%GERT8 /Relie&s 3oti&s et C0ltes "47natolie18 9natolia 3 (1+.*)8 pp.11+E T. FREA-GE7R8 /;o al C0lts in 2rae o-Roman Phrygia18 G;BS 1' (1+'#)8 pp. $,*E 5. !. 5(ERA9NA(9TE8 /7 Note on Three Coan 9ns riptions18 KPE $1 (1+'#)8 p. 1*'E 2.(.R. (%R5;ET8 6e: 'o!uments 3llustratin. Early hristianity8 98 !a @0arie Dniversity 1+'#8 p. $#E E. N. ;7NE8 orpus Monumentorum ;eli.ionis (ei Menis8 9998 EPR% 1+8 ;ei"en 1+'#8 p.+,E !. 59!%N8 /C0piter-TahwN18 6umen $3 (1+*#)8 pp.,--##E !. T7T5C(E37-(9T%378 Eastern ults in Moesia 3n"erior an( Thra!ia FZth entury B 5 Wth entury 9'G8 EPR% +.8 ;ei"en 1+*38 pp.$-3-, an" $11-1.E E. GERN7RF8 /70 Fie0 trSs (a0t18 in Cean ousin% ;en!ontres a-e! l#9nti2uit> lassi2ue8 9nstit0t :eliB 2a&&iot8 98 Paris 1+*38 pp 111E 5. E. C%(N5%N8 /The Present 5tate o& 5a)aHios Resear h18 96;8 998 1'.38 pp. 1#-#-'E T0lia D5T9N%378 The Supreme Go(s o" the Bosporan $in.(om% elestial 9phro(ite an( the Most,Hi.h Go(8 ;ei"en 1+++8 pp.1*3-$*'. .) :or the s holars who8 in spite o& all8 "o not agree with this opinion see )elow n. +. #) The "is overy was ma"e "0ring the preparations &or onstr0 tion o& the 7phro"isias !0se0m8 in onne tion with the eB avation on the site on"0 te" )y Pro&. Erim8 sponsore" )y New Tor> Dniversity an" s0pporte" )y National 2eographi 5o iety. :irst ar haeologi al reports )y Pro&. O.T. ER9! himsel& in 9C9 *1 (1+'')8 p.3-#8 an" 9S $' (1+'')8 p.31. ') C. RETN%;F5 - R. T7NNENG7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers at 9phro(isia8 P PhS8 50ppl. 3ol. 1$ 8 Cam)ri"ge 1+*'8 e"ite" an" ommente" the original 2ree> teBt ( &. C. ;9NFER5OT4s Review8 Gnomon #3 (1++1)8 p..#1: /R o0r ins ription is a treas0re1): &or osioi theoseb*s see p.#8 &a e G8 l.3. (two theosebs are also mentione" at p..8 &a e 78 ll.1+-$-: Commentary pp.,*-#'E &or proselytes see )elow8 p.$, an" ns. $-'-*. :or a short a o0nt o& the event )y the same 70thors8 see /Cews an" 2o"-:earers in the (oly City o& 7phro"ite18 BTh; 1$.. (5ept.-% t. 1+*#)8 pp..,-'. 7phro"isia4s "is overy s0""enly move" the general pattern a)o0t 2o"-:earers8 lighting again the "is 0ssion onto the s0)?e t to a great eBtent: A9;C%L8 op. it. (a)ove n.3)E !. 59!%N8 art. /2ottes&0r htiger18 ;9 L98 ols. 1-#--'-E Th. !. :9NN8 /The 2o"-:earers

Re onsi"ere"18 B) ,' (1+*.)8 pp.'.-*,E C. 2. 272ER8 /Cews8 2entiles8 an" 5ynagog0es in the Goo> o& 7 ts18 HT; '+.1-3 (1+*#)8 pp.+1-++E ;. (. O7NT8 /Cewish 9ns riptions in 2ree> an" ;atin18 96;8 998 $-.$8 Gerlin 1+*'8 pp. #'1-'13E E. 5C(DRER8 The History o" the Ce:ish People in the 9.e o" Cesus hrist8 7 New English 3ersion Revise" an" E"ite" )y 2. 3ER!E58 :. !9;;7R8 !. 2%%F!7N8 9998 18 E"in)0rgh 1+*#8 hap. .E ;. (. :E;F!7N8 /Proselytes an" Q5ympathiHers4 in the ;ight o& the New 9ns riptions &rom 7phro"isia18 ;EC 11*.3-, (C0l.-Fe . 1+*+)8 pp.$#.-3-.E 9"em8 Ce:s an( Gentiles in the 9n!ient 8orl(% 9ttitu(es an( 3ntera!tions "rom 9le<an(er to Custinian8 Prin eton 1++38 pp..3,$-3*$ (/The 50 ess o& Cews in Ainning Q5ymphatiHers4 /E notes pp..#+-*-)E TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities in 9sia Minor8 pp.1,.-##E C. !. ;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 CThS ,# (1++.)8 pp.,*3-.-1. 9rina ;E39N5O7T74s The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts 'iaspora Settin. (The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts +irst entury Settin.8 3ol. .)8 2ran" Rapi"s 1++#8 pp..1-1$#8 no "o0)t ontains the most omplete an" eBa0stive s0rvey o& the evi"en e8 even i& the &0ll list an" "is 0ssion o& the literary "o 0ments is &0rnishe" )y :el"man8 in his se on" st0"y a)ove ite". *) The >ey-wor" in the original 2ree> teBt is rea" patella )y RETN%;F5-T7NNENG7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers8 p.$'8 an" onse@0ently interprete" in terms o& a /4"istri)0tory station &or harity &oo"4 i%e% Qa omm0nity so0p >it hen4. 50 h a pla e is also alle" samhui in the ra))ini al so0r es R The instit0tion was 0rrent at the earliest li>ely "ate o& o0r ins ription Ua)o0t the hal& o& the 999 . C.E.V in Palestine Cewish omm0nities1. Goth the wor"4s rea"ing an" the "ate propose" )y the a0thors have )een riti iHe": the iss0es o& the "is 0ssion are 0ninteresting &or o0r p0rposes8 so that we limit o0rselves to @0ote the "ense lemma +1*8 SEG ,1 (1++1)8 pp.3-$-38 where many 0se&0l re&eren es are givenE a"" !argaret (. A9;;97!58 /The Cews an" 2o"&earers 9ns ription &rom 7phro"isia 7 Case o& Patriar hal 9nter&eren e in Early 3r" Cent0ry Caria<18 Historia ,1.3 ((1++$)8 pp.$+'-31-E (. G%TER!7NN8 /2rie hish-?0"is he Epigraphi : H0r Fatier0ng "er 7phro"isias-9ns hri&ten18 KPE +* (1++3)8 pp.1*,-+, (where $ proselytes an" 3 theosebe*s are wrongly o0nte"8 instea" o& the reverse)E P. van !9NNEN8 /Frei Gemer>0ngen H0r 2es hi hte "es C0"ent0ms in "er grie his h-romis hen Aelt18 KPE 1-- (1++,)8 pp.$.3-$.*E !arianne P7;!ER-G%;P8 /The Cewish Fonor 9ns riptions &rom 7phro"isias: 7re They Goth Thir"-Cent0ry8 an" Aho 7re the Theose)eis<18 HS Ph +# (1++,)8 pp.$*1-$++. :or the so io-religio0s lass o& /"onors1 see the lassi al 'onateurs et +on(ateurs (ans les Syna.o.ues Cui-es8 G. ;9:5(9TP e".8 Paris 1++'. +) 7.T. OR77GE; is no "o0)t the s holar who with most onvin tion ontin0e" to arg0e strongly that the vario0s eBpressions 0s0ally translate" as /2o"-:earers1 (sebmenoi/phobomenoi Utn thenV, theosebe*s, metuentes et .) annot )e interprete" as te hni al terms8 in spite o& the lear evi"en e oming o0t &rom 7phro"isiaE moreover8 he p0t in "o0)t the histori al relia)ility o& ;0>e4s pi t0re o& the &a ts mentione" in 9!ts. 5ee his several provo>ing ( &. the "e&inition Qen&ant terri)le4 given to him )y ;E39N5O7T78 op. it. Ua)ove n.'V8 p.$1) arti les: /The Fisappearan e o& the 2o"-:earers18 6umen $* (1+*1)8 pp.113-$#E /The Roman Fiaspora: 5iB W0estiona)le 7ss0mptions18 CCS 33 (1+*$)8 pp.,,.-#,E /5ynagoga Cae a: 5ystemati Fistorsion in 2entile 9nterpretation o& the Evi"en e &or C0"aism in the Early Christian Perio"18 in NED5NER-:RER9C(5 e"s.8 To See 0ursel-es as 0thers See UsE /2ree>s8 Cews an" ;0therans in the !i""le (al& o& 7 ts18 in 2.A.E. N9COE;5GDR2 - 2. !a R7E e"s.8 hristians amon. Ce:s an( Gentiles1 Essays in Honour o" $rister Sten(hal on his Si<ty,+i"th Birth(ay (6 HT; '+ U1+*#V)8 pp.1,'-1.'E (with 5. ! ;ENN7N) /The 2-"-:earers 7 ;iterary an" Theologi al 9nvention18 BTh; 1$.. (5ept-% t. 1+*#)8 pp.,#-.3. C. !DRP(T- %4 C%NN%R8 /;ots o& 2o"-:earers< Theosebeis in the 7phro"isia 9ns ription18 ;B ++.$ (1++$)8 pp.,1*-$,8 shares the same opinions o& Oraa)el8 as well as R.5. OR7E!ER8 /%n the !eaning o& the Term QCew4 in 2rae o-Roman 9ns riptions18 HT; *$.1 (1+*+)8 pp.3.-.38 in spite that the /ins ription &rom an ient 7phro"isia has )een rea" )y a n0m)er o& s holars as the "e&initive evi"en e against Oraa)el4s interpretation1 (ibi(% p.3# n.,). 1-) That is the title o& a C.G. 5E27;4s pop0lar arti le: /The 5a)ian !isteries. The Planet-C0lt in 7n ient (arr=n18 in E. G7C%N e".8 Banishe( i-ili7ations1 +or.otten Peoples o" the 9n!ient 8orl(8 ;on"on 1+#38 pp.$-1-$-. The a0thor8 who is one o& the &ew ontemporary st0"ents having )een "eeply on erne" with the 5a)ian 0lt0re8 wrote several wor>s a)o0t the s0)?e t: /Pagan 5yria !on0ments in the 3ilayet o& Dr&a18 9S 3 (1+.3)8 pp.+'-11+E /!esopotamian Comm0nities &rom C0lian to the Rise o& 9slam18 PB9 ,1 (1+..)8 pp.1-+-3+E E(essa an( Harrn% 9n 3nau.ural /e!ture 'eli-ere( on S May RSTQ, ;on"on 1+#3E E(essa, ?The Blesse( ity@, %B&or" 1+'-. 11) 7)o0t the theoreti al onne tion Peoples-Religions8 see )elow p.$3 an" n. 1+.. 1$) 7)o0t (arr=n is worth while remem)ering at least the @0ite re ent essay o& Tamara !. 2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(% ;eli.ious Tra(itions o" Harrn8 ;ei"en-New-Tor>-Ooln8 1++$8 that is the only

eBisting monograph entirely "e"i ate" to this ity an" its very original inha)itants so strongly lin>e" to their no)le religio0s tra"itions (2. :E(ER37R94s arti le /(arr=n18 E3$8 9998 pp. $$'-$3-8 is an 0se&0l instr0ment &or approa hing the s0)?e t). %0r Harrn% /a /una e la ;eli.ione (ei +iloso"i (Rome 1++1)8 treats the same matter in a more pop0lar way. 13) F. C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier un( (er Ssabismus8 5t. Peters)0rg 1*.# (6 7mster"am 1+#.): this )ig two vol0mes wor> (the se on" one in l0"ing only teBt an" ommentary o& the histori al so0r es) o0nts 1',. pagesM 1,) Sura #8 #$E $8 #+E ##8 1'. Ae shall 0se the )ur#an4s translation o& !.!. 7;98 Translation o" the Holy )uran8 ;ahore 1+3,. 1.) 7)o0t the (arr=nian 5a)ians8 )eyon" the titles alrea"y liste"8 we @0ote here &or the moment: G F%F2E8 /The 5a)ians o& (arr=n18 in :. 57RRD: - 5. T7!9! e"s.8 9meri!an Uni-ersity o" Beirut +esti-al Boo48 Geir0t 1+#'8 pp..+-*.E C. TDG7C(8 3m S!hatten (es Sonnen.ottes8 Aies)a"en 1+*#E C. GDCO8 /The 9"entity o& the 5=)i4Jn: 7n (istori al W0est18 M8 ', (1+*,)8 pp.1'$-*#E Th. :7(F8 art. /5=)i4a18 E3Q8 3999 (1+*#)8 pp.#+,-*E !. T7RF9ED8 /5=)iens orani@0es et Q5=)iens4 "e (arr=n18 C9 $', (1+*#)8 pp.1-,,E :. Fe G;%958 /The Q5a)ians4 (5=)i4Jn) in Pre-9slami 7ra)ia18 908 .# (1+..)8 pp.3+-#1. :or the persisting "0ration o& the S*n4s 0lt at (arr=n8 the essays p0)lishe" in onne tion with the T0r>ish-Gritish ar haeologi al ampaign on the site going )a > to the past siBties are still 0se&0l: 5. ;;%TF-A. GR9CE8 /(arr=n18 9S 1 (1+.1)8 pp.''-111E F.5. R9CE8 /!e"ieval (arr=n. 5t0"ies on its Topography an" !on0ments 918 9S $ (1+.$)8 pp.3#-*3E )0t see also the same a0thors4 pop0lar reports ome o0t onto The 3llustrate( /on(on 6e:s $$$ ($1th :e). 1+.3)8 pp.$*'-+ (/5ee>ing the Temple o& S*n1) an" $31 ($1th 5ept. 1+.')8 pp.,##-+ (/:rom S*n to 5ala"in1). :or the religio0s history o& the 50merian !oon-2o"8 see E. C%!GE8 Histoire (u !ulte (e Sin8 Paris 1+-*E 7. 5C%GER28 'er Mon(.ott 6anna,Suen in (er sumeris!hen Uberlie"erun.8 5to >olm 1+#. 1#) The )oo> o& 5. 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e% The 0ri.ins an( Early History o" the Man(aeans an( Their ;elation to the Sabians o" the )urn an( to the Harranians 8 CSS 50ppl. 3ol. 38 %B&or" 1++, is the last s ienti&i ontri)0te to s0 h a theory whi h has never &aile" to get some s0pporters. 7mong the most onvin e" ones8 we an ertainly re or" O RDF%;P( an" ;a"y E.5. FR%AER who have onse rate" to !an"aeans all their s holarly li&e (a)0n"ant )i)liography 0pon )oth a0thors4 wor>s in 2DNFDP8 ibi(%, pp.$3+-,- an" $,#-'): their theoreti al position is win"e" 0p in a ?i&&y )y T7RF9ED8 /5=)iens18 p.# an" n.1#. 1') 9GN 7;-N7F9!8 $itb al,+ihrist8 e". 2. :;D2E;8 ;eipHig 1*'$E ET )y G. F%F2E8 The +ihrist o" al, 6a(*m8 New Tor>-;on"on 1+'-8 pp.'.1-3. 7 similar version o& the &a ts8 even i& m0 h shorter than that8 is given )y (7!P7 95:7(7N98 Ta#r*4h sin* mul4 al,ar( :a l,anbiy#8 ;T )y 9..!.E. 2%TTA7;FT8 Petropoli-;ipsiae8 1*,*8 p.3E an" )y 7;-O(A7R9P!98 Ma"tih al,Julm8 e". 2. 3an 3;%TEN8 ;0g". Gat. 1*+.8 p.3# (6 C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 998 p..-, an" p..-#). Tho0gh not hanging the in&ormation4s )0l>8 it seems 0s @0ite interesting the 2ree> wor" (6 /neigh)o0rhoo"18 /proBimity1) @0ote" in )ra >ets )y the English translator o& 7;-G9RDN98 The hronolo.y o" 9n!ient 6ations8 e". an" ET )y E. 57C(7D8 ;on"on 1*'+8 p.31, &.: /The same name is also applie" to the (arr=nians R altho0gh they themselves "i" not a"opt this name )e&ore 7.(. $$* 0n"er 7))asi" r0le8 solely &or the p0rpose o& )eing re >one" among those &rom whom the "0ties o& 'himma (metoi4*a) are a epte" an" towar"s whom the laws o& 'himma were o)serve". Ge&ore that time they were alle" heathens8 i"olaters8 an" (arr=nians1. :or the onne tion proi4os (6 mtoi4os) .er - proselyte8 see 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 9998 18 p.1'- n.'* (with a)0n"ant items &rom Talmu( an" Mishnah4s writings): /The wor" U.erV is originally e@0ivalent to proi4os8 a(-ena8 )0t later a onvert to C0"aism nom*mois proselelyts to*s 3ou(ai4o*s8 9nt% Bviii8 38 . (*$)1. 1*) C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 9 8 hap. . (/De)er "ie )a)ylonis hen 5sa)ier im Cor=n o"er "ie !en"aiten1)8 pp.1---3*. The R0ssian orientalist a epts an i"ea previo0sly propose" )y C.F. !9C(7E;958 0rientalis!hen Bibliote48 3ol. 138 :ran>&0rt 1''*8 p.3- an" 3ol. 1*8 1'*$8 p..$8 p..,8 an" )y !. N%RGER28 'e ;eli.ione et / Sabaeorum ommentatio8 Comment. 5o . Reg. 5o iet. 2ott%, 3ol. 9998 1'*1 ( &. C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 98 p.## &&.). 1+) 5o &or eBample C. PEFER5EN8 /The 5a)ians18 in T.A. 7RN%;F - R.7. N9C(%;5%N e"s.8 J9Dab, nma% 9 Bolume o" 0riental Stu(ies Presente( to E%G% Bro:ne8 Cam)ri"ge 1+$$8 p.3*'. :0rther riti isms alrea"y )y T. N%;FEOE8 Review to Thesaurus si-e /iber Ma.nus -ul.o /iber 9(ami appelllatus 0pus

Man(aeorum R8 e". (: PETER5!7NN8!he .elehrte 9n7ei.en8 98 ;eipHig 1*#+8 pp.,*1-.-1E A. GR7NFT8 El!hasai, ein ;eli.ionsti"ter un( sein 8er4 8 2iessen 1+1$ p.1,, &&. $-) 2. 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini (ella ultura Europea8 :irenHe 1+*,. $1) 2. 5E!ER7N%8 /#3n"inito1 un E2ui-o!o Millenario8 !ilano $--1. $$) 5ee D. 27;9!GERT98 Review to 5E!ER7N%4s /#3n"inito in /a ;epubbli!a8 1,I-#I$--18 /9l ;ing0ista he &a tremare l47 a"emia1. $3) 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini8 98 p.' &&. $,) 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini8 998 p.,+$ &.8 where the an ient tale han"e" "own )y the 2ree> historian (ellani os (3 . G.C.E.) whi h gave )irth to s0 h a )elie& is re or"e"E &. 27;9!GERT98 Review. $.) 5E!ER7N%, ibi(emE &. 27;9!GERT98 Review. $#) (e was heavily str0 > )y his only son4s premat0re "eath (/e 0ri.ini is "e"i ate" to him)E moreover8 in oin i"en e with the "ramati &loo" o& the 7rno river (1+##)8 most o& his papers were lost. $') That is what the s holar "e lare" "0ring a television 9nterview (R.7.9. 9998 9talian National Channel) on -1I-1I$--$. $*) 9t is not in&re@0ent the error o& imagining that the 7n ient Aorl" generally ignore" 7nti-5emitism: see the wi"e an" well-"o 0mente" s0rvey )y C. 2. 272ER8 The 0ri.ins o" 9nti,Semitism1 9ttitu(es to:ar(s Cu(aism in an( hristian 9nti2uity8 New-Tor> 1+*38 or also C. P7ROER8 The on"li!t o" the hur!h an( the Syna.o.ue% 9 Stu(y on the 0ri.ins o" 9ntisemitism8 New-Tor> 1+3, (6 1+',). $+) 5E!ER7N%8 9nterviewE &. 9"em8 /#3n"inito8 p. + &&. 3-) 27;9!GERT98 Review. 31) The same &a t happens with the 2ree> ver)s whi h we are mostly on erne" with8 in parti 0lar sbo/sbomai: it is @0ite a)s0r" that none 2ree> Etymologi al Fi tionary (C(7NTR79NE8 :R95O et .) ontemplates the possi)ility o& a 5emiti origin o& the root. 3$) /;4avvio alla ling0isti a stori a he viene @0i avviata - 5E!ER7N% writes ( /e 0ri.ini8 98 p.viii) - ha &inalmente "ato 0na )ase on reta a @0el vago termine Qme"iterranee4 on 0i si "esignarono sinora le origini "i vo i he non s4in@0a"ravano nel sistema ling0isti o osK "etto in"oe0ropeo. Essa pone ome sistema o @0a"ro "i ri&erimento l4i"ioma he ha la piJ anti a e piJ larga "o 0mentaHione s ritta8 l4a a"i o8 "ella &amiglia "elle ling0e semiti he8 on tra e "i sostrato s0mero8 e i 0i "o 0menti piJ remoti risalgono alla met= "el 999 millennio a.C.1. 33) 7 a"ian was ompletely "e o"e" in tha hal& o& the L9L ent0ry. 3,) 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini8 98 p.BBiiE 998 pp.,+--,+,. 3.) 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini8 98 p.31+ &&. (/!otivi religiosi "ell49n"ia e "ell4anti o 9ran1)8 &. 998 p.Bvii &&. 3#) 27;9GERT98 ReviewE &. 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini8 98 p.vii8 &or a re&eren e to 2alilei. 3') P. !7TT(97E8 Ebla% Un 3mpero ;itro-ato8 Gari 1+'-8 passim. G0t &. also the perio"i al Stu(i Eblaiti sin e 1+'- onwar"s8 an" the wor>s o& one o& the most s>ill&0l mem)ers o& the 9talian ar haeologi al sta&&8 the assyriologist 2. PETT9N7T%: see in parti 0lar his /;47tlante 2eogra&i o "el 3i ino %riente 7nti o attestato a" E)la e a" 7)J 5al=)ih18 0rientalia ,' 1+'*)8 pp..$-,8 &or the mention o& (arr=n amongst the sites re or"e" in E)la4s 7r hive "o 0ments (the teBt in @0estion is the no. T!.'..2.1.+1)E &. :.!. :7;E58 /(arr=n. :onti e 5t0"i s0ll4Et= Preamorrea18 in Stu(i su Harrn% )ua(erni (el Seminario (i 3ranisti!a, Uralo,9ltaisti!a e au!asolo.ia (ell#Uni-ersit (i Bene7ia8 398 3eneHia 1+'+8 p.13 &. 7s alrea"y 7. !ETP8 'ie Sta(t Harrn bis 7um Ein"all (er 9raber8 5tras)0rg 1*+$8 p.$,8 >new8 the name o& the ity "erives &rom 7 a"ian 4harrnuFmG8 /way8 roa"8 ?o0ney8 aravan et .1: 9.2. 2E;G G. ;7NFE5GER2ER 7.;.

%PPEN(E9!8 The 9ssyrian 'i!tionary o" the 0riental 3nstitute o" the Uni-ersity o" hi!a.o8 398 pp.1-#)113)E &. C.N. P%5T27TE8 art. /(arr=n18 ;ealle<i4on (er 9ssyriolo.ie8 938 pp.1$$)-1$.aE 7. 2%ETPE8 /7n %l" Ga)ylonian 9tinerary18 Cournal o" unei"orm Stu(ies ' (1+.3)8 pp..1-'$. :or an imaginary etymology &rom (e)rew hor 6 /hole8 ave et .18 see P(9;%8 Mi.r.8 1**: $harrn .r ermeneetai tr.le. 3*) C. PEFER5EN8 /The 5a)ians18 pp.3*3-3+1E C. (C7RPE8 9nalyse riti2ue (es Tra(itions 9rabes sur les Sab>ens Harrniens8 Fiss. Dppsala 1+'$8 p.13* &&.E &. 5E27;8 /The 5a)ian !isteries18 p.$1, &. an" 9".8 E(essa8 p.#- n.1. 5ee the riti al remar>s raise" )y T7RF9ED8 /5=)iens18 p.* n.$*8 p.+ an" p.11. 3+) 7;-P7!7O(5(7R98 9l,$ashsh"8 e". Geir0t 13*# (.I1++# 98 p.##- (Comm. a" )ur#n $8 #+)E &. C.F. ! 7D;9::E8 /EBegeti al 9"enti&i ation o& the 5=)i4Jn18 M8 '$ (1+'1)8 pp.+.-1-#. Fe G;%954 opinion that /the @0estion o& whi h rea"ing is orre t has no real )earing on the etymology1 (/5a)ians in 7ra)ia18 p..1 n.,) seems to 0s rather "o0)t&0l. ,-) 5ee &or eBample 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 where most o& the !0slim tra"itional so0r es are olle te"E opport0nely the a0thor maintains that the only "i&&eren e )etween these ver)s /is that the ham7ah in the &ormer appears as long in the latter1 (p.1*). ,1) The )asi val0e o& phisi al motion ommon to )oth ver)s /to hange8 to ome o0t8 to ret0rn8 to in line8 to t0rn over18 not sel"om ta>en in a religio0s sense8 i%e% /to leave one4s religion (&or another)8 to apostatiHe8 to onvert1 - whi h is ertainly the most interesting one an" will there&ore )e o)serve" more in parti 0lar )elow - is sometimes 0se" in relation to the /rise o& a star1 or to /the ret0rn o& a amel1 in the ase o& saba#a/yasba#u (imp.) (7;-T7G7R98 Cam*# al,bayn Jan ta:*l y al,)ur#n8 e". Cairo 13** (.I1+#*38 98 p.31* &.E 7;-P7!7O(5(7R98 9ss al,bal.hah8 e". Geir0t 13*. (.I1+#.8 p.3,.)8 whereas sab/yasb (imp.) may also mean /to @0arrel8 to wrangle8 to s@0a))le1: the &a t "oes not &ail to )e re or"e" &or eBample )y 7;-G9RDN9 ( hronolo.y8 p.31,) in or"er to p0t evi"ently the (arr=nians as !0slim a0thors sistemati ally "o when writing a)o0t them sin e the 999 (.I9L . C.E. onwar"s - in a )a" light: /They "o not agree among themselves on any s0)?e t8 wanting a soli" gro0n" 0pon whi h to )ase their religion8 s0 h as "ire t or in"ire t "ivine revelation or the li>e1. ,$) /The pre-9slami poetry as C. 5PENCER TR9!9N2(7!8 hristianity amon. the 9rabs in Pre, 3slami! Times8 ;on"on 1+'+8 p.$,# n.38 states was preserve" only in olle tions &orme" "0ring the early Q7))asi" perio" )y !0slim s holars8 mainly non-7ra) R They were o)sesse" )y an en"eavo0r to "raw a veil over the 7ra)s4 histori al past whi h they "esignate" as the Chiliyya8 an" e"ite" an" mo0l"e" the poems to s0it their parti 0lar aims1. ,3) Ge&ore the rise o& 9slam8 /there was no role &or 7ra)i . The reason was the peripheri al nat0re o& 7ra)i . EB ept in so0th-west 7ra)ia8 the 7ra) was always transitional R %nly spe ial ir 0mstan es8 the &a t that 7ra)i was the lang0age o& the Prophet !0hamma"8 &re" it8 so that it o0l" )e ome the literary vehi le o& the ompleB 0lt0re o& 9slam1 (3bi(em8 p.$$,). 9t sho0l" perhaps )e stresse" that the )ur#n was trans ri)e" in an 7ra)i &orm a)le to )e rea" many years a&ter !0hamma"4s li&e. %n the )eginnings it was /prati@0ement illisi)le po0r @0i ne le savait par oe0r. 9l a &ait sa premiSre apparition = 5i&&in (#.') ... Trente ans pl0s tar"8 on a t= hN8 = Co0&a8 "e le ren"re lisi)le en l0i a?o0tant "es points "ia riti@0es1 (:. N7D8 /es 9rabes hr>tiens (e M>sopotamie et (e Syrie8 Paris 1+338 p.++). ,,) :or a omplete s0rvey o& the relative evi"en e8 see 7.C. AEN59NCO8 Tra(ition Musulmane8 Paris 1+33 8 p.$31 &. s.v. sab. ,.) C. AE;;(7D5EN8 ;este 9rabis!hen Hei(enthums8 Gerlin 1*+'$8 pp.$3# &. ,#) 5ee &or eBample the episo"e re or"e" more than on e )y 7;-GDO(7R98 9l, Dmi# al,sah*h8 39998 9stan)0l 1+*18 p.11*: when Oh=li" i)n A=li" alle" them to )e ome !0slims8 the people o& Gani CaHKmah rie" o0t /saba#na8 saba#na18 instea" o& saying orre tly /aslamna18 /we (want to) )e ome !0slims1. Ae "o not translate the &ormer ver) now8 )e a0se we shall ret0rn to this point )elow p.3$ &. an" n. $*$ &&. ,') Aith &ew interesting eB eptions. 9n relation to &irst !0slim proselytes8 9GN (95(7!8 S*ra ;asl 9llh8 e". :. AD5TEN:E;F8 98 2oettingen 1*#-8 p.3--8 narrates &or instan e the &ollowing story: on e8 some people ha" all ple"ge" themselves8 when 5atan sho0te" &rom the top o& al-Q7@a)a: /% people o& the stations o& !in=8 "o yo0 want this repro)ate UMu(hamman: pro)a)ly an o&&ensive o0nterpart to the name !0hamma"V an" the SubFtG who are with him<1. SubFt) is an 0n0s0al olle tive pl0ral o& Sbi#8 to )e on!or(an!e et 3n(i!es (e la

0n"erstoo" as /one who ha" given 0p his own religion to ta>e another18 instea" o& /apostate1 (murta(()8 whi h is a @0ite ommon translation o& the term in spite o& its )a" approBimation (ET )y 7. 2D9;;7D!E8 The /i"e o" Muhamma(% 9 Translation o" 3bn 3sh2#s S*rat ;asl 9llh, ;on"on-New Tor> 1+..8 p.$-. n.$). ,*) 5ee &or eBample the &ollowing a o0nt )y 9GN (7NG7;8 Musna(8 9998 e". Geir0t (n.".) p.,+$: /Ra)K4a(h) i)n QD))=" sai": Q9 saw the prophet when he was a pagan. (e was saying to people [9& yo0 want to save yo0rselves8 a ept there is no go" )0t 7ll=h\. 7t this moment 9 noti e" a man )ehin" him8 saying [(e is a Sbi# \. Ahen 9 as>e" some)o"y who he was8 he tol" me he was 7)J ;aha)8 his 0n le41. ,+) F.5. !7R2%;9%DT(8 art. /(arr=nians18 E;E (e". C. (75T9N25)8 398 E"in)0rgh 1+138 p..1+E &. (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 p.$#. .-) C&. the &amo0s @0otation )y 7;-T7G7R98 op. it.8 98 p.31+: /The Politheists 0se" to say o& the Prophet an" his Companions: QThese are the 5a)ians48 omparing them to them1. C&. 7GD Q;-:7R7C 7;95:7(7N98 $itb al,*8 e". G0l=> 1$*. (.I1*#*8 p.13*8 where !0hamma" is harge" o& having mingle" the 5a)ians4 Religion with the /Na?" Ta)les1: the meaning o& the latter eBpression is still o)s 0re. .1) E.A. ;7NE8 9n 9rabi!,En.lish /e<i!on8 repr. New-Tor> 1+..8 98 18 p.3#1 &&. .$) C. G7RT(8 8ur7eluntersu!hun.en 7um Hebrais!hen un( 9ramais!hen /e<i!on8 ;eipHig 1+-$8 p.,* &.. .3) 7mong the relevant st0"ies there are the &ollowing @0ite ol" ones: E. PRED5C(EN8 /Fie Ge"e0t0ng von shbh shebth im 7lten Testament18 K9B 1. (1*+.)8 pp.1-',E E.;. F9ETR9C( /Shbh Shebth. Fie En"Heitli he Aie"erherstell0ng )ei "en Propheten18 BK9B (2iessen 1+$.)8 pp.1-##E E. G7D!7NN8 /Shbh shebth. Eine eBegetis he Dnters0 h0ng18 K98 ,' (1+$+)8 pp.1'-,,E E. F9ETR9C( 'ie Um4ehr FBe4ehrun. un( BusseG im 9lten Testament un( im Cu(entum (Fiss. Dniversity o& T0)ingen)8 5t0ttgart 1+3#E an" a)ove all A. ;. (%;;7F7T8 The ;oot Shbh in the 0l( Testament8 ;ei"en 1+.*. .,) 5ee 7;-T7G7R98 op. it.8 98 p.31*E 9GN !7NPDR8 /isn al,J9rab8 e". Geir0t ( . 1+'.)8 98 p.1-*E 7;WDRTDG98 9l,Dam*# al,ah4m al,)ur#n8 e". Cairo 13*' (.I1+#'8 98 p.,3,E :7O(RDFF9N 7;-R7F98 Ma"tih al,.hayb8 e". 9stan)0l 13-' (.I1**+8 98 p..,*E 7;-N7T57GDR98 Gharyb al,)ur#n :a ra.hyb al,"ur2n8 e". Cairo 13*1 (.I1+#$8 98 p. 333. ..) Nee"less to insist 0pon the importan e o& the role8 also politi al8 playe" )y the Christian 7ra) Finasty o& 2hassan as well as )y the ;a>hmi"s o& al-(Kra in relation to GiHanti0m an" Persia respe tively (we shall "is 0ss the phenomenon o& 7n horite an". !onasti movement later on). (owever8 as 5PENCER TR9!9N2(7! states8 even i& /it is tr0e that noma" 7ra) lea"ers li>e (=rith i)n Ca)ala ma"e a mar> in Christian history8 R there is not the slightest hint that 7ra)s &elt any 0rge to eBpress their &aith thro0gh an 7ra) me"i0m. (ere we may re&le t 0pon the reasons why no in"igeno0s 7ra) Ch0r h ame into )eing1 ( hristianity amon. the 9rabs8 p.3-*). .#) Ae ontin0e to &ollow TR9!9N2(7!4s arg0ments: /R among the noma" tri)es o& the interior o& the penins0la Christianity was no more than a s0r&a e in&l0en e R 7ltho0gh 7ll=h as s0preme 2o" was 0niversally >nown8 (e was only marginally the "ire t &o 0s o& 0lti worship1 (3bi(em8 p.$.-). Even N7D8 /es 9rabes hr>tiens8 who is in line" to overrate someway a Christian in&l0en e 0pon !0hamma"4s tho0ght8 m0st a >nowle"ge /no0s n4avons pas "e "o 0ments syria@0es Unor other onesMV s0r le (i"?=H1 (p.1$$). .') /7ra)i ha" )een written &or ent0ries in a variety o& s ripts8 those o& ThamJ"8 ;ihyan8 an" 5a&= ma"e 0se o& the so0th-7ra)ian s ript8 yet Christian 7ra)s &o0n" no role &or it in relation to their )elie&s1 (TR9!9N2(7!8 op. it.8 p.$$#). .*) P. 7DG9N in his /e problme (e la on-ersion% Etu(e sur un term !ommun l#Hell>nisme et au hristianisme (es trois premires si!les8 Paris 1+.38 pp.3,-#8 maintains that TahwN an" 9srael t0rn re ipro ally ea h other: that is the most important tra t o& the 0l( Testament on ept o& Conversion. 5ee however also the arti les /17postasy an" 7postates &rom C0"aism1 an" /Conversion to Christianity18 CE8 s. vs.

.+) 5ee (%;;7F7T8 The ;oot Shbh8 p. .3 (/The Central !eaning o& Shbh1): /The ver) shbh8 in the 2al8 means: Q)eing move" in a parti 0lar "ire tion8 to move there0pon in the opposite "ire tion8 the impli ation )eing (0nless there is evi"en e o& the ontrary) that one will arrive again at the initial point o& "epart0re4 1. #-) Ae annot "eepen here the pro)lems lin>e" to the histori al phenomenon o& Cewish Proselytism (as !. 59!%N8 Berus 3srael Paris 1+,*8 ET )y (. ! OE7T9N28 Berus 3srael% 9 Stu(y o" the ;elations bet:een hristians an( Ce:s in the ;oman Empire FRYZ,WQZG, %B&or" 1+*#8 p.$'18 wrote8 /in the history o& C0"aism aro0n" the )eginning o& the Christian era there is no more ontroversial @0estion than that o& proselytism1)8 an" th0s we "o not "isting0ish /among the n0an es involve" in organiHe"8 a tive missionary a tivities )y Cews8 rea"iness )y Cews to a ept onverts )0t witho0t a tive meas0res to "o so8 Uan"V gr0"ging a eptan e o& onverts1 (;. (. :E;F!7N8 /Proselytism )y Cews in the Thir"8 :o0rth8 an" :i&th Cent0ries18 CSS $, (1++3)8 p.1). :or a general s0rvey8 see O. 2. OD(N - (. 5TE2E!7NN8 art. /Proselyten18 ;E8 50ppl. 3ol. 9L8 ol.1$,* &&.E O.2. OD(N8 art. /Proselytos18 T'6T 39 (1+#*) ols.'$'-,,E 7. P7D;8 art. /Proselyte8 prosNlitisme18 'B 50ppl. 3999 (1+#$)8 ols.13.3-#. 5ele te" )i)liography: 7. GERT(%;ET8 'ie Stellun. (er 3sraeliten un( (er Cu(en 7u (en +rem(en8 :rei)0rg 1*+#E 7. von (7RN7CO8 The Mission an( E<pansion o" hristianity in the +irst Three enturies8 $ 3ols.8 ET ;on"on 1+-,-.E C. CD5TER8 /es Cui"s (ans l# Empire ;omain8 98 Paris 1+1,8 p.$.3 &&.E :.!. FERA7C(TER8 Preparin. the 8ay "or Paul% The Proselyte Mo-ement in /ater Cu(aism8 ;on"on 1+3-8 p.3$, &&.E ;7OE8 /Proselytes an" 2o"-:earers1 (re&. a)ove n. $)E G.C. G7!GER2ER8 Proselytism in the Talmu(i! Perio(8 Cin innati 1+3+ (6 New-Tor> 1+#*)E A. 2. GR7DFE8 Ce:ish Proselytin. in the +irst +i-e enturies o" the ommon Era1 the 9.e o" Tannaism an( 9moraim8 Provi"en e 1+,-8 onsi"ering however the riti al remar>s raise" )y :E;F!7N8 op. it.8 p.$ n. 3)E 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 pp.33,-.1 an" pp.,*$-*E 9"em8 /50r le FN)0t "0 Proselytisme C0ive18 in 7. C7WD%T - !. P(9;%NENO% e"s.8 9n(r> 'upont,Sommer8 Paris 1+'18 pp..-+-$-E 5tanley G. (%EN928 /Conversion "0ring the Talm0"i Perio"18 in F.!. E9C((%RN e".8 on-ersion to Cu(aism1 9 History an( 9nalysis8 New-Tor> 1+#.E 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 pp.1.--''. 7"". 7.T. OR77GE;8 /The Fiaspora 5ynagog0e: 7r haeologi al an" Epigraphi Evi"en e sin e 50>eni>18 96;88 998 1+.18 pp. ,''-.1- (6 F. DR!7N - P.3.!. :;E5(ER e"s.8 9n!ient Syna.o.ues8 ;ei"en-NewTor>-Ooln 1++.8 98 pp.+.-1$#E !. 2%%F!7N8 1Cewish ProselytiHing in the :irst Cent0ry18 in C. ;9ED - C. N%RT( - T. R7C7O8 The Ce:s amon. Pa.ans an( hristians in the ;oman Empire8 ;on"on-New Tor> 1++$8 pp..3-'*E 9"em8 Mission an( on-ersion1 Proselyti7in. in the ;eli.ious History o" the ;oman Empire8 %B&or" 1++,. TREG9;C%4s Ce:ish ommunities8 is a &0n"amental re&eren e &or 7sia !inor4s parti 0lar lan"s ape8 as well as ;E39N5O7T74s The Boo4 o" 9!ts8 &or the general setting "0ring the 1st ent0ry C.E. #1) That is the title o& a )rilliant arti le o& 5haye C.F. C%(EN8 p0)lishe" onto HT; *$.1 (1+*+)8 pp.13-33. The a0thor rightly insists on the &a t that /2o"-worshippers1 o0l" not &ollow in the o0rse o& many ent0ries an" within a variety o& geographi al sit0ations a &iBe" single pattern o& religio0s pra tise an" )elie&8 )0t only a loose one. Cohen metho"ologi ally "ivi"es people showing simpathy &or C0"aism in seven ategories: people who "i" it )y 1) a"miring some aspe t o& this religionE $) a >nowle"ging the power o& the go" o& the Cews )y in orporating him into a pagan pantheonE 3) )ene&iting the Cews or )eing onspi 0o0sly &rien"ly to CewsE ,) pra tising some or many o& the rit0als o& the CewsE .) venerating the go" o& the Cews an" "enying or ignoring the pagan go"sE #) ?oining the Cewish omm0nityE ') onverting to C0"aism an" Q)e oming a Cew4E those whose )ehavio0r &itte" the ategories $-. o0l" )e alle" /2o"-:earers1 (so8 &or instan e8 Corneli0s a mo"el o& 2o"-&earer "es ri)e" )y ;0>e in 9!ts 1-8 an )e "es ri)e" as )elonging to ategories $-,8 )0t not the &i&th8 sin e8 as a roman ent0rion8 he parte ipate" in a pagan 0lt Up.111V). #$) C&. the 0s0al "e&inition in general terms o& the 2o"-:earers: /They are to )e 0n"erstoo" as a gro0p o& pagans who atten"e" the synagog0e reg0larly an" a"opte" some Cewish 0stoms s0 h as 5a))ath o)servan e an" &oo" laws )0t who wee not ir 0m ise" an" so were not &0ll mem)ers o& the Cewish omm0nity in the way that proselytes were1 (TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities8 p.1,.). G0t see also 7. !. R7GE;;%8 /;4 %)servan e "es :Stes C0ives "ans l4 Empire Romain1 96;8 998 $1.$8 pp.1$**-131$. C%5EP(D54 opinion a)o0t the sprea" o& Cewish 0stoms among Roman Empire4s pop0lation is well >nown (/The masses have long sin e shown a >een "esire to a"opt o0r religio0s o)servan es8 an" there is not one ity8 2ree> or )ar)arian8 not a single nation to whi h o0r 0stom o& a)staining &rom wor> on the seventh "ay has not sprea"8 an" where the &asts an" lighting o& lamps an" many o& o0r prohi)itions in the matter o& &oo" are not o)serve"18 ontra 9pionem8 998 3+8 $*$)E P(9;%8 Bita Mosis8 $8 1' &&.8 seems to agree with him at least a)o0t the pop0larity o& Cewish rit0als (/Aho has not shown his Uo& the Cewish peopleV respe t &or that sa re" seventh "ay8 )y giving rest an" relaBation &rom la)o0r to himsel& an" his neigh)o0rs8 not to &ree men only )0t to slaves too8 an" )eyon" this to his )easts<1). :or the evi"en e onne te" with o0r main theme8 &. R.

!7RCD58 /The 5e)omenoi in Coseph0s18 CSS 1, (1+.$)8 pp.$,'-.-E see also /Respe t &or C0"aism )y 2entiles 7 or"ing to Coseph0s18 HT; *-., (1+*')8 pp.,-+-3-8 espe ially p.,1+ &.8 )y F. C%(EN. #3) 9t is perhaps worth while &iBing here some general points: /9n mo"ern lang0ages the term Qproselyte4 an" its "erivative with an a tive meaning Qproselytism48 Qto proselytiHe4 - are 0se" to "enote a non-Cewish a"herent o& C0"aism an" the pra ti e o& ma>ing proselytes. This wor" is a transliteration o& the 2ree> proselytos whi h in t0rn was oine" in a Cewish mile0 to ren"er the (e)rew .er (e)r.). 9n the %T the wor" "enote" a lass o& resi"ent aliens8 an" so "es ri)e" a so ial reality. G0t gra"0ally8 "0e to the &a t that the resi"ent aliens ha" ertain religio0s o)ligations an" )e ame integrate" into the omm0nity o& 9srael8 the on ept a @0ire" religio0s onnotations. The "ate o& the hange is 0n ertain )0t it is 0s0ally ass0me" that )y the &irst ent0ry 7.F. proselytos meant Qprolelyte4. The starting point &or those who see C0"aism o& the 5e on" Temple Perio" in terms o& a mission is a "emographi shi&t "ramati pop0lation hanges among the Cews in Palestine an" the Fiaspora are attri)0te" partially to the great n0m)er o& proselytes. (arna > o0nte" as many as &o0r to &o0r an" hal& million Cews within the Roman Empire. C0ster4s estimation was even higher a)o0t siB or seven million. Garon4s &ig0re &or the mi""le o& the &irst ent0ry 7.F. was eight million8 one-eight o& the whole pop0lation o& the Roman Empire8 as he tho0ght R G0t tho0gh these high estimates o& the Cewish pop0lation m0st )e treate" with a0tion8 there is no "o0)t that the siHe o& the Cewish Fiaspora was s0)stantial an" there was a ertain growth in pop0lation. This is on&irme" )y )oth literary evi"en e an" ar haeologi al "ata1 (;E39N5O7T78 The Boo4 o" 9!ts8 p.$$ &.). Ae shall analyse more in "etail the (e)rew e@0ivalent &or /proselyte18 i%e% .erE &or the moment8 we want to remem)er that also the term /Cew1 in a""ition to OR77GE;4s interpretation o& the wor" as a geographi al in"i ator propose" )y him in the alrea"y @0ote" (a)ove n. +) arti le /The Roman Fiaspora1 (1+*$) /may also in"i ate pagan a"heren e to C0"aism1: see R.5. OR7E!ER8 /%n the !eaning o& the Term QCew4 in 2re o-Roman 9ns riptions18 HT; *$.1 (1+*+)8 pp.3.-.3. #,) 5ee 2. GERTR7!8 art. /Epistrpho, epistroph>1 T86T 3998 ols. '$$-+E E. GE(!8 art. /Metanoo, metnoia1 (2ree>8 (ellen.8 Cew.8 Ra))in.8 Early Chr.)8 T86T 938 ols. +'$-# an" +*.-1--,E E. ADRT(AE9N8 art. /Metanoo, metnoia18 T86T 938 ols.+'#-*.. #.) C&. the re&eren es @0ote" a)ove8 n. .3. 7lso the arti les mentione" in the previo0s note may )e 0se". ##) %B&or" 1+33 (repr. 1+#1). 9t is not )y han e that N%CO re >ons - )esi"e the attra tion o& the %riental C0lts in 9mperial times (the ol" an" )eati&0l )oo> o& :. CD!%NT8 /es ;eli.ions 0rientales (ans le Pa.anisme ;omain8 Paris 1+-#8 "oes not ease to )e an 0niversal re&eren e-mar>) among whi h C0"aism an" Christianity are o)vio0sly in l0"e"8 the Conversion to Philosophy as a relevant aspe t o& the general phenomenon st0"ie" )y him ( hap. 118 passim). Ae shall ret0rn to that (see )elow8 p.3. &. an" notes). #') N%CO8 op. it.8 p.vii. N%CO4s arti le /Ge>ehr0ng18 ;9 8 s.v.8 is a goo" intro"0 tion to the matterE see also 2. G75T9FE8 /a on-ersion Spirituelle8 Paris 1+##. The )i)liographi al relevan e o& the a0thor4s /The 20il" o& Pe0s (ypsistos1 (re&. a)ove8 n.$)8 &or the arg0ments whi h we are arrying on is o0t o& "is 0ssion. #*) N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap.18 passim. 5haye C.F. C%(EN8 /Respe t &or C0"aism )y 2entiles a or"ing to Coseph0sY8 HT; *-., (1+*')8 pp. ,-+-3- "is 0sses No >4s "istin tion )etween Conversion an" 7"hesion )y the parti 0lar point o& view o& Coseph0s4 writings. #+) :or 2ree> an" ;atin te hni al eBpressions 6 /2o"-:earers1 see )elow8 p. $. &. '-) 59E2ERT8 op. it. (a)ove n.$)8 p.11- n.1 an" pp.1,'-.18 :E;F!7N8 op. tt. (a)ove n.$ an" n.')8 R%GERT8 op. it. (a)ove n.$)8 pp.,--.8 an" D5T9N%378 op. it. (a)ove n.,)8 p.$-38 are among the a0thors who pre&er to 0se ?0st this term. TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities8 p. $,# n. 18 rightly pre&erring /2o"Aorshipper1 to /2o"-:earer1 ( &. a)ove8 n.3)8 employs /5impathiHer1 as it &ollows: /9 will 0se the term QsimpathiHer4 &or those who were &avo0ra)ly "ispose" towar"s C0"aism an"Ior Cewish omm0nities an" perhaps &ollowe" some Cewish 0stoms )0t "i" not a"opt a reg0lar relationship with the synagog0e omm0nity1. '1) The term was intro"0 e" )y N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap.9E &. C%(EN8 /Respe t &or C0"aims18 p.,1-: /9 0se the terms Qa"herents4 (an" Qa"heren e4) in the sense esta)lishe" &or them )y 7. F. No >1. C&. also )elow8 p. $$ &.

'$) C&. a)ove8 n.#$ an" )elow8 n.1*-. :or the relation lamps lighting - Thes Hypsistos4 0lt8 &. !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos1 (re&. a)ove8 n. ,)8 p. +1: /;amps an" &ire were essential to a 0lt whi h was asso iate" with the 0pper air o& heaven an" with the s0n18 with n0mero0s ar haeologi al an" epigraphi re&eren es. :or a Northern 7&ri an lamp witnessing Caeli olae4s piety (a)o0t whom see )elow8 p.$' an" ns. $3#-*)8 &. !. 59!%N8 /Dn Fo 0ment "0 5yn retisme Religie0B "ans l47&ri@0e Romaine18 ;938 (Can.-!ar.) 1+'*8 Paris8 pp..---$,. :or an eBa0stive s0rvey o& the Cewish 0stoms )y whi h 2entiles were mostly attra te"8 &. :E;F!7N8 /Proselytes an" Q5ympathiHers4 18 p.$+- &&. '3) The ar haeologi al8 epigraphi an" literary evi"en e a)o0t the 0lt o& Thes Hypsistos - to whi h we lin> the histori al phenomenon o& 2o"-:earers (see a)ove8 n.,) -8 )y )oth si"es o& the inter-relate" te hni al eBpressions an" o& personal onomasti s8 ranges sin e (ellenisti 7ge till to the :i&th ent0ry C. E.: &or a whole s0rvey o& the evi"en e see !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 pp. 1$*-1,*E &. D5T9N%378 The Supreme Go(s o" the Bosporan $in.(om8 pp.1*3-$*' (or her previo0s wor> /The Thiasoi o& Theos (ypsistos in Tanais18 HT; 31 U1++1V8 pp.1.--*-)8 whose on l0sions8 tho0gh8 are &ar &rom )eing onvin ing. ',) Certainly 59E2ERT8 /2ottes&0r htige 0n" 5ymphatisanten18 was one o& the &irst s holars to 0n"erstan" in s0 h terms the religio0s phenomenon in @0estion: see pp. 1,--' (/Fas Pro)lem "es !onotheism0s1). '.) 5o8 &or eBample8 no)o"y among the many s holars )eing present at the &amo0s international ongress a)o0t /e 0ri.ini (ello Gnosti!ismo. ollo2uio (i Messina RY,V 9prile RSTT (The 0ri.ins 0" Gnosti!ism% ollo2uium o" Messina RYth,RVth 9pril RSTT)8 50ppl. 3ol.1$ to 6umen8 ;ei"en 1+#'8 TeBts an" Fis 0ssions p0)lishe" )y D. G97NC(98 "0rst to 0se the eBpression /Pagan !onotheism1. '#) C&. N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap. 98 &or the "i&&eren e Propheti Religions Tra"itional Religions. '') 7 t0ally8 in the religio0s sphere o& the 2rae o-Roman worl" the term has a wi"e )rea"th o& 0sage8 in l0"ing on epts as well-)eing8 )o"ily health8 "eliveran e an" preservation: see T86T8 3998 ols.+#.-+. '*) N%CO8 on-ersion8 mosty haps. 999 an" 39-3999. C&. CD!%NT8 /es ;eli.ions 0rientales (ans l#Empire ;omain8 passim. 9n the last "e a"es the important olle tion Etu(es Preliminaires au< ;eli.ions (ans l#Empire ;omain UEPR%V8 p0)lishe" at ;ei"en )y E.C. Grill an" "ire te" )y !.C. 3ER!75EREN8 is arrying on a serio0s wor> o& s ienti&i in&ormation a)o0t an" )eyon" that s0)?e t never trie" in the past. '+) N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap 99. R. RE9TPEN5TE9N4s 'ie hellenistis!hen Mysterienreli.ionen8 ;eipHigGerlin 1+$'8 is still an important re&eren e mar>. *-) !. T%DRCEN7R8 M>moires (#9(rien8 Paris 1+.1. *1) C&. (: !7TT9N2;T an" R:7:2: C7R5%N8 oins o" the ;oman Empire in British Museum8 U70g0st0s to Gal)in0s an" Papien0sV # voll.8 ;on"on 1+$3-1+#$8 passimE &or 2ree> oins see8 &or eBample R.5. P%%;E8 atalo.ue o" the oins o" 9le<an(ria an( the 6omes8 ;on"on 1*+$8 passim. *$) 5ee !7TT9N2;T8 op. it.8 938 ;on"on 1+,- s0) 7ntoni0s Pi0s (pp.1-3*,) an" Commo"0s (pp.#*+*,+)E &or 2ree> oins see P%%;E8 op. it.8 s0) 7ntoni0s Pi0s (pp.1-*-1,#) an" Commo"0s (pp.1'3-1*-). *3) 5ee !7TT9N2;T-C7R5%N8 op. it.8 38 passim an" &or 2ree> oins P%%;E8 op. it.8 passim. *,) /7 or"ing to Cassi0s Fio !ar 0s8 70reli0s showe" himsel& to )e theosebs )y even sa ri&i ing at home on "ays when no p0)li )0siness was "one UC7559% F9%8 Hist% ;om% ;LL99.3,.$V8 while that Emperor himsel& rates the Q&ear o& 2o"4 alongsi"e holiness an" ?0sti e as the 0ltimate goals o& reason U!7RCD5 7DRE;9D58 Me(it.8 L9.$-.$V1 (;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 it. a)ove n.'8 p.,+$). 9t is parti 0larly interesting CD5T9N4s i"ea o& om)ining eusebia an" philosophia as a sort o& sel&-evi"ent r0le &or realiHing the politi al i"eal o& the philosopher-r0ler typi al o& his times: /reason "i tates that those who are in tr0th .o(,"earin. an" philosophers sho0l" hono0r an" love the tr0th alone1 ( 9polo.y8 $8 1-$E 38 $E 1$8 .E 99 9pol.8 1.8 $)E &. (. (%;:E;FER8 /Eusbeia 0n" philosophia. ;iteraris he Einheit 0n" politis her OonteBt von C0stin 7pologie18 K68 #* (1+'')8 pp.,*-## an" $31-.1. :or Philosophy as a wi"esprea" &orm o& Conversion in imperial times see N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap. L9.

*.) 5ee the arts. /Theosbeia, theosebs1 an" /Eusbeia, eusebs18 )y 2. GERTR7!8 R. GD;T!7NN an" A. :%ER5TER8 T86T8 9998 ols.1$,-*8 ols. ',+-.1 an" 3998 ols.1#+-*+. C&. N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap. 9. *#) N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap. L9. C&. :%ER5TER8 art. /Eusebia, eusebs18 in parti 0lar ol.1''8 with the interesting e@0ivalen e eusbeia (hamma (5ans rit (harma)8 /)0""hist "o trine o& salvation1 (a t0ally /law1) showe" )y the 7so>a 2ree> ins ription in Oan"ahar (ibi(% n.1,). 7 t0ally the on ept o& eusebs/eusebia in l0"es respe t "0e to the go"(s)8 respe t to &amily an" state8 an" appropriate )ehavio0r an" attit0"e. *') 5ee &or eBample P%%;E8 op. it.8 p.11* &.8 no.1-1- &&. **) :or a general s0rvey see 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 98 p. .3' &&. *+) 5ee E. !ary 5!7;;A%%F8 The Ce:s un(er ;oman ;ule1 "rom Pompey to 'omitian8 (SC/9 $-) ;ei"en 1+'#E &. &or eBample C%(EN8 /Respe t &or C0"aism18 p.,1$ &&. (/Tolerant !onar hs an" Fignitaries1). +-) E. !ary 5!7;;A%%F8 /The ;egislation o& (a"rian an" 7ntonin0s Pi0s against Cir 0m ision18 /atomus 1* (1+.+)8 pp. 33,-,' an" $- (1+#1) pp. +3-#. /7 or"ing to Historia 9u.usta (Bita Ha(riani 1,.$) - :E;F!7N (/Proselytism )y Cews in the 3r" s.18 p. .) writes - it was the )an on ir 0m ision whi h provo>e" the Cews 0n"er Gar Oo h)a in 13$ to revolt against the Romans. G0t it sho0l" )e note" that the "e ree (!%FE5T9ND58 'i.est ,*.*.11) )y (a"rian4s s0 essor8 7ntonin0s Pi0s8 permitting ir 0m ision spe i&i ally states that it is permitte" to Cews to ir 0m ise their sonsE it wo0l" appear that the permission "i" not eBten" to the ir 0m ision o& non-Cewish onverts to C0"aism1. 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 p.$+--18 states that8 o& the privileges g0arantee" )y the Emperors to the Cews8 only the right to propagate their &aith was with"rawn )y Christian Emperors &rom them8 )0t a t0ally s0 h restri tions were pla e" 0pon the Cews )y 5eptimi0s 5ever0s alrea"y (Historia 9u.usta8 Se-erus8 1'.1: &. !. 5TERN e".8 Gree4 an( /atin 9uthors on Ce:s an( Cu(aism8 998 Cer0salem 1+*-8 ] .1.8 p.#$.). 2rae o-Roman an" Christian literat0re "isplay the importan e o& ir 0m ision &or men4s onversion8 &. C. C. C%;;9N58 /7 5ym)ol o& %therness: Cir 0m ision an" 5alvation in the :irst Cent0ry18 in NED5NER-:RER9C(5 e"s.8 To See 0ursel-es as 0thers See Us8 pp.1#3-*#. Nee"less to say8 women among whom even )e&ore 7ntonin0s4 time onversions to C0"aism were m0 h more n0mero0s than among men ( &. C%5EP(D58 Bel% Cu(%8 998 ..+-#1) - es ape" any penalty8 as 7. !or"e ai R7GE;;% opport0nely s0ggests (/The ;egal Con"ition o& the Cews in the Roman Empire18 96;88 998 138 Gerlin 1+*-8 p. #+*). The literat0re a)o0t &emale onverts to Cewish &aith is a)0n"ant: &or a well-"o 0mente" s0rvey &. C%(EN8 /Respe t &or C0"aism18 p.,-+ n.1. :or slaves4 onversion8 &. again :E;F!7N8 /Proselytism18 pp.1,-*. :or the general s0)?e t8 see the eB ellent olle tion8 translation an" analysis o& the teBts )y 7. ;9NFER e".8 The Ce:s in ;oman 3mperial /e.islation8 Fetroit 1+*'E &. ;9ED-N%RT(-R7C7O e"s. The Ce:s amon. Pa.ans an( hristians in the ;oman Empire8 p.11# &&. +1) The pro)lem o& the 9mperial ;egislation4s pra ti al onse@0en es 0pon Cewish Proselytism is rather ompleB: a or"ing to some s holars8 sin e that moment C0"aism with"rew into itsel&8 &. R7GE;;%8 ibi(em (/Dn"er the Christian Emperors8 C0"aism8 0na)le to a @0ire onverts8 was ompelle" to with"raw into itsel&1)8 or also !. %. FDC(E5NE8 Early History o" the hristian hur!h, "rom its +oun(ations to the En( o" the +i"th entury8 ET )y C. CENO9N58 ;on"on 1+-*8 p. ,1$: /The religio0s li&e now )e ame very narrow. The "ay o& li)eral Cews8 who on@0ette" with hellenism an" with the government8 was past an" gone &or goo". There is no longer any "esire to stan" well with other nations8 nor to ma>e proselytes. That &iel" is le&t to NaHarenes. The Cews retire" within themselves8 a)sor)e" in the ontemplation o& the law1. :E;F!7N4s opinion (/Proselytism )y Cews in the 3r" s.18 p. .*) appears someway "i&&erent8 an" more interesting &or 0s: /Even )e&ore the o&&i ial tri0mph o& Christianity R the n0m)er o& QsympathiHers4 R grew8 perhaps )e a0se o& the in rease" severity o& the p0nishment &or onverts1. C&. also RETN%;F5T7NNENG7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers8 p.,.: /That there are only three &0ll proselytes Ure or"e" )y 7phro"isia4s steleV R might seem to in"i ate that to )e ome one was in &a t an 0n0s0al8 there&ore pro)a)ly a ris>y8 step to ta>e in 7phro"isia1. +$) 7 lear in"i ation o& non-en&or ement o& the law omes &rom the in reasing severity o& p0nishment showe" )y the imperial legislation in the neBt ent0ries8 whi h evi"ently ha" no a t0al onse@0en es: laws8 still insisting on prohi)iting onversion to C0"aism an" ir 0m ision o& non-Cews8 s0 h as those iss0e" )y Emperors (onori0s an" Theo"osi0s 99 in ,1. an" ,$3 C.E. ( o(e< Theo(osianus 1#.*.$$ an" 1#.*.$#: see C. P(7RR8 The Theo(osian o(e an( 6o-els an( the Sirmon(ian onstitutions% 9 Translation :ith

ommentary, Glossary an( Biblio.raphy8 New-Tor> 1+#+E teBt an" translation also in 7. ;9NFER8 The Ce:s in ;oman 3mperial /e.islation8 e"ite" with 9ntro"0 tions8 Translations an" Commentary8 ET Fetroit 1+*')8 or the other8 even more severe8 one iss0e" )y Emperors Theo"osi0s 99 an" 3alentinian 999 ( 6o-ella 38 Bre-iarium 3) are ?0st some eBamples o& that: it is worth noting8 moreover8 that all these legal meas0res were later in l0"e" in C0stinian4s orpus. :E;F!7N4s analysis8 op. it.8 mostly pp.,-1, (/Roman 9mperial ;egislation1) an" pp.1+-$$ (/Non-en&or ement o& 9mperial ;aws1)8 is on the whole s0)s ri)e" )y 0s. C&. RETN%;F5-T7NNENG7D!8 op. it.8 p.,,: /The law R was o&ten )ro>en with imp0nity8 an" was o)vio0sly "i&&i 0lt to en&or e 0n"er an ient on"itions1 +3) 5ee the olle tion8 translation an" ommentary o& the teBts in @0estions )y 5. OR7D558 9ntoninus un( (er ;abbi8 Aien 1+1-8 or8 &or a short a o0nt8 CE, 98 p.#.#. 9t is "i&&i 0lt to eval0ate the literary evi"en e (Talmu(, Sanhe(rin +1a-)E Cerusalem Talmu(, She-i#ith #.1.3#"E &. Mi(rash Genesis ;abbah $-.# et alibi) re&erring the lose &rien"ship )etween the Cewish Patriar h o& Palestine at the en" o& the $ n" .8 Ra))i C0"ah the Prin e8 an" a Roman Emperor alle" /7ntonin0s1 having s0 h a pro&o0n" respe t &or C0"aism that8 a or"ing to the Ra))is8 he will )e the &irst righteo0s proselyte in the !essiani Era (Cerusalem Talmu(8 Me.illah8 3.$.',a). +,) Even i& we maintain that the Thes Hypsistos# 0lt "oes not ne essarily imply Cewish in&l0en e ( &. a)ove8 n.,)8 it "oes not mean that the Cewish religio0s 0lt0re ha" not )een the main a0se &or pop0larity o& Thes Hypsistos as a title: see :. CD!%NT8 /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s et le C0"aisme18 ;93B/ 1+-#8 p.'3E C. OE9;8 /Fie O0lte ;y"iens18 in A. (. GDCO;ER - A. !. C7;FER e"s.8 9natolian Stu(ies Presente( to Sir 8illiam Mit!hell ;amsay8 !an hester 1+$38 p.$#3E C. C;E!EN8 ;!hi!htli!he Er4larun. (es 6eun Testament8 Gerlin 1+$,$8 p.#-E 7. G. C%%O8 Keus% 9 Stu(y in 9n!ient ;eli.ion8 998 $8 p.**+E 2. O9TTE;8 /Fas >leinasiatis he C0"ent0m in "er hellenistis hen-romis hen Peit. Ein Geri ht H0r Epigraphi Oleinasiens18 KT/ #+ (1+,,)8 ol.1#E R. ! ;. A9;5%N8 The Gnosti! Problem. 9 Stu(y o" the ;elations bet:een Hellenisti! Cu(aism an( the Gnosti! Heresy8 ;on"on 1+.*8 p.13E 5. 57:R79 - !. 5TERN8 ompen(ia ;erum 3u(ai!arum a( 6o-um Testamentum% Se!tion 0ne% The Ce:ish People in the +irst entury% Histori!al Geo.raphy, Politi!al History, So!ial, ultural an( ;eli.ious /i"e an( 3nstitutions8 98 7ssen 1+',8 p.1.'8 998 1+'#8 p.'1$E 5. 57N9E8 /Fe0s 7etern0s et Theos (ypsistos en Fa ie Romaine18 in !. G. Fe G%ER - T. 7. EFR9F2E e"s.8 Maarten C% Bermaseren8 EPR% #*8 ;ei"en 1+'*8 pp. 11-*8 1111-$E &or a mo"i&ie" version o& this view see 7. R. R. 5(EPP7RF8 /Pagan C0lts o& 7ngels in 7sia !inor18 Talanta 1$-13 (1+*--1+*1)8 p.+,E &. also T7T5C(E37-(9T%378 /Fem (ypsistos geweihte Fen>maler in Thra>ien1 (re&. a)ove8 n.,)8 pp.$'1-,.. +.) 5ee )elow8 p.1. &. an" notes. +#) :or Constantine4s onversion see the )rilliant an" onvin ing st0"y o& P. AE9558 /Fie 3ision Costantins18 +ests!hri"t 9% Heuss8 (:ran>&0rter (istoris he 5t0"ien 13)8 :ran>&0rt 1++38 pp.1,3-#+. :or the possi)ility that the Emperor )e&ore his onversion to Christianity (i& s0 h it was) was a Thes Hypsistos4 worshipper8 &. !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.1$, &. (/7n eastern Costantine might have starte" as a (ypsistarian1). +') Tho0gh we are not a)le to &iB the i"entity o& the /7ntonin0s1 mentione" in Talm0"i an" !i"rashi teBts8 there are however many Roman Emperors showing spe ial sympathy an" regar" &or C0"aism: &or a short )0t eBa0stive s0rvey &. :E;F!7N8 /Proselytes an" 5ymphatiHers18 pp.$#+-'1 (/The :avo0re" Politi al Position o& the Cews1). :or the relia)ility o& Historia 9u.usta4s a o0nt o& 5everans4 attit0"e towar"s the Cews8 see 2. 272ER8 /The Fialog0e o& Paganism with C0"aism: sin e Gar Oo h)a to C0lian18 HU 9 ,, (1+'3)8 p.+#. +*) Tho0gh the wor" appears @0ite sel"om in the 7postoli :athers8 see &or eBample Q lem%, 1+.,8 where ho eusebs is 0se" as a lose synonimo0s &or /Christian1. (owever8 /R the a"?e tive eusebs R was in reasingly ta>en over to "es ri)e their own &aith )y Christians1 (!9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.11+ n.1$#). :or the Cewish onteBt we may &ollow a )rie& )0t lear s0mmary )y ;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 p.,+': /(ow &ar the hoi e o& theoseb, rather than euseb, )e ame a matter o& ons io0s pre&eren e among Cews as Coseph an( 9seneth might s0ggest m0st remain 0n ertain R Ahat "oes seem ertain is that the terminology )elongs to the religio0s laims an" o0nter- laims o& the perio"8 with some roots in hellenisti an" "iaspora C0"aism1. 2. GERTR7!4s laim (/Fer Gegri&& QReligion4 in "er 5ept0aginta18 K'MG 1$ U1+3,V8 pp.1-.) that )oth terms re&le t the i"ea o& hellenisti piety (as oppose" to that o& the 0l( Testament) arises &rom their relative in&re@0en y in the Septua.int8 eB ept in W Ma!!abees an"8 in the ase o& eusbeia8 in the wis"om tra"itionE /%n the whole the history o& the term theosbeia

"isplays the penetration into the Gi)li al sphere o& a wor" gro0p alien to the Gi)li al revelationE altho0gh riti iHing its anthropo entri spirit0al attit0"e8 he nevertheless "i" re ogniHe its signi&i an e in "enoting Qthe tr0e worship o& 2o" in ontrast to pagan s0perstition an" i"olatry41 (9"em8 op. it. a)ove n.*.). ++) 5ee again the arts. o& :%ER5TER8 GERTR7! an" GD;T!7NN ite" a)ove n.*.. %n eusebs see also ;. R%GERT8 Helleni!a% ;e!ueil (#Epi.raphie (e 6umismati2ue et (# 9nti2uit>s Gre!2ues8 9998 Paris 1+,#8 p.*1E 9"em8 6ou-elles 3ns!riptions (e Sar(es8 p.,,E an" in general !. N. T%F8 /;a0"atory Epithets in 2ree> Epitaphs18 9BS9 ,#8 pp.1*$-+-. The term o 0rs in only one >nown Cewish ins ription8 3C #*3 &rom 5to)i8 )0t on literary level the sit0ation has we have sai" in the previo0s note is @0ite "i&&erent. 1--) /Ahereas pagan ins riptions are apt to ele)rate their honoran" as Qpio0s4 ( eusebs)8 the laim that he or she was theosebs seems to have monopoliHe" )y the Cews1 (;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 p.,+3). 5o at 5ar"is8 &or eBample8 siB "onors o& the mosai s "e orating the synagog0e pro0"ly pro laim to )e theosebe*s (R%GERT8 6ou-elles 3ns!riptions8 passim). 7 or"ing to GERTR7!8 art. /TheosS)eia8 theose)Ss18 in /LL8 Philo8 Coseph0s an" the Pseu(epi.rapha the term is generally 0se" &or "enoting Cews4 piety an" their &aith to =ah:eh as well as &or "isting0ishing them &rom the 0n ir 0m ise". The same is tr0e &or epigraphi material (most o& the st0"ies a)o0t 2o"-:earers @0ote" a)ove8 n.,8 repro"0 e these ins riptions an" "o 0ments). :or a list o& those who have tho0ght that theosebs was a Cewish te hni al term see 59E2ERT8 /2ottes&0r htige 0n" 5ympathisanten18 p.1.. an" n.3. 1-1) :or Theosebstatos as a honorary title8 &. PRE9592TE8 8orterbu!h8 9998 p.1+- (@0ote" )y GERTR7!8 op. it.8 p.1$' n.,). :or the in reasing 0se o& these epithets )y the Christians writers &or apologeti reasons8 see ;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 p.,+3 &&.8 where the a0thor shows the strong histori al on&li t with the Cews &or the laim o& )eing the only representatives o& the tr0e piety (whi h wor"8 )y the time8 was ren"ere" in 2ree> more an" more &re@0ently )y the term Theosbeia rather than )y Eusbeia)8 sin e the $n" ent0ry C.E. onwar"s: /Goth gro0ps were ma>ing the same laim in a onteBt o& a 0sations or perse 0tion R Goth8 too8 were re&0sing the title to their opponents an" laiming it &or themselves1 (p..-1). 1-$) !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.11+. C&. RETN%;F5-T7NNENG7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(-+earers at 9phro(isia8 p.+#8 a or"ing to whom /a "egree o& piety1 seems to )e involve" )y the names "erive" &rom theos (The^"otos8 The^"oros8 The^philos) an" in the name E0sS)ios (et similia8 we sho0l" a""). 1-3) !ost o& these names are re or"e" )y (. ADT(N%A8 'ie semitis!hen Mens!hennamen in .rie!his!hen 3ns!hri"ten un( Papyri (es -or(eren 0rient (SEP8 98 ,)8 ;eipHig 1+3-8 pp.++-1-- an" 1#$. C&. however also !. P7PE4s 8ortebu!h (es .rie!his!hen Ei.ennamen8 (Gra0nsweig 1*#3-'-)8 PRE9592TE4s 6amenbu!h8 F. :%R7G%5C(94s Supplement to Preisigte4s ;eBi on8 P. !. :R75ER - E. !7TT(EA5 et alii8 9 /e<i!on o" Gree4 Personal 6ames8 98 %B&or" 1+*'8 an" 99978 1++'8 s.vs. 1-,) :or Theoseb>s as a personal name see !. CR%5GT8 /2ree> 9ns riptions: 7 Poletai Re or" o& the Tear 3#'I# G.C.18 Hesperia 1- (1+,1)8 pp.1,-$-E other eBamples in SEG L38 no *1*E L398 no ,'*E LL8 no 3,' (ThiosS)is). 1-.) T7obeou: P. ;. 27T9ER8 3ns!riptions (e Gior(anie8 998 3G/S LL98 p.#' &. (previo0sly p0)lishe" also )y C.T. !9;9O8 SB+8 /9 1- U1+.+-#-V8 p.1'' &.8 with an oral omm0ni ation )y Gagatti): the ins ription goes )a > to the years '1'-*8 an" has )een &o0n" on the &loor o& a h0r h. :or other eBamples see ADT(N%A8 'ie Semitis!hen Mens!hennamen8 p.11#. 1-#) !9;9O8 lo . it.8 remar>s that /= l4epo@0e )yHantine tar"ive on trans rit par QtH4 o0 Qts4 soit le sin sNmiti@0e soit le sa(>1. 1-') ADT(N%A8 'ie semitis!hen Mens!hennamen8 p.++ an" p.1#$. 1-*) orpus 3ns!riptionum Semiti!arum8 s.v. 1-+) Ae re or" here some s holars4 opinions a)o0t the name Sabah as well as others losely lin>e" to it ?0st &or showing the m0t0al ontra"i tions whi h "o not allow to maintain the tr0th&0lness o& this ommonly a epte" orrespon"en e. G727TT98 p.$1- Pls. 138 $-E p.$$# an" p.$$' note (point ,) (5a)eos): Christian Cemetery o& Ohir)et 5amra8 nos. + an" 1-: /+) 57GGE%58 5a))Nos po0rrait Stre po0r 5a))aKos o0 5a)aKos8 le 5a)Nen. F4a0tres prN&ereront sans "o0te y voire l4e@0ivalent "e 5=)aos trSs &re@0ent "ans l4epigraphie

gre @0e "e 5yrie R1E 1-) /57GE%D8 Fe 5=)eos. C4est 0ne a0tre orthographie "0 mot prN N"ent8 mais ette &ois a0 gNniti&1. CD!%NT8 +ouilles (e 'ura,Europos8 1+$$-3 (TeBte 1+$#)8 p.3-$: /Po)aKos U78 $+8 Po)aKosE G8 $'8 Po)aKo0V8 l4 Qo4 et l4 Qa4 Ntant so0vent on&on"0s "ans la pronon iation syrienne8 est i"enti@0e = Pa)aKos 6 aram.___ (FD557DF-!7C;ER8 ;>.ions '>serti2ues8 9ns r. 2r. **8 5a&. **E Prin!eton E<pe(% Fiv. 9998 78 no$1,E &. Pa)Nos8 ibi(. '*'*E 5o)aKos8 3*-8 #33E 5o)e^s8 1'38 #+38 '-+) o0 Pa))aKos (A7FF9N2T%N8 $#11 6 FE557D8 3ns!r% Sel.8 **-')1E ibi(em8 p.3*$ (no.$- l.3): /Po)aKos 6 5o)aKos (par h. 998 p.3-$)1E ibi(em8 p.,1+ (no. #*): /Po)Kon. %n onnaKt "e nom)re0B "NrivNs en ion "e noms sNmiti@0es (!al hKon8 Pa)"Kon et .)8 soit @04on ait "onnN 0ne "Nsinen e gre @0e = 0ne ra ine orientale8 soit @04en ait a?o0tN = 0n nom en * (Pa)"K8 !al hK) la terminaison arameNnne "0 "imin0ti& Q n4 (C;ER!%NT-27NNE7D8 ;e!ueil8 938 p.11,E ;9FPG7R5OT8 Ephem.8 98 p.$1*8 998 pp.*-8 33*). Dn 5Nle0>os Po)^nos est nommN "ans PRENT9CE8 1,'8 @0i en rappro he le noms arameNns <1. Prin!eton E<pe(ition to Syria8 999 (2ree> an" ;atin 9ns riptions) 7 (5o0th 5yria)8 ;ei"en 1+-'8 )y E. ;9TT!7NN8 p.1$- no$1, (Dmm el-O0ttein): /Pa)aios R i%e% Pa)ai8 )etter Pa))ai R Pa))aios8 A7F. $#118 is another trans ription o& the name1E ibi(em8 p.$'- no..+*: / R 5a)ao0 R . 5a)aos is very ommon1E ibi(em8 p.$*no#$3: /` 5aV))eos R i%e% 5ha))ai R . The name 5a))eos may represent 5a))ai8 5a))ai (sa") or 5ha))ai. 9t is pro)a)ly 5ha))ay8 sin e aram.___ o 0rs in Na)ataean8 Palmyrene an" 5a&aiti ins riptionsE see ;9FPG7R5OT8 Ephemeris8 998 p.1#1E ibi(em8 p.3'. no'*3.,: /R 5a)=o0 R . R o& 5a)=h1E ibi(em8 p.3*+ no. '*'.* : /R Pa)eos is 0s0ally &o0n" in the &orm Pa)aios or Pa))aiosE see no$1,1. PaU)Vis8 i& o0r restoration is orre t8 is &or Pa)ios8 a &orm whi h o 0rs in a Cewish ins ription &rom Rome8 3G ++-31E ibi(em8 p.1*' no3*-: /(Dmm i"?-F?im=l8 5o0th 5yria) R U5Vo)aio0 R i%e% ("a0ghter) o& 50)ayh R . 5o)aios is the same as 5o)eosE see no1'3 an" A7F. $-,#1E ibi(em8 p.1-1 no1'3: / R 5o)eoU0V R (son) o& 50)aih (or 50)ai4) R1. (. 9. GE;; e".8 Ce:s an( hristians in E.ypt (9ll0strate" )y teBts &rom 2ree> Papyri in the Gritish !0se0m)8 p.$3 l.1* (Cla0"i0s to the 7leBan"rines8 Papyr0s 1+1$8 7.F. ,1): /R 5a))Konos18 p.3- n. a" lo .: /R 5am)Kon an" 5a))Kon are "o0)tless variant &orms o& the same nameE &or the se on" see C%5EP(D58 9nt.8 L38 ,'E 3G $133C (Ta0ri Chersonese)E &or the &irst 3G $13- (7napa in Cir assia)E 3G; 98 +$- (Tanais). 9t sho0l" )e 5emiti 8 an" tho0gh not &o0n" in PRE9592TE8 6amenb.E R it is no "o0)t onne te" with the ommon 5am)=s8 whi h again may )e relate" to the names 5am)athaKos et .(6amenb. ol..$,). There is8 however8 no reason to s0ppose that it was spe ially Cewish R1. 11-) 3. TC(ER9O%3ER8 /The 5am)athions18 PC 9998 pp.,3-.# (6 S!ripta Hierosolymitana 1 U1+.,V8 pp.'*-+*)8 &. 98 p.+3 &&. The s holar states that the pop0larity o& this name (6 Q5a))ath o)server4) among 2entiles sympathiHing &or C0"aism was "0e8 at least on the )eginnings8 to their veneration o& the seventh "ay o& rest whi h as we have alrea"y note" (a)ove p.1- an" n.'1) was one o& the most stri>ing &eat0res o& the C0"ai religion &or the s0rro0n"ing Pagan p0)li ()esi"e Sambathion8 RETN%;F5-T7NNENG7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers8 p.+#8 re or" at 7phro"isia another name pro)a)ly re&erring to Cewish &estivals8 i%e% /Eortsios18 )e a0se /this 0nspe i&ie" eort R is li>ely to )e the :east o& Ta)erna les1). Ae m0st re all here the go""ess /5am)ethe1 ("is overe" )y A. 5C(D;PE8 $leine S!hri"ten8 1+3,8 originally Keits!hr% "ur -.l% Spra!h-ors!hun. U1*+.V)8 the Cewish 5y)il with the same name ( &. RP7C(8 ;E8 Hweite Reihe8 998 ol.$1-- &&.8 s.v. /5y)illen1E 3. N9O9PR%AETPOT8 /;a 5y)ille C0ive et le QTroisiSme ;ivre4 "es QPse0"o%ra les 5y)illins4 "ep0is Charles 7leBan"re18 96;8 998 $-.1 U1+*'V8 pp.,#--.,$) an" the go""ess /5am)athis1 ( &. (. C. T%DT(9E8 /5am)athis18 HT; 3' U1+,,V8 p.$-+ &&.)8 who o 0py a ertain spa e in T heri>over4s st0"y8 as well as the on l0sions o& the relative "is 0ssion: /1) that the name o& the Cewish 5y)il is "erive" &rom 5a))athE $) that no an ient oriental go""ess was ever asso iate" with herE 3) that8 onse@0ently8 the only reason &or pagans worshipping her m0st )e so0ght in her name1 (p..1). Even more important is the rise o& a se t o& 5a))ath-o)servers in Egypt in 70g0st0s4 time8 the syno(os Sambati4> o& Na0>ratis (p.,')8 even i& we "o not >now whether there was more than one8 nor whether its mem)ers maintaine" any relations with the 5ynagog0e: T heri>over pre&er /to all them simply pagan obser-ers o" the Sabbath whether this o)servan e o& a ertain Cewish instit0tion was onne te" with a "eeper >nowle"ge o& the prin iples o& C0"aism8 or not1 (p..$ &.). 111) TC(ER9O%3ER8 /The 5am)athions18 p...E &or the well->nown phoneti e@0ivalen e Qm)4 Q))48 &. ibi(em p.,'8 or also !.P. N9;55%N8 Ges!hi!hte (er .rie!his!hen ;eli.ion8 998 $8 !0ni h 1+#1$8 p.##. n.#. The a0thor a >nowle"ges /a ertain relationship in the 0se o& the two names: while Q5am)athion4 gra"0ally loses its power8 Q5am)as4 )e omes more an" more &re@0ent1 (p...)E at the same time8 he rightly insists on the &a t that8 /i& 5am)athion Umale /5am)athKon18 &emale /5am)=thion1V8 phoneti ally re alling 5a))ath an" 5am)athis U/the go""ess o& 5a))ath1V8 o0l" reasona)ly serve as an appropriate name &or 5a))ath-o)servers8 5am)as8 more "istantly remove" &rom these phoneti asso iations8 o0l" har"ly retain any onne tion with 5a))ath1 (ibi(em). This phenomenon eBplains in part why the name )e ame pop0lar also with Christians sin e a ertain perio" onwar"s ( &. C. O7C7NT%8 0nomasti! Stu(ies in the Early hristian 3ns!riptions o" ;ome an( artha.o8 (elsin>i 1+#38 p.1-# &&.): it was not a)sol0tely ne essary to )e a 5a))ath-o)server &or

"e i"ing to give to one4s son s0 h a name. G0t &or 0s it is parti 0larly important what was remar>e" )y 2. !D559E5 (/Cewish Personal Names in 5ome Non-;iterary 5o0r es18 in C.A. 3an (ENTEN - P.A. 3an "er (%R5T e"s.8 Stu(ies in Early Ce:ish Epi.raphy8 7r)eiten H0r 2es hi hte "es anti>en C0"ent0ms 0n" "es Dr hristent0ms8 LL98 ;ei"en-New Tor>-Ooln 1++,8 pp.$'--$)8 namely that the name4s wi"e sprea" in Egypt was perhaps "0e more to a pop0lar Egyptian etymology than to its originary (e)rew meaning: we )elieve8 in &a t8 that s0 h an inter&eren e might have happene" )etween this set o& proper names re alling the (e)rew "ay o& rest an" the other ones phoneti ally lose to them8 as well as the &ormally similar 2ree> or 5emiti eBpressions whi h we have en o0ntere" till now. 11$) Shabbat .oy (&emale 6 Shabbath .oyah) is an e@0ivalent (e)rew eBpression. 7 t0ally the stri t religio0s law "oes not allow to employ a non-Cew &or "oing wor> &or)i""en to a Cew on the 5a))ath-"ay. The r0le o& the Ra))is in &a t re ites: amirah le,.oy shebut8 i%e% /to )i" a 2entile to per&orm wor> on the 5a))ath is still a )rea h o& the 5a))ath law18 even i& the sin is in this ase less heavy than per&orming the wor> onesel&E th0s8 /0n"er ertain ir 0mstan es the Ra))is allowe" the employment o& non-Cews8 espe ially to heat the oven on winter "ays in northern o0ntries1 ( CE8 s.v.). There are many legen"s in whi h this person8 not sel"om repla e" )y a 2olem8 plays a entral roleE it is perhaps also interesting to >now that the R0ssian novelist !aBim 2or>i wor>e" on e with a similar role &or the Cewish olonists in the governements o& Oherson an" Te>aterinoslav. :E;F!7N8 /Proselytes an" Q5ympathiHers418 p.$+18 rates this o&&i e among the $* histori al &a tors o& 2entiles4 attra tion to C0"aism o0nte" )y himE &. 9"em8 /Proselytism )y Cews in the 3r"8 ,th an" .th s.18 p. 3$. 113) Sat.8 L938 +# &&. This passage is a lassi al re&eren e-mar> in the s holarly "e)ate a)o0t Proselytes an" 2o"-:earers: the "is 0ssion starte" with an arti le )y C. GERN7T58 /Fie 2ottes&0r htigen )ei C0venal18 in (. D5ENER e".8 Gesammelte 9bhan(lun.en8 998 Gerlin 1**. (6 (il"esheim 1+'1)8 pp.'1-*-8 an" ontin0e" along the tra"itional line8 namely @0estioning whether the ver) metuere is 0se" te hni ally )y C0venal an" th0s an )e ompare" with the 0sage o& the 2ree> eBpression phoboumnoi tn then in 9!ts (see )elow8 p.$. an" n.$1,)8 an" o& the (e)rew yere#i ash,shamayim in later ra))ini literat0re (s0rvey in !. 5TERN8 G/9CC8 998 Cer0salem 1+*-8 p.1-3 &.E &. also )elow n. $1,). 9t seems 0n@0estiona)le8 however8 that the ;atin a0thor ma>es are&0lly his ling0isti hoi e8 )e a0se we have to "o here with a satire the h0man &ig0res o& whi h (in this ase those o& the :atherI2o"-:earer Umetuentem sabbathaV an" o& the 5onsI:0ll Proselytes U2ui(am metuunt 3u(ai!um iusV) m0st )e imme"iately 0n"erstan"a)le )y the general 2entile p0)li . Ae shall ret0rn to these verses ()elow p.$.). 11,) 5ee p.1, an" ns.11--1$8 p.1- an" n.'$8 p.+ an" ns.#1-#$. :or a thoro0gh "is 0ssion a)o0t the (e)rew /5even(th)1 "ay "0ring the perio" whi h we are mostly "ealing with8 &. R. 2%;FENGER2ER8 /The Cewish 5a))ath in the Roman Aorl" 0p to the Time o& Costantine the 2reat18 96;8 998 1+.1 (1+'+)8 pp.,1,,'8 with a sele te" )i)liography. 11.) 3on (7RN7CO4s Mission an( E<pansion o" hristianity (re&. a)ove n.#-) ontin0es to represent still to"ay a )i)liographi al milestone &or the s0)?e t. 11#) The eBample o& EP9CTETD5 (whose verses in this ase are @0ote" )y 7RR97ND58 'issertationes8 998 +8 1+-$-) has )e ome prover)ial. The a0thor )lames the person who only imitates the Cewish way o& li&e (who8 literally8 /is only a ting a part1)8 witho0t ma>ing the last step an" )e oming th0s a real proselyte: yet the wor" hosen )y him &or "enoting s0 h a &inal rit0al a tion8 to bebammnou (/the man who has )een )aptiHe"1)8 ma"e some s holars thin> that he was not a)le to "isting0ish )etween Cews an" Christians. :or a s0mmary o& the "is 0ssion see 5TERN8 G/9CC8 98 p..,3 &. Epi tet0s4s verses also stim0late" the "e)ate a)o0t the a t0al rite &or proselytes8 whether ir 0m ision was in"ispensa)le an" whether the )aptism was the initiation4s &inal step: see &or instan e N.C. ! -E;ENET8 /Conversion8 Cir 0m ision an" the ;aw18 6TS $(1+',)8 pp.$#-3'E C. N%;;7NF8 /Dn ir 0m ise" Proselytes <18 CSC 1$.$ (1+*1)8 pp.1'3-+,. 9t is worth while stressing that it never eBiste" &or C0"aism an instit0tion ompara)le to what (. 5TR7CO - P. G9;;ERGECO8 $ommentar 7um neuen Testament aus Talmu( un( Mi(ras!h8 . 3ols.8 !0ni h 1+$,-*8 on e 0neBa tly alle" /(al&-Proselytism1 (/R 2ottes&0r htige8 "ie im Ne0en Testament oi phobomenoi o"er oi sebmenoi genannten (al)proselyten et .18 998 p.'1#E &. 2.:. !%%RE8 Cu(aism in the +irst enturies o" the hristian Era8 98 Cam)ri"ge !ass. 1+$'8 p.33*E !. 2DTT!7NN8 'as Cu(entum un( seine Um:elt8 98 Gerlin 1+$'8 pp.'#-*)8 even i& as 7phro"isia ha" "emonstrate" 2o"-:earers4s position was someway a >nowle"ge" intoI)y the Cewish omm0nity. Conversion to C0"aism &oresaw three rit0al on"itions &or a man wanting to )e ome legally a proselyte: Cir 0m ision is the &irst one ( &. Talmu(: $erithoth8 *1aE =ebamoth8 ,#aE Pesa!him8 *8 *E E(uyoth8 .8 $ et .)E Gaptism is ne essary as well ( &. A. GR7NFT8 'ie Du(is!hen Baptismen8 Geihe&te H0r K98 L39998 2iessen 1+1-8 where o& o0rse also the relative Talm0"i

re&eren es are given)E the thir" on"ition8 namely that o& )ringing an o&&er to Cer0salem4s Temple8 was no longer a)le to )e a omplishe" a&ter its "istr0 tion )y the Romans in '- C.E. T0rning )a > to the histori al "i&&i 0lties &or &o 0sing Christians4 i"entity8 a goo" s0rvey is ontaine" into the &irst hapter o& P. "e ;7GR9%;;E4s /a ;>a!tion Paienne%Otu(e sur la Pol>mi2ue 9nti!hr>tienne (u 3er au B3e Si!le8 Paris 1+,*8 pp.1+-.,. 11') !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.1$*. 11*) 5ee the lassi al 9ristotle an( the 9rabs1 the 9ristotelian Tra(ition in 3slam, New Tor>-;on"on 1+#*8 )y :.E. PETER5E or also C. OR7TE - :. RT7N - C.G. 5C(!9TT e"s.8 Pseu(o,9ristotle in the Mi((le,9.es8 ;on"on 1+*#. ;ate 7nti@0ity4s philosophi al s hools 7ristotelism8 Neoplatonism8 Neopythagorism8 5toi ism - o)vio0sly legitimate" someway s0 h an 9slami interpretation a)o0t the most part o& the 2ree> tho0ght. :or Plato8 an" more in general8 &or the an ient philosophers whose theoreti al position ontemplates the i"ea o& a 50preme Fivinity r0ling over the 0niverse an" who there&ore have to )e seen as real !onotheists8 see the important st0"y o& !. :REFE8 /!onotheism an" Pagan Philosophy in ;ater 7nti@0ity18 in 7T(7N75597F9-:REFE8 Monotheism8 it. a)ove n.,8 pp.,1-#'. 11+) C9CER%8 'e 6at% 'eor.8 998 1.3 (#1)E &. 98 ,. (R ut (eos pie !oleremus)E 98 11# (San!titas autem est s!ientia !olen(orum (eorum)E 98 11' ( A reli.ionem, 2uae (eorum !ultu !ontinetur). 1$-) 5ENEC78 Epist% LC38 ,'. 1$1) 5ee a)ove8 n.*,8 &or the important onne tion eusbeia-philosphia. 1$$) 5ee )elow p.3. &. an" ns. 3$$-3$,. 1$3) :or a general intro"0 tion to the s0)?e t8 &. 7.C. :E5TD29ERE8 /a ;>->lation (#Herms Trism>.iste8 93 (/e 'ieu 3n!onnu et la Gnose)8 $Sme Partie (/a onnaissan!e Mysti2ue (e 'ieu)8 pp.1,1-$#'8 Paris 1+.,. 1$,) %n these a"?e tives8 whi h represent the most ommon ;atin translation o& the 2ree> Hypsistos8 see !. 59!%N8 /Theos (ypstos18 E< 0rbe ;eli.ionum8 9 (1+'$)8 pp.3'$-3*.8 espe ially p.3*- &&.E :. CD!%NT8 /C0piter 50mm0s EB0perantissim0s18 9;8 + (1+-#)8 pp.3$3-3#E P. G7T9::%;8 /a Pai< ostantinienne et le atholi!isme8 Paris 1+1,8 EB 0rs0s G8 Summus 'eus8 pp.1**-$-1. 1$.) 7)o0t this pro)lem8 see the relevant remar>s o& 59!%N8 /Theos (ypsistos18 p.3*$ &&.8 who noti es how the Aestern Ch0r h ons io0sly "e i"e" in its ;atin lit0rgy to name Ces0s Christ )y an epithet e@0ivalent to SummusIE<uperantissimus (tho0gh avoi"ing these a"?e tives )e a0se in the 93 ent0ry they were still 0se" in relation to pagan "eities an" in parti 0lar to C0piter) as the teBt o& the Gloria in the Romain !ass learly ontin0es to show ()uoniam tu solus San!tus, tu solus 'ominus, tu solus 7ltissim0s Cesus hristus: &. P. C7PE;;E8 /;e TeBte "0 2loria18 ;HE 1, U1+,+V pp.,3+-.'): /En pro lamant "0 Christ8 et non pas "0 PSre8 @04il est le TrSs (a0t8 la lit0rgie e lNsiasti@0e o0pe o0rt8 par 0ne rNa tion sans "o0te instin tive "e "N&ense8 = 0ne assimilation Nvent0elle entre le Fie0 "e la Gi)le et la "ivinitN s0prSme "es paiens: on voit )ien omment e0B- i po0vaient i"enti&ier C0piter = CahvNE on voit mal omment ils a0raient p0 l4i"enti&ier = CNs0s. 5i "4a0tre part 9ltissimus a NtN reten08 "e prN&Nren e = Summus8 @0i en est prati@0ement synonyme8 par l40sage lit0rgi@0e latin et a0ssi "ans la 30lgate8 oJ il tra"0it gNnNralement Elyon-Hypsistos8 il n4est pas eB l08 = mon sens8 @0e e soit8 et ette &ois "Nli)NrN8 po0r se "isting0er "e l40sage paien et parer ainsi = to0te vellNitN syn rNtisante1 (p.3*, &.). 1$#) 5ee )elow8 in parti 0lar the paragraph at pp.1*-$$ an" the other one at pp.$+-3$. 1$') 27RRDCC98 Tre Sepol!ri !on Pitture (elle Supersti7ioni Pa.ane8 Naples 1*.$E 9"em8 M> (#9r!h> (C7(9ER-!7RT9N e"s.)8 3ol. 938 Paris 1*.,8 p.1 &&. (the :ren h teBt has )een shortene")E &. E. !7758 0rpheus8 !0ni h 1*+.8 p.$-. &&. (Pl. repro"0 ing tom)4s &res os at p.$1*). The tom) o&ten attra te" :. CD!%NT4s s ienti&i attention8 mostly in the o0rse o& the several "is 0ssions a)o0t the possi)le relation )etween Thes Hypsistos8 the go" 5a)aHios an" C0"aism arrie" on )y him: see Hypsistos8 50ppl. = la ;e-ue (e l#3nstru!tion Publi2ue en Bel.i2ue, L38 18 Gr0Belles 1*+'8 p.. an" n.1E /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s et le C0"aisme18 ;93B/ (1+-#)8 p.'- &&.E /7 Propos "e 5a)aHi0s et le C0"aisme18 MB 1, (1+1-)8 p... &&.E /(ypsistos18 ;E 9L8 ols.,,,-.-E &. 7. C7!7R8 /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s et le C0"aisme18 MB 13 (1+-+)8 p.$,3 &&.E RE9TPEN5TE9N8 'ie hellenistis!he Mysterienreli.ionen8 p.1-, &. 7)o0t this hypoge0m an" its interesting m0ral paintings8 see also !. P. N9;55%N8 /7 Propos "0 Tom)ea0 "e 3in enti0s18

M> harles Pi!ar( 31I$ (1+,+)8 pp.'#,-+ (6 9"8. 0pus!ula Sele!ta8 9998 ;0n" 1+#-8 pp.1'#-*1)E 9"em8 GG;Q8 998 p.##$ &.E 7.F. N%CO8 Review o& R.E. 2%%FEN%D2(8 Ce:ish Symbols in the Grae!o-;oman Perio(8 3ols.9-938 Gnomon $' (1+..)8 p..#. &.E 7.T. C7!PGE;;8 Mithrai! 3!ono.raphy an( 3(eolo.y8 EPR% 118 ;ei"en 1+#*8 p.3$+E 5herman E. C%(N5%N8 /The Present 5tate o& 5a)aHios Resear h18 96;88 998 1'.38 p.1#-.-# (with one Plate). 1$*) /En e&&et8 l4empla ement "e la sNp0lt0re "e 3i)ia a0 milie0 "40n imetiSre hrNtien s0ggSre = !. C0mont l4arg0ment s0ivant. 70 "N)0t "e l4aglise8 les hrNtiens Ntaient onsi"erNs omme 0ne se te "issi"ente "e la synagog0e. 54ils ont e0 po0r l4asso iation "es 5a)aHiastes 0ne sympathie @0i s4est mani&estNe par la omm0na0tN "es sNp0lt0res8 4est @04ils voyaient Ngalement "ans les ollSg0es "e 3in enti0s "es thiasotes a0ssi8 omme e0B8 et omme e0B sNparNs "e la synagog0e. ;a omm0ne hostilitN "ont ils Ntaient l4o)?et "e la part "e l4Eglise-mSre les a0ra rappro hNs8 et 4est ainsi se0lement @0e l4on pe0t eBpli@0er omment le0rs tom)ea0B se sont tro0vNs rN0nis1 (C7!7R8 op. it. p.$.-). 1$+) 2D7RFDCC98 Tre Sepol!ri8 p.#* &.E M> (#9r!h>olo.ie8 p.1 &&.: the a0thor laime" that there eBiste" a ?0mp at level o& the gro0n" )etween PraeteBtat0s4 ata om)s an" 3in enti0s4 tom)8 whi h he "e&ines in terms o& /0n assai gran"e gra"one1: )0t there are many stairs in ata om)s4 galleries8 so that s0 h an arg0ment means nothing8 as well as the other main one a"van e" )y him8 namely the allege" eBisten e o& a / loison en )ois1 an" o& a wall "ivi"ing pagan tom)s &rom hristian ones pla e" into the larger part o& this ne ropolis. 13-) The same CD!%NT4s riti isms to 2D7RFDCC9 (re&s. a)ove n.1$') "i" not &ail to a >nowle"ge the "i&&i 0lties o& arriving to an 0n@0estiona)le iss0e o& the pro)lem: /Evi"emment 0n eBamen attenti& "es lie0B par 0n ar hNolog0e permettrait se0l "e tran her la @0estion. !ais8 s4il est permis "e &orm0ler 0ne hypothSse "4aprSs l4ensem)le "es in"i ations &o0rnis ?0s@04i i8 ?e pense @0e la tom)e "e 3in enti0s8 Nta)lie = l4origine "ans 0n so0terrain ontig0 et attenant a0 imetiSre hrNtien8 &0t pl0s tar"8 @0an" el0i- i s4Nten"it8 enveloppN par ette nN ropole agran"ie R et @04alors on )o0 ha l4entrNe "es ar hosoli0ms paiens1 (/;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s18 p.'* n.1). 131) 5ee a)ove n.1$+. Fespite its evi"ent wea>ness8 C7!7R8 op. it.8 p.$.- &&.8 "i" not weaver in "e&en"ing 20ar"0 i4s position. 13$) 9n the &irst o& his st0"ies8 Hypsistos8 @0otes a)ove n. 1$'. 133) 9n a""ition to C7!7R4s arti le (@0ote" a)ove n.1$')8 we an re all here the in&l0ential st0"y on&0ting C0mont )y another &ront8 namely re?e ting his interpretation o& 3aleri0s !aBim0s4 passage8 whi h is the starting point o& the syn retisti theory a)o0t 5a)aHi0s an" C0"aism propose" )y the :ren h s holar: E.N. ;7NE8 /5a)aHi0s an" the Cews in 3aleri0s !aBim0s: 7 Re-EBamination18 C;S #+ (1+'+)8 pp.3.-*E &. 5TERN8 G/9CC8 98 pp.3.*-#-E C%(N5%N8 /The Present 5tate o& 5a)aHios Resear h18 pp.1#-$-'E TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities8 p.1,- &.E D5T9N%378 The Supreme Go(s o" the Bosporan $in.(om8 p.$,1 &&. ;7NE insists 0pon the histori al relia)ility o& 3aleri0s4 in&ormation8 omparing C0li0s Paris4 e"ition o& the teBt with two other ones8 &or eBample that o& the epitomist Can0ari0s Nepotian0s where the re&eren e to 5a)aHi0s is la >ing. G0t in any ase we )elieve that the most important iss0e o& the teBt is the "emonstration that the e@0ivalen e )etween C0piter-5a)aHi0s an" TahwN-5a)aoth was ommonly a epte"8 even i& only )y pagans: the &a t is well ill0strate" )y 59!%N8 /C0piter-TahwN18 p.,$ &&.8 who "is 0sses the ;atin passage in @0estion "ismissing the possi)ility o& a teBt0al error (&or the phoneti al loseness )etween the alternative writing o& the tetragram "enoting 2o"4s name o&ten 0se" in magi al papyri8 3ao with the parallel written &orms 3aoue, 3abe et . 8 an" Co-is/em/e8 see ibi(em8 p.,, &&.E &or 3ao in !agi 8 %. E955:E;F8 /Cahwe-Name 0n" Pa0)erwesen18 $leine S!hri"ten8 98 1+#$8 p.1#$ &&.). 13,) 37;ER9D5 !7L9!D58 +a!ta et 'i!ta Memorabilia8 98 38 $ (teBt: 5TERN8 G/9CC8 p.3.*8 nos.1,'a8 1,')E ;7NE8 orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii, 998 EPR% 1--8 ;ei"en 1+*.8 p.,' no.1$). 13.) CD!%NT8 /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s et le C0"aisme18 p.##. C0mont4s thesis ha" )een a epte" )y many s holars: T. E95E;E8 art. 5a)aHi0s18 R%5C(ER4s /e<i!on 938 (1+-+)8 ols.$#3-,E 5C(7E:ER8 art. /5a)aHios18 ;E ($ Reihe)8 98 $8 ols..,--.1E N%CO-R%GERT5-5OE7T8 /The 20il" o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.#3E E. G9COER!7NN8 /The 7ltars o& 2entiles. 7 Note on the Cewish Qi0s sa r0m418 ;3'9 . (1+.*)8 pp.13'-#, (6 Stu(ies in Ce:ish an( hristian History8 998 ;ei"en 1+*-8 pp.3$,-,#)E C. P9C7RF8 /5a)aHios8 Fie0 Thra o-Phrigien: EBpansion et 7spe ts No0vea0B "e 5on C0lte18 ;9 $ (1+#1)8 p.1,#E .!. (EN2E;8 Cu(aism an( Hellenism, Stu(ies in their En!ounter in Palestine (urin. the Early Hellenisti! Perio(8 98

;on"on 1+',8 p.$#3E 59!%N8 /C0piter-TahwN18 p..$ &&.E 57N9E8 /'eus 9eternus et Theos Hypsistos en Fa ie Romaine18 p.11-+E :E;;!7NN8 /Fer 5a)aHios-O0lt18 p.31'E 5TERN8 G/9CC8 9 (1+'#)8 no.1,'8 where vario0s other views are to )e &o0n" s0mmariHe" (p.3.+). :or the "ivine epithet =ah:> Saba#th &. &or eBample ;. O%E;ER - A. G7D!27RTNER8 H9/9T 998 p.+3, &.8 s.v sab. 13#) That is what alrea"y C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 98 p.$338 eBpli itly a >nowle"ge": /Fie !ohamme"aner ver&0hren )ei ihnen Er>lar0ngen von &rem"en 3ortern 0n" Eigennamen8 wie einmals "ie 2rie hen8 "ie 7lles a0s ihrer eigenen 5pra he a)leiten wollten1. 7 t0ally a pop0lar etymology is the most li>ely eBplanation &or the pagan i"enti&i ation 5a)aHios-5a)aoth8 )e a0se o& the similarity o& the &ormer wor" with the latter an"Ior with Sabbath. 13') C&. the allege" origin o& the wor"s sebasms an" seb7ein8 pro)a)ly 0n"er the in&l0en e o& the similar so0n"ing "erivatives o& sbomai8 han"e" "own )y 7R95T%P(7NE54 S!holia (teBt: E.N. ;7NE8 orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii8 998 p..1 nos.3+-,-E ommentary 9998 ;ei"en 1+*+8 p..1 &&.). 13*) 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini (ella 'i!tionary s.v. /5a)ini1. ultura Europea8 p..3# &. an" p.#-*E &. Gree4 Etymolo.i!al

13+) C. G;9NOENGER24s magistral monograph8 /Farstell0ngen "es 5a)aHios 0n" Fen>maler seines O0ltes18 in 9r!!he Stu(ien8 Copenagen 1+-,8 is the )asis whi h all later st0"ies a)o0t these votive han"s "epen" onE E.R. 2%%FEN%D2(8 Ce:ish Symbols in the Grae!o,;oman Perio(8 New Tor> 1+.3-#.8 998 p.$#'8 3 &ig.113+8 repro"0 e" an" ommente" an am0let )earing the ins ription 3a Sabath along with the &ig0res o&ten &o0n" on these 0lt0al sym)ols an" th0s "emonstrating the onne tion 5a)aHios-C0"aismE a @0ite 0p-to-"ate in&ormation is provi"e" )y ;7NE8 orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii8 98 entirely "e"i ate" to go"4s han"s8 with eBa0stive i onographi al "o 0mentation. 1,-) (.P. ;4%R7N2E8 Stu(ies in the 3!ono.raphy o" osmi! $in.ship in the 9n!ient 8orl(8 %slo 1+.38 pp.1*,-'8 maintaine" that s0 h a gest0re is not a go"4s /spe i&i mar>18 )eing ommon to the whole an ient worl"E li>ewise C%(N5%N8 /The Present 5tate o& 5a)aHios Resear h18 p.1.+. &. n.,18 states that /it is now generally agree" that Christians Uan" CewsV "i" not )orrow the gest0re &rom the 5a)aHios 0lt1. Tet8 the more re ent st0"y o& :E;;!7NN8 /Fer 5a)aHios-O0lt18 signaliHes another signi&i ant 0rrent o& tho0ght into the ontemporary approa h to the matter: /"ie Ger0hr0ngsp0n>te R mit "em ?0"is hen 2la0)en in "er Fiaspora in Oleinasien 0n" in "er 5patHeit mit hristli hen 2emein"en (3in enti0sgra) in "er PraeteBtat>ata>om)e) geha)t H0 ha)en s hein1 (p.33$). The relation 5a)aHios-The^s (ypsistos is epigraphi ally witnesse" )y the &amo0s ins ription &rom Pirot8 where the go" (T%H% epo4o) is invo>e" )y a thisos Seba7ians (teBt: ;7NE8 orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii8 998 p.3 no.#E &. C%;PE-;%A8 ;9 L398 ol.1-,-)E &or a "is 0ssion see T7T5C(E37-(9T%378 /Fem (ypsistos geweihte Fen>maler in Thra>ien18 p.$+*E TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities8 p.1,1 &.8 who riti iHes the "i&&erent pie es o& the evi"en e s0pporting C0mont4s thesisE D5T9N%378 The Supreme Go(s8 p.$,$8 who also s0mmariHes the histori al "e)ate a)o0t the @0estion. 1,1) /Aahren" 0)er "ie 2enese 0n" "as (er>ommen "es O0ltes relative Olarheit herrs ht :E;;!7NN8 /Fer 5a)aHios-O0lt18 p.1318 writes - sin" 0nsere 9n&ormationen 0)er "en 7)la0& "er O0lthan"l0ngen R sehr 0nvollstan"ig1. 1,$) 5E!ER7N%8 /e 0ri.ini (ella ultura Europea8 p.1-. &. 1,3) 'e orona8 $.+-#-: &. ;7NE8 orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii8 998 p..$8 (teBt)E 9998 p.,* &&. ("is 0ssion8 with a "etaile" analysis o& lassi al so0r es re or"ing the wor" an" its "i&&erent rea"ings: a ry8 very soon onne te" )y an ient ommentators with 5a)aHiosIFionisos4 orgiasti 0ltE a mas 0line pl0ral &orm 6 5a)aHiosIFyionisos4 worshippersIpriests8 the name Sabos )eing )ore )y )oth these "eitiesE the holy pla es onse rate" to the go"UsV). 1,,) C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 98 p.+#. 1,.) F9%2ENE5 ;7ERT9D58 Bit% Phil% 39998 18 b 318 repro"0 ing a 9 ent0ry G.C.E. apo ryphal wor>8 in&orms 0s that (ermes es orts the so0ls a&ter their separation &rom the )o"y to the !ost-(igh (ep* tn Hypsiston)E &. CD!%NT8 / (ypsistos18 p.11 an" n.1 as well as /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s18 p.', an" n.,8 &or the mythologi al &ig0re o& (ermes psy!hopompos.

1,#) The mention o& 7ngel0s Gon0s8 whom CD!%NT (/(ypsistos1 p., an" ns.#-'8 p.. an" n.18 /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s18 p.'$ &. an" ns.1-,) tho0ght to )e an evi"ent sign o& the onne tion o& these Roman &in"ings with the Cewish religio0s 0lt0re8 has )een long "is 0sse"8 starting with C7!7R4s riti ism (/;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s18 p.,3 &&.): the )i)liographi al re&eren es @0ote" in the last notes allow the rea"er to a >nowle"ge the main parta>ers o& the s holarly "e)ate. 1,') :or a @0ite lear repro"0 tion o& these paintings8 see C%(N5%N8 /The Present 5tate o& 5a)aHios Resear h18 p.1#-.E &or the teBt8 see ;7NE8 orpus ultus 3o-is Saba7ii8 998 p.31 &.E eBa0stive )i)liography in !.C. 3ER!75EREN8 'e on(erlin.e betre44in.en tussen Mytras,Saba7ius, ybele8 in 9!a(emiae 9nale!ta8 Gr0Belles 1+*,8 p.3, &&. 7)o0t 7ngels4 0lt8 see however )elow8 pp. $+-31. 1,*) The (arr=nians laime" that (ermes an" 7gatho"aimon were not only their own prophets8 )0t also their &irst masters in their @0ality o& me"iators )etween men an" the (oly (eavenly Geings an"8 a)ove all8 2o"8 the a)sol0tely trans en"ental /2o" o& the go"s1 (&or whi h "e&inition see )elow p. 3, an" n. 3-,): &or !e"ieval !0slim so0r es8 see 2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 at the relative hapterE 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 p.1.' &. (al-Na"Km8 al-!as4J"K8 al-GKrJnK8 al-Gagh"="K8 9)n (aHm8 al-Fimash@K8 al5hahrast=nK8 Gar-(e)rae0s)8 where "i&&erent trans riptions o& the names (J9(*mn, J9.(h*mn, J9.hth(h*mn, et .E Harmis8 Harmas, Harmasah et .) are re or"e". :or the e@0ation (ermes-Q9"rKs8 whi h is a tra"itional i"enti&i ation thoro0gh 9slami eBegeti al tra"ition ( &. )ur#n %&8 .#-'E #%8 *.)8 an" the &0rther e@0ation Q9"rKs-Q94n4h/$hun4h et . (6 Gi)li al (eno>hIEno h8 a or"ing to 7;-G9RDN98 hronolo.y.8 p.1**8 or to 7;-!7WF9598 $itb al,ba(# :a al,ta#r*4h8 Paris 1*++-1+-38 e". an" :T )y C. (D7RT8 /e /i-re (e la r>ation et (e l#Histoire8 9998 Paris 1+-38 p.1$: /R 9"rKs is no other than Eno h R (e was the &irst prophet who re eive" a mission a&ter 7"am ... (e is the &irst who tra e" hara ters )y means o& pen R (is name among the 2ree>s is (ermes1 Uwe @0ote &rom A. 5C%TT8 Hermeti!a8 938 %B&or" 1+3#8 p.$.$V)8 see !. P;E55NER8 art. /(irmis18 E3Q 9998 pp.,'+-*18 or &or eBample T. !7RWDET8 /5a)Nens et 9>hw=n al-5a&=418 S3 $, (1+##)8 p.3# an" n.38 an" p..# &&.E &or 7gatho"aimon8 !. P;E55NER8 art. /7gathJ"hKmJn18 E3$ 98 p.$,,-.8 whereas the i"enti&i ation with 7"am4s son 5eth (Sh*th) is @0ite late8 )e a0se it seems to have )een &irstly propose" only in the 39 (.IL99 . )y 7;-5(7(R75T7N98 Milal8 2T )y T. (77RGRDCOER8 ;eli.ionspartheien un( Philosophen,S!hulen8 (alle 1*.18 998 p.3 (an" then )y 7;F9!75(Wc8 6u4hbat al,(ahr8 :T !.7.:. !E(REN8 Manuel (e la osmo.raphie (u Moyen 9.e8 Copenhag0e 1*',8 p. ,# &.E 7Gd 7;-:9Fe48 9l,mu4htasar "* a4hbr al,bashar8 e". (: :;E95C(ER8 3ogel 1*318 pp.1,8 1,*E G7R (EGR7ED58 Ta4rK>h mu4htasar al,(u:al8 e". 7. 57;(7N98 Geir0t 1*+-8 p.1$)E &. 2. !%NN%T8 /5a)Nens et 9"ol=tres selon Q7)" al-Ca))=r18 M3'E0 1$ (1+',)8 p.3-E R. RE9TPEN5TE9N8 Poiman(res8 ;eipHig 1+-,8 p.1'- &&.E )0t a)ove all (. C%RG9N8 /Rit0el 5a)Nen et EBegSse 9smaNlienne "0 Rit0el18 Eranos Cahrbu!h 1+ (1+.-)8 pp.1*1-$,#8 who "oes not waver in onne ting s0 h a phenomenon to 9smailism an" to 9smailian (istoriosophy. 1,+) %)vio0sly we 0se the eBpression in a non-te hni al sense8 having alrea"y signaliHe" its ina 0ra y a)ove8 n.11#. 9t is worth noti ing the e@0ation Sbi# /Convert1 propose" )y Fe G;%958 /5a)ians in 7ra)ia18 p..$8 even i& we annot agree with him &or the &0rther i"enti&i ation Sbi# /!ani haean18 nor8 o& o0rse8 with !. 29; who tries to prove the tr0th&0lness o& this relation in his st0"y /The Cree" o& 7)J Q7mir18 30S 1$ (1++$)8 pp.+-.'. 1.-) The &irst orientalist to have re ogniHe" s0 h a onne tion was T. N%;FEOE8 6eue Beitra.e 7ur semitis!hen Spra!h:issens!ha"t8 5tras)0g 1+1-8 p.3. (who at the same time re?e te" the hypothesis o& a loan &rom Ethiopi 8 propose" )y Ain >ler8 as well as the (ani&s4 lin> with some 5o0th 7ra)ian 0lt8 s0ggeste" )y 2rimme)8 &ollowe" )y several s holars (7n"rae8 7hrens8 !ingana et .)E &. 7. CE::ERT, The +orei.n Bo!abulary o" the )ur#n8 Garo"a 1+3*8 p.11.E 7;-!754DF98 $itb al,tanb*h :a al,ishr"8 :T )y G. C7RR7 Fe 37DL (/e /i-re (e l#9-ertissement et (e la ;e-ision)8 Paris 1*+#8 p.13-8 is the only !e"ieval !0slim writer s0ggesting this relationship8 whereas all the others maintaine" a p0re 7ra)i origin o& the wor" (whi h opinion gave rise among orientalists to the i"ea8 &irstly a"van e" )y 5prenger8 o& the (ani&s as a organiHe" religio0s gro0p eBisting )e&ore !0hamma"4s times). R. P7TNE-5!9T(8 Thesaurus Syria!us8 98 %B&or" 1*'+8 ol.13$$8 olle te" the vario0s o 0rren es o& hanpE &. also A. !%NT2%!ERT A7TT8 art. /(anK&18 E3$ 9998 pp.1#*-'-. The 5yria in&l0en e is "0e )oth to the &a t that this was the lang0age with whi h the 7ra)s were most losely in to0 h till !0hamma"4s times an" to the role o& the Christian 7ra)s on 7ra) &ol>lore: &.8 in a""ition to Ce&&ery8 5. :R7ENOE;8 'ie 9ramais!hen +rem(:orter im 9rabis!hen8 ;ei"en 1**#E O. 7(REN58 /Christli hes in Woran18 K'MG *, (1+3-)8 pp.1.-#*. :or the (arranian milie08 see the &amo0s Boo4 o" the Han*"s whi h 7;-N7F9!8 $% al,+ihrist8 p.$1 &. (ET p.,1) mentions among the Reveale" Goo>s8 @0oting 7hma" )in 7)"all=h )in 5al=m (a ma:la o& Caliph (arJn al-RashK"): /9 have translate" this )oo> &rom a )oo> o& the Huna"# o& al-5=)iyJn al-9)r=hKmKyah8 who )elieve" in 9)r=hKm

U7)rahamV8 &or whom may there )e pea e8 an" who re eive" &rom him the s ript0re U al,suhu"V reveale" to him )y 7ll=h1. (owever8 it is "i&&i 0lt to "e i"e whether we have to "o here with the same )oo> whi h 7;N7F9! again8 in the +ihrist4s neBt se tion a)o0t the (arr=nian 5a)ians8 ites as a teBt o& !agi o& their own with the title o& ($itb) al,hti"i (ET p.'.,E the alternative rea"ing al,huna"# is s0ggeste" ibi(em n.,$). Tho0gh i"enti&ying this last teBt with the Boo4 o" the Han*"s in l0"e" in t0rn )y the Gyat al,ha4*m among the instr0ments o& the magi -lit0rgi apparat0s o& the se on" prayer a""resse" to C0piter ( &. also the /greater in ense o& the Han*"s1 in the prayer a""resse" to the 50n8 an" the /smaller in ense o& the Han*"s1 in the prayer a""resse" to the !oon8 2T p.$$* an" p.$3#)8 R. F%PT - C. Fe 2%ECE8 /No0vea0B Fo 0ments po0r l4Et0"e "e la Religion "es (arr=niens18 Tra-au< (e la Te Session (u on.r>s 3nternational (es 0rientalistes8 998 ;ei"en 1**.8 p.$+. &.8 ra"i ally re?e te" this possi)ility: /;e livre "es (anK& est "on le livre saint "es (arr=niens8 et il me sem)le in"o0)ita)le @0e "ans le passage "0 +ihrist il &a0t lire al,$itb al,Hana"* o0 )ien $itb al,Huna"#. 9l est @0estion "0 mSme livre "ans 0n a0tre passage "0 +ihrist ($$81)8 mais il y a Nvi"emment on&0sion entre le livre "es (arr=niens et 0n a0tre o0vrage traitant "es "o trines "es vraies 5a)iens1. G0t the ir 0mstan e is not a)s0r" at all8 as (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 p.3$ an" n.38 alrea"y o)serve". :or the eBpression /suhu" o& 7)raham18 see Sras $'83*8 ()81* &&. 8 an" #*8133E &. E3Q s.v.E &or al,Sbiyn al,3brh*m*yah8 see the &amo0s story han"e" "own )y 7;-O95749 (re&er. )elow8 n.1.$). 1.1) :or the etimology o& the wor"8 CE::ERT8 op. it.8 pp.11$-.E F.5. !7R2%;9%DT(8 /%n the %rigin an" 9mport o& the Names !0slim an" (anK&18 C;9S 3. (1+-3)8 in parti 0lar pp.,''-+3E C.C. ;T7;;8 /The Aor"s (anK& an" !0slim18 C;9S 3. (1+-3)8 pp.''1-*,. The st0"y o& N.7. :7R95 - (.A. 2;9FFEN8 /The Fevelopment o& the !eaning o& Oorani Han*"18 CP0S 1+ (1+3+)8 pp.1-1*8 perhaps provi"es still to"ay the )est s0mmary o& the pro)lem. 7 wi"e literary s0rvey o& pre-9slami an" !0slim so0r es8 is ma"e )y 29;8 /The Cree" o& 7)J Q7mir18 pp.+-13 an" 1. &.. :or a (e)rew origin see )elow n.1*#. 9t is worth noting here as in stri>ing parallelelism with the (e)rew an" the 7ra)i roots SH8BH8 SB# an" SB8 o)serve" a)ove8 p.* &. an" notes8 also the 7ra)i root H6+ "isplays an am)ivalent val0e: see again CE::ERT8 op. it.8 p.113 &.8 where the &ollowing meanings o& the ver) hana"a are re or"e": /to in line18 /to "e line &rom the proper stan"ar" (also 0se" &or a nat0ral ontor"ness o& the &eet)18 th0s in l0"ing the n0an e o& /in lining &rom a roo>e" stan"ar" to the straight18 an" parti 0larly that one o& /t0rning &rom the &alse religion to the tr0e1. 1.$) )ur#n8 '8 #'E &. #8 1$+E '8 #-8 *+E +8 1$,E ,8 1#$E %,8 1$18 1$3 et .: o& the twelve ases where the wor" is 0se"8 eight (:7R95-2;9FFEN8 op. it.8 p.11$: seven) re&er to 7)raham4s &aith8 whereas in nine o& them there is an a""e" phrase eBplaining that to )e a han*" means not )eing a polytheist8 this eBplanatory phrase apparently showing !0hamma"4s nee" to )e rightly 0n"erstoo" )y his hearers. Ae limit o0rselves to remem)er the r0 ial role playe" )y the Patriar h in the history o& (arr=n: the ity in &a t as it is well >nown is not only a stage along the way &rom Dr to the lan" o& Canaan8 )0t also the pla e where 7)raham &o0n" a wi&e &or 9saa (2en. #+8 1&&.)8 as well as the pla e where one generation later Ca o) spent $years wor>ing &or his 0n le ;a)an winning two )ri"es in the pro ess (2en. #&8 1-3-). :or a general s0rvey8 in l0"ing !0slim tra"itions a or"ing to whi h the ity an" 7)raham4s &ather himsel& are seen as ar hetypal sym)ols o& i"olatry an" impiety8 see 2REEN8 op. it.8 p.1- &&.8 or 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e, p.,3 &&.E a"". 2. 5TR%(!79ER8 /Eine sa)is he 7)rahamlegen"e 0n" 50re 3'8 *3-+318 in P. N72E; (e".)8 Stu(ien in Gnosis un( Mani!haismus8 (alle 1+'+8 pp.$$3-$'E E. :75C(ER8 /7)raham8 physiol.os 0n" ph*los theo18 in 7.5TD9GER 7. (ER!7NN (e"s.)8 Mullus% +ests!hri"t Th% $lauser8 !0nster 1+#,8 pp.111-$, (&or Cewish tra"itions): o& spe ial interest the "istin tion attri)0te" to 7;-O95749 ()isas al, anbiy\8 tr. in C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 998 p..-$ &.E &. C.(. (%TT9N2ER8 Historia 0rientalis8 Tig0ri 1#.18 98 *8 p.$.# &&.E 7GR7(7! ELCE;;EN5958 'e 0ri.ine 6ominis Papae8 Romae 1##-8 p.31, &.) )etween /real 5a)ians1 or &ollowers o& 7)raham4s religion (/these are the Grahmans1 UMV)8 an" /&alse 5a)ians1 or &ollowers o& 5eth8 9"rKs an" Noah4s religion (/an" these ontin0e" to live in the region o& (arr=n1)8 someway parallel to the "istin tions )etween Huna"# an" (arr=nians (worshipping the planets an" i"ols) ma"e )y 9GN (7P! ($itb al,"asl "* al,milal :a al,ah:#i :a al,nihl8 e". Cairo 131' (.8 98 p.3.)8 an" )etween Huna"# an" 5a)ians ma"e )y 7;-5(7(R75T7N9 (Milal8 2T p.* &&.). 1.3) C&. a)ove p.# an" n.3*: the e@0ivalen e (anK&s 5a)ians ha" )een previo0sly propose" )y 7. 5PREN2ER8 'as /eben un( (ie /ehre (es Mohamme(8 Gerlin 1*#+$8 p.,. &&.8 ta>ing espe ially into a o0nt the Boo4 o" the Han*"s @0ote" )y 7;-N7F9! among the holy teBts in possession o& the (arr=nians ( &. a)ove n.1.-)E a"" T. 7NFR7E8 Mohamme(8 ET )y T. !ENPE;8 New-Tor> 1+3-8 pp.1.--.. ontra C. (%R%A9TP8 $oranis!he Untersu!hun.en8 ;eipHig-Gerlin 1+$#8 p..* &&. 1.,) C&. &or eBample T7RF9ED8 /5=)iens18 p.* &&. 8 T. :7(F84s art. /5=)i4a18 E3$ 39998 passim8 or also 2DNFDP8 op. it.8 p.$- &.

1..) G7R (EGR7ED58 hroni!um Syria!um8 e". P. GEFC7N8 Paris 1*+-8 p.1#*E the titles o& Th=)it4s wor>s are also re or"e" )y C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 998 pp.ii-iii8 with a ;T partially repro"0 ing that one ontaine" in the &amo0s e"ition o& the hroni!um previo0sly ma"e )y P.C. GRDN5 - 2.A. O9R5C( ( hroni!on Syria!um8 ;ipsiae 1'*+)8 at p.1*-. Fe G;%958 /5a)ians in 7ra)ia18 p.,1 &. n.*8 has p0t in "o0)t the relia)ility o& these 5yria titles8 whi h a or"ing to him is in t0rn a opy o& an original 7ra)i version ("rawn 0p )y 7;-W9:T98 Ta#r*4h al,hu4am#8 e". 7. !D;;ER - C. ;9PPERT8 ;eipHig 1+-38 p.1$-)8 )0t his "o0)ts seems 0s 0n?0sti&ie". 1.#) 7;-N7F9!8 $itb al,+ihrist8 p.3$-8 ET 998 p.'.1 &. :or other shorter a o0nts o& the same episo"e )y the !e"ieval !0slim s holars8 &. a)ove n.1' an" )elow8 p.$1 an" n.1*-. 1.') PEFER5EN8 /The 5=)ians1 p.3+- &.8 (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 p.,- &&.8 5E27;8 /The 5a)ian !ysteries18 p.$1$ (/This story is in &a t impro)a)le1)8 are among the s holars riti iHing 7;N7Fc!4s a o0nt. Completely "i&&erent the reasons o& ;a"y E.5. FR%AER8 The Se!ret 9(am% 9 Stu(y o" 6asoraean Gnosis8 %B&or" 1+#-8 p.1118 who )elieves that Th=)it an" the other &amo0s (arranian men o& s ien e not sel"om in &rien"ly relations with Gagh"a" Caliphs o0l" not )e /&alse 5a)ians1 as Chwolson an" many others with him ha" laime"8 )0t /real1 ones8 i%e% 8 a or"ing to her 0nsha>a)le point o& view8 none else than R !an"aeansM 1.*) /R Aho else has esta)lishe" 0lt0re an" &o0n"e" ities )0t the no)les an" >ings o& hanptho R To whom "i" the Fivinity reveal the gi&t o& "ivination an" >nowle"ge o& the &0t0re )0t to the &ame" ones o& the hanp< R Aitho0t these things the worl" wo0l" )e empty an" poor1 (G7R (EGR7ED58 hroni!um8 p.1#*-+E we have 0se" the ET o& the passage ontaine" in :7R95-2;9FFEN8 /The !eaning o& Oorani Han*"18 p.+). 1.+) 5o &or eBample E.7.A. GDF2E8 The hrono.raphy o" Bar Hebraeus8 ;on"on 1+'# (9 e". 1+3$)8 p.1.3 (/heathen18 /heathenism1)E or8 li>ewise8 C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 98 pp.1''-* (/(ei"en18 /(ei"enth0m1). 1#-) (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 p.31E an English parallel is &0rnishe" )y :7R95-2;9FFEN4s translation @0ote" a)ove n.1.* 1#1) R%2ER G7C%N8 0pus Ma.nus8 e". C.(. GR9F2E58 98 %B&or" 1*+' (6 New-Tor> 1+#,)8 p.3+,E &. ;. T(%RNF9OE8 9 History o" Ma.i! an( E<perimental S!ien!e8 98 New Tor> 1+$38 p.##1E 2REEN8 The ity o" Moon,Go(8 p.1#3. 1#$) 2. :;D2E;8 'issertatio (e 9rabi!is S!riptorum Grae!orum 3nterpretibus8 !issenae 1*,18 p.1'E &. C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 98 p. *-. 1#3) %)vio0sly we "o not agree with C(A%;5%N8 lo . it.8 who seems to )e onvin e" it is "i&&i 0lt to say whether in goo" &aith or not that s0 h an in&ormation is "0e to a ommon mis0n"erstan"ing a)o0t !an"aeans a or"ing to whi h they wo0l" not )e )0t Christians8 )e a0se o& the name /Christians o& 5t. Cohn1 remaine" pop0larly in 0se till to"ay sin e when !e"ieval Aestern travellers )egan to 0se it an" to ma>e it >nown in E0rope8 )y len"ing ear to a laim )y !an"aean priests that Cohn the Gaptist was a mem)er o& their se t. 1#,) C&. a)ove ns.13#-'. 1#.) :7R95-2;9FFEN8 /The !eaning o& Oorani (ani&18 p.. &&. an" 1' &. 1##) /9n Christian 7ra)i han*" is a )roa" term 0se" &or pagans. (owever it "oes not "es ri)e the )ar)aro0s heathen o& the 7ra)ian "esert8 who were losest to !0hamma"4s eye8 )0t the st0))orn partisans o& the ol" 2rae o-Roman religion8 espe ially o& the mistery 0lts an" their oriental o&&shoots8 who were the prin ipal target o& the polemi o& the Christian h0r h. 9t m0st )e remem)ere" that these were not a simple an" ignorant people8 )0t in l0"e" s0 h a)le intelle ts as that o& Porphyry o& Tyre8 who was the "ire t an estor o& s0 h men as Th=)it ). W0rrah an" al-Gatt=ni1: :7R95-2;9FFEN8 op. it.8 p..E &. N%;FEOE8 6eue Beitra.e8 p.3. n.,. 1#') C&. ;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 who i"enti&ies some 99 ent0ry literary parallels to 7R95T9FE4s 9polo.y )eginning with the Martyr(om o" Poly!arp (a)o0t whi h see G. FE(7NF5C(DTTER8 Martyrium Popy!arpi% Een literair,4ritis!he Stu(ie UGET; .$V8 ;e0ven 1+'+)8

where )oth the i"ea o& the Christians as a /ra e1 ( .henos) an" the emphasis on their /&ear o& 2o"1 (theosbeia) an also )e &o0n". :or the Cewish previo0s laim to )e the /ra e o& the most righteo0s men18 &. p.,+$ &&. %n the meaning an" origins o& the eBpression tertium .enus hominum8 see the st0"y o& ;. G7ECO8 in Ce:ish Stu(ies in Memory o" G%9% $ohut (1+3.)8 p.,-. 1#*) 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 p.1.1E &. CD5T9ND58 'ial% !% Triph.8 11+8 #8 where we rea" that it is the Christians8 an" not the &aithless Cews8 who represent the nation (>thnos) promise" to 7)raham8 sharing his &aith8 2o"-&earing an" righteo0s (theosebs 4a* (*4aion). 1#+) 7s we have note" ( &. in parti 0lar a)ove n.*,)8 sin e the 99 ent0ry onwar"s Piety an" Philosophy8 namely !onotheism an" CiviliHation8 wal> si"e )y si"e a or"ing to Christian 7pologists too: those who "o not share Christian piety are )ar)aro0s an"Ior impio0s. 9t is not )y han e8 &or eBample8 that the Epistle to 'io.netus has its starting point &rom a /person o& onse@0en e4s1 wish to >now the Christian "o trine (GERTR7!8 art. /Theose)Ss18 ol.1$'). %)vio0sly a similar laim was ma"e also )y the Cews: see W Ma!!ab.8 where the main theme is a "emonstration o& how /"evo0t reason1 ( eusebs lo.isms) sho0l" r0le man4s emotions (18 1E #8 31E 1'8 18 3E 18 1*E 1*8 1-3)8 om)ining hellenisti ommittment to /reason1 with the Cewish ommittment to the ;awE or also another lassi al eBample o& the (ellenisti C0"aism4s &ramewor> (a)o0t whi h &. 2. GERTR7!8 /Fer Gegri&& QReligion4 in "er 5ept0aginta18 K'MG 1$ U1+3,V8 pp.1-.) s0 h as Coseph an( 9seneth8 where the /:ear o& 2o"1 is an eB l0sive &eat0re appli a)le only to the Cews or to those a"opting the same pattern o& )elie& an" )ehavio0r ( &. C. GDRC(7RF8 Untersu!hun.en 7u Coseph un( 9seneth UADNT *V8 T0)ingen 1+#.8 espe ially p.#,-E !. P(9;%NENO%8 Coseph et 9s>neth% 3ntro(u!tion, Te<te riti2ue, Tra(u!tion et 6otes8 ;ei"en 1+#*8 pp.1,$-3). 1'-) Ae m0st >eep in min" to )e always on the gro0n" o& religio0s polemi s: see the harge o& impiety lai" against the Christians )y their pagan neigh)o0rs (7R95T9FE58 9polo.y8 ,8 'E $'8 1E 33 9pol.8 1-8 ,: &. C.R. (7RR958 The 9polo.y o" 9risti(es8 TeBts an" 5t0"ies 98 18 Cam)ri"ge 1*+3). 1'1) 7R95T9FE58 9polo.y8 $8 1. 7risti"es seems to ignore the &a t that many an ient a0thors loo>e" at the Cews as )ar)arians8 &. ;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 p.,*+. 9t is interesting to note that Ps. CD5T9N appeals to a 2ree> ora le in or"er to see> pagan s0pport &or the epithet theosebs whi h8 when as>e" who were the /2o"-&earing men18 "e lare" that /only the Chal"aeans a hieve" wis"om8 an" then the (e)rews who hol" 2o" in holy awe as sel&-)egotten an" lor"1 ( ohort% a( Grea!.8 118 $ an" again $,8 $*-+). 1'$) To tell the tr0th8 in this parti 0lar 7pologeti al perio" there are not many 2ree> personalities es aping Christian ens0re: so &or eBample i& )y one si"e the Christians &eel themselves lose to 5o rates )e a0se o& the same harge o& /atheism1 (asbeia) lai" against him as well as against /those who are alle" Q2o":earers4 an" QChristians41 (tos theosebe*s 4a* 4hristianos 4aloumnous: 9( 9utol.8 9998 ,)8 )y the other one they "o not waver to a >nowle"ge the whole )an>r0pt y o& the 2ree>s8 in l0"ing 7ristotle an" Plato8 who learne" &rom !oses )0t apostasiHe" &rom the /tr0e &ear o& 2o"1 (Ps. CD5T9ND58 ohor% a( Grae!.8 $.8 $,E 3#8 33: &. !. !7RC%39C( e".8 Pseu(o,3ustinus% ohortatio a( Grae!os% 'e Monar!hia% 0ratio a( Grae!os UPT5 1$V8 Gerlin-New Tor> 1++-8 p.,8 who a epts a "ate &or this wor> ranging )etween $#- an" 3-$)8 an" whom on the ontrary Christian theoreti al "evelopments will not &in" too "i&&i 0lt to ma>e &itting with the ortho"oB "o trine. The same phenomenon happens on the &ront o& the Cews: their virt0al pla e is a >nowle"ge" as a righteo0s see" o& / Q2o"-&earing4 an" holy men8 7)raham8 9saa an" Ca o)1 (T(E%P(9;D5 %: 7NT9%C(8 9( 9utol.8 iii8 +)8 )0t on the other han" they are harge" to )e those /who are neither estimee" nor lovers o& 2o" nor 0n"erstan"ing1 (CD5T9ND58 'ial% !% Triph.8 11*8 3). 1'3) 7R95T9FE58 9polo.y8 5yria 3ersion8 lo . it. :or the lost o& the wor>4s title whi h originally may have loo>e" li>e /Con erning the Q:ear o& 2o"4 (Theosbeia)1 together with the hea"ing o& the 2ree> teBt8 see ;9ED8 /The Ra e o& the 2o"-:earers18 p.,*+ an" n.$1. 1',) TERTD;;97N (9( 6at. 98 +E S!orp. 1-8 1-) re?e te" the la)el tertium .enus as a sl0r on the lips o& the Christians4 opponents. C&. )elow n.1+. &or the orrispon"en e PlanetsIPeoplesIReligions. 1'.) 5ee the eBisten e o& a /real religio0s &rontier1 in relation to the vario0s 2o"-Aorshippers4 omm0nities8 a >nowle"ge" )y some s holars8 )elow n.$,-. 1'#) :or the (ellenisti tra"ition >ept parti 0larly alive )y (arranian s holars8 the ol" pi t0re "rawn )y C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 98 p..,$ &&. seems 0s still vali"E a "etaile" s0mmary is @0ite re ently given )y :.C. Fe G;%958 art. /5=)i418 pp.#+$-,8 with single )io-)i)liographies8 whereas E. A9EFE!7NN8 /De)er

Ta)it )en W0rra8 sein ;e)en 0n" Aer>en18 Sit7unberi!hte (er Phisi4alis!h,me(i7inis!hen So!ietat in Erlan.en8 .$-3 (1+$--1)8 pp.1*+-$1+ (&0rther )i)liography in C. RD5O78 art. /T=)it ). O0rra18 E3 938 p.''1)8 is still the main re&eren e &or the lea"ing personality o& the gro0pE &or a general a o0nt8 see T(%RN9F9OE8 9 History o" Ma.i! an( E<perimental S!ien!e8 98 pp.##1-### E 5. 5EP29N8 G9S8 39 ;ei"en 1+'*8 passim . :or the h0ge wor> o& translation into 5yria an" 7ra)i o& 2ree> s ienti&i an" philosophi al teBts8 in onse@0en e o& whi h (arr=nians have to )e onsi"ere" one o& the main transmission hannels o& the (elleni 0lt0re to the Aest "0ring the !i""le 7ges8 see &or eBample F.F. Fe ;7CT %4 ;E7RT8 9rabi! an( its Pla!e in the History8 ;on"on 1+$$8 pp.,38 .,-. an" 1-. &&.E or also 9"em8 Ho: Gree4 S!ien!e Passe( to the 9rabs8 ;on"on 1+,*8 p.1'$ &&. 1'') 9!ta on!iliorum8 998 e". Paris 1#1,8 p..1* &&.8 &. 9L8 pp.3, an" 3'E @0ote" )y C(A%;5%N8 op. it. 98 p.,3*8 &. pp.1.8 an" 3-3E see also 755E!7N98 Bibl% 0r.8 98 p.$-' n.$1-: harras enim, seu Haran, Syri appellare solent Paganor0m 0r)em8 2uo ab ea i(olorum !ultus initium (u<erit. 7 t0ally 5yria ma>es 0se in this ase o& Hanp or also o& the wor" /Roman1 (6 9rmoyo)8 >eeping in min" that in the o0rse o& !i""le 7ges &or 7ra)s an" more in general &or Near Eastern peoples Romans 6 GyHantines8 the latter )eing then the a t0al representatives o& the Roman Empire (as &or eBample al-GKrJnK4s passage @0ote" )elow in o0r teBt "emonstrates): &. C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 p.,3+ &&.E :7R95-2;9FFEN8 /The !eaning o& the Oorani Han*"18 p.#. 1'*) T7RF9ED4s thesis8 propose" )y him in the st0"y /5=)iens orani@0es et Q5=)iens4 "e (arr=n18 is very well->nown: a or"ing to the :ren h s holar8 the lear Neoplatoni mar> o& the (arr=nian theologi al system an" more in general o& the (arr=nian 0lt0re wo0l" go )a > to the last Neoplatonists4 trans&ert into (arr=n a&ter the sh0tting o& 7then4s philosophi al s hool )y C0stinian (.$+)8 )0t the several pie es o& evi"en e pro"0 e" )y him 0n&ort0nately "o not provi"e a &inal "emonstration: &. also his /;es Calen"riers en Dsage = (arr=n "4aprSs les 5o0r es 7ra)es et le Commentaire "e 5impli i0s = la Phisi@0e "47ristote18 in 9. (7F%T e".8 Simpli!ius% Sa Bie, Son 0eu-re, Sa Sour-ie8 Gerlin-New Tor> 1+*'8 pp.,--.'E or his /es ;eli2ues8 ;o0vain-Paris n.". U1++-V8 passim. 1'+) 9O(A7N 7;-57:748 ;as#il8 e". Geir0t8 938 1+.'8 p.$+.. 1*-) 7;-G9RDN98 hronolo.y8 ET p.31, &. 7l-GKrJnK loo>s at the (arr=nians as /&alse 5a)ians18 the /tr0e1 ones living in his opinion in 5o0thern 9r=@8 /in Aasit an" its vi inity1 ( &. )elow p.$$ &.): he a epts in other wor"s al-Na"Km4s a o0nt a)o0t the en o0nterI"isp0te )etween Caliph al-!a4mJn an" the (arr=nians8 in onse@0en e o& whi h the latter laime" to )e /5a)ians18 ?0st &or the p0rpose o& )eing re >one" among the 'himmis: /)e&ore that time they were alle" heathens Uhuna"#V8 i"olaters U:athan*yahV an" (arr=nians1 ( &. p.1**). :or the spe ial taB paye" )y religio0s minorities in eB hange o& toleration into !0slim o0ntries8 see the lassi al re&eren es: 7.5. TR9TT%N8 The aliphs an( Their 6on,Muslim SubDe!ts8 ;on"on 1+3-E 7. :7TT7;8 /e Statut / (es 6on,Musulmans en Pays (#3slam8 Geir0t 1+.*E C. C7(EN8 art. /Fhimma18 E3Q8 998 pp.$3,-*. 1*1) 5PREN2ER8 'as /eben un( (ie /ehre (es Mohamma(8 98 pp.,3 an" #'-+8 9998 p.* &.E C.C. T%RRET8 The Ce:ish +oun(ation o" 3slam8 New Tor> 1+338 p..1E C.5. ;T7;;8 /The Aor"s (ani& an" !0slim18 C;9S 3. (1+-3)8 p.'*1E &. CE::ERT8 The +orei.n Bo!abulary o" the )ur#n8 p.11.E :7R95-2;9FFEN8 /The !eaning o& the Oorani Han*"18 p.1. 1*$) This opinion is re or"e" )y 29;8 /The Cree" o& 7)J Q7mir18 p.1+8 among other 999 ent0ry Talm0"i re&eren es to m*n*m (a ommon "esignation &or hereti s in Talmu() eBpresse" )y Ra))i Conathan )en EleaHar an" Ra))i 7))=hJ (Bersh*t rabb v8 $,E Bi8 .8 e". T(E%F%R-7;GECO8 p.$3* an" p.,*-)E &. !7R2%;9%DT(8 /The Names !0slim am" (anK&18 p.,'+: /a tra"ition em)o"ie" in the Mi(rash Ra))ah (2en.8 b ,*) states that wherever the wor" Hn" o 0rs in the %l" Testament it re&ers to religio0s "issent (minth)1E the a0thor also re or"s a @0ite 0rio0s in&ormation a or"ing to whi h /in !oro o the name QEpi 0r0s4 is &amiliarly 0se" &or Christian missionary8 having )een at &irst applie" )y the Cews to the missionaries who ame to wor> amongst themselves. This very wor" QEpi 0r0s4 is 0se" in the =al4ut 5him4oni to gloss the wor" Hn"1. 1*3) R. GE;;8 The o" 3slam an( 3ts hristian En-ironment8 ;on"on 1+$# (6 1+#*)8 p..*E &or other s holars8 in a""ition to those alrea"y @0ote" (!argolio0th8 ;yall) thin>ing to an in"epen"ent 7ra)ian movement (2rimme8 Pa0tH8 ;ammens8 5t. Claire-Tis"all8 :0 >)8 see :7R95-2;9FFEN8 op. it.8 p.1 &. n.3. Their m0t0al agreement among !0slim leBi ographers a)o0t the 7ra)i etimology o& the wor" ( &. a)ove

n.1.-) is "0e to an 0n orre t metho"ology ommonly &ollowe" )y them (as Chwolson ha" alrea"y stresse"8 &. a)ove n.13#). 1*,) 7;-!754DF98 lo . leBi ographi al so0r es. it. (a)ove n.1.-)E &. CE::ERT8 op. it.8 p.113 &.8 &or some !e"ieval

1*.) C&. )elow p.3. &. an" ns. 31, 3$'. 1*#) (. ;7!!EN58 /;es ChrNtiens = ;a !e @0e = la 3eille "e l4(Ngire18 B3+90 1, (1+1*)8 p.$1- n.' (the vehement style )y whi h the great orientalist "eno0n e" !0hamma"4s allege" ignoran e into Christian matters a real leit,moti- o& his whole s ienti&i wor>8 as &or instan e his /#9rabie 0!!i(entale a-ant l#H>.ire8 Geir0t 1+$*8 "emonstrates at lenght wo0l" )e to"ay not only 0n)elieva)le8 it wo0l" )e a s an"al). !7R2%;9%DT(8 op. it.8 p.,*$8 signaliHes that tahanna"a an" the 3 on?0gation o& the ver) hanatha (hinth 6 /a rime8 per?0ry1) - 0rio0sly "isplaying an 0n0s0al privative sense (th0s tahannatha with its relate" no0n-&orm tahannuth 6 /to )e "evo0t1 ?0st as tahanna"aItahannu") are ommonly i"enti&ie" )y the 7ra)s (9GN (95(7!8 S*rah8 p.1.$)E )0t ;T7;;8 /The Aor"s Q(ani&4 an" Q!0slim418 p.'*-8 "oes not see any reason &or s0 h a onne tion8 sin e tahannuth /o 0rs only in a tra"ition relating to the Prophet8 who is sai" to have pra tise" a0sterities (tahannatha) in a ave on !o0nt (ir=4 )e&ore he re eive" revelation18 so that he rather points in this ase to a possi)le "erivation &rom the (e)rew tehinnth8 /prayers1. 9n their t0rn8 :7R95 an" 2;9FFEN8 op. it.8 p..8 a >nowle"ge a lose relationship )etween the meaning o& these two ver)s gravitating aro0n" the on ept o& meti 0lo0sness8 whether in religio0s or wor"y things (tahanna"a 6 /was parti 0lar8 eBa t1E tahannatha 6 a)staine" &rom1) 1*') 5ee a)ove n.1.1. Ae m0st also stress the spe ial meaning han*" 6 /ortho"oB1 in 9GN (95(7!8 S*rah8 p.*'18 he >e" )y AE;;(7D5EN8 ;este8 p.$3* n.1. 1**) )urn8 '*8 $+E &. ,8 '+8 whi h is the other Oorani passage where the lose relationship han*","itrah o 0rs on e again. C&. moreover &(8 , where the religion o& the huna"# is re&erre" to as the /Religion o& the Res0rre tion1 ((*n al,2aymah). 7nother very signi&i ant ommonpla e whi h Huna"# an" 5a)ians share is represente" )y the &a t that )oth are seen as the &irst Religion o& the man>in" (the &a t o& )eing in the meanwhile8 as we have ?0st o)serve"8 the /Religion o& the Res0rre tion18 namely the last one8 is a nat0ral iss0e o& that). 9GN (7P!8 $itb al,"asl "* al,milal :a al,ah:#i :a al,nihl8 e". Cairo 131' (.8 98 p.3.8 &or eBample writes: /The religion o& the 5a)ians was the ol"est &rom the histori al aspe ts an" the most ommon religion 0ntil they &a)ri ate" some new U)e"V things an" there&ore hange" their )in"ing law1. C&. also )elow n.33'. 1*+) The e@0ivalen e Huna"# - /5ee>ers1 is stresse" )y AE;;(7D5EN8 ;este8 p.$3*8 who points o0t to the originary i"entity o& the &ormer with mon>s (ruhb8 sing. rhibE &. the ver) tarahhaba8 /to live an as eti li&e1) an" Christians saints (ibi(em8 p.$3+ &.E &. T. N%;FEOE - ;. 5C(A7;;T8 Ges!hi!hte (es )orans8 98 ;eipHig 1+-+$8 p.*E an" )elow n.$,#). 1+-) C&. a)ove p.1+ an" n.1.$. 1+1) 9GN (95(7!8 S*rah8 p.1,3-+8 ET8 pp.++-1-3. (istori al a t0ality o& these in"ivi"0als was &irstly "e&en"e" )y ;T7;;8 /The Aor"s Q(anK&4 an" Q!0slim418 p.',,8 even i& the tra"ition a)o0t them was wor>e" "own in 9slami times so that as we have alrea"y noti e" (a)ove n.,$) the Ooran is ne essary to eBplain these stories rather than the reverse. 1+$) 9GN (95(7!8 S*rah8 p.1,,8 ET p.++E &. 9GN 5747F8 $itb al,taba2t al,4ab*r8 e". E. 57C(7D et alii8 9998 18 ;ei"en 1+-+8 p.$**. 1+3) 7;-G9RDN98 hronolo.y8 p.1**E &. p.31, &.. 1+,) The /LL normally traslate the (e)rew .er with proslytos8 even i& o&ten we have to "o only with resi"ent aliens8 namely with stangers living in Palestine )0t not onverte" to C0"aism ( &. &or eBample the eBpression ha,.er Jasr ya.ur be,ysra#l UE<. %+8 'V whi h is ren"ere" with oi proselyteuntes en t 3sral, /whoever among the strangers "wells in 9srael1. 9n the o0rse o& ent0ries8 tho0gh8 the original onnotation o& the wor" too> a so io-religio0s tra t that will )e ome the &inal meaning o& the term ( &. the re&eren es @0ote" a)ove n.#-). 9t is worth noting the 2ree> trans ription .e*oras o& the aramaean .iyyor (E<. %#8 1+E Is %+8 1E )0t see also P(9;%8 on"% lin..8 *$E CD5T9ND58 'ial. 1$$8 1U.eras )esi"e proslytosVE CD;9D5

7:R9C7ND58 Ep% a( 9rist.8 .8 in ED5EG9D58 Hist% E!!l.8 98 '8 13 U.eirai 6 proslytoiV)8 tho0gh8 0n&ort0nately8 nothing similar happene" in the 7ra) or 5yria versions o& the 9!ts in relation to the wor" sebmenosIoi (tn then): the Peshitta 0ses in &a t in this ase the parti ipial &orm o& the root 'H/8 while 7ra)i 0ses the parti iple o& the ver)s Jaba(a an" ta:a22a or itta2a (4h"a &or oi phobomenoiI /&earers1). 1+, )is) :or the origins an" the histori al "evelopments o& Cewish Proselytism8 an eB ellent )0t @0ite 0p-to"ate )i)liography is ontaine" in the alrea"y @0ote" art. /Proselyte8 Proselytisme18 'B8 50ppl. 39998 ols.13.3-# (7. P7D;)E see there&ore also the )i)liographi al re&eren es @0ote" a)ove n.#-. 9t is to )e stresse" the semanti orrespon"en e )etween the 2ree> ver) prosr4homai8 /to go towar"s8 to lean8 et .18 an" the a)ove o)serve" semanti n0an e o& the 7ra)i ver)s saba#aIsab (p.* &. an" notes). Tho0gh noti ing that /Sbi# R ame to serve as one o& the several "esignations &or Qproselyte4 /8 GDCO8 /The 9"entity o& the 5=)i4Jn18 p.1'3 as well C. A7N5GR%D2(8 The Se!tarian Milieu1 ontent an( omposition in 3slami! Sal-ation History8 ;on"on 1+'*8 p.1-$ "oes not arrive to the same 0navoi"a)le on l0sion o& o0rsE )0t see also )elow n.1+'8 &or the meaning proslytos 6 / onvert to Christianity1 or more in general /a person approa hing anything new1. :or 7)raham as a prototype o& proselytes8 see A. G%D55ET - (. 2REE5!7NN8 'ie ;eli.ion (es Cu(entums in spathellenistili!hen Keitalter8 T0)ingen 1+$#38 p.1*#E or also 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 p.$-. n..E a t0ally 7)raham8 as well as Co)8 ontin0es to )e remem)ere" as preeminently /2o"-&earing1 (7)raham: W Ma!!% 1.8 $*E T6aph% 18 1-E 7non. in ED5EG9D58 Praep% E-.8 iB8 1'8 3E in Genes%, ##8 1$8 he is not /2o"-&earing18 )0t one who /&ears 2o"1E Co): Ps. 7R95TE75 in ED5EG9D58 Praep% E-.8 iB8 $.8 ,). :or the parallel )etween Co) an" 7)raham8 see also b% Sotah, 31a8 ite" )y A9;C%L8 /The Q2o"&earers4 in 7 ts18 p.1-#8 who arg0es that ;0>e is p0tting Corneli0s8 li>e 5imeon an" ;y"ia8 within this tra"ition. :or Proselytes8 see &inally N%CO8 on-ersion8 p.#1 &. an" p.1-+. 1+.) C&. p.$.3 o& the ET )y R.R. AR92(T8 ;on"on 1+3,8 who also provi"e" the e"ition o& the teBt. (ere8 not only a m0t0al relation Planets-Religions is "rawn8 ea h Religion )eing p0t in orrespon"en e in its t0rn also with a single People. The /(oros ope o& Religions1 theme pro)a)ly appears &or the &irst time into a similar &orm in 7GD !745(7R8 $itb al,milal :a,l,(u:al8 e". an" ET )y O. T7!7!%T% - C. GDRNETT8 9b Ma#shar, on Histori!al 9strolo.y8 $ 3ols.8 ;ei"enGostonOoln $--- (the &irst vol. ontains the 7ra)i teBt an" the ETE the se on" one the me"ieval ;T )y 9%(7NNE5 (95P7ND5 U'e Ma.nis onDun!tionibusV8 2lossaries an" 9n"eBes)8 whose lose relationship with 7;-O9NFc ( &. %. ;%T(8 /7l-Oin"K als 7strolog18 Mor.enlan(is!he +ors!hun.en% +ests!hri"t H%/% +leis!her8 ;eipHig 1*'.8 pp.$#33-+)8 an" onse@0ently with 5a)ian-(arr=nian milie08 is very well->nown. This ir 0mstan e might have given rise to an 0n0s0al lin> o& the wor" Hanp/Han*" whi h an )e &o0n" in the $n" Treatise8 'i""erentia viii8 o& 'e Ma.nis onDun!tionibus8 where one rea"s: (i<erunt 2uia Saturnus habuit"i!ationem super ham&* (&. C viii r.). 7 marginal gloss o& the Co"e !s. 3ati an0s Reginensis ;atin0s 1$*. ontaining this wor> (&olios ,3r. ++v.: the gloss in @0estion is in &olio .*r. l.$+) written )y the same 9%7NN95 (95P7ND5 a or"ing to R. ;E!7T8 9b Ma#shar an( /atin 9ristotelianism in the T:el"th entury8 Geir0t 1+#$8 p.1, n., - omments the eBpression as it &ollows: Super le.em illorum a 2uibus Mauri (u!unt le.em suam, i( est ab illis 2ui "uerunt a) 7)raam us2ue a( Moysen e< parte =smaelis, i.e. super le.em 3smaelitarum. 7 theoreti al onne tion with 9smael4s progeny8 namely more in general with Huna"#I2entiles8 "o0)les there&ore the other one previo0sly a >nowle"ge" (1st Treatise8 'i""% iv8 &. 7 vii r.E 3at. Reg. ;at. 1$*.8 &. ,# v. a) 5at0rn-C0"aism. 9n &a t /7)raham thro0gh 9shmael was the progenitor o& the 7ra)s. (e there&ore m0st have )een the &o0n"er o& the religion o& the Huna"#1 (R. GE;;8 /Aho were the (anK&s<18 M8 $- U1+3-V8 p.1$,). 9n reality8 there was a mista>e8 )e a0se the original teBt a or"ing to the new e"ition o& T7!7!%T%-GDRNETT "isplays the wor" 4hali"#I1 aliphs1 (3ol. 98 p.1.$ l.*8 ET p.1.3): )0t what might have given origin to the mis0n"erstan"ing o& the me"ieval translator8 who eB hange" a ommon term s0 h as / aliphs1 with a pro)lemati one < Ae repro"0 e here a s>e h-map o& the main me"ieval so0r es treating the pro)lem o& the osmi orrispon"en es Planets Religions8 sin e the en" o& the 9L ent0ry (7)J !a4sharI7l-Oin"K) till 0p the L999 ent0ry (Roger Ga on): Pla et 5at0rn C0piter !ars 50n 7)J !a4shar (7l-Oin"K) C0"aism :aiths Paganism 9"olatry Fe Planetar0m patro inniis ( 9G 399) C0"aism Christianity 9"olatry Religion o& the 7l-GKrJnK C0"aism Christianity 9"olatry !agianism 2=yat al-(a>Km8 99981 (C0"aism) Christianity 9"olatry !aH"aeism 2=yat al(a>Km8 9998' C0"aism Christianity 9"olatry Persian Roger Ga on C0"aism :aiths Cal"aean Religion 7egyptian


3en0s !er 0ry

9slam Christianity


Fo0)t8 Fevelopment8 Change an" Fesertion &rom one4s :aith

C0"aism. Fe)ate a)o0t Fogmatism U(etero"oByV Religion o& the 2ree>s (Revelation o& the !ysteries)

9slam (etero"oBy

.Grahamanism. C0lt o& Pne0mati 5pirits 9slam (etero"oBy (Pin"K>) 5a)ianism Revelation


9slam Religion o& Aise men. (eresy

Religion. C0lt o& the (eavenly 7rmy 9slam Christianity

7"herents o& the prevailing Religion U5a)ianismV

Religion o& the 5e t o& the Chil"ren an" 7nti hrist o& the To0ths U(arr=nian 5a)ianismV

(Gi)liographi al re&ern es: 7GD !745(7R8 op. it.8 98 p.,, &.E 9G8 3998 p.+. &&.E 7;-G9RDN98 $itb al,ta"h*m (Boo4 o" 3nitiation in the Elements o" the 9rt o" 9strolo.y )8 p.$.3E Gyat al,ha4*m (re&. )elow n.$+#)8 p.1.# &&.8 an" p.$-# &&.E R%2ER G7C%N8 op. it. (a)ove n.1#1)8 p.$.3 &&.). The relation !oon5a)ians "oes not "eserve any omment8 i& one >eeps in min" the role o& (arr=n as 0lti apital o& the 50mero-Ga)ylonian !oon-2o" S*n: )y this point o& view8 it is not too haHar"o0s to s0ppose that the eBpression /the Religion o& the hil(ren an( o" the =ouths18 eBpli itly onne te" )y the Gya with 5a)ianism8 may )e a teBt0al error: the writing o& the 7ra)i wor"s al,sab*n :a, l,ah(th8 in &a t8 is in"ee" very similar to the eBpression /the 5a)ians o& (arr=n1 (al,sbiya bi,l,Harrn) so that the &ormer graphi se@0en e may easily hange" with the latter. %n the other han"8 how an one eBplain the presen e o& s0 h s0)?e ts as /the hil"ren an" the yo0ths1 in this onteBt < 1+#) C&. a)ove p.$ an" n.1.E )elow p.33 an" ns. $+1-$ . 1+') 7;-G9RDN98 $itb al,ta"h*m8 p.$.3. 1+*) C&. a)ove n.11#E p.1* an" n.1,+. The ir 0mstan e that 2o"-:earers in ertain Fiaspora omm0nities atten"e" at synagoge4s assem)lies /ni ht als Q7nhange48 son"ern als - gegen0)er C0"en 0n" Proselyten &reili h 0nglei hwartige - Gestan"teile "er ?0"is hen 2emein"en1 (GE;;EN8 /Syna.o.> ts 3ou(a*on 4a* Theosebn18 p.1'$)8 ma>es 59!%N thin> that /"as st0n"e Hiemli h in 7nalogie H0 "en Oate h0menen "er 7lten Oir he8 n0r mit "em Dnters hie" "ass "er Oate h0menat ein vorla0&iger 5tan" ist8 wahren" )estimmte8 ?a sogar "er 2rossteil "er sebmenoi ihren 5tat0s "as ganHe ;e)en )ehalten1 (art. /2ottes&0r htiger18 ol.1-#*). 9t is interesting to noti e a gloss to the wor" /5a)ian1 &o0n" in one !s. o& a s0mmariHe" version o& T7G7Rc4s Ta"s*r (TarDama i ta"s*r i Tabar*8 e". (. Taghm=K8 938 p.1-.,) )y Fe G;%958 /5a)ians in 7ra)ia18 p..$ n..$8 a or"ing to whi h Sbi#n 6 6i.hsha.n8 i%e% a Persian wor" 0s0ally employe" &or "enoting /!ani haean hearers1 (it is well->nown that !ani haeans "ivi"e" the )elievers into a n0m)er o& gra"es8 the /hearers1 )eing separate" &rom /initiates1 an" having onse@0ently a role similar to Christian 4ate4homenoi)8 even i& o)vio0sly we "isagree with the :ren h s holar4s opinion a)o0t the i"entity 5a)ians!ani haeansE this &a t "oes not mean8 however8 that the term Sbi#n o0l" not sometimes have in l0"e" also !ani haean gro0ps in Central 7ra)ia an" in the neigh)o0ring regions. :or the ChristianiHing o& the term proslytos see P.G. G727TT98 The hur!h "rom ir!um!ision% History an( 9r!haeolo.y o" Cu(aeo, hristians8 ET )y E. (%7C;E8 Cer0salem 1+'18 pp.$3'-3+8 an" also (with C.T. !9;9O) Gli s!a-i (el Fomin0s :levit FMonte 0li-eto 5 GerusalemmeG8 98 Cer0salem 1+.*8 p.$1: the a0thor s0pposes that the C0"aeo-Christians ha" an instit0tion alle" /Proselitate18 similar to a /Cate h0menate18 )0t his hypothesis is onsi"ere" @0ite haHar"o0s. 9n The hur!h "rom ir!um!ision8 p.$1- &igs. 138 1' an" 138 $-8 Gagatti also re or"s8 in a &0nerary onteBt8 the sym)ol S B ] whi h he rea"s in the same way tentatively propose" )y F0 !E5N9; F0 G%955%N8 MUSC 1+.+8 namely that it /se lit vraise)lament SFotrG BFoethsG ] FE $hristsG1 (p.3+8 &. p.,$ no.13*)8 who repro"0 e" in a""ition the se@0en es8 in 2ree> letters8 K a b (/a0 "esso0s8 0ne palme "ressNe1) (p.1# no.3,)8 an" K b E (p.31 no.1-,)8 whi h evi"ently ontra"i t a similar possi)ility. 1++) C& a)ove p.1. an" ns.'--1 &or a s0)tle theoreti al "istin tion )etween these terms. $--) 7s we have sai" (a)ove p.1 an" n.$)8 that is the sense )y whi h we ass0me the eBpression &ollowing !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.11+.

$-1) The %ra le was &irstly p0)lishe" )y 2.E. GE7N8 Courney in 6orthern /y!ia RSTZ,TU8 F. 7>. Aien Phil.-(ist. Olasse 1-, (1+'1)8 pp.$--$ no.3'E see the &ine ommentary )y ;. R%GERT8 /Dn %ra le 2ravN = %enoan"a18 in 0pera Minora Sele!ta8 38 7mster"am 1+'$8 pp.#1'-3+ (previo0sly p0)lishe" in ;93 1+'1)E &or a "is 0ssion a)o0t the %ra le here @0ote"8 whose &irst three lines are also repro"0 e" into the so- alle" Theosophy o" Tubin.en (late 3 . C.E.) as well as into ;7CT7NT9D54 'i-inae 3nstitutiones (18 ')8 see !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.*# &&.8 where also the original 2ree> teBt an" its translation are given. $-$) The migration o& these se ts &rom Palestine has )een o&ten p0t in "o0)t: see &or eBample E. PETER5%N8 /Dr hristent0m 0n" !an"aism0s (Na htrag)18 K68 $' (1+$*)8 pp.+1-+*. Ae wish to re all here that C(A%;5%N4s i"enti&i ation ( &. 'ie Ssabier4s 9n"eB8 s.vs.) o& the religio0s gro0p alle" )y alN7F9!8 +ihrist8 ET p.*118 the Mu.htasila (/Those who wash themselves1)8 or Sbat al,bat#ih8 with the El>esaites an" the !an"aeans is vali" only &or the &ormer gro0p8 as the "is overy o& the so- alle" Mani, o(e< has "emonstrate" on e &or all: 'er $olner Mani,$o(e< A >ritis he E"ition R hera0sgege)en 0n" 0)ersetH von ;0"wig ;%ENEN 0n" Cornelia R%!ER8 Papyrolo.i!a !oloniensia 1,8 %pla"en 1+**. $-3) %n the Cews in Ga)ylonia8 also "0ring the Persian perio"8 see the 0p-to-"ate )i)liography in 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 9998 b 31 ns.11 &&. $-,) 7ntio h0s settle" two tho0san" Cewish &amilies in ;y"ia an" Phrygia: granting them the right to &ollow their own laws an" other privileges. C%5EP(D58 9nt% Cu(.8 1$8 1,+-.-8 @0otes the relevant passages o& the letter o& the >ing to his governor Pe0BiB: &or the a0thenti ity o& this "o 0ment8 see the "is 0ssion in 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 9998 18 p.1' n.33E TREG9;C%8 Ce:ish ommunities8 p. . &&. $-.) Ae limit o0rselves to @0ote again TREG9;G%4s )oo>8 where large spa e is reserve" to the most important Cewish omm0nities in 7sia !inor (5ar"i8 Priene8 7 monia8 7pamea)8 with eBa0stive )i)liography. $-#) 5ee RETN%;F-T7NNE!G7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers8 pp.11#-$38 &or a "etaile" analysis o& /the tra"e "esignations1 in 7phro"isia4s ins ription. $-') RETN%;F5-T7NNE!G7D!8 op. it.: &or the mention o& proslytos see p..8 &a e 78 ll.138 1'8 $$ (/The important &a t that 3 persons are eBpli itly alle" proselytes R in a perio" in whi h Cewish proselytism was &or)i""en )y imperial "e ree8 is a strong testimony o& the power&0l in&l0en e o& the Cewish omm0nity o& 7phro"isia1: P. A. 3an "er (%R5T8 Essays on the Ce:ish 8orl( o" Early hristianity8 p.1'1 U&rom the st0"y /Cews an" Christians in 7phro"isia in the ;ight o& Their Relations in %ther Cities o& 7sia !inor1 ontaine" in the same vol0me8 pp.1##-*18 an" &irstly p0)lishe" in 6e(TTs ,3 (1+*+) pp.1-#-$1V): Commentary pp.,3-,*8 where also the pro)lem o& the imperial legislation is treate". $-*) C&. the previo0s note8 an" a)ove p.1$ an" ns. +--+$. $-+) C&. a)ove p.1, an" n.113. $1-) 5ee the last two lines o& the %ra le (re&s. a)ove n.$-1). The a"?e tive epptes8 /all-seeing18 is 0s0ally attri)0te" to (elios ( &. 5. !9TC(E;;8 9natolia1 /an(, Men an( Go(s in 9sia Minor8 998 %B&or" 1++38 p.,')8 even i& it is also applie" to Thes Hypsistos in a "e"i atory &orm0la &rom an 7leBan"ria4s ins ription virt0ally on&lating the (ighest go" an" the 50n go"8 or in another one &rom a Pergam0m altar ompletely asso iating )oth "ivinities ("e"i ation to Helios Theos Hypsistos): teBts in !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 nos. $*, an" 1*#. $11) Geing olle te" within orpus 3ns!riptionum ; Bosporani ( 3;B)8 e"s. 3.3. 5TRD3E et alii8 !os>ow-;eningra" 1+#.8 an" &irstly p0)lishe" )y 3.3. ;7TT5(E3 in R0ssian8 these ins riptions as it is well->nown represent the >ey-stone o& the ol" an" in&l0ential st0"y o& E. 5C(DRER8 /Fie C0"en im Gosporanis he Rei he 0n" "ie 2enossens ha&ten "er sebmenoi then hypsiston e)en"asel)est18 Sit7un.beri!hte (er Preussis!hen 94a(emie (er 8issens!ha"ten8 98 1*+'8 pp.$$--.8 )0t a)ove all o& the alrea"y @0ote" /;es !ystSres "e 5a)aHi0s et le C0"aisme1 o& CD!%NT8 who pointe" o0t to the syn retisti &eat0res o& these religio0s omm0nities an" whose on l0sions ha" )een a epte" an" "is 0sse" )y many s holars a&ter him: E.R. 2%%FEN%D2(8 /The Gospor0s 9ns riptions to the !ost (igh 2o"18 C); ,'

(1+.#-')8 pp.1-,,E G. ;9:5(9TP8 /;e C0lte "0 Fie0 TrSs (a0t = 2orgippia18 ;+3 +$ (1+#,)8 pp.1.'-#1E !. T7TC(E37 (9T%37 /%n the C0lt o& The^s (ypsistos on the Gospor0s1 (in R0ssian)8 B'3 1 (1+'*)8 pp.133-,$ ( &. SEG $* U1+'*V8 p.1#,*)E !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 pp.133-. (nos.*31-,)8 are only &ew eBamples. 7 goo" e"ition an" translation o& the teBts an )e &o0n" in ;E39N5O7T78 The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts R !% Settin. (7ppen"iB 3)8 pp.$$#-,#. $1$) C. D5T9N%378 /The Thiasoi o& Theos (ypsistos in Tanais18 H;8 31 (1++1)8 pp.1.--*- ( &. SEG ,$ U1++$V8 p.'$#)E Ea"em8 The Supreme Go(s o" the Bosporan $in.(om8 p.1*3 &&. (/C0lt 7sso iations on the Gospor0s1). :or a wi"esprea" ten"en y to solar !onotheism in ;ate 7nti@0ity8 the lassi al st0"y o& :. CD!%NT8 /a Solaire (u Pa.anisme ;omain8 Paris 1+-+8 is still to )e onsi"ere" a re&eren e mar>. :or the solar hara ter o& the (arr=nian pop0lar religion8 see TDG7C(8 3m S!hatten (es Sonnen.ottes8 passim. $13) 3C8 98 $8 nos. .8 $*.8 .$,8 .$+8 #,$E (!. 5TERN8 G/9CC 998 p.1-.8 tho0ght that metuens o0l" )e only an a)ri"gment o& the &0ller &orm0la (eum metuens an" hen e was "e&initely 0se" te hni ally: /9t is har" to on eive that either metuens or sebmenos is 0se" in the general sense o& Qreligio0s4 1). The parti iples metuens an" timens an also )e &o0n" in Christian ins riptions (E. F9E(;8 3/ B8 Gerlin 1+#18 nos. 33.+a8 3,1#a8 ,''+8 # UmetuensV8 133+-,18 11'$ UtimensV): in )oth ases8 however8 the &orm0la wo0l" a t0ally re&er to 2o".&earers. :or a ;atin trans ription o& the 2ree> theosebs into ;atin letters8 &. C.G. :RET8 3C8 98 $8 Citt= "el 3ati ano 1+3#8 no.$$* (6 F. N%T8 C38E8 998 no.$-'8 Rome: Epar hia theosebesE )0t &. :E;F!7N8 /Cewish Q5ympathiHers4 in Classi al ;iterat0re an" 9ns riptions18 p.$-, n.$,: /:rey8 who is very eager to &in" QsympathiHers4 in his ins riptions8 is wrong in not re ogniHing a possi)le one here1)8 an" 3C 98 $8 ;9:5(9TP8 Prole.omenon no.#1+a (6 C38E8 98 no.1138 3enosa: !ar 0s teuse-esE &. G. ;9:5(9TP8 /;es C0i&s = 3enosa18 ;+3 8 +- UN.5. ,-V U1+#$V8 pp.3#'-'1). :or a "is 0ssion8 )esi"es R%!7N9DO8 /Fie Q2ottes&0r htigen4 im Ne0en Testament18 passim8 an" ;7OE8 /Proselytes an" 2o"-:earers18 B 8 passim8 see ;E39N5O7T78 The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts R !% Settin.8 pp.#*-'-. The re&eren es to metuenFteGs are olle te" )y 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 9998 18 p.1#* n.',. :or literary evi"en e8 see )elow n.$1'. The term Theoseb>s is an e@0ivalent o& Sebmenos (tn then): normally in ins riptions the &ormer is pre&erre" )e a0se o& its shorter &orm. $1,) 2o"-:earers in 9!ts% Chap. B: "es ription o& a mo"el 2o"-:earer8 i%e% the ent0rion Corneli0s "enote" as eusebs 4a* phobomenos tn then eBpressing his piety )y means o& almsgiving an" ostant praying (B8 $) an" en?oing a goo" rep0tation among Cews (B8 $$). 9t is worth noting with P9NE58 /The 9ranian Name &or Christians an" 2o"-:earers18 p.1,'8 as /a or"ing to the 7 ts o& the 7postles8 the &irst 2entile onverte" to Christianity was one o& the 2o"-&earers1. Corneli0s4 episo"e is the t0rning point o& the )oo>: &rom here8 9!ts is the history o& this mission. Biii8 1# (phobomenoi tn then)E ,3 (sebmenoi proslytoi): the passage has )een long "is 0sse"8 )e a0se o& its apparent sel&- ontra"i tion8 the wor"s 0se" here )y ;0>e "enoting two "i&&erent lasses o& )elievers. 2enerally two sol0tions to the pro)lem have )een propose": the &irst one is that proslytoi is a wrong wor"8 namely an an ient gloss or /a areless eBpression1 (OD(N-5TE2E!7NN8 ;E8 50ppl. 9L8 ol.1$.3E OD(N8 T86T8 39 U1+#*V8 p.',3E E. (7ENC(EN8 'ie!hi!hte8 in $ritis!he, e<e.etis!he $ommentar uber (as 6eue Testament8 9998 2ottingen 1+.+8 p.3.. n.. UET8 %B&or" 1+'18 p.,13 n..VE R%!7N9DO8 lo . it.8 p.*1E ;9:5(9TP8 /F0 No0vea0 s0r les 5ympathisants18 p.*-E (. C%NPE;!7NN8 9!ts o" the 9postles8 Phila"elphia 1+*'8 p.1-#)E the se on" oin i"es with the position o& the s holars who re?e t any te hni al sense o& the wor" sebmenoi (:%7OE5-C7CO5%N8 B 8 38 p.**E A9;C%L8 /The Q2o"-:earers4 in 7 ts: 7 Re onsi"eration18 p.1*1 &.). G0t parti 0larly worth o& interest is a thir" possi)ility8 namely the s0ggestion o& ;E39N5O7T78 The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts R !% Settin.8 p.,'8 who arg0es /that proslytos is 0se" here in the same manner as in !attew in a )asi Qver)al4 sense o& Q oming to any-thing new41: she ha" in &a t he >e" a semanti val0e o& the termIver) proslytosIprosr4hetai present in some Christian teBts s0 h as the Homiliae o& 75TER9D5 %: 7!75E78 the Praes!riptio o& !7R97 %: C755%GE;78 an" a passage o& C;E!EN5 %: 7;EL7NFR978 where /alongsi"e the tra"itional meaning there )egan to "evelop another one8 namely Qa onvert to Christianity4 18 hen e the more general /i"ea o& approa hing anything new18 )y whi h interpretation o)vio0sly all ontra"i tions ease to eBist)E .-E Bvi8 1,E Bvii8 ,8 1'E Bvii8 1'E Bviii8 #-' (sebmenoi Utn thenV an" sebmenoi Hllenes: the a)ri"ge" &orm0la oi sebmenoi o0l" also )e eBplaine" )y the omman"ment o& not naming in vain 2o": &. C. O;7D5NER8 Bon Cesus 7u Paulus8 Cer0salem-7mster"am 1+.-8 p...E ;9:5(9TP8 ibi(em). Ae sho0l" a"" to these items three passages mentioning /2ree>s1 (Biv8 18 Bviii8 , an" BiB8 1-: 3ou(a*ous 4a* Hellenas)8 whose i"entity is ertainly not "i&&erent &rom the sebomnon Hellnon previo0sly mentione" in Bvii8 , ( &. RETN%;F5T7NNE!G7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers8 p..1). :or other "ire t or in"ire t 2ree> literary re&eren es to 2o"-:earers (Epi tet0s8 :ilo8 Coseph0s)8 see GERTR7!8 art. /Theose)Ss18 T86T 9998 p.1$3 &&.E C%(EN8 /Respe t &or C0"aism )y 2entiles 7 or"ing to Coseph0s18 pp.,1#-+ (who o0nts as many as &ive instan es

in 9C: 38 $1'E 38 31*-+E $-8 3,E $-8 ,1E $-8 1+.E an" &o0r in BC: $8 ,.,E $8 ,#3E $8 .#-E '8 ,.)E !7RCD58 /The Sebmenoi in Coseph0s18 pp.$,'-.-. Talm0"i re&eren es to yere#i ash,shamayyim (/(eaven :earers18 where /(eaven1 is the tra"itional metonymy &or 2o") are olle te" an" "is 0sse" )y 9. ;E3T8 /;e Proselytisme C0i&18 ;EC .- (1+-.)8 pp.1-+E .1 (1+-#)8 pp.$+-31E an" )y 59E2ERT8 /2ottes&0r htiger18 pp.11--$'E a"" RETN%;F5-T7NNE!G7D!8 op. it.8 p.,* &. an" notesE :E;F!7N8 /Cewish 5ympathiHers18 p.$-' &.E an" the lemma Dre#8 T89T8 s.v. $1.) EP9P(7N9D58 Panarion8 *-8 1-$8 ompares !essalians4 pla es o& prayer with eBtra-m0ral Cewish san t0aries8 li>e the 0lti pla e o0tsi"e the ity walls where Pa0l met the 2o"-&earing ;y"ia8 or another one )0ilt )y the 5amaritans in the shape o& an open-air theatre8 a""ing that they also 0se" )0il"ings similar to h0r hes: &. )elow p.$#. $1#) 9!ts8 Bviii8 #. $1') 7)ove in the teBt an" n. $-+. $1*) :or /The 7postoli Co0n il o& Cer0salem18 see O. ;7OE4s 6ote LB38 in B 8 98 .8 pp.1+.-$1$. $1+) 9!ts8 Bv8 1+-$-. $$-) :or the e@0ivalen e .erFeiG toshb 5 .erFeiG ash,sha#ar 5 benFeiG 6oah, &. 5C(DRER-3ER!E5!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 9998 18 p.1'1E 5TR7CO-G9;;ERGECO8 $omm% 7% 6T8 998 p.'$$ &.E !%%RE8 Cu(aism8 98 p.3,1E RETN%;F5-T7NNE!G7D!8 op. it.8 p.,* &. an" .* &. $$1) Talmu(: Q9bo(a Kara8 (*8 ,) #,)E Sanhe(rin8 .#aE Ger% 38 1E &. the arts. /;aws (Noa hian)18 CE 3998 pp.#,*-.- an" /Noa hite ;aws18 EC L998 ols. 11+--1E see also C. G%N59R3EN8 /e Cu(aisme Palestinien au Temps (e Cesus, hrist8 98 Paris 1+3,8 p.$.1E O;7D5NER8 Bon Cesus 7u Paulus8 p.3,.. Ae repro"0 e the list given )y RETN%;F5-T7NNE!G7D!8 op. it.8 p..+8 an" their relative remar>s: /Ahat were the seven omman"ments< %n the one han"8 we &in" omman"ments against 1) i"olatryE $) in estE 3) m0r"erE ,) pro&anation o& the name o& 2o"E .) ro))eryE #) a positive omman"ment on the "0ty to &orm instr0ments o& ?0sti eE ') a )an o& eating parts 0t o0t o& living animals. %n the other han" we are tol" that the tanna4iti s hool o& !anasseh omitte" &rom the Noa hite omman"ments those on the o0rts an" on )lasphemy (nos. # an" , a)ove)8 an" s0)stit0te" prohi)itions o& emas 0lation an" Q&or)i""en miBt0re4 (o& plants8 in plo0ghing8 et .)1. $$$) C&. &or eBample The Boo4 o" Cubilees8 '8 $- &&.8 whi h han"s "own a @0ite "i&&erent list. The set o& pres riptions ontaine" in 9!ts8 Bv8 1+-$- (an" repeate" in the neBt passage $*-+)8 however8 is spe ially worth o& attention8 sin e it /is the only one that )ears any systemati relationship to the set o& religio0s laws whi h the Pentate0 h ma>es o)ligatory 0pon resi"ent aliens1 (/Noa hite ;aws18 ol.11+-)E &. also Ps% lementines8 PG 998 ol.$$1. $$3) /The 7postoli "e ree8 a r0le agree" at the 7postoli Co0n il where Pa0l8 Peter an" others met to "is 0ss the eBtent to whi h the gentile onverts to Christianity ha" to &ollow Cewish ;aw8 is 0rrently agree" )y many to )e a >in" o& Christian 2o"-&earers4 r0le1 (RETN%;F5-T7NNE!G7D!8 op. it.8 p.#18 with )i)liographi al re&eren es at n.$#1)E &. 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 p.3+$: /;e "N ret apostoli@0e8 &iBant omme on"ition = l4a"mission "es 2entils la prati@0e "es pre epts "its noa hi@0es8 se pla e "ans la mSme ligne "e la propagan"e ?0ive1. $$,) 7 &0n"amental orrespon"en e )etween these "i&&erent athegories o& people are also s0ggeste" )y the English translator o& the S*rah8 7. 2D9;;7D!E who8 when ommenting i)n 9sh=@4s portrait o& Pay"8 pointe" o0t that /the in&l0en e o& the Cewish &orm0la8 ta>en over )y early Christianity8 is lear1 ( The /i"e o" Muhamma(8 p.++ n.$). C&. however a)ove8 p.$1 &. an" ns. 1**-1+$. $$.) 5ee the a0thors an" the wor>s @0ote" )y C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 998 p..#3 ( &. 98 p.$'1 an" n.1)8 an" p..+$ &. ( &. 2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 p.13)E a"" OhalKl i)n 7hma" who8 a or"ing to alW0rt0)K8 i)n OathKr an" i)n (ayy=n8 states that /the 5a)ians )elieve that they )elong to the religion o& the prophet Noah1 (@0ote" )y 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 p.$.). $$#) :or teBt0al re&eren es to i)n al-Oal)K8 T=@Jt an" Gar (e)rae0s8 see again C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 998 p...3 an" p..,+ &. ( &. 98 p.311)8 who8 in relation to Gar (e)rae0s8 mentions 5em4s son 7rpa>sha"8 whereas

in GDF2E4s translation o& the hroni!on ( it. a)ove n.1.+)8 p.'8 one &in"s o0t the name o& Noah4s nephew 5h=l=h. 7;-T7G7R98 on the other han"8 in his History laims that Sb* is another name o& ;ame h8 the &ather o& Noah (Ta#r*4h al rasl :a al,mul48 e". !.C. Fe 2%ECE8 repr. ;ei"en 1+#,8 98 p.1'* UET The History o" al,Tabar*8 New Tor> 1+*'V: the great poligraph a epts this "erivation o& the name Sbi#n &rom an eponymo0s hero together with the other one propose" )y him in his Ta"s*r: see )elow p.3- an" n.$'1)E &. 7;-75(47R98 Tash*l al,sab*l8 Comm. a" Sra #8 .+ (@0ote" )y C(A%;5%N8 998 p..#38 &. 98 p.$'1). :or the opinion that the 5a)ians laim to )e &ollowers o& the religion o& Noah8 see 7;-TD598 al,Tibiyn "* ta"s*r al,)ur#n8 98 e". Na?a& 13'# (.I1+.#8 p.$*$ (Comm. a" Sra #8 #$)E O75(7N98 MinhaD al,s(i2*n "* il7m al,mu4hli"*n8 9998 e". Teheran 13,# (.5.I1+$'8 p.$*3 (Comm. a" Sra #8 #$): &. ! 7D;9::E8 /EBegeti al 9"enti&i ation o& the 5=)i4Jn18 p.+' an" p.1--E a"" the mo"ern !0slim leBi ographers @0ote" )y C(A%;5%N8 998 p..+$ &. 8 an" the a0thors ite" in the previo0s note. $$') 2RE2%R9D5 %: N7P97NPD58 0r.8 1*8 . (PG 3.8 +*+F &&.). :or Panto4rator8 see 5C(DRER8 /Fie C0"en im Gosporanis hen Rei he18 p.$$1E (%R5;ET8 6e: 'o!uments8 98 p.13' an" 9998 p.11*. 7 0lt o& Keus Panto4rator has )een re ently i"enti&ie" in Gytinia8 3% 6i!aea 998 18 no.11$1E $8 no.1.1$.: the e"itor o& these ins riptions8 5. 57(9N8 has rightly pointe" o0t the relation o& this 0lt to the worship o& Theos Hypsistos. 9t m0st )e remem)ere" that the "esignation /(ypsistarii18 as well as /(ypsistiani18 was not a"opte" )y the worshippers themselves: it was a la)el applie" )y o0tsi"ers to them ( &. !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 p.+#). $$*) The a"?e tive is )orrowe" &rom TC(ER9O%3ER8 re&. )elow n.$$+. $$+) :irstly p0)lishe" )y (9CO58 CHS 1$ (1*+1)8 p.$3#E A. F9TTENGER2ER e".8 0G3S8 ;eipHig 1+-31+-.8 p..'3. %n 5a))atistai8 see the art. o& 2RE55!7NN8 ;E8 s.v.8 an" the "is 0ssion o& TC(ER9O%3ER8 /The 5am)athions18 p.,# &. (6 S!ripta Hierosolymitana 98 p.*1 &.)E & also :E;F!7N8 /Proselyters an" Q5ympathiHers4 /8 p.$'*. $3-) TC(ER9O%3ER8 op. it.8 p.,'. The a0thor eBplains also the real nat0re o& the Sambathe*on mentione" in a 99I999 . C.E. ins ription &rom Tiatira (3G; 938 no.1$*1E 3C 998 no.'.$)E &. 5C(DRER-3ER!E5!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 9998 18 p..3. $31) 2RE2%R9D5 %: NT5578 Eun%8 $ (PG ,.8 ,*1F ,*,7). :or &0nerary epitaphs o& two possi)le (ypsistarians in Phrygia8 see !9TC(E;;8 9natolia8 p..-E R.;. :%L8 Pa.ans an( hristians8 3i>ing 1+*#8 p.,-,E ;E39N5O7T78 The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts R !% Settin.8 p.1-1&. an" n.1-'. $3$) Goth gro0ps were >nown )y a n0m)er o& a""itional names s0 h as Martyriani8 Enthusiastae et . 7)o0t !essalians see PS8 Part 98 3ol. 3: /iber Gra(uum8 e". !. O!%5O%8 Paris 1+$#8 Bv- BliB (Fis 0ssion)8 lBB- B ii (7n ient Testimonia). The Christian se t was on"emne" )y syno"s at 5i"e an" Costantinople ( &. 2.A.(. ;7!PE8 9 Patristi! Gree4 /e<i!on8 %B&or" 1+#18 p.*338 &or teBt0al re&eren es): lose a&&inities with Christianity res0lt &or eBample &rom their a"option o& a martyr 0lt. %n the other han"8 lose similarities with C0"aism emerge ?0st &rom the name o& their pla es o& worship8 )e a0se proseu!he o 0rs almost eB l0sively in Cewish onteBts: a goo" analysis o& the wor" is given )y !. (EN2E;8 /Prose0 he 0n" 5ynagoge: C0"is he 2emein"e8 2ottesha0s 0n" 2ottes"ienst in "er Fiaspora 0n" in Palastina18 in Tra(ition un( Glaube1 +est.abe "ur $%G% $uhn8 2ottingen 1+'18 pp.1.'-*3 (6 The Syna.o.ue, Stu(ies in 0ri.ins, 9r!haeolo.y an( 9r!hite!ture8 e". C. 2DT!7NN8 New Tor> 1+'.8 pp.11--,*)E see also ;. R%GERT8 0pera Minora Sele!ta8 998 7mster"am 1+#+8 p.1#11E 5C(DRER-3ER!E5-!9;;7R-2%%F!7N8 The History o" the Ce:ish People8 99 (1+'+)8 p.,$. &. n., an" p.,3+ &. n.#1. The wor" is 0se" to "enote san t0aries o& Thes Hypsistos in the Gosporan Oing"om8 on Felos8 in 2alatia8 in (ellenisti Egypt (7thri)is): re&eren es in !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypistos18 nos.*.8 **8 1-+8 $-$8 $*.E "is 0ssion in (%R5;ET8 6e: 'o!uments8 9998 p.1$18 938 p.$-1. $33) EP9P(7N9D58 Pan.8 *-8 1-3 (G S8 Epiphanius8 e". O. (%;;8 9998 pp.,*.-*). $3,) CTR9;;D5 %: 7;EL7NFR978 'e 9(or% in Sp% et Ber%8 38 +$ (PG #*8 $*1 GC). $3.) The &irst law was iss0e" in the names o& (onori0s8 7r a"i0s an" Theo"osi0s 998 an" the se on" one in the names o& (onori0s an" Theo"osi0s 99: teBts an" translation in 7. ;9NFER8 The Ce:s in ;oman 3mperial /e.islation8 it. (a)ove n.+$)8 pp.$$#-3# an" pp.$.#-#$. Goth were preserve" in the Theo"osian Co"e (1#8 .8 ,3E 1#8 *8 1+)8 as well as in o(e< Custinianus (18 +8 1$).

$3#) 7D2D5T9ND58 Epist% ,,8 #8 13. The "ate o& the letter may )e the year 3+#8 3+' or even 3+*. The title Maior re&ers o&ten to the lea"ers o& the Cewish omm0nities8 &. ;9NFER8 op. it.8 p.$.#. 7)o0t the aeli!olae8 we signaliHe again the eB ellent /Dn Fo 0ment "0 5yn retisme Religie0B "ans l47&ri@0e Romaine1 o& 59!%N ( it. a)ove n.'$)8 whi h represents also one o& the rare st0"ies into the matter. 70g0stine seems to "isagree with the 0s0al Christian interpretation o& tertium .enus 6 Christians8 sin e he proposes on the ontrary an i"ea neither "istant &rom o0r point o& view a)o0t 2o"-:earers8 nor with !0slim prophetology. 7)o0t the Gi)li al episo" o& the 7r h8 the 5aint in &a t writes what &ollows: Cam -ero 2uo( 6oe homini Dusto, et si!ut (e illo S!riptura -eri(i!a lo2uitur, in sua .eneratione per"e!to (Gen%, ,, +), imperat 'eus, ut ar!am "a!iat, in 2ua !um suis A liberaretur a (ilu-ii -astitate^ pro!ul (ubio "i.ura est pere.rinantis in ho! sae!ulo !i-itatis 'ei, ho! est E!!lesiae, 2uae "it sal-a per li.num, in 2uo pepen(it Me(iator 'ei et hominum homo hristus Cesus (3 Tim% #8 .) %%% Et !aetera 2uae in eDus(em ar!ae !onstru!tione (i!untur, e!!lesiasti!arum sunt rerum A E<empli .ratia, -elut si 2uispiam 2uo( hi! s!riptum est, ?in"eriora bi!amerata et tri!amerata "a!ies eam@ (Gen% ,8 1#)^ non 2uo( e.o in illo opeee (i<i U ontr% +aust%, 1$8 1#V, -elit intelli.i^ 2uia e< omnibus .entibus E!!lesia !, bi!ameratam (i!tam propter (uo .enera hominum, !ir!um!isionem s!ili!et et praeputium, 2uo( 9postolus et alio mo(o (i!it C0"aeos et 2rae os (;om% '8 +)^ tri!ameratam -ero, eo 2uo( omnes gentes "e tri)0s &iliis Noe post (il-ium reparatae sunt1 se( aliu( (i!at ali2ui(, 2uo( a "i(ei re.ula non sit alienum% 6am 2uoniam non solas in in"erioribus mansiones habere ar!am -oluit, -erum etiam in superioribus, et hae! (i<it bi!amerata^ et in superioribus superiorum et hae! appella-it tri!amerata1 ut ab imo sursum -ersus tertia !onsur.eret abitatio ('e i-% 'ei8 1.8 $#E we 0n"erline). $3') 9t is important to note that in the law iss0e" in ,-+ C.E. the meas0res against the aeli!olae (a)ove p.$# an" n.$3.) were &ollowe" )y a reiteration o& the prohi)itions o& proselytism: see a)ove p.1$ an" ns.**-+$. $3*) o(e< Be7ae antabri.iensis8 e". :.(. 5CR93ENER8 Cam)ri"ge 1*#,: 9!ts Biii8 .-: A !aeli!olas mulieres honestasE Bvii8 ,: A multi !aeli!olarum et .rae!orum multitu(o ma.na8 where the translator intro"0 es a "istin tion )etween 2o"-:earers an" the other 2ree>s whi h is a)sent in the original version. 9n the Bul.ata ()eginnings 3 ent0ry)8 5t. CER%!E generally translates sebmenoi with !olentes an" phobomenoi with metuentes. $3+) 5C(DRER8 /Fie C0"en im Gosporanis hen Rei he18 p.$$, &. 7 s0)stantial i"entity )etween (ypsistarians an" 5a)ians8 altho0gh within a horiHon o& resear h "i&&erent &rom o0rs8 ha" )een propose" long ago )y 2. G%E(!ER8 'e Hypsistariis8 Gerlin 1*$,8 p.$ &&. an" pp..+-*.E 0n&ort0nately8 non -i(imus the st0"y with the same title p0)lishe" little earlier (1*$3) )y C. D;;!7NN in (ei"el)erg. $,-) /9l n4est pas eB l0 @0e no0s soyons i i a0 arre&o0r8 mal "NlimitN8 "e trois religions1: it was in s0 h terms that 59!%N8 &or eBample8 "e&inie" the religio0s onteBt o& the North-7&ri an lamp st0"ie" )y him in the essay ite" a)ove (n.$3# an" n.'$)8 p..1.8 maintaining at the same time the e@0ation aeli!olae(ypsistarians (/R les Caeli olae ne sont rien "4a0tre @040ne varietN proprement a&ri aine "e se tate0rs "0 TrSs (a0t18 p..13). C&. also P. 7T(7N75597F9 !. :REFE8 3ntro(u!tion to Monotheism ( it. a)ove n.,)8 p.1'. $,1) This point may )e ta>en &or grante": see &or eBample the wi"e oor"inates )y whi h ;9:5(9TP "enote" 2o"-:earers8 namely that they /n4Ntaient pas onvertis a0 C0"aisme et n4o)servaient @0e le 5a))at et les Q omman"ements "e Noe4 1 (/;es 5ympathisants18 p.'*). $,$) 5ome o& these tra"itions are >nown )y 7;-T7G7R98 Ta"s*r8 9 (re&. a)ove8 n.,1)8 p.31+: ;ayt &ollowing !0?=hi"8 or8 a or"ing to another isn(8 al-O=sim ). 7)K al-GiHHa &ollowing !0?=hi": /the 5a)ians are not Cews nor Christians8 they "o not have any 0lt1E i)n C0r=y? &ollowing !0?=hi": /the 5a)ians are a religio0s gro0p )etween Cews an" !agians8 they "o not have any 0lt1E TJn0s ). Q7)" al-74l= &ollowing i)n Aah) UQ7)"all=h ). Aah)V &ollowing i)n Pay" UDs=ma ). Pay"V: /the 5a)ians R say: QThere is no go" )0t 2o"48 )0t they "o not have any 0lt (Jamal)8 s ript0re an" prophet8 only this wor": QThere is no go" )0t 2o"4 1.Ae 0se !7R2%;9%DT(4s translation8 art. /(arr=nians18 p..1+. $,3) 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 p. 3# &.8 arg0es that there is /nothing to oppose the a o0nt o& Q7)J TJs0& Q7)sha4a Ual-WathK4iV &o0n" in al,"ihrist an" s0pporte" )y some !0slim s holars8 li>e al-Ohaw=riHmK an" (amHah al-Q9s&ah=nK1: a or"ing to the s holar8 in &a t8 /it is well >nown that "0ring al-!a4mJn4s reign there was no toleration o& views on vario0s s0)?e ts whi h were against the opinion o& the entral government. 9n that perio" there was pres0ma)ly intoleran e a)o0t the poll taB )y onstrast with earlier times8 when there was great elasti ity1. G0t s0 h a re onstr0 tion seems 0s a )ig "istortion o& the &a ts: it

orrespon"s noway to the tr0th that on the )eginnings o& the Q7))=si" Caliphate8 an" in parti 0lar "0ring al!a4mJn4s reign8 there was /no toleration o& views1 in religio0s mattersE on the ontrary8 ?0st in the o0rse o& that perio"8 the "e)ate )etween "i&&erent religio0s minorities an" 9slam was en o0rage" an" s0pporte" )y the same Caliph8 who not sel"om too> part in these "is 0ssions whi h he himsel& li>e" to organiHe: in a""ition to the )i)liographi al re&eren es @0ote" a)ove n.1*-8 see E3Q8 398 s.v. /(al-)!a4mJn18 )0t espe ially 9GN 7;-G7GDTT78 $itb al,ta:h*(8 Teheran 13*' (.I1+#'8 p.,3- &. 8 ontaining the long an" interesting ontroversy )etween a 5a)ian master8 a ertain Q9mr=n 8 an" the &amo0s "o tor al-Ri"= (the episo"e is @0ote" )y 2. !%NN%T8 /5a)Nens et 9"ol=tres selon Q7)" al-Ca))=r18 M3'E0 1$ U1+',V8 p.$*). 9n other wor"s8 we thin> that the a"option o& the name /5a)ians1 )y the (arr=nians in the &irst @0arter o& the 999 (.I9L . C.E. is a @0ite nat0ral iss0e o& the nee" o& "e&ining their own "o trinal position in onse@0en e o& a hange o& poli y )y the !0slim government not in the name o& intoleran e8 )0t in the name o& inter-religio0s on&rontationE li>ewise8 the harge o& i"olatry8 together with the other even more serio0s one o& sa ri&i ing h0man )eings (not eB epting hil"ren) raise" against them )elongs as (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 pp.+#-1318 has onvin ingly "emonstrate" omparing these al0mnies with the similar ones )y whi h Christians were previo0sly harge" to the repertoir o& religio0s polemi s8 )eing one o& its most ommon an" &avo0rite arg0ments (a)o0t the 0nrelia)ility o& the +ihrist4s in&amo0s tale8 see also 2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 p.1$- &&.8 who &0rnishes a riti al analysis o& the histori al so0r es. 7)o0t the general pro)lem o& h0man sa ri&i es8 the st0"y Y!ens henop&er )ei "en 7ra)ernY8 9nthropos8 .3 (1+.*)8 pp.'$1-*-. o& C. (ENN9N2ER8 sho0l" always )e ta>en into a o0nt). The i"ea o& Christianity as apostasy is witnesse" &or eBample )y %R92EN8 % els%E &. N%CO8 on-ersion8 hap. L an" notes to hap. L999. $,,) %n the relia)ility o& these earlier so0r es8 see 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 p.$$ &. an" n.,*. $,.) 5ee C.!. :9ET8 art. /Nas=ra18 E3Q 3998 pp.+'--, . Ae m0st remem)er that the &inal hoi e o& a"opting the 2ree> (;atin) name /Christians1 &irstly 0se" at 7ntio h in the year ,- a or"ing to 9!ts8 Bi8 $# instea" o& other epithets s0 h as /NaHaraeans1 or /2alilaeans1 ()oth pointing at the geographi al origin o& Ces0s8 an" mostly 0se" )y Cews &or "enoting his &ollowersE the latter8 in parti 0lar8 is still systemati ally pre&erre" )y CD;97N8 whose ontra Galileos is 0niversally >nown) 0n"er ame a heavy histori al "evelopment8 as on the other han" the a)0n"ant )i)liography a)o0t the s0)?e t @0ite evi"ently proves: :. G;7558 /$H;EST39603,$H;3ST3960318 Hermes 3- (1*+.)8 pp.,#.-'-E E. PETER5%N8 /Christian0s18 in Mis!ellanea Gio-anni Mos!ati8 98 Citta "el 3ati ano (Gi)liote a 7postoli a 3ati ana) 1+,#8 pp.3..-'$E E.C. G9COER!7N8 /The Name o& Christians18 HT; ,$ (1+,+)8 pp.1-+-,,E C. !%RE7D8 /;es Nom "es ChrNtiens18 /a 6ou-elle lio 1-$ (1+,+-.-)8 pp.1+--$E C. 5P9CW8 /Ce @0e 5igni&ie le Titre "e ChrNtiens18 ST 1. (1+#1)8 pp.#*-'*E G. ;9:5(9TP8 /;4%rigine "0 Nom "es ChrNtiens18 B 1#.$ (1+#$)8 pp.#.-'-E C. T7T;%R8 /Ahy Aere the Fis iples :irst Calle" Christians at 7ntio h (7 ts Bi8 $#) < 18 ;B 1-1.1 (1++,)8 pp.'.-+,. 7s &ar as the name mas*h*yyn (i%e% the 7ra)i trans ription o& the 2ree> $hristianoi8 "erive" &rom the name o& Christ8 al,Mas*h) is on erne"8 it was employe" only )y Christians &or naming themselves still in the 39 (.IL99 ent0ry8 a or"ing to 7;-57!47N98 9l,ansb8 38 p.3--E on the other han"8 only one a0thor8 5D;7T!eN 7;-2(7PPc8 in his theologi al wor>8 0ses )oth al,6asrniyya an" al,Mas*hiyya &or "enoting Christians (@0ote" )y :9ET8 op. it.8 p.+'1): however8 the pro)a)ility that !0hamma" >new more than one 7ra)i term &or /Christians1 leaving apart the pro)lem whether one was 0se" )y non-Christians an" another )y Christians themselves &or "enoting their own &aith8 that is Christianity in general8 or there eBiste" more than one name &or "enoting "i&&erent religio0s realities s0 h as &or eBample C0"aeo-Christians an" /ortho"oB1 Christians annot a)sol0tely r0le" o0t: see )elow p.31 an" ns. $'+-*1. . $,#) 9t is @0ite interesting we )elieve - to remem)er here that the )asi meaning o& the 7ra)i wor" is ?0st /(2o"-):earer18 sharing the same root o& the ver) rahaba 6 /to &ear18 reg0larly employe" also in a religio0s sense: )esi"es ;eBi ons8 &. &or instan e 5PENCER TR9!9N2(7!8 hristianity amon. the 9rabs8 p.1,,. The eBamples o& a systemati ling0isti orrespon"en e 2o"-:earersIChristians "0ring a long histori al perio" are a host8 as we shall see even )etter in the neBt pages. 9t seems 0s also worth o& attention the 5yria term 94sany (6 2ree> Lnoi)8 /5trangers18 )y whi h wan"ering as eti s a typi al &orm o& eBpression o& 5yrian monasti ism - were alle"8 &. ibi(em8 p.1,-. $,') 5%P%!EN8 H%E.8 98 hap.1$8 an" other 2ree>-writing historians 0se the wor" /Philosophy1 as well as the relate" ver) &or "enoting )oth the theorethi al an" pra ti al aspe ts o& the an horiti monasti ism8 an" in &a t it was )y this term that the !onasti Aay was generally >nown )y people. /Ahile 2ree> ontroversialists in &a t )e ame all the more )itter8 7ramaeans an" Copts a)an"one" any intelle t0al attempt to re on ile the on&li t )etween the eBoteri an" esoteri elements in the Christian tra"ition in or"er to

p0rs0e pra ti al ways )y whi h the &alse "0ality o0l" )e over ome8 hen e they alle" it Qthe Christian philosophy4 an" Qto philosophiHe4 meant Qto p0rs0e the monasti way4 / (5PENCER TR9!9N2(7!8 op. it.8 p.## &.E &. p.1-$ n.$3 an" p.$.#). $,*) 9t is not )y han e that one o& the &ew Christians with whom !0hamma" ame personally into onta t was ?0st a mon>8 namely the learne" an horite GahKra whom the Prophet wo0l" have en o0ntere" "0ring his ?o0rney to Gostra. This legen"ary episo"e is o&ten re or"e" )y !e"ieval !0slim so0r es: 9GN 95(7!8 S*rah8 ET pp.'+-*1E 9GN 5747F8 Taba2t (re&. a)ove8 n.1+$)8 98 18 p.'#E 7;-T7G7R98 Ta#r*4h (re&. a)ove8 n.$$#)8 98 pp.1$$3-.E 7;-!754DF98 MurD8 e". an" :T )y C. PE;;7T8 Paris 1+#.8 98 p.*38 is the only writer to re ogniHe that Bah*ra is an epithet8 as the wor" in reality is ("eriving &rom 5yria bh*r whi h is ?0st a title ommonly employe" &or a""ressing mon>s): &. the lemma /GahKra18 E3Q 98 an" also )elow n.$#-. $,+) Ae "o not >now any monograph eB l0sively "evo0te" to this important omm0nity: moreover8 )oo>s s0 h as &or eBample the alrea"y ite" :9ET4s ommunaut>s Syria2ues en 3ran et 3ra28 N7D4s /es 9rabes hr>tiens (e M>sopotamie et (e Syrie8 or 5PENCER TR9!9N92(7!4s hristianity amon. the 9rabs8 provi"e in"ee" a very meagre in&ormation a)o0t it (in spite o& sometimes - the n0mero0s re&eren es to it: in the last ase at pp.1.#8 1'18 1+#8 $$.8 $$#8 $,38 $'*). C&. also C.!. N7;;9N%8 ;a!!olta (i S!ritti8 3ol. 9998 Roma 1+,-8 p.13+ &.E other )i)liographi al material is &0rnishe" )y the lemmas /Nast0riyyJn1 (G. (%;!GER2)8 an" /al-(Kra1 (9R:7N 5(7(9F)8 E3Q 3998 pp. 1-33-.8 an" 9998 p.,'* &.8 whereas the lemma /(al-)9)="1 is 0n&ort0nately 0seless. :or the eBpression /5ervants o& 2o"18 see )elow n.33'. . $.-) Aah) i)n !0na))Kh (". 11--1, (.I '$*-3$ C.E.)8 a or"ing to 9GN W7T7TG7(8 9l,ma#r*"8 e". Cairo 1+3,8 p.$-$E 9GN O7T(9R8 Ta"s*r8 e". Cairo 13'# (.I1+.#8 98 p.1-,E an" to Q7)" al-Rahman i)n Pay" (". 1*$ (.I'+* C.E.)8 &. 7;-T7G7R98 Ta"s*r8 98 p.31+E 9GN O7T(9R8 op. it.8 98 p.1-,E 7GD 7;-:7R7C8 Ta"s*r8 e". Geir0t 13*, (.I1+#,8 98 p.+$E 9GN (7TT7N8 Ta"s*r8 e". Riy=" n.".8 98 p.$3+. 9t is worth noting that this person is one o& the so0r es o& al-Ta)arK (who mentions him simply as /al-Pay"1)8 to whom is also "0e the relevant in&ormation that the 5a)ians live" in Ca7*rat al,Ma:sil (i%e% the region aro0n" !os0l in Northern !esopotamia)8 as !7R2%;9%DT(8 art. /(arr=nians18 p..1+8 ha" stresse" &or "emonstrating that ?0st at this early "ate namely almost &i&ty years )e&ore the "ate propose" )y the +ihrist4s &amo0s tale - the (arranians were alle" /5a)ians1: the s holar laime" in &a t that /the region aro0n" !os0l1 is an a epta)le geographi al approBimation &or (arr=nE &. 2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 p.1-# (who "ates )a > Pay"4s "eath to ''-8 so that the lin> )etween (arr=n an" the 5a)ians an )e esta)lishe" at least '. years )e&ore al-!a4mJn4s visit). 9n"ee"8 one sho0l" perhaps >eep in min" that /in the time o& the emperor C0lian (3#1-3) the an horite movement was wi"ely eBten"e" an" the region o& TJr Q7)"Kn Uthe large mo0ntaino0s platea0 r0nning ?0st 5o0th o& (arr=n in the "ire tion o& !os0lV ha" alrea"y a @0ire" that name whi h means Q!o0ntain o& the 5ervants o& 2o"48 )e a0se o& the n0m)er o& its as eti s an" eno)iti gro0pings1 (5PENCER-TR9!9N2(7!8 op. it.8 p.1$#). $.1) Q7)" Rahman i)n Pay"8 a or"ing to the !0slim so0r es @0ote" in relation to him in the previo0s note. $.$) OhalKl i)n Q7hma" (". 1'- (.I'*#-')8 a or"ing to 7;-WDRTDG98 9l,Dam*# al,Jah4m al,)ur#n8 e". Cairo 13*' (.I1+#'8 98 p.,3,E 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E 9GN (7TT7N8 lo . it.E &. C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 98 p.1**. $.3) Wat="ah (". 11* (.I '3#)8 a or"ing to 7;-N7T57GDR98 Gharyb al,)ur#n :a ra.hyb al,"ur2n8 e". Cairo 13*1 (.I1+#$8 98 p.333.. $.,) (asan al-GasrK (". 11- (.I'$*)8 a or"ing to 7;-WDRTDG98 lo . it.E 9GN (7TT7N8 lo . it.E 7)J alPan=" (". 13- (.I',')8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it. (in reality 7)J al-Pan=" states that the 5a)ians pray towar"s Taman8 i%e% the 5o0th). $..) Wat="ah8 a or"ing to 7;-T7G7R98 op. it.8 98 p.3$-E 7;-WDRTDG98 lo . it.E 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E OhalKl8 a or"ing to 7;-WDRTDG98 lo . it.E 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E 9GN (7TT7N8 lo . it.E (asan alGasrK8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E 7GD 7;-:7R7C8 lo . it.E i)n 7)K N0?ayh (". 13$ (.I',+)8 an" 50""K (". 1$* (.I',.)8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E 9GN (7TT7N8 lo . it. %ther !0slim personalities on&irm that 5a)ians worship the angels (7)J T0s0& U". 1*$ (.I'+*V8 !0hamma" i)n (asan U". 1*+ (.I*-,VE &. 7GD ;7TT( 7;-57!7RW7NF98 Ta"s*r8 50leymaniye ;i)rary8 :atih Gol0m0 N0: $$'8 e". 9stan)0l8 98 p.1+G) an" rea" 7abr (7)J al-Q7liyah U". +- (.I'-*V8 Ra)K4 i)n Q7nas al-GasrK U". 13+ (.I'.#V8 a or"ing to 7;-GDO(7R98 9l,Dmi# al,sah*h8 e". 9stan)0l 1+*18 98 p.+-E 7;-WDRTDG98 lo . it.E 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E 9GN (7TT7N8 lo . it.).

$.#) 7)J al-Pan="8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E Piy=" i)n 7)KhK8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it. $.') 7)J al-Pan="8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E Piy=" i)n 7)Khi8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it.E Wat="ah8 a or"ing to the same so0r es @0ote" in relation to him a)ove n.$... $.*) 7)J al-Pan="8 a or"ing to 9GN O7T(9R8 lo . it. 9t is onvenient to re all here in relation to points .8 '8 * an" + - the @0ite strange pi t0re o& the 5a)ianism "rawn )y 9GN (7P!8 op. it. (a)ove n.1**)8 p. 3, &&.8 a or"ing to whom it wo0l" have ha" many rites an" pra ti es in ommon with 9sl=m. 7 or"ing to o0r so0r es o& in&ormation a)o0t it (an" in parti 0lar 7;-N7Fc! an" 7;-GcRdNc4s 0lti alen(ars)8 however8 we m0st a >nowle"ge that the religion o& the (arr=nians &its well with all these elements8 eB epting the rea"ing o& the Psalms: the @0estion o& having no 0lt8 s ript0re or prophet(s)8 on the other han"8 "eserves a more "etaile" analysis whi h we are going to per&orm in the neBt pages. $.+) 9t is the ase o& Piy=" i)n 7)KhK8 (asan al-GasrK8 Wat="ah8 7)J al-Pan="8 OhalKl i)n 7hma"8 7hma" i)n (an)al8 7)J T0s0& an" !0hamma" i)n (asan. $#-) Ta>ing into a o0nt its !onotheisti hara ter8 the possession o& a (oly Goo> an" the a >nowle"gment o& a Prophet8 in &a t8 their religion8 as well as the "o trine o& the El>esaitesIMu.htasilaISbat al,Batih8 no "o0)t is onsistent with the &eat0res o& the /People o& the Goo>1 an" onse@0ently with those o& the gro0p "esignate" as the /5a)ians18 mostly )e a0se !0hamma" himsel& /may not have &0lly 0n"erstoo" the pra ti es an" )elie&s o& the people he alle" )y that name1 (2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 p.1-.). Fespite the i"enti&i ation 5a)ians 6 !an"aeans o& whi h he appears to )e onvin e"8 C. T(%!75 himsel&8 who onse rate" a st0"y to /e Mou-ement Baptiste en Palestine et en Syrie (2em)lo0B 1+3.)8 ha" to re ogniHe that the latter gro0p in onse@0en e o& its peripheri al position an" o& the small n0m)er o& its mem)ers - o0l" never attra t the attention o& the Prophet nor let him onsi"er the !an"aean se t in terms o& a 0lt as important as Christianity an" C0"aism: /9l est lair epen"ant @0e la se te sa)Nenne "es a0te0rs ara)es (nos !an"Nens) R n4a0rait pas8 = elle se0le8 meritN 0n tel traitement "e &ave0rE 4est 0n mo0vement pl0s vaste @0i a "0 Stre visN R ;e Coran a0rait-il englo)N so0s l4appellation "e 5a)Nens les Gaptistes "e 5yrie < No0s n4oserions ni l4a&&irmer ni le nier1 (p.$-* &.). $#1) 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 p.$. &. $#$) Ae )elieve that the n0m)er o& witnesses in agreement a)o0t a ertain &eat0re o0l" not )e ?0"ge" )y itsel& an 0n"isp0ta)le &a tor &or "e i"ing the very weight whi h it "eserves: it nee"s to ta>e into a"e@0ate onsi"eration not only the histori al an" 0lt0ral onteBt o& the so0r e in @0estion8 )0t also the role whi h sometimes the han e may have playe" &or the s0rvival o& a ertain "o 0ment: all this may appear ever so trivial8 )0t it seems 0s losely parallele" )y the important metho"ologi al "is 0ssion a)o0t the wrong 0se o& the material in their possession o&ten ma"e )y epigraphists8 arrie" on )y !9TC(E;;8 /The C0lt o& Theos (ypsistos18 pp.+' &&. an" 111 &&. 9n any ase8 it sho0l" )e note" that no)o"y as &ar as we >now has ever "welt 0pon s0 h a "e&inition o& 5a)ianism8 "espite its eB eptional8 very astonishing nat0re. 7 t0ally8 literally spea>ing8 whi h o0l" )e the meaning o& a similar in&ormation < (ow o0l" one answer to the @0estion < $#$ )is) 7)o0t this point see the onvin ing arg0ment o& R. FD557DF8 Histoire et reli.ion (es 6osair*s8 Paris 1+--8 p.*,. $#3) 2o"-:earers4 a @0aintan e with the Bible8 or at least with some portions o& the 0l( Testament writings8 is generally a >nowle"ge": &. &or eBample again !9TC(E;;8 op. it.8 p.1$$: /The go"-&earers were &0lly at home with monotheisti )elie&s8 &amiliar with religio0s i"eas o& the Cews an" with %l" Testament prophe y8 )0t not we""e" to them )y 0n ompromising religio0s &0n"amentalism1. $#,) :irst printe" e"ition )y T. GDC(!7NN (G9G;97NFER)8 Gasilea 1.,3. 7)o0t this &amo0s translation8 see the st0"y o& !arie TherSse F47;3ERNT8 /Fe0B Tra"0 tions ;atines "0 Coran a0 !oyen 7ge18 9H'/M9 1# (1+,*)8 pp.#+-131. :or the other !e"ieval translation ma"e )y !7RC %: T%;EFE8 "ate" 1$118 )0t never printe"8 see )elow n.$,*. $#.) G9G;97NFER8 p.1-.

$##) G9G;97NFER8 p.,1 &. $#') G9G;97NFER8 p.1-'. 7lso in !7RC %: T%;EFE4s translation (we have 0se" the !s. T0rin G.N. &. 3. 3. UL3 .V) the 5a)ians ompletely "isappear as an a0thonomo0s religio0s gro0p )oth in Sura 99 an" LL99 (&. $ r. a8 l. *E &. ,, v. a ll. 11-$): in the &irst ase8 the term employe" &or ren"ering into ;atin the 7ra)i 6asra is hristiani ( hani)8 whereas in the se on" one the simple trans ription 6a7arei is a"opte". 9n the Sura 3 (&. 1. v. )8 l. ') the ;atin term sele te" is Sabbahonitae (o0r !s.4s opyst8 or some)o"y else8 )y a gloss over the wor" s0ggests: Samaritani8 evi"ently having in min" 7;-G9RDN94s passage &rom hronolo.y8 p.31,8 or8 even more pro)a)ly8 the other one &rom EP9P(7N9D54 Panarion8 PG ,18 $3,-.E &. GR7NFT8 'ie Cu(is!hen Baptismen8 p.113)8 whereas 6asara is on e again simply trans ri)e": 6a7areni (ibi(em8 l. *: a gloss over the wor" s0ggests: hristiani U haniV). $#*) Two letters )y Peter the 3enera)le to 5t. Gernar" o& the year 11,3 stress the ompeten e o& the translators: /Ce l4ai &ait tra"0ire par maKtre Pierre "e TolS"e8 @0i onnaKt )ien le "e0B lang0es1E /;es tra"0 te0rs sont "e0B hommes onnaissant )ien les "e0B lang0es1 (PETER T(E 3ENER7G;E8 Ep% /ib% 3B8 LB338 P/ C3LLL9L8 p.33+ an" p..3+8 @0ote" )y F47;3ERNT8 op. it.8 p.'$ an" p.'3). $#+) !7RC %: T%;fFE translates the teBt @0ite literally8 o)serving at the same time the original or"er o& the Suras an" their progressive n0meration8 whereas Ro)ert o& Oetton an" (ermann o& Carinthia gro0p together some o& the &irst hapters8 )0t this &a t "oes not allow 0s to eval0ate the &ormer version a)sol0tely )etter than the latter ( &. F47;3ERNT8 op. it.8 passim). $'-) 7n"rea 7RR937GENE8 3eneHia 1.,'. $'1) 7;-T7G7R98 Ta"s*r8 98 p.$1*E &. a)ove p.* an" n..,E )0t see also 9GN 7;-C7AP98 Talb*s 3bl*s8 ET )y F.5. !7R2%;9%DT(8 3slami! ulture + (1+3.)8 p.3*-. $'$) /F0ring the patristi perio" :E;F!7N wrote - the Psalms )e ame the Christian prayer )oo> par e<!ellen!e1 (/Proselytes an" Q5ympathiHers418 p.$+3). The relationship Psalms Christians is a ommonpla e8 an" it is 0seless there&ore to insist 0pon it here. %n the ontrary8 it seems 0s worth while remem)ering that the 0se o& (e)rew Elyon (6 Hypsistos) alone (namely not o0ple" with El) as a proper name &or 2o" )e omes very &re@0ent ?0st in the Psalms8 till the alternan e El Elyon - Elyon (or their 2ree> e@0ivalents) will gain a pre ise meaning in the last Gi)li al writings (as &or eBample in the Boo4 o" 'aniel) an"8 more in general8 in all Cewish-(ellenisti literat0re in l0"ing 9!ts: here8 as :%7OE5-C7CO5%N8 B 8 938 p.1+3 note8 rightly stresse"8 ;0>e employs in &a t the latter or the &ormer eBpression a or"ing to whether the presen e o& a /Cewish )a >gro0n"1 an )e he >e" or annot: &. 59!%N8 /Theos (ypsistos18 p.3'$ &. 7)o0t Elyon see also )elow n.33. (en"). $'3) 5ee C.P. C%NE58 Phoeni< 3# (1+*$)8 pp.$#,-'1E (%R5;ET8 6e: 'o!s.8 3 (1+*+)8 p.'$ &.E !. R9C;8 /(osios >aK Fi>aios18 Epi.raphi!a 9natoli!a 1+ (1++$)8 pp.++-1-1 (with spe ial re&eren e to Hosios 4ai 'i4aios8 the Phrigian go" o& ?0sti e8 who m0st )e regar"e" as an angel)E 2. PETP;8 /Fie Gei htins hri&ten Aest>leinasiens18 Epi.raphi!a 9natoli!a $$ (1++,)8 p..E !9TC(E;;8 /Theos (ypsistos18 p.1-3 &&.8 who re or"s )esi"e Thes (Keus) Hypsistos the presen e o& a lesser "ivinity vario0sly "esignate" as (to) theion8 theion basili4on8 or theios an.elos: the role o& heavenly messanger o& the s0preme "ivinity (see the a"?e tive eporanios on an ins ription &rom 2alatia @0ote" ibi(em no. $-$8 whereas angels an" other go"s are simply ournios) may also )e a omplishe" )y the tra"itional pagan go"s li>e 7pollo8 as the a)ove ite" (p.$3 an" n.$-1) %enoan"a %ra le "emonstrates. !any lassi al re&eren es to the s0)?e t are olle te" )y !.P. N9;55%N8 /The (igh 2o" an" the !e"iator18 HT; .# (1+#3)8 pp.1-1-1$-E see also 9"em8 /Pwei 7ltare a0s Pergamon18 in 0pus!ula Sele!ta 9998 ;0n" 1+#-8 p.$+' &&.E :. 5%O%;%A5O98 /50r le C0lte "47ngelos "ans le Paganisme 2re et Romain18 HT; .3 (1+#-)8 pp.$$.-+. $',) 5ee 7.R.R. 5(EPP7RF8 /Pagan C0lts o& 7ngels in Roman 7sia !inor18 Talanta 1$I13 (1+*--*1)8 p.''-1-18 &or the relative geographi al areaE an" the ol"er st0"ies o& :. CD!%NT an" !. 59!%N respe tively p0)lishe" in ;H; 3# (1+1.)8 pp.1.+-*$ an" in ;93 1+'18 pp.1$--3$. :or the important role playe" )y the Cewish names o& 2o" an" angels8 see E.R. 2%%FEN%D2(8 Ce:ish Symbols in the Gre!o, ;oman Perio(8 998 New Tor> 1+.38 p.1.3 &&.E 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 p.3+,. $'.) ol.8 998 1#. T(E%F%RET8 PG *$8 p.#1, an" p.#1+E &. %R92EN8 ontra elsum8 .8 ,-.8 on"emning s0 h a 0lt0al pra ti e. 7ngel worship is a lear symptom o& !onotheisti )elie&: see again !9TC(E;;8 lo . it. p.1-3 &.

$'#) No "o0)t a)o0t this point: a omma )etween the two eBpressions is la >ing also in !s. versions8 where moreover sometimes a gloss s0ggests: / ristianos -ariantes appellat1 (!s. 3at. ;at. ,-'18 "ate" 1,#$8 &.*$v ll.*-11)E hristianos -ariatores appellat volens "i ere illos evangeli0m orr0pisse et a" s00m li)it0m omm0tasse (!s. T0rin G.N. ( ii 338 L39 . &.11$v ll. $-.)E &. 7RR937GENE4s 9talian version: /R il Fio sar= gi0"i e "ei 2i0"ei8 e (e hristiani !he -ariano la loro le..e, e "4ogni altra setta1 (&. #.v). Ae have to "o with a @0ite 0rio0s sit0ation8 in"ee"8 &or whi h the &ollowing eBplanation may )e a"van e": E0ropean translators wishe" to "ivi"e sharply Christianity &rom 9slam8 so that the &ormer o0l" >eep itsel& p0re )y any ontamination with the latter8 an" a goo" means &or p0rs0ing s0 h a res0lt s0rely was to let only a "e&inition vali" &or hereti s (an" ertainly not &or ortho"oB Christians) appear as in l0"e" into !0hamma"4s horiHon o& min". 9n any ase8 even the presen e o& omma sho0l" not )e a s0&&i ient means &or "isting0ishing one gro0p &rom another8 )e a0se all the other religio0s omm0nities mentione" here (!0slims8 Cews8 !agians an" Dn)elievers) are intro"0 e" )y a on?0n tion s0 h as et (item et) or a!. $'') 5ee8 &or a general "is 0ssion8 59!%N8 Berus 3srael8 passim. $'*) C&. a)ove p.$. an" ns. $1,-$1#. $'+) P39SH $ (1+#*)8 p.1.$. The same point o& view is share" in the lear an" sel&- riti al /Com0ni ation1 on Pines4 arti le )y C. Fe !EN75CE8 /;es QCraignants Fie04 et l47ppellation 9ranienne "es ChrNtiens18 HT; 1'1.$ (1+#') (5e tion: Croni@0e)8 p.$.' &: /Gre&8 = 0ne ertaine Npo@0e8 il est trSs possi)le @0e8 po0r "es pop0lations parlant aramNen8 Q raignant Fie04 ait a0ssi "esignN "es ChrNtiens. %n o)?e tera @0e n0lle part "ans la litterat0re syria@0e8 entiSrement hrNtienne8 l4eBpression n4est employNe po0r "Nsigner les ChrNtiens: = @0oi !. Pines rNpon" ave pertinen e @0e l4appellation a p0 to0te&ois Stre o0rante parmi les non-ChrNtiens po0r "Nsigner e0B @0i l4Ntaient. FSs lors8 il est legitime on l0re @0e ette "Nsignation8 o0rante "ans le mon"e aramNophone "es limes iranien8 ait passN "ans la lang0e iranienne a0 moment oJ elle ne "Nsignait pl0s @0e les ChrNtiens et soit "even0e le0r appellation normale. Evi"Nmment = l4Npo@0e "e l4ins ription "e OartKr Ua)o0t whi h see )elow an" n.$*1V le nom tarsa4n n4Ntait en ore generalisN et o&&i ialisN1 (p.$.*). Previo0sly8 in &a t8 in the st0"y S4an(,Gumani4 Bi!ar8 :ri)o0rg 1+,.8 the a0thor seeme" onvin e" (with other s holars as &or eBample Nol"e>e) that the 9ranian wor" was simply a translation o& the 7ra)i rahib (originary /mon>18 an" then 0se" &or "enoting generally Christians8 &. a)ove ns.1*+8 $,* an" $#-)8 )0t then he hange" his min" arriving to the on l0sion that the 7ra)i sense "epen"e" &rom the 9ranian one an" not the reverse. $*-) The histori al an" semanti ontin0ity )etween 2o"-:erarers an" Christians is stresse" )y ;E39N5O7T78 The Boo4 o" 9!ts in 3ts R !% Settin.8 p.11#: /R at least some o& these gro0ps U(ypsistarii8 aeli!olae8 Theosebeis8 !assaliansV were at one stage or another onne te" with Christianity. The Coeli olae were on"emne" as Christian apostates an" o)lige" )y law to re?oin the Ch0r h. The !assalians were the &orer0nners o& the Christian se t with the same name. The &ather o& 2regory o& NaHianH0s8 a mem)er o& (ypsistarii8 was rea"ily onverte" )y )ishops on their way to the Co0n il o& Ni aea in 3$. R :inally8 i& we ompare the sprea" o& Christianity among the pop0lation o& the Gosporan Oing"om with that o& the near)y Chersonese8 a stri>ing "issimilarity omes to light8 whi h an )e eBplaine" )y the presen e o& n0mero0s 2o"-&earers who prepare" the way &or Christianity in the &ormer1. $*1) /a hristianisation (e l#Empire 3ranien8 S 0 ,++8 50)s. *-8 ;o0vain 1+**8 p.11'E &. 2. A9E55NER8 98 Untersu!hun.en 7ur syris!hen /!hi!hte8 p.## an" p.31' ns.$,+8 $.18 $.$ an" $.,8 where one will &in" o0t all the re&eren es a)o0t the two terms as synonymo0s in the 9!taE 998 Kur Martyreruberlie"erun. aus (er hristen-er"ol.un. S!hapurs 338 998G8 Phil.-(ist. Ol. 999.#'8 2ottingen 1+#'8 p.'- &. an" notes (/in the QG4 ;i&e o& 5imeon )ar 5a))a4e the term nasraya is only &o0n" in the mo0th o& Persians1)E P7TNE-5!9T(8 Thesaurus8 ol.1*$18 s.v. /Oristi=na18 an" ol.$,,,8 s.v. /Nasr=ya1E C.G. :9ET8 Calons pour une Histoire (e l#E.lise en 3ra28 S 0 33-8 50)s. 3#8 ;o0vain 1+'-8 p.., n.,, (on OartKr4s 9ns ription an" the two names &or Christians). TeBt an" "is 0ssion o& the "o 0ment )y !arie ;o0ise C(7D!%NT8 /;49ns ription "e OartKr = la Oa4)ah "e Poroastre18 C9 $,* (1+#-)8 pp.33+-*- (the wor"s in @0estion are at l.1- o& the Persian teBt). :or the allege" C0"aeo-Christian )a >gro0n" o& the term n!ary (an" its onne tion with the 7ramaean term nsry 6 &rom NaHareth) see (.(. 5C(7EFER8 art. /NaHaren^s8 NaHoraKos18 T86T 93 U1+,1V8 p.*'+ &.E !. R%NC72;978 /ElNments E)ionites et El>Nsaites "ans le Coran18 P0 $1 (1+'1)8 pp.1-1-$#. :or the allege" i"entity with a hereti al gro0p s0 h as the !ar ionites see C. Fe !EN75CE8 S4an(,Gumani4 Bi!ar8 p.$-# &. ()0t see also the o)?e tions o& C.!. :9ET8 /;es !ar ionites "ans les TeBtes (istori@0es "e l4Eglise "e Perse18 /e Museon *3 U1+'-V8 pp.1*3-*)E &. 7. 3%%GD58 /Celi)a y8 a Re@0irement &or 7"mission to Gaptism in the Early 5yrian Ch0r h18 ETSE 1 (1+.1)8

p.1, &. (who remar>s that in the 9!ts o& !ar 7)= U39 .V UCabalaha8 $n" e".8 p.$13V the !ar ionites are alle" Christians)E &or the e@0ation NaHaraeans !an"aeans (who really all themselves in s0 h a way8 see !. ;9FPG7R5O98 /NaHoraios18 KS 1 U1+$$V8 pp.$3--3)8 &. !. 5PREN2;9N28 Thir( entury 3ran8 Chi ago 1+.38 p..*. :inally8 5. GR%CO8 /5ome 7spe ts o& 2ree> Aor"s in 5yria 18 in 7. F9ETR9C( e".8 Syn!retismus im Syris!h,Persi!hen $ultur.ebiet8 5ymposi0m o& 2ottingen ,th-*th % to)er 1+'18 2ottingen 1+',8 pp.+1-. (with &0rther )i)liography)8 remar>s that n!ary an" 4ristyn "enote /two gro0ps o& "i&&erent geographi al origin an" o& "i&&erent 0lt0ral allegian e1 (p.+$)8 n!ary )eing the normal term 0se" at that time )y the Persian a0thorities (an" more in general )y o0tsi"ers) &or "enoting Christians8 whereas 4rist*yn was a term intro"0 e" into the Persian area only in the mi" 999 ent0ry &or "enoting the Christians o& Aestern origin8 namely those who ha" )een settle" in the 5assani" empire in onse@0en e o& 5hap0r 94s "eportations: as &ar as the name 0se" )y Christians &or "enoting themselves is on erne"8 the a0thor tentatively s0ggests the 5emiti term msihaya8 )e a0se /with the growing in&l0en e o& 7ntio hene Christianity in the 5assani" empire in the late &o0rth8 an" espe ially early &i&th8 ent0ry8 the term 4ristyana ame to )e 0se" &or all Christians8 irrespe tive o& their origin8 th0s "ispla ing msihaya. 7t the same time8 nsray evi"ently gaine"8 in Christian eyes8 "istin tly pe?orative overtones that ha" originally not )een present in the wor"1 (p.+, &.). C&. :9ET8 ommunaut>s Syria2ues en 3ran et 3ra28 p.1*1 &.8 who re or"s in 9ran8 namely at Rew 7r"ashKr8 /a0 moins "e0B Nglises8 l40ne "es QRomains4 et l4a0tre "es QOarm=niens4. ;es premiers sont pro)a)lement "e es prisonniers @0e 5apor 9er ($,1-$) "istri)0a "ans to0tes les villes "e son empire et gr= e a0B@0els il resta0ra Rew 7r"ashKr. ;es se on"s sont "e vrais persans hristianisNsE e0B- i8 "NportNs "e l4interie0r Un.33: /?e ne sais pas s0r @0oi se )ase !.lle Cha0mont po0r attri)0er ette Nglise a0B Q5yriens4 (p.1'*)8 e @04elle interprSte (p.1'+) par "e gens Qoriginaires "es ampagnes "e l47ntio hSne R parlant syria@0e1V8 NlN)raient le0rs o&&i es en syria@0e8 alors @0e les premiers priaient en gre 1. 9t is not at all impro)a)le that !0hamma" 0se" 6asra an" Sbi#n as synonimes8 even i& the wor"s ha" a "i&&erent origin an" possi)ly "i" not have a stri tly i"enti al meaning: o0r opinion is that the latter wor" tho0gh re&erring li>e the &ormer generally to Christians witho0t any &0rther impli ation >ept a lose semanti al lin> with the i"ea o& Christians as tertium .enus hominum ( &. a)ove pp.1*-$$ an" n.$'') whi h playe" an important role also &or the !0slim prophetology. U/9n the Provin e o& 7ra)ia the )aptiHe" R were alle" Qinitiate"4 (oi memnemnoi) or Qenlightene"4 (oi pephotismnoi)8 while the ate h0mens ran>e" as the 0ninitiate"18 5PENCERTR9!9N2(7!8 op. it.8 p.$1'E &. p.1-3. :or the pro)lem o& the ate h0menate8 see in parti 0lar a)ove n.1+*V. $*$) 7;-GDO(7R98 9l,Dmi# al,sah*h8 e". ;. ORE(; - T.A. CDTNG%;; (1*#$-1+-*)8 998 lviii (al,Di7iyya)8 hap. 118 p.$+#E :T )y %.(%DF75 - A.!7RC795 (1+-3-1+1,)8 Titre lviii ( /a apitation)8 hap.11 /F0 as oJ les ennemis vain 0s "isent: QNo0s no0s &aisont 5a)iens48 et n4ont s0 "ire orre tement: QNo0s no0s &aisons !0s0lmans4 /)8 p.,1,. $*3) The same episo"e is narrate" again )y 7;-GDO(7R98 op. it.8 9998 lBiv (al,ma.h7i)8 hap..*E :T Titre lBiv ('es E<p>(itions Militaires)8 hap..* (/Fe l4envoi &ait par le ProphSte "e Oh=li"-)en-el-%0alK" heH les Geno0-F?o"Hima1)8 p.$--E an" 938 B iii8 hapt. 3. (ah4m)E :T Titre B iii (Senten!es)8 hap. 3. (/ors2ue le ma.istrat ren( une senten!e ini2ue ou en !ontra(i!tion a-e! l#opinion (es Duri!onsultes, !e Du.ement (oit tre repouss>)8 p..1.E the a0thor8 however8 "oes not repeat in these last hapters the in&ormation re&erring to the Persian eBpression previo0sly given in Goo> lviii8 hapt.11. $*,) 9n ORE(;4s e"ition the Persian wor" is vo aliHe" matarasE matras is the vo aliHation o& the :T where8 at the relative note (n.$)8 the translation: /Ne rains pas M1 an also )e &o0n". $*.) 5ee8 &or eBample8 the p0HHling story han"e" "own in the so alle" al,2as*(ah al,himyar*yah ()y an anonymo0s a0thor8 it. in C. 7N57;F98 3l =emen8 Roma 1+338 pp..'-.+)8 narrating the legen"ary history o& Temenite >ings8 a)o0t the &a)o0lo0s meeting )etween the parents o& the W0een o& 5he)a (Gal>Ks): the &ather8 in &a t8 al-(a"h=" )in 5arh (the &irst Oing o& Temen)8 &elt in love with her mother (the W0een o& Cins an" she hersel& a Dinn*yah) in the o0rse o& a h0nt8 a&ter having &ollowe" a wol& (ar.: (hi#b) r0nning a&ter a gaHelle (ar.: 7hab#i). The relation 5a)ians 5a)aeans has apparently to )e re?e te" as it is well >nown &or the plain ethimologi al reason that these no0ns "erive &rom two "i&&erent roots (as ?0st the initial "i&&eren e sa( sin is s0&&i ient to prove)8 an" in &a t ?0st one s holar s0ggeste" an eBplanatory >ey &or the phenomenon o& 5a)ianism in the !onotheisti omm0nities settle" in 5o0thern 7ra)ia sin e ent0ries in !0hamma"4s times (GE;;8 The o" 3slam8 p.#- an" 1,*: the a0thor was /personally in line"1 to thin> that 6asra in the )ur#n "enote" the Christians o& the Northern 7ra)ia8 an" to ta>e Sbi#n as a re&eren e to 5o0th 7ra)ian Christians). Nevertheless8 similar s0ggestions together with the ommon &eat0re o& gravitating aro0n" a theme as important as Conversion share" )y the 5a)ians (a or"ing to o0r theory a)o0t them8 o& o0rse) an" )y the 5a)aeans (the Gi)li al episo"e o& W0een o& 5he)a4s Conversion "oes not nee" to )e reme)ere") let

one 0n"erstan" how "i&&i 0lt is to &in" a soli" gro0n" in s0 h matters. ;et 0s repro"0 e the wor"s o& R. 2DEN%N8 /e ;oi (u Mon(e8 Paris 1+.*8 p.$1: /R "ans le o0rse "0 !oyen 7ge R elle @0i se po0rrait "esigner Qla o0vert0re eBterie0re4 "0 U osmi V Centre en @0estion Ntait onstit0Ne en )onne partie par les Nestoriens et les 5a)Nens1. $*. )is) 5ee the alrea"y @0ote" lemma Dre# Dirh morh8 T89T s.v.8 ols.*#+-+38 in parti 0lar the v paragraph (/:0r hte "i h ni ht M1). $*#) (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 passim. $*') 9GN 7;-N7F9!8 +ihrist8 ET p.'.3 &. Fi&&erent versions o& the same story are transmitte" )y P5EDF%-!7CR9T98 Ghyat al,ha4*m (re&. )elow n.$+#) p.#- &.8 p.13+ &. an" p.$$*E 2T (re&. )elow n.$+#)8 p.#$ &.8 p.1,# &. an" p.$,- &.E ;T (Pi!atri<) (re&. )elow n.$+')8 p.3,8 an" p.13'. C&. (C7RPE8 op. it.8 pp.1-.1$#8 who repro"0 es a omparative pattern o& the Tal>ing (ea" legen"8 re or"ing also the long hroni!le o& F9%NT59D5 (Gishop o& Tell !ahre in the 3999 .) p0)lishe" )y C.-G. C(7G%T8 hroni!on pseu(o, 'ionysianum -ul.o (i!tum8 S 0 +18 Paris 1+$*. $**) 7s 2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 p.1$-8 opport0nely notes8 7)J T0s0& 9sha4 al-Watiy4i4s /animosity towar" R the pagans o& (arran R is @0ite evi"ent1. $*+) 5ome teBts s0ggest that early on the !0slim government o0l" not ignore the real nat0re o& the (arranian religion an"8 onse@0ently8 they also prove 7)J T0s0& al-WatK4i4s 0nworthiness. The !0slim on@0eror o& the ity8 Q9ya" i)n 2hanam8 trans&orme" &or eBample one o& the (arr=nians4 temples into the /:ri"ay !os@0e18 /)0t allotte" them another lo ality in (arran where they )0ilt another temple whi h remaine" in their han"s 0ntil its "estr0 tion )y Tahya 9)n 5hatir who was governor o& (arran on )ehal& o& 5hara& al-Fawlah U1-*1 C.E.V1: the in&ormation is ontaine" in the pages o& the 9#l2 o& 9GN 5(7FF7F (who visite" the ity in 1$,$ C.E.8 ?0st )e&ore the !ongolian on@0est an" the onse@0ent "eportation o& the inha)itants whi h mar>e" the &inal as well as inglorio0s en" o& its millenary history) translate" )y C. C7(EN8 Y;a gF?aHKrag a0 milie0 "0 treiHiSme siS leY8 ;E38 3999 (1+3,)8 p.1-+ &&.8 an" partially repro"0 e" )y R9CE8 /!e"ieval (arran18 p.3*E &. 7;-G7;7F(DR98 +uth al,bul(n8 e". Geir0t 13+* (.I1+'*8 p.1'* &.8 ET )y P..O. (9TTT8 The 0ri.ins o" the 3slami! State8 New Tor> 1+1# (other re&eren es a)o0t the in l0sion8 sin e the very )eginnings o& the !0slim r0le8 o& the (arr=nians among ahl al,(himma8 i%e% the /s0)?e t people18 in 2DNFDP8 The $no:le(.e o" /i"e8 p.3# n.1.-). %n the other han"8 G7R (EGR7ED5 tells in his hroni!on (ET it. a)ove n.1.+)8 p.13+8 that ?0st &ew years )e&ore al-!a4mJn4s halt in (arr=n8 Caliph4s 0n le 9)rahKm who was at that time governor o& the ity /permitte" the pagans o& (arran to per&orm their mysteries openly8 an" at length they arrive" at s0 h a pit h o& )ol"ness that they "e >e" o0t an oB in ostly apparel8 an" gave him a rown o& &lowers8 an" they h0ng little )ells on his horns8 an" they wal>e" him aro0n" the )aHaars whilst men sang songs an" (playe") pipesE an" in this manner they o&&ere" him 0p as a sa ri&i e to their go"s1. There is no reason8 however8 to ?0"ge these elements )y themselves as a lear sign o& Paganism &ollowing the opinion o& C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 98 p.,#* &&.8 o& (C7RPE8 op. it.8 p.1--8 o& 2REEN8 op. it.8 p.1$18 et .: it "oes not nee" )0t to thin> &or eBample to some 9talian olo0re" pro essions in hono0r o& !ary or o& the lo al 5aints8 whi h to a Protestant eye till re ent times o0l" not represent anything else than pagan s0rvivals. 7 thir" "o 0ment in onstrast with al,+ihrist4s version o& the &a ts is the &amo0s /E"i t o& Toleration1 o)taine" )y the 5a)ian poet an" s holar 9)rahKm i)n (il=l (living in Gagh"a" an" "ying there in ++, C.E.) )y the amir Q7"0" al-Fawlah on )ehal& o& his oreligionists /in (arr=n8 Ra@@ah an" Fiyar-!0"har18 allowing the 5a)ians to pra ti e their religio0s pre epts in the tra"itional way: &rom the ;as#il o& 7Gd-954(eW 9GR7(c! 9GN (9;e; (7RReN98 @0ote" )y C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 998 p..3'8 &. 98 p.##-. 9n a""ition to (?arpe an" 2reen4s st0"ies8 &0rther ontri)0tes to "is 0ssion a)o0t the real relations !0slims - (arr=nian 5a)ians ome &rom 5E27;8 /The 5a)ian !ysteries18 passim8 an" )y T7RF9ED8 /5=)iens Corani@0es et Q5=)iens4 "e (arr=n18 p.. &&. $+-) 5ee a)ove p.$ an" n.1'. $+1) Tho0gh the ir 0mstam e is sistemati ally re >one" )y the a0thors "ealing with the history o& the ity8 none o& the avai)le st0"ies "eepens parti 0larly this perio". The &amo0s episo"e witnessing the s ienti&i importan e o& the ity m0 h )e&ore the histori al phase o& the /5a)ian Renaissan e18 namely the 5 hool o& !e"i ine4s trans&ert &rom 7leBan"ria to (arr=n )y the Caliph QDmar 99 in '1' C.E.8 is "is 0sse" in "etail )y T7RF9ED8 op. it.8 p.$+1 &&.8 who re?e ts the tra"itional re onstr0 tion o& the event.

$+$) The )i)liographi al re&eren es to Th=)it i)n W0rr= are liste" a)ove n.1'#E &or the other 5a)ian personalities o& (arr=nian origin see C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 98 p..,$ &&E Fe ;7CT %4 ;E7RT8 9rabi! an( its Pla!e in the History8 pp.,38 ., &. an" 1-. &&.E an" more in general the )i)liography given )y :.C. Fe G;%958 art. /5=)i418 E3Q 39998 pp.#+$-,. $+3) F%PT-Fe 2%ECE8 /No0vea0B Fo 0ments po0r l4Nt0"e "e la Religion "es (arr=niens18 p. $+$8 @0oting a letter o& Nol"e>e. The original material repro"0 e" )y these s holars - espe ially the astral prayers originating &rom a (arr=nian milie0 an" ontaine" within the Ghyat al,ha4*m (see )elow an" n.$+#) - was not availa)le )y Chwolson. $+,) 7s it is well >nown8 T7RF9ED8 op. it.8 passim8 is the &irst s holar who parti 0larly insiste" on the p0re Neoplatoni origin o& the (arr=nian theology: see a)ove n.1'* an" )elow n.31*. $+.) 7)o0t the (arr=nian system8 the most relevant 9slami so0r es are 7;-N7F9!8 +ihrist8 ET pp.',#-.(the original so0r e is al-Oin"K8 &. :. R%5ENT(7;8 9hma( bin at,Tayyib as,Sarahs*8 New (aven 1+,38 pp.,1-.1)E 9O(A7N 7;-57:748 ;as#il8 e". Geir0t 1+.'8 938 p.$+. &&.8 :T o& the relative se tion )y !7RWDET8 /5a)Nens et 9>hw=n al-5a&=418 S3 $, (1+##)8 eBpe ially p.#$ &&.E 7;-!7WF9598 /e /i-re (e la r>ation et (e l#Histoire, 98 pp.13$8 1.+8 1'38 1*. (6 5C%TT8 Hermeti!a 938 p.$.$ &.)E 7;5(7(R75T7N98 Milal8 2T p.1 &&. 7mong the Aestern st0"ies "e"i ate" to the s0)?e t8 one annot )0t signaliHe the eB ellent essay o& C%RG9N8 /Rit0el 5a)Nen et EBegSse 9smaNlienne "0 Rit0el1 (re&. a)ove n.13,)8 passim. $+#) P5EDF%- !7CR9T98 'as Kiel (es 8eisens8 e". (. R9TTER8 ;eipHig-Gerlin 1+33E 2T )y (. R9TTER !. P;E55NER8 ?Pi!atri<@% 'as Kiel (es 8eisens -on Pseu(o,MaDr*t*8 ;on"on 1+#$. $+') Pi!atri<% The /atin Bersion o" the Ghyat 9l,Ha4*m8 e". F. P9N2REE8 ;on"on 1+*#. Goth wor>s8 the ;atin an" the 7ra)i one &ollowe" )y a 2T have )een e"ite" )y the Aar)0rg 9nstit0te. 9t is onvenient to >eep in min" that the Pi!atri< is a @0ite &ree translation o& the original 7ra)i teBt. $+*) Ghya8 9998 '. The original version tells in &a t: i(ha ra(at n tanDa 4a:4aban a: tas#alhu hDatun &a4istash4ar awalan ta@wa 7ll=h ta4=la (p.1+.)E whereas the 2erman one tells: /Aenn "0 H0 einem Planeten )eten o"er ihn 0m etwas )itten willst8 so "asse -or allem Gott-ertrauen1 (p.$-#). The ;T omits the re&eren e to the :ear o& 2o": um -olueris !um ali2uo planetarum lo2ui -el ab eo ali2ui( tibi ne!essarium petere, primo et prin!ipaliter -oluntatem et !re(en!iam tuam er.a 'eum mun(i"i!a, et omino !a-eas ne in ali2uo alio !re(as1. $++) 9n his st0"y /7l-Ta)arK on the Prayers to the Planets18 BE0 ,# (1++$)8 pp.1-.-11'8 whi h is an important integration o& his previo0s /5ome o& the 5o0r es o& the Ghyat 9l,Ha4*m18 C8 3 ,3 (1+*-)8 pp.11.8 F. P9N2REE re ogniHes several so0r es o& the Goo> 999 hapter ' onse rate" to the prayers to the seven planets (pl0s Drsa !aior)8 ea h one )eing hara teriHe" )y a rit0al o& its own8 in l0"ing generally a "ress o& a ertain olo0r8 a ring an" an in ense vessel o& a ertain metal or stone8 an in ense8 an animal to sa ri&i e (o& o0rse8 olo0rs8 materials8 &0migations an" animals )eing those tra"itionally p0t in orrespon"en e to the planetary Geings)8 an" &inally a prayer: there eBists there&ore more than one prayer &or ea h planet (even &o0r8 &or eBample8 &or C0ppiter)8 eB ept &or !er 0ry an" !oon8 whi h the a0thor lin>s to "i&&erent so0r es an" whi h8 onse@0ently8 an )e or"ere" in a ertain n0m)er (three or &o0r) o& "i&&erent series. The so0r e alle" )y Pingree /5a)ian1 an" the relative series in l0"ing the 1st prayer to 5at0rn8 the $n" to C0ppiter8 the $n" to !ars8 the 1st to 3en0s8 the 1s to the 50n8 the only availa)le ones to !er 0ry an" !oon - is spe ially interesting &or 0s8 )e a0se every prayer ontains the parti 0lar &orm0la whi h we @0ote ?0st )elow in o0r teBt re&erring eBpli itly to the !ost-(igh 2o". 3--) This eBpression re 0rs &or 5at0rn8 C0ppiter8 !ars8 3en0s an" !er 0ry: Ghya8 9998 '8 2T p.$1. (5at0rn: /Geim (errn "es ho hsten 2e)a0"es1)8 &. 73 p.$-, (l.+: bi,l,ha22 al,baniyyat al,Juliya)E 2T p.$1' (C0ppiter: /Gei "em [ (errn "es \ ho hsten 2e)a0"e[s\1)8 &. 73 p.$-#E 2T p.$$, (!ars: /Gei "em (errn "es ho hsten 2e)a0"es1)8 &. 73 p.$1$E p.$$'E 2T p.$31 (3en0s: /Gei "em (errn "es (o hsten 2e)a0"es1)8 &. 73 p.$1+E 2T p.$3, (!er 0ry: /Geim (errn "es ho hsten 2e)a0"es1)8 &. 73 p.$$$. :or the !oon there is a lear re&eren e to 2o" an" (is !a?esty: see 2T p.$3# (/9 h )itte "i h R mogest "0 R gehor hen mit "em 2ehorsam H0 2ott 0n" seiner (errs ha&t18 ll.1,-')8 &. 73 p.$$,8 l.*. :or the 50n8 we have to "o in"ee" with a ontra"i tion8 )e a0se )y one si"e its Power appears s0)or"inate to a higher R0le: see 2T p.$$* (/R "0 von Ewig>eit her heilig 0n" mit 0nen"li her (errs ha&t geheiligt )ist18 ll.3-,)8 &. 7T p.$1#8 ll.1--11E )0t8 on the other si"e8 it is alle" /Primary Ca0se o& the Primary Ca0ses1 (2T p.$$*8

/Drsa he "es Drsa hen18 &. 7T p.$1#)8 an" /the highest o& the Fegrees1 (2T p.$$*8 /R "0 "ie ho hste "er Rangst0&en einnimmst18 &. 7T p.$1#8 l.1#). 9t is also noteworthy the invo ation 0se" &or Drsa !aior in a""ition to the wor"s /:or the ;or" o& the (igh G0il"ing1 employe" &or the other planets8 namely /:or the 2o" o& the go"s1 (2T p.$$'8 /Gei "em 2ott "er 2otter8 "em (errn "es ho hsten 2e)a0"es1E &. 73 p.$1.): this eBpression8 in &a t8 ma>es part o& the repertoir o& lit0rgi &orm0las tra"itionally re ite" in hono0r o& the !oon-2o" S*n in (arr=n an" in the neigh)o0ring region sin e the Ga)ylonian perio" till to the !0slim !i""le 7ges (see )elow p.3, an" n.3-3). 3-1) :or 50matar4s ins riptions see (. P%2N%N8 who &irstly visite" the pla e (in 1+-1 an" 1+-.)8 3ns!riptions S>miti2ues (e la Syrie, (e la M>sopotamie et (e la r>.ion (e Mossoul 8 Paris 1+-'8 p.*18 )0t a)ove all C.G. 5E27;8 who p0)lishe" the whole series engrave" on the Central !o0nt8 "ominating the site an" &0n tioning as a 0lt pla e8 &i&ty years later in his st0"ies /Pagan 5yria !on0ments in the 3ilayet o& Dr&a18 9S 3 (1+.3)8 pp.+'-1$-8 an" /5ome 5yria 9ns riptions o& the $n"-3r" Cent0ry18 BS09S 1# (1+.,)8 pp.13-$.E an" (.C.A. FR9C3ER58 0l(,Syria! FE(esseanG 3ns!riptions8 ;ei"en 1+'$E 9"em8 /5ome New 5yria 9ns riptions an" 7r haeologi al :in"s &rom E"essa an" 50matar (ara)esi18 BS09S 3# (1+'3)8 pp.11,E 9"em8 ults an( Belie"s at E(essa8 ;ei"en 1+*-8 p.1$3 &&.8 who p0)lishe" some a""itional ins riptions. The title Marelah8 in parti 0lar8 re 0rs three times ( &. &or eB. 0l(,Syr% 3ns.8 pp.13-, an" 1#-* Unos.1*8 $38 $,VE ults an( Belie"s8 pp.1$,8 1$.8 1$#). 3-$) 5E27;8 op. it. (1+.3)8 p.+'8 an" op. it. (1+.,)8 p.1.. :or FR9C3ER54 riti ism to the opinion a"van e" not witho0t some hesitations )y 5E27; (in his later wor> /The 5a)ian !ysteries18 p.$1'8 in &a t8 the a0thor ha" also s0ggeste" that Mrilh UMralhV o& 50matar might perhaps )e i"enti&ie" with Shaml8 the go" o& the /North18 o& (arr=n)8 see ults an( Belie"s8 p.1$' &.8 where it is rightly o)serve" that s0 h a rea"ing is not in a or"an e with the (arr=nian )a hgro0n" o& S*n4s 0lt nor with the ling0isti evi"en e ()i)liographi al re&eren es &or other "ivinities )earing the title Marelah> ibi(em8 p.1$, n.1-). C&. also !. 27A;9O%A5O98 /No0velles 9ns riptions "0 Camp "e Fio lNtien18 Syria ,' (1+'-)8 p.31': /Gien @0e 5egal ait vo0l0 i"enti&ier ette "ivinitN ave GaalshamSn8 il n4est pl0s "o0te0B @0e !arilahS "e (arr=n et "e (atra n4ait NtN le "ie0 l0naire 5Kn1. 3-3) This important "is overy was ma"e "0ring the T0r>ish-Gritish ar haeologi al ampaign alrea"y mentione" (a)ove n.1.) 0n"er the :ri"ay !os@0e4s &loor (the stele 0pon whi h the ins ription was engrave" ha" )een 0se" as a stairstep) )y C.C. 27FF8 /The (arran 9ns riptions o& Na)oni"0s18 9S * (1+.*)8 pp.3.-+$: S*n is hono0re" with the titles /;or" o& the go"s18 blu shar ilni8 an" /Oing o& the go"s18 shar ilni8 pp.,'8 ,+8 .'8 .+. C&. the title bl Harrn re or"e" )y 7;-G9RDN98 hronolo.y8 p.31#. 3-,) 7;-N7F9!8 +ihrist8 p.3$.8 &. ET p.'#. n.+*. 7 or"ing to other !e"ieval 9slami so0r es the go" was also alle" with the title Jilh al,Jlihah8 /2o" o& the go"s18 whi h we have alrea"y &o0n" in the Ghya ( &. a)ove n.3--): 7;-5(7(R75T7N98 Milal8 p.$-38 2T p..E 7;-F9!75(W98 6u4hbat al,(ahr8 p.,'8 with :T. 3-.) :or the oins see C. A7;OER8 6umismati! hroni!le U;6V 1* (1+.*)8 pp.1'--$8 Pl. L938 nos.11 an" 1$. :or the ins ription (the &amo0s 9ns ription o& 5a4a"iya)8 see 7. C7WD%T8 /No0velles 9ns riptions 7ramNennes "e (atra18 Syria ,- (1+#3)8 pp.1$-,E C. TE9L9F%R8 /1Notes (atrNennes18 Syria ,1 (1+#,)8 pp.$'3-+E G. 722%D;78 /Remar@0es s0r les 9ns riptions (atrNennes18 MUSC ,' (1+'$)8 pp.,.-+E :. 37TT9%N98 /e 3s!ri7ioni (i Hatra8 50ppl. $* to 9nnali (ell#3stituto 0rientale (i 6apoli8 3ol.,1 (1+*1)8 &as .38 Napoli 1+*18 pp.13 an" 1-#. 9t sho0l" )e stresse"8 anyway8 that /le Q!aril=hN4 "e ette ins ription Uas the go" re or"e" on the oins8 o& o0rseV est 0n "ie0 Ntranger = la rNgion1 (7ggo0la8 p.,')8 an" that his presen e in (atra is there&ore @0ite pro)lemati . 7 repro"0 tion o& one oin an )e &o0n" in 5E27;4s /The 5a)ian !ysteries18 p.$1'. %n the whole @0estion see also TDG7C(8 3m S!hatten (es Sonnen.ottes8 p.$+1 &&. 3-#) 7s 27A;9O%A5O98 /No0velles 9ns riptions "0 Camp "e Fio lNtien18 p.31'8 orre tly pointe" o0t: /e Palmyre8 omme on le sait8 il n4est point @0estion "40n "ie0 l0naire = la tSte "0 panthNon1. 7)o0t the 0lt o& the s0preme go" in Palmyra8 see C. TE9L9F%R8 The Pantheon o" Palmyra8 ;ei"en 1+'+8 pp.1-$.E a)o0t the anonymo0s go"8 ibi(em8 pp.11.-+E or also R. F0 !E5N9; F0 G%955%N8 /;e Fie0 5oi-Fisant 7nonyme = Palmyre18 in !.G. Fe G%ER - T.7. EFR9F2E e"s.8 M%C% Bermaseren8 EPR% #*8 ;ei"en 1+'*8 pp.'''-*1. 3-' ) 27A;9O%A5O98 lo . it.

3-*) 27A;9O%A5O98 op. it. p.31+ no.,. The orrespon"en e Marilah> (Fio letian4s Camp0s8 9ns ription no.$) 9.%.!. Pe0s (ypsistos (9ns ription no.,) is eBpli itly a >nowle"ge" )y the a0thor8 ibi(em8 p.31': /9l s4agit Nvi"emment "40n "ie0 s0prSme UMarilah>V en @0i l4appellation periphrasti@0e invite = re onnaKtre le "ie0 anonyme8 &orme Nvol0Ne et spirit0alisNe "e GaalshamSn8 onn0e par 0ne m0ltit0"e "e teBtes R Nos nos. 3 et , viennent s4a?o0ter = ette liste1. 3-+) 5ee E. G9OER!7N8 /7nonymo0s 2o"s18 C8 3 1 (1+3'-*)8 pp.1*'-+#8 to whi h8 &or the 5emiti area8 at least the arti le /Gaal18 ;9 98 p.1-#. &&.8 sho0l" )e a""e". :or the /Dn>nown 2o"18 to whom 5t. Pa0l ma>es re&eren e on the 7reopag0s "0ring his spee h to the 7thenians8 see P.A. 3an Fer (%R5T8 /The 7ltar o& the QDn>nown 2o"4 in 7thens (7 ts 1'8 $3) an" the C0lt o& QDn>nown 2o"s4 in the (ellenisti an" Roman Perio"s18 96;8 998 1*8 pp.1,$#-.# ()0t see also his essay /The Dn>nown 2o"1 in $no:le(.e o" Go(8 re&. )elow n.3$-8 pp.1+-,$) in l0"ing a sele te" )i)liography on the s0)?e t sin e the lassi al 9.nostos Theos8 ;eipHig 1+13 (repr. Farmsta"t 1+.#) o& E. N%RFEN: among the teBts @0ote"8 the art. /7gnoSo8 =gnostos8 et 18 T86T 9 (1+33)8 pp..1$--$8 )y R. GD;T!7NN8 "eserves spe ial attention. 31-) 5ee the art. /Gaal 5hamin18 ;9 98 p. 1-'* &.8 a or"ing to whi h this go"8 previo0sly i"enti&ie" )y the interpretatio .rae!a to Pe0s ((ypsistos)8 /viellei ht hat im ersten Frittel "es $. Ch. nC. 0nter "em Ein&l0ss "er a0& eine ;a0ter0ng "er 2ottesvorstell0ng "rangen"en monotheistis hen Geweg0ng G.-5 h. "0r h "en namenlosen 2ott ersetH )Hw. seinen Namen a0&gege)en1 (p.1-'+). G0t also what 59!%N8 /5yn retisme nor"-a&ri ain1 ( it. a)ove n.'$)8 p..1$ n.$#8 o)?e te" a)o0t: /9l me sem)le pl0tot @04il a NtN assimilN8 selon les lie0B8 = telle o0 telle &ig0re "ivine8 to0?o0rs he& "0 panthNon lo al R ;a ten"en e monothNisante "0 paganisme tar"i& ne s0ppose pas nN essairement l4anonymat "0 "ie0 virt0ellement 0ni@0e1. That is the histori al-religio0s onteBt )y whi h we sho0l" rea" the statement o& G9OER!7N8 op. it.8 p.1+$8 a or"ing to whom /the Ga)ylonian !oon-2o"8 5in8 &or eBample8 who was ta>en over )y the town o& Carrhae as the go" 5in o& the town o& Carrhae8 )e ame anonymo0s among the 5yrians8 who alle" him the Gaal o& Carrhae1: as we have more than on e alrea"y seen8 the proper name o& the (arr=n4s !oon-2o" was never repla e" )y this alternative eBpression8 whi h an )e eBplaine" in terms o& an episo"i nee" to stress the highest ran> o& the "ivinity. 311) 5ee the lassi al 7. G%DC(E-;EC;ERCW8 / Gre!2ue8 Paris 1*++8 or :. G%;;8 Sphaera8 ;eipHig 1+-38 where the so- alle" sphaera barbari!a an" sphaera .rae!ani!a are learly "es ri)e". 31$) T7RF9ED8 /5=)iens Corani@0es et Q5=)iens4 "e (arr=n18 p.13. 313) :or the i"enti&i ation o& the (arr=nians with the an ient philosophers (to )e rea" together with the other one8 alrea"y @0ote" a)ove p.$1 an" n.1'# &&.8 (arr=nians 2ree>s)8 in a""ition to 7;-!754DF98 /es Prairies (#0r8 p.#, (who onne ts their philosophi al position to E le ti ism)8 see 7;-5(7(R75T7N98 Milal8 2T p.1 &&. 31,) 7;-!754DF98 /es Prairies (#0r8 p.#. (7ra)i TeBt). Even i& the !0slim poligraph a""s to this in&ormation the &amo0s Platoni i"ea o& !an as a heavenly Tree (P;7T%8 Timaeus8 +- 7 '-G$) in or"er to ?0sti&ie perhaps the tr0th&0lness o& his so0r es8 the passage in @0estion annot )e &o0n" in the writings o& Plato (see also )elow n.31*). 31.) C(A%;5%N8 'ie Ssabier8 998 p.3'3. 31#) 3bi(em8 p.*$#8 &ollowing a s0ggestion o& Pro&. :;E95C(ER (/Aer seines eignes Aesen Usi h sel)stV er>ennt8 wir" gottli h8 gottahnli h1). %n the s0)?e t8 see 7. 7;T!7N8 /The Felphi !aBim in !e"ieval 9slam an" C0"aism18 in Stu(ies in ;eli.ious Philosophy an( Misti!ism8 ;on"on 1+#+8 pp.1-,-E (.F. GETP8 /The Felphi !aBim Gnthi sautn in (ermeti 9nterpretation18 HT; #3 (1+'-)8 pp.,#.-*,. Ae &in" @0ite interesting8 even i& it seems going against the general tren" ( &. a)ove n.1.$)8 the relationship Terah 5o rates propose" )y P(9;%8 Somn.8 98 .' &&.8 in onse@0en e o& the same pre ept /Onow yo0rsel& M1 o)serve" )y )oth o& them a or"ing to the Cewish writer. 31') 7;-!754DF98 op. it.8 p.#. (:T). 31*) 7;-!754DF98 /es Prairiers (#0r8 Revision "e la tra"0 tion "e G. "e !eynar" et P. "e Co0rteille par Ch. PE;;7T8 998 Paris 1+#.8 p..3#E &. T7RF9ED8 op. it.8 p.1,8 who in relation to the allege" Platoni saying engrave" on the "oor o& the (arr=nian shrine states that / 4est = l4Nvi"en e 0n rappel "e 3 9l!ibia(e 133 C1: )0t the passage in @0estion is nothing more than a re&eren e to the "ivine nat0re o& the h0man so0l8

so that /a rather )roa" rea"ing o& the 2ree> teBt1 (2REEN8 The ity o" the Moon,Go(8 p1#') is re@0ire" to share Tar"ie04s opinion. 7 relevant eBample o& the i"ea - parti 0larly "ear to late Neoplatonism as well as to (ermetism - o& /)e oming go"18 is re or"e" )y N%CO8 on-ersion8 p.1.' &&.8 who ites the ase o& the emperor C0lianE other eBamples o& the spirit0al nee" /to )e ome possesse" o& a nat0re li>e go"1 ibi(em8 p.1-3E see also :REFE8 /!onotheism an" Pagan Philosophy18 it. a)ove n.11*8 p.#. (/R salvation U&or PlatomistsV onsists in the vision o& the &irst prin iple thro0gh whi h one )e omes li>e 2o"1)8 an" passim% 31+) Cit. (a)ove n.13,)8 p.1*3 an" n.'. The great orientalist also points o0t to the e@0ivalen e o& the 7ra)i ver) ta#allha with the /thesis "es mysti@0es )iHantins1 an" with the Persian 4ho( sho(an o& N=sir-i Oh0sraw (ibi(. p..$ n.'). 3$-) 5ENEC78 Ep. LC38 ,' . :or the /Onowle"ge o& 2o"18 &. GD;T!7NN8 art. /7gnoSo18 T86T 98 p.1$$8 an" more in parti 0lar R. 3an Fen GR%EO T. G77RF7 C. !7N5:E;F e"s.8 $no:le(.e o" Go( in the Grae!o,Poman 8orl(8 EPR% 11$8 ;ei"en-New Tor>-Oo)enhavn-Ooln 1+**. 3$1) 9n a""ition to the alrea"y ite" st0"ies (a)ove n.1,*) see ;. !75592N%N8 /9nventaire "e la ;itterat0re (ermNti@0e 7ra)e18 in R.P. :E5TD29ERE8 /a ;>->lation (#Herms Trism>.iste8 98 7ppen"i e 9998 Paris 1+.-8 pp.3*,-,--E !. P;E55NER8 /(ermes Trismegist0s an" 7ra) 5 ien e18 S3 $ (1+.,)8 pp.,.-#-E C. RD5O78 Tabula Smara.(ina% Ein Beitra. 7ur Ges!hi!hte (er Hermetis!hen /iterature8 (ei"el)erg 1+$#. :or a general s0rvey8 see !. D;;!7NN8 'ie 6atur un( Geheim:issens!ha"ten im 3slam8 ;ei"en 1+'$. 3$$) ;7CT7NT9D58 'i-% 3nst% 998 1.8 # (6 5C%TT8 Hermeti!a8 938 p.1.. 5 ott intro"0 es the material a)o0t (arr=nians in the 9 3ol.8 %B&or" 1+$,8 p.+' &&.8 an" repro"0 es it in the 938 p.$,* &&. among the /Testimonia1). 3$3) %H% 9L8 ,8 1'. C&. N%CO8 on-ersion8 p.11+: /Piety will give yo0 >nowle"ge. This is the attit0"e o& those who tr0ste" 0lts rather than spe 0lation. The har"er thin>ers hel" the opposite proposition8 whi h we &in" in (ellenisti philosophy8 that >nowle"ge8 an" a)ove all >nowle"ge o& 2o"8 is or pro"0 es piety1. 3$,) Poiman(res8 ;eipHig 1+-,8 p.1##. 3$.) F7NTE8 Para(ise8 938 $*. C&. the onvin ing essay o& E"y !9N2DPP98 / +orte, il o(i!e 0!!ulto (ella 'i-ina omme(ia8 2enova 1+** (where &or the &irst time an eBegeti al >ey &or the internal str0 t0re an" many o)s 0re passages o& the omme(ia is &o0n" in the 7l hemi al 0lt0re)8 p.,*E see also the neologism /tras0manar1 in Para(ise8 98 '-. :or a possi)le as well as s0rprising on&ession o& Fante who o0l" have em)ra e" "0ring his yo0th the /5a)ian1 error8 see the enigmati verses / ;aphel mai ame!he 7ab* almi1 (3n"erno, LLL98 #') whi h have &re@0ently attra te" s holarship4s attention: see &or eBample F. 2DERR98 /9l Nome "i Fio nella ;ing0a "i 7"amo se on"o il LL39 "el P0rgatorio e il 3erso "i Nem)rotte "el LLL9 "ell49n&erno18 Giornale Stori!o (ella /etteratura 3taliana8 ., (1+-+)8 pp.#.-'#E R. ;E!7T8 /;e Nemro" "e l4 En&er4 "e Fante et le Q;i)er Nem)roth4 /8 Stu(i 'antes!hi ,- (1+#3)8 pp. .'-1$*. The s0)?e t wo0l" "eserve however "eeper investigation. 3$#) Ae sho0l" not &orget that it was )e a0se the harge o& pantheism that personalities li>e al-(all=? or 50hrawar"K 0n"er ame the martyr"om. 3$') 9t is worth while remem)ering that the meaning /to )e ome go"1 o& the ver) ta#allha is not mentione" at all )oth in :RETT72 an" in ;7NE4s /e<i!on: the &ormer in relation to laha (3 &orm) gives the &ollowing "e&inition: / ol0it8 a"oravit8 0lt0i se "e"it1E li>ewise the latter: /he "evote" himsel& to religio0s eBer isesE (he) applie" himsel& to a ts o& "evotion1 (th0s8 s0 h were pro)a)ly the ling0isti a0thorities ta>en into a o0nt )y !7R2%;9%DT(8 art. /(arr=nians18 p..$-)8 when translating (arr=n4s maBim in the most nat0ral way: /Ahoso >nows himsel& is religio0s1). 9n"ee"8 F%PT in his Supplement in l0"es as several ontemporary 7ra)i Fi tionaries "o8 &or eBample O759!9R5O9 - the e@0ivalen e ta#allha - /to )e ome go"18 )0t he @0otes only two items (&rom al-!7WW7R9 an" &rom 5C(97PP7RE;;94s Bo!abulista)8 a &0rther proo& o& a @0ite rare 0se o& the ver) with this meaning. 3$*) E. P%C%CO8 Spe!imen Historiae 9rabum8 %B&or" 1#,+8 p.1,$ &.: Saba, E<er!itus R @0asi saba hash, shamayim8 E<er!itus !oelitis 0ltoresE &. C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 98 p.318 who also ites the s holars (2oli0s8 (y"e8 Aahl8 5ommer) &ollowing this opinion.

3$+) 7s it is well >nown8 the (e)rew philosopher onsi"ere" the 5a)ians as 7)raham4s a"versaries an" "es ri)e" them as worshippers o& the heavenly )o"ies8 whom they viewe" /as "eities8 an" the s0n as their hie& "eity. They )elieve that all the seven stars are go"s8 )0t the two l0minaries are greater than all the rest R 7ll the 5a)ians th0s )elieve" in the eternity o& the Dniverse8 the heavens )eing8 in their opinion8 2o"1 (!79!%N9FE58 Moreh 6ebu4im8 ET The Gui(e o" the Perple<e(8 )y !. :R9EF;7NFER8 ;on"on 1+-,8 pp.31.-'). ;arge eB erpts &rom !aimoni"es4 )oo> are repro"0 e" in 2erman )y C(A%;5%N8 op. it.8 998 pp.$.1-+1. 33-) T7RF9ED8 op. it.8 p.,1 &.8 arg0es that Po o > was wrong in his 0n"erstan"ing o& the meaning o& the wor"8 )0t at the same time he was orre t in the etymology itsel&: the :ren h s holar a"van es there&ore the on?e t0re that the Sbi#n mentione" )y !0hamma" are a gnosti se t o& Cewish origin8 an" pre isely the Stratioti4oi re or"e" )y EP9P(7N9D58 Pan. $+8 '8 ' (G S $.8 p.33-8 ,-' (%;;)8 ,-8 18 . (G S 318 p.*18 1.-1*) given the eBa t semanti orrespon"en e o& this name with the Cewish term whi h might )e 0se" &or the /a"epts o& the elestial armies1. 331) O%E;ER-G7D!27RTNER8 H9/9T8 998 p.+3,8 s.v. sab. 33$) 5ee &or eBample8 &or 9mperial times8 C. (E;2E;7NF8 /Roman 7rmy Religion18 or E. G9R;ET8 /The Religion o& the Roman 7rmy: 1*+.-1+''18 96;8 998 1#8 $8 pp.1,'--1.-. an" 1.-#-,1. The &ig0re o& the /5tranger18 5alman8 in 9smailian historiosophy8 is a leit-moti& in the wor>s o& C%RG9N (see &or eBample /Rit0el 5a)Nen18 n.1,, &&. or more parti 0larly the monography Salman Pa4). 333) ;. !75592N%N8 /Es@0isse "40ne Gi)liographie Warmate18 in 9 Bolume A to E%G% Bro:ne ( it. a)ove n.3$)8 p.333. 33,) C&. Samuel8 #8 $$.. 33.) P5EDF%-!7CR9T98 'as Kiel (es 8eisens8 e". R9TTER p.*- (A al,Sbi#a, :a hum mamli4 al,nabt min al,4as(niyy*n)E 2T )y R9TTER-P;E55NER8 p.*3. 9t is worth noting that the (arr=nians are o&ten alle" /Chal"aeans18 even i& generally this in&ormation is han"e" "own )y the same !0slim a0thors asserting the 0s0rpation o& the name /5a)ians1 )y them sin e al-!a4mJn4s times: (7!P7 7;-95:7(7N98 Tr*4h s*n* mul4 al,Jar( :a al,Janbiy8 ;T 2%TTA7;FT8 p., ( hal(aei o!!i(entis tra!tum o!!upabant eorum2ue nepotes in urbis arrarum at2ue E(essae ho(ie2ue reperiuntur)Ue". C7A7F 7;-9R7N9 7;T7GR9P98 Gerlin 13,- (.8 p.': /To"ay (1-th ent0rt 7.F.) their "es en"ants live in the ity o& (arr=n an" RJh= (mo"ern Dr&a). They gave 0p this name (Chal"aeans) &rom the time o& the aliph al-!a4mJn an" a"opte" the name sbi#n1VE 7;-O(7A7R9P!98 Ma"tih al,Julm8 e". 3an 3;%TEN8 p.3# (/The Chal"aeans U9l,4al(niynV R are they who are alle" Q5a)ians Uan"V (arr=nians4. Their mem)ers live in (arr=n an" 9ra@. They a"opte" the name sbi#n at the time o& the aliph al-!a4mJn1)E 7;-N7F9!8 +ihrist8 ET F%F2E8 p.',. (/R Harnniyah al,$al(niyy*n8 >nown as the 5a)ians1). 7GD TD5D:8 the hea"-?0"ge o& the Caliph (arJn al-RashK"8 states that the people o& (arr=n are Na)ataeans an" re&0gees &rom 2ree e ($itb al,4harD8 .th e". Cairo 13+# (.8 p.,3). 7 or"ing to 7;-!754DF98 $itb al,tanb*h :a al,Jishr"8 e". it. (a)ove n.1.-)8 p.318 the term /Na)ataeans1 re&ers to the 5yria -spea>ing people ( &. 5PENCERTR9!9N2(7!8 hristianity amon. the 9rabs8 p.1,# &. an" notes8 &or other re&eren es an" "etails)8 whereas he 0ses the term $al(niyn &or "enoting people who live in the marshes )etween Aasit an" Gasra in 5o0thern 9ra@8 namely the gro0p o& 5a)ians oppose" )y him to the (arr=nians an" elsewhere "enote" )y him with the term $imariyn. The relations whi h :7R95-2;9FFEN8 /The !eaning o& Oorani Han*"18 p.1' &.8 "e"0 e &rom these tra"itions is worth o& attention: /9t is also noteworthy that the Na)ataean an" Oorani 0sage o& han*" in a &avora)le sense is parallele" in other 5emiti lang0ages only in the Eastern 7ramai "iale t o& (arr=n8 with whi h it has other ling0isti a&&inities. !oreover the religion o& the (arr=nians as a 5yro-(ellenisti syn retism has a goo" "eal in ommon with the worship o& the Na)ataeansE it is also not witho0t signi&i an e that the 7ramaeans o& (arr=n are &re@0ently re&erre" to in 9slami literat0re as Na)ataeans (Na)at)8 as well as Chal"aeans (Oal"=nKy0n). Ahat little is >nown o& the tra"itions o& these people &its very well into the general pi t0re o& their 0lt0re as one sees it re&le te" &rom other so0r es: Nonnos4 mith o& the Na)ataean ;y>o0rgos an" Theo"ore Gar Ooni4s story o& the origin o& hanptho at 7thens are o& the same ten"entio0s hara ter1. The latter story8 in parti 0lar8 "eserves spe ial attention8 )e a0se what the teBts literally re ites appears at &irst sight @0ite pro)lemati : /9l en est @0i ont "it @0e 4est aprSs l4olivier @0i po0ssa = 7thSnes @04ils Uthe HanpVreh0rent ette appellation8 ar olivier en lang0e gre @0e se "it elai et paien halious (H>llen <)1 (T(E%F%RE G7R O%N98 /iber S!holiorum8 e". 7FF79 5C(ER8 S 08 S!ript% Syri $#8 p.$*.E :T )y R. (E5PE; - R. FR72DET8 S 08 S!ript% Syri 1**8 p.$13): we )elieve8 in"ee"8 that the only way &or 0n"erstan"ing this passage is to see in the last wor" not a wrong

trans ription o& the term H>llen as the translators s0ggest8 )0t a hint to the 0lt o& (ypsistos8 whose name in (e)rew is ?0st Elyon ( &. a)ove n.$'$). 33#) Pi!atri<% The /atin Bersion o" the Ghyat al,Ha4*m8 e". P9N2REE8 p.,#. 33') P5EDF%-!7CR9T98 'as Kiel (es 8eisens8 e". R9TTER8 p.1+.E 2T )y R9TTER-P;E55NER8 p.$-# (teBt also in F%PT-Fe-2%ECE8 /No0vea0B Fo 0ments po0r l4Et0"e "e la Religion "es (arr=niens18 p.3--8 &ollowe" )y a :T8 p.3,1). 9t is tempting to thin> that the /lea"ers o& the 5a)ians1 an" the /servants o& the temples1 event0ally "enote here the same lass o& persons8 namely the 5a)ians in general tout,!ourt. 7 or"ing to several !0slim a0thors the 5a)ians ha" temples o& "i&&erent shape in hono0r o& the seven planets (pl0s &ive else8 all o& ir 0lar shape8 in hono0r o& 7)stra t Entities s0 h as the Primal Ca0se8 the Reason et .): 7;-!754DF98 MurD8 :T 938 p.#1 (:T )y PE;;7T8 998 p..3.) E 7;-F9!75(W98 6u4hbat al, (ahr8 :T p.,1 &.E 7;-5(7(R75T7N98 Milal8 2T p.'# &. (:T /es Sab>ens (e Shahrastn*8 )y 2. !%NN%T8 p.1'1 &.)E &. 5E27;8 /Pagan 5yria !on0ments in the 3ilayet o& Dr&a18 p.11. &&.8 who )elieves to re ogniHe s0 h shrines in the ar haeologi al remains o& 50matar (ara)esiE (C7RPE8 /es Sab>ens Harrniens8 pp.+--$8 who 0se&0lly ompares these !e"ieval teBts. The )est intro"0 tion to the s0)?e t is the more than on e @0ote" /Rit0el 5a)Nen18 pp.1-,,8 )y C%RG9N (repr. in 9"em8 Temple et ontemplation8 Paris 1+*-)8 who onne ts the i"ea o& the heavenly temples (an" o& the shrines )0ilt in or"er to )e their earthly representations) to the great spirit0al 5hi4ite an"Ior 9smailian tra"ition: a or"ing to these "o trines8 the 5a)ians represent the &irst religio0s gro0p "0ring the present (hiero-)histori al y le to whi h the "ivine Revelation has )een transmitte"8 &ollowe" )y the Grahmans8 the Poroastrians8 the Cews8 the Christians an" the !0slims (see on e again (. C%RG9N8 /Epiphanie Fivine et Naissan e 5pirit0elle "ans la 2nose 9smailienne18 ErCb $3 (1+.,)8 p.1*#E 9"em8 Temps y!li2ue et Gnose 3smailienne8 Paris 1+*$8 p.11-E or also !7RWDET8 /5a)Nens et 9>hw=n al-5a&=18 S3 $, U1+##V8 p..3 n.1E )0t see also a)ove at n.1+. the omparative ta)le8 &or the relation !oon-5a)ians-Revelation). Th0s8 it is not "i&&i 0lt to 0n"erstan" why the 5a)ians might )e seen - as the Ghya4s passage seems to state in terms o& the Primeval C0sto"iansI5ervants o& the Temple. 7s it is well>nown8 the eBpression /5ervants o& the !ost-(igh 2o"1 is 0se" )y ;0>e in 9!ts8 an" pre isely when the "emon-possesse" slave girl "enotes Pa0l an" 5ilas at Philippi ?0st )y means o& s0 h an attri)0te: the reason why Pa0l appears greatly tro0)le" an" irritate" )y this &a t8 so that he "oes not waver to eBor iHe the "emon provo>ing the )itter rea tion o& her masters &or the onse@0ent loss o& money8 is eBplaine" )y P.R. TREG9;C%8 /Pa0l an" 5ilas Q5ervants o& the !ost (igh 2o"4 (7 ts8 %,8 1#-1*)18 CS6T 3# (1+*$)8 p.#$8 in interesting terms: /%nly to a Cew or C0"aiHer wo0l" the title Theos (ypsistos have s0ggeste" that Tahweh was meant R Pa0l4s annoyan e an" onse@0ent a tion were a0se" )y the &a t that the girl was on&0sing those to whom he was prea hing. (is anger was aro0se" )y the &a t that she was eBposing his own pro lamation to a syn retisti mis0n"erstan"ing. (e a te" to remove the "anger1. :or the on ept o& /5ervant18 /5lave1 (7r. Jab(E (e)r. ebe() in religio0s sense8 see G9OER!7N8 /The Name o& Christians18 pp.11+-$3. 33*) F. OE;;ER!7NN8 art. /Gur, .er et .18 T89T8 98 p.+*+ &. Talm0"i re&eren es also in RETN%;F5T7NNENG7D!8 Ce:s an( Go(,+earers at 9phro(isia8 p.,* an" ns.1#* an" 1'1. 33+) The 0s0al Etymologies o& the name are 0nsatis&ying at all: /2o" (is) 5even1 ( El pl0s Shabbath)8 or /To swear (0pon the name o&) 2o"1 are in &a t ompletely meaningless. Ae thin> that this name more than as an eBample o& inter-ling0isti ompo0n"s s0 h as Mal!hos 3oustos or J9usos o 4a* theo(ros - where the 7ra)i name J9:( orrespon"s to 2ree> (ron ( it. )y 5PENCER TR9!9N2(7!8 hristianity amon. the 9rabs8 p.'#) is to )e seen as an eBa t e@0ivalent o& Theoseb>s: even i& a &eminine no0n sabeth with the meaning o& /servantI&earerIworshipperIsymphatiHerI onverte" (to the 0lt) o& %ne !ost-(igh 2o"1 is not atteste" in (e)rew an"Ior in 7ramai 8 we >now at least the eBisten e o& a name Sabet8 &o0n" in a Christian 2ree> epithaph in Egypt ( &. SEG L;938 no.1,#38 n.3: /&emale name <1)8 as well as o& an 7ramai name Tsabet trans ri)e" in this &orm )y ADT(N%A8 'ie Semitis!hen Mens!hennamen8 p.1#* (&or Qts4 6 sa(> &. a)ove8 n.1-#). 3,-) 2E;G-;7NF5GER2ER-%PPEN(E9!8 hi!a.o 9ssyrian 'i!tionary8 L398 p.,#. The possi)ility o& an 7 a"ian origin o& the name ha" )een on e a"van e" )y !7RWDET8 /5a)Nens et 9>hw=n al-5a&=4 18 S3 $. (1+##)8 p.1-+ n.1. 3,1) 5ee the re&eren es @0ote" a)ove in relation to the terms /proselyte1 an" .er8 p.+ n.#-8 p.3' n.33* an" passim.

3,$) hi!a.o 9ssyrian 'i!tionary8 L398 p.,': /57 ER9N.E.F9N29R.F9F;9 &rom among men &rom vario0s temples Cean8 50mer et 7>>a" $-,:*E $-3:'E three men 57 ER9N !E5 E."DTD &rom among the personnel o& the temple o& 5amas CT * *):1$8 also ER9N.(9.7 E.F9N29R.R9.E.NE %ECT 3 #1:+ (let.)E . ER9N.(.7 29R.5E.27 ( sa Mas4an,sabra TC; 1* 113:1$1E the last @0otation omes &rom !ari4s 7r hives: /oil given o0t ana pass sa,bi,im inma isin (Smas &or the anointing o& the personnel on the o asion o& the &estival o& 5amas 7R! ' 13:'1 (p.,+).