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Human resources is the set of individuals who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.

It is devoted to providing effective policies, procedures, and people-friendly guidelines and support within companies. Additionally, the human resource function serves to make sure that the company mission, vision, values or guiding principles, the company metrics, and the factors that keep the company guided toward success are optimized. ( The Functions of accounting department are to record the operation on the foundation of invoice, pay bills and vouchers, keep bills and vouchers, and to recompense the creditors and employees. More to that it collects and monitors debtors and settles the bank reports with his company's bank account. The purpose of the accounting department is to provide reliable information which can be relied by the management while making decisions. The department ensures that the information is valid, reliable and justifiable. It is also the department's objective to provide and integrate the organizational strategies. ( The many roles of a marketing department include; making sure that the company's products focus on the target customer, keeping an eye on the competition, creating and promoting a good, strong brand, and looking for new markets. This department also has the duty of analysing the company's ability and developing strategies that are within those abilities. ( The Reservations Department is usually the first point of contact between perspective clients and the Hotel, thus the responsibility for creating the all important falls to all Reservations personnel. The main duty of travel and reservation agents is to make reservations. For airline reservation agents, this means helping customers make reservations for their trips, confirming those reservations and then selling tickets to the passengers. Airline or other transportation reservation agents, such as train station reservation agents or bus reservation agents, may also check passenger's baggage as part of their duties. They may help passengers get to where they need to be for departures and recommend restaurants and other travel information. ( Cargo operations are carried out in accordance with the cargo plan or other document and established safety rules and regulations, equipment operating instructions and shipboard stowage limitations. The handling of dangerous, hazardous and harmful cargoes complies with international regulations and recognized standards and codes of safe practice. Communications are clear, understood and consistently successful. The inspections are carried out in accordance with laid down procedures and defects and damages are detected and properly reported. ( The business planning department is also commonly referred to as strategic planning. This function analyzes the long-term goals of the company which, in turn, informs the development of organizational resources and strategic initiatives. It would be the responsibility of the business planning department to analyze the research, cost and implications of such an investment. ( The IATA Ground Handling agenda focuses on four pillars: Safe flight and safe ground operations Operational efficiency and quality service delivery Open, effective market Sustainability This department covers the ground handling activities which include passenger, baggage and cargo handling, aircraft loading and handling, mass and balance, ULD/ baggage preparation for loading, ground support equipment, pushback and headset, de-icing, staff training, etc. ( Aircraft maintenance engineers maintain and repair aircraft frames and mechanical parts, while specialists called avionics technicians handle the electronics. They use instruments to measure wear and test controls, replace defective components with hand tools, inspect their work to be sure it meets established standards and keep records of all actions. Their jobs may be stressful because they have limited time to complete their tasks before the aircraft continues with travel schedules. They can specialize in particular vehicles such as helicopters or jets, or focus on systems such as the engine or hydraulics. (

An airline meal or in-flight meal is a meal served to passengers on board a commercial airliner. These meals are prepared by airline catering services.

These meals vary widely in quality and quantity across different airline companies and classes of travel. They range from a simple beverage in shorthaul economy class to a seven-course gourmet meal in long-haul first class.

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Singapore has implemented a sophisticated Intelligent Transport System in addition to a number of transport initiatives including free public transportation in pre-morning peak hours, a vehicle quota system, congestion charge and an extensive public transport system. Transport within Singapore is mainly land-based. Many parts of Singapore are accessible by road, including islands such as Sentosa and Jurong Island. The other major form of transportation within Singapore is rail: the Mass Rapid Transit which runs the length and width of Singapore, and the Light Rail Transit which runs within a few neighbourhoods. The main island of Singapore is connected to the other islands by ferryboat services. Singapore also has many links to the rest of the world. There are two bridges which link Singapore to Malaysia the Causeway, and the Second Link. The Singapore Changi Airport is a major aviation hub for many airlines, and Singapore is a major transshipment port. (

Transportation in South Korea is provided by extensive networks of railways, highways, bus routes, ferry services and air routes that criss-cross the country. The public transport system in South Korea is often modern, fast and efficient. Most major cities have a rapid transit system and there are frequent intercity bus services as well as many options for high speed trains and domestic flights. ( Transportation in France relies on one of the densest networks in the world with 146 km of road and 6.2 km of rail lines per 100 km2. It is built as a web with Paris at its center.[1]The French transportation system is one of the best in western Europe. French railways, which were nationalized just before World War II, carry a somewhat greater ton-mileage load of freight than do those of Germany, and French passenger mileage is also slightly greater than that of its eastern neighbor. The government has used low freight rates to stimulate economic activity, and passenger rates have been kept artificially low to make traveling easier for the lower income groups. (

Italy has well developed public and private transportation options. Italian rail network is extensive, especially in the north, generally eclipsing the need for an alternative such as bus or air (both of which, however, exist to some extent). While a number of private railroads exist and provide mostlycommuter-type services, the national railway, Ferrovie dello Stato, also provides sophisticated high-speed rail service that joins the major cities of Italy from Naples through northern cities such as Milan and Turin. Italy has 2507 people and 12.46 km2 (World's seventh) per km of rail track.[1] Italy's road network is also widespread, with a total length of about 487,700 km.[2] It comprises both an extensive motorway network (6,400 km), mostlytoll roads, and national and local roads. Because of its long seacoast, Italy also has a large number of harbors for the transportation of both goods and passengers. Italy has been a seafaring peninsula dating back to the days of the Etruscans and the Greeks.

( s a densely populated country in a central location in Europe and with a developed economy, Germany has a dense and modern transportation infrastructure. The first highway system to have been built, the extensive German Autobahn network famously features sections where no speed limit is in force. The country's most important waterway is the river Rhine. The largest port is that of Hamburg. Frankfurt Airport is a major international airport and European transportation hub. Air travel is used for greater distances within Germany but faces competition from the state-owned Deutsche Bahn's rail network. High-speed trains, called ICE connect cities for passenger travel with speeds up to 300 km/h. Many German cities have rapid transitsystems and Public transport is available in most areas. Since German reunification substantial efforts have been necessary to improve and expand the transportation infrastructure in what had previously been East Germany.[1] ( Transportation in the United States is facilitated by road, air, rail, and water networks(Boats). The vast majority of passenger travel occurs by automobile for shorter distances, and airplane or railroad for some people, for longer distances. In descending order, most cargoes travel by railroad, truck, pipeline, or boat; air shipping is typically used only for perishables and premium express shipments. (

Canada is a developed country whose economy includes the extraction and export of raw materials from its large area. Because of this, it has a transportation system which includes more than 1,400,000 kilometres (870,000 mi) of roads, 10 major international airports, 300 smaller airports, 72,093 km (44,797 mi) of functioning railway track, and more than 300 commercial ports and harbours that provide access to the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans as well as the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway.[1] In 2005, the transportation sector made up 4.2% of Canada's GDP, compared to 3.7% for Canada's mining and oil and gas extraction industries. [2] Transport Canada oversees and regulates most aspects of transportation within Canadian jurisdiction. Transport Canada is under the direction of the federal government's Minister of Transport. The Transportation Safety Board of Canada is responsible for maintaining transportation safety in Canada by investigating accidents and making safety recommendations. Transport infrastructure in Brazil is characterized by strong regional differences and lack of development of the national rail network. [1] Brazil's fast growing economy, and especially the growth in exports, will place increasing demands on the transport networks. [2] However, sizeable new investments that are expected to address some of the issues are either planned or in progress. Transport in Kenya refers to the transportation structure in Kenya. The country has an extensive network of paved and unpaved roads. Its railway system links the nation's ports and major cities and connects Kenya with neighbouring Uganda. There are 15 airports with paved runways. The Nigerian transport systems, right from inception, were poorly designed and are unable to scale up to meet greater demand, a design flaw which causes traffic congestion on roads, overstressed railways, faltering airfields, and mass-transport blind spots. The government has begun to repair the countrys poorly maintained road network. Because Nigerias railways are in a parlous cond ition, the government is trying to rectify the situation by privatizing the Nigerian Railway Corporation. Similarly, the government is pursuing a strategy of partial port privatization by granting concessions to private port operators so that they can improve the quality of port facilities and operations.