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Reid, Joy. M. 2000. The process of Composition. 3rd Edition.

New York: Longman A CITATION (sometimes called a "reference") gives credit in writing to the author of an idea. A writer who uses (repeats) the ideas and/or the words of another author will cite that author twice: once in an abbreviated form in the body of the paper, and once completely at the end of the paper, on a separate page titled References (or Bibliography, or Works Cited). Many styles of citation exist (see "Discipline-Specific Citation Styles" on p. 168, 323, and 325). But regardless of the citation style (format) you use, the same information is included to enable any reader to locate the cited material in a library or on the Internet. * Figure 1 displays the general information that is essential in all citations, and some specific information that is essential in different kinds of materials. All citation formats . author(s) . year of publication . title of material Specific citation formats Books . place of publication . name of publisher . inclusive page numbers Magazines . volume number . issue number Internet/WWW . complete date of WWW placement . number of pages in the material . WWW address . complete date of material retrieval Figure A-1 General and Specific Information Needed in Citations What to Cite and Why Remember the two general rules for citing a source in U.S. academic writing: . Authors own words and ideas; therefore, writers must give authors credit by citing (giving a reference for) each author's words and ideas used. . Reference (i.e., cite) any information that you did not know before you began the paper.
In the past, some academic writing used footnotes (a number in the text that referred to the complete reference at the bottom of that page) or, in longer material, end-of-chapter notes. Most academic citation styles no longer use footnotes. Informational footnotes, like this one--those that explain something additional in the text--are often used in academic writing.

Writers must cite a source for any fact or information that is not general knowledge. For example, a writer might know in general that freedom of the press allows newspaper reporters to print facts about a public official's abuse of power, but she or he might not know the source of that freedom, the legal differences between freedom of speech and libel, or the extent to which a reporter may keep his sources secret. When that writer locates the information, she or he will need to cite the source(s), to give credit to the author(s) of the material she or he discovers. Note: Not citing sources can result in plagiarism, a serious offense in U.S. academic writing that can result in the writer failing the course or, worse, expulsion from his or her college/university. In addition to the legal and ethical reasons for using citations in U.S. academic prose, there are several practical reasons: Reasons for Using Citations in Your Writing In- Text Citations 1. to give credit to the author who wrote the material 2. to lend credibility to the paper (i.e., to use an expert as evidence) End-of- Text Citations 1. to help the reader find the material quickly and easily 2. to demonstrate to the reader the breadth, depth, and currency of the writer's research

In fact, while writers will not cite their own ideas, if they know some of the answers to their questions, they might cite a source they find in order to strengthen their credibility in the eyes of their audience. General Rules for APA Format In this textbook, you will learn the most widely used citation format in college/university undergraduate classes: APA Style. This format was developed by the American Psychological Association and is used in the social sciences and in some science disciplines. While you may not always use APA Style in your academic career, knowing APA Style will prepare you to switch with ease to another style/format if that becomes necessary. For a complete introduction to APA Style, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. APA FORMAT FOR IN-TEXT CITATIONS Below are rules for APA in-text citations. An example follows each rule, and specific concerns are noted in small print. 1. If the ideas of another author are used in a sentence, and the author's last name is not identified in the sentence, the in-text citation includes the last name of the author and the year of publication. The citation can occur within the sentence OR at the end of the sentence. When the message from the foot is received, deposits of wastes in that part of the body will break up and allow oxygen to he sent to that area (Kunz, 1997). . in parentheses, the author's last name . comma between last name of author and the year of publication

. period at the end of the sentence comes after the citation in parentheses. The combination of chemicals in a firecracker work together to cause the color, the design, and the explosion (Allen & Pope, 1997). . article has two authors; ampersand [&] between last names . authors + year of publication in parentheses 2. If the ideas of another author are used in a sentence, and the author's last name is identified in the sentence (e.g., According to Scott Burrell,), cite just the year of publication immediately after the ideas. In one chapter in Body Talk (1994), Desmond Morris describes six different gestures used by people in cultures around the world to indicate "Hello!" . author identified and therefore already "given credit" in the sentence . therefore, the citation in parentheses does not contain the author's last name When I took Rebecca Oxford's Style Analysis Survey (SAS) (1992), I discovered that I was a visual learner. . author's name used in the sentence, so include only the year in parentheses . comma follows the first part of the sentence (DC, IC) after the citation, but a comma does not come before the citation . abbreviation of the survey name put in parentheses immediately following the complete title of the survey 3. The ideas and words of another author are used in a sentence. Use direct quotation marks (" . . . "). Then give the citation immediately following the quotation, as explained above, and give the page number where you found the quotation. Three other rules for using direct quotations: . Be sure you use the EXACT words of the author in a direct quotation. . If you eliminate one or more words, show the reader by using an ellipsis: three dots, with a space after each. . If you add one or more words (usually to clarify meaning or to change a verb tense), put those words in brackets [ ]. According to Mary Ann Christison, "When students learn about MI, they become more confident learners" (1997, p. 13). . quotation marks indicate an exact use of the author's words . author identified in the sentence, so name does not appear in the parentheses . comma precedes direct quotation . first word of direct quotation capitalized because it begins the quotation . parenthetical citation follows the direct quotation immediately . p. = 1 page, and pp. = more than 1 page

Birth order is defined as "the order of chronological birth of children" (Sulloway, 1996, p. 245). . quote involves only half the sentence . no comma precedes quotation . first letter of the quotation not capitalized because the quotation is part of the existing sentence . page number on which the quotation occurs must be included in the citation . the citation, in parentheses, comes before the period at the end of the sentence . comma between the year and the page number According to Professor Paul Mussen, an expert in child psychology, "Younger children [aged 4-6] are usually less cautious of their behavior. They tend to participate in . . . more dangerous activities and are more likely to take risks" (1997, pp. 33-34). . because the name of the author is identified in the sentence, only the year and the page numbers appear in parentheses . ellipsis indicates omitted words . additional information added in brackets [ ] 4. A direct quotation of more than 40 words (about three lines) must (a) be separated from the main text, (b) be indented 5 spaces, (c) have no quotation marks, and (d) have the citation follow the final punctuation. In his recent study on solar electricity, Jose Espinoza, an undergraduate electrical engineering major from Colombia at Colorado State University, gave a brief historical summary of solar electricity. The phenomenon of solar electricity was first noticed at the end of the 19th century. It was known that an electrical current was produced when light was shone on an electrical cell. However, no one knew why this current was produced. Albert Einstein gave the answer in 1920. He explained the photoelectric effect, which paved the road for the discovery of the photovoltaic effect. (1997, p. 12) . author identified in the sentence before the quotation . long quotation (64 words) separated from text . left margin of quotation indented five spaces (one tab length) . no direct quotation marks used . citation follows final punctuation (period)

Over seventy people have now died nation-wide from hantavirus, a largely unknown illness until 1993: The current Sin Nombre [Spanish for "without a name"] strain of the deadly virus is transmitted by deer mice. The common house mouse and urban rats have not been found to carry the strain so far, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta caution that they believe more rodents than just deer mice may carry the virus. . . . Deer mice are the same size or slightly larger than house mice, but unlike gray house mice, they are bicolored, with a brown topside and white on the underside of their bodies. (Tri-City Pest Control, 1998, p. 1) . no author identified in the previous sentence; no author given in the publication . publisher given as author . definition added in brackets [ ] . ellipsis indicates omitted material

APA FORMAT FOR END-OF-TEXT CITATIONS Below are the rules for APA format for end-of-text citations and typical examples from student writing. Also included are special notes to emphasize the details of each citation. 1. For books: general format for a book written by one or more authors: Last name of author, First initial. (year of publication). Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher. [Note multiple authors] Sulloway, E (1996). Birth order, family dynamics, and creative lives. New York: Pantheon Books. . first line indented five spaces (one tab length); subsequent lines at margin . only the first letter of the first word in the title and all proper names capitalized . the publication information for a book on the back of the title page . state omitted from place of publication because city is easily recognized . colon after place of publication 2. For periodicals (magazines and journals): An article in a magazine or journal has the following general format: Last name of author, First initial(s), Last name of next author, First initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of magazine, volume number (issue), inclusive page numbers. Adams, B. N. (1997). Birth order: A critical review. Sociometry, 35, 411-438. . author includes both first and middle name (so two initials) . title of article capitalized only at the beginning of the title and the first letter of the first word after the colon . period at the end of the article's title, then two spaces

. title of journal italicized (or it could be underlined) . volume number included (found on the cover page of the magazine or at the bottom of the Table of Contents) . comma between title of magazine and volume number Kammeyer K (1967). Birth order as a research variable. Social Forces, 46 (6), 71-80. . indentation of first line, but all other lines begin at the margin . double-spaced throughout . title of journal: all main words capitalized (but not and, the, a. of etc.) . no issue number given because pages are sequentially numbered throughout each year . issues individually paginated, so issue number is necessary . numbers for inclusive pages (but do not use "p." or "pp.") Newman, L. S., Higgins, E. T., & Vookles, J. (1992). Self-guide strength and emotional vulnerability: Birth order as a moderator of self-affect relations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 402-41l. . multiple authors format = Last, E, Last, E ,& Last, E . ampersand [&] between last and previous author in multiple-authored material . title of journal AND volume number italicized (or underlined) . comma following issue number 3. For chapters in edited books or articles in edited anthologies, use an end-of-text citation that is similar to the format for magazines/journals. An article or chapter in a book/ anthology edited by another person has this general format: Last name of author, First initial(s). (year of publication). Title of article/chapter. In F. Last (Ed.), Title of book/anthology [inclusive pages, i.e., first and last pages of the article/ chapter]. Place of publication: Publisher. Sakamoto, N. (1997). Conversational ballgames. In S. Reid, Purpose and process: A reader for writers (3rd ed.) (pp. 313-318). Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall. . book title has only first word and first word after colon capitalized . article appears In + E Last (not Last, E) . title of book is preceded by a comma . 3rd ed.: this book has been revised twice . inclusive page numbers of article follow title of book in parentheses . initials of state given after the name of the city (NJ) with no punctuation Pollio, H. R. & Edgerly, T. W. (1996). Comedians and comic style. In A. J. Chapman & H. C. Foot (Eds.), Humor and laughter: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 215-242). New Brunswick NT: Transaction Publishers. . two authors of the chapter; two co-editors (Eds.) of the anthology . has both a first initial and a middle initial listed for each author

. chapter appears In F M. Last & F M. Last . multiple editors (Eds.) of the anthology format: F. M. Last & F. M. Last . inclusive page numbers of article listed in parentheses ( ) immediately following title of the anthology Citation of Internet [World Wide Web] Sources The World Wide Web is under constant construction and change. Even so, APA style for Internet sources is becoming standardized. For future changes and additions, consult . the newest edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association . the APA website: . a website devoted to discussion of APA style formats: http://www.lib.usm. edu/userguides/apa.html For in-text citations from the www, use the same APA form used for other sources.The examples and notes below demonstrate the in-text citation forWWW sources. Dust allergies are the most prevalent (Edelson, 1997). . writer is using the ideas, but not the words, of the author . author is not identified in text; use (Last, year) The whistles, clicks, and barks of dolphins, according to Zihlman and Lowenstein, "have a number of potential functions" (1998, p. 2). . writer is using the ideas and the words of the authors in a direct quotation . quotation is integrated into the sentence . two authors are identified in the sentence, so the citation does not contain their names . citation includes the year and the page number of the direct quotation In contrast, end-of-text citations on the WWW are both similar to and differ from other secondary source materials. Similarities include: . indentation of first line; no indentation of following lines . author(s) forms: Last, F. OR for multiple authors, Last, F, Last, F.M, & Last, F.M. . capitalization, punctuation, and italicizing of similar forms For materials published in other sources (e.g., in a newspaper or magazine) and then loaded onto the www, the end-of-text citation will include some information about the published data as well as the additional WWW data: the title of the magazine/journal (italicized or underlined) and the month and year of publication. In addition, the WWW citation will include the necessary information to enable the reader to access that article on the www, such as the date the material was placed on the WWW and the URL (Universal Resource Locator): the WWW address.

The overall format for a WWW citation includes the following: Last, E (Year, Month Day of Publication or Placement of the Materials) on the www. Title of document. [Type of document described]. Retrieved Month Day, Year you accessed the material: complete URL Eastman, M. (1994, May 2). Sumo rituals. [Online article]. Retrieved October 12, 1997, from the World Wide Web: . double-spaced . URL (WWW address): note capitalization and punctuation carefully - general beginning (for most URLs): http;//www. - individualized address must have capitalization and punctuation correct - last piece of address shows the kind of group (and maybe the country): > .com = commercial > .org = organization > .hu = from hungary > .mx = from Mexico . bracketed [ ] information is a brief description of the material for the reader . period after the brackets Edelson, S. B. (1997, October 23). Allergies. [Online article]. Retrieved June 15, 1998, from the World Wide Web: . author with first and middle initial . date of publication or of material being placed on the WWW includes month and day . title of material is italicized . material is briefly described in brackets [ ] for the reader . "Retrieved" introduces the date you accessed the material . complete URL is not followed by a "dot" (period) Zihlman, A. L. & Lowenstein, J. M. (1998, July 26). Dolphins sapiens: How human are dolphins? Oceans, July, 1997. [Journal article posted on the World Wide Web]. Retrieved April 20, 1999, from the World Wide Web: . two authors, each with a first and middle initial . comma after year and before month and day of placement on the WWW . article previously published in a journal; month and year given . brief description in brackets capitalizes first word, ends with period outside the brackets . URL can be divided at the end of the line after the forward slash ( / ) or dot

PROBLEMS WITH WWW RESOURCES Unfortunately, many WWW sources are incomplete. If the 2.uthor's last name and first initial (Last, F.) are not available, use the first significant words of the title for the in-text citation; do not use insignificant first words such as a, an, the, of, or. Below are examples of (a) in-text citations and (b) end-of-text citations from incomplete WW'N information. In-text Children should always ride in the back seat of the car (Airbags, 1996). . use of the first significant word of the title (see full titles below) because the author is unknown . comma follows title Airbags a danger to small children. (1996, December 11). [Online article]. Retrieved on June 15, 1997, from the World Wide Web: http://www. mayohealth. org/mayo/9611/htm/ airbags/htm . use article title because the author is unknown . brief description of the article in brackets
Note: To insert these end-of-text citations into the Reference page at the end of a paper, use the first significant word in the title of the article as a last name, and insert the citation alphabetically in the reference list.


Sample End-of-Text Reference Page

Journal article Online article, WWW Newspaper article on the WWW [Newspaper article] [Magazine article] [Edited book] Journal article

References Allen, L. & Pope, G. (1997). Give me an "A.": July 4th displays get an explosive new look: Fireworks you can read. Science World, 53 (2), 14-16. Boulet, J., Jr. (1997, June 15). Pro and con-English pro. [Online article]. Retrieved October 22, 1997, from the World Wide Web: com/ procon/htm/ englishino.html Chinoy, L (1997, January 3). In presidential race, TV ads were biggest '96 cost by far. The Washington Post, B6. [Newspaper ~cle on the World Wide Web]. Retrieved February 11, 1998, from the World Wide Web: http://ads. campfin/stories/ cf033197.htm Clair, R. (1997, March 20). Let there be light Translucent door opens the foyer. St. Louis Post-Dispatch, D2. Emerson, H. & Monmaney, T. (1988, September 26). The risk from radon. Newsweek, 112, 69. Glantz, M. H. (Ed.). (1994). Drought follows the plow: Cultivating marginal areas. New York: Cambridge. Holmes, S. E., Drutz, J. E., Buffone, G. J., & Rice, T. D. (1997). Blood lead levels in a continuity clinic population. Journal of Toxicology: Clinical ToxiCology, 35,181-186.

Online article, WWW,"no author Journal article

Know what you're handling. (1998, August 5). [Online artide for Pyro website]. Retrieved October 8, 1998, from the World Wide Web: http://php. -every-pyro.html Krishnamurti, T. N., Correa-Torres, R., Latif, M., & Daughenbaugh, G. (1998). The impact of current and possibly future sea surface temperaiUre anomalies on the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes. Tellus: A Dynamic Meteorology and Oceanography, 50A (2), 186-210. Richard, M. (1991, October 31). Cohue au Palais de verre. LeMonde, 3. Smith, E K. & Bertolome, E J. (1986). Bringing interiors to light: The principles and practices of lighting design. New York: Whitney Library of Design. Watson, G. & Yamashita, T. (1997). Nearshore, wave and topographic effects in storm surges. In B. Came (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering (pp. 1417-1430). Melbourne, Australia: Monash University.

Foreign magazine] Textbook

Article in edited Proceedings

Discipline-Specific citation style Undergraduate college/university classes will often ask you to use APA format. However, for some course assignments, students may be required" to use another Citation Styles such as MLA (Modem Language Association) or CBE (Council of Biology Editors). Usually the instructor will give specific written directions concerning the reference style; if not, ask your instructor (a) which citation format to use and (b) for an example of that format. Students in major fields must learn the citation format common to that field. Ask an academic advisor, another instructor, or the secretary in the department (a) what citation style is generally used and (b) where to find examples of that reference style. Study the citation style carefully. As you analyze the format, consider the following: All Citations . Order of information: What comes first? Then what? And after that? . Available information: What doesn't exist? What to do about it? In-Text Citations . Placement: Where to place the citation in the sentence? . In-sentence use of author's name: What to put in parentheses of citation? End-of-Text Citations . Position on the page: What's indented? What's not? . Spacing: Single or double (or something else, or a combination) for each citation? between


In addition, writers must carefully study . Punctuation: Where are the commas, the parentheses, the quotation marks, the periods, the colons, the brackets? . Capitalization: What is capitalized? What's not? . Italicization or Underlining: Use one or the other, but not both, for the same piece of the citationthey both mean the same thing. Note: Within a single major field of study, there may be differences in citation styles. For example, your department may require one reference style, a respected journal in the field another, and a single instructor still another. It is therefore important for you to be aware of the requirements and to analyze different reference formats. Below are examples of several citation styles. Remember that although these in-text citations and reference lists have come from student papers in various fields, the styles may not exactly represent the reference styles required by your department. Instead, they serve as possible examples for analysis. You must then investigate and analyze the formats in your department yourself.
English department [Page number at end} Book; last, complete first name; year at end Journal article; quotation marks, italics, (year), colon Book;2nd author's name reversed [Edited book}

In-text According to Roger Axtell (1990), "Cite your own personal experiences, or, if possible, of a mutually respected third party" (33). References Axtell, Roger E. Do's and taboos of hosting international visitors. New York: John E. Wiley and Sons, 1990. Kimball, Geoffrey. "Men's and women's speech in Koasati: Are-appraisal." International Journal of American Linguistics 53 (1997): 30-38. McFarlane, Evelyn and James Saywell. If. . . (Questions for the game of life). New York: Random House, 1995. Oe, Kenzaburo, Ed. The crazy iris and other stories of the atomic aftermath. New York: Grove Press, 1985. In-text This cost analysis is based on the partial data obtained by Murphy et al. (1996a, b) on the solar pilot plants in Florida. References Howe, D. (1998). Solar desalination of water: An introduction. New York: A.G. Smith. Kettani, M. A. (1997). "Solar desalination with latent heat recovery," Solar Energy 12, 79-102.

Hydrology Et al. = several authors; a, b = two different articles by the same authors] [Textbook]

[Journal article; note capitals]

[First of 2 articles, same authors, year] Second article, 1996b; note issue number

Murphy, J., J. R Irwin, and J. A. Eibling. (1996a). "Efficiency of solar distillation still," Energy Engineering, 21, 5,112-116.

Murphy, J. J. R Irwin, and J. A. Eibling. (1996b). "Solar desalination in connection with controlled environmental agriculture in arid zones," Energy Conservation and Management, 26, 1, 20-25. Research report: Taylor, M. E (1998). "Field evaluation of solar sea-water stills," Report No. 243, state document Office of Saline Water, Columbus, Ohio.

In-text Dornbush (1) states the gross national product (GNP) is one of the most important indicators in measuring economic progress.

Book; note number ,sequence Federal government document; note capitalization Doctoral thesis Magazine, no author Chemistry Use of number in brackets for citation Journal article; note order of authors, year Book; note commas Abbreviation of journal, boldfaced volume Article in edited book; note punctuation, sequence Fluid Mechanics [And, not &; comma]

References (1) Dornbush, R, and S. Fischer. Macro-Economies. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1994. (2) Economic Report of the President. Transmitted to the Congr8ss, January 1999. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, 1989. (3) Jensen, E. R The Sources of Aggregate Demand Disturbances: An Empirical Analysis. Unpublished thesis, University of Michigan, 1998. (4) "Investments Today," Money, Vol. 15, May, 1996,50-52. In-text Many kinds of aromatic hydrocarbons can't be polymerized because the monomer is very stable [1, 2, 4]. Bibliography 1. Ran, RC., J. S. Han, and S. H, Polymer-supported Lewis acid catalysts: Cationic polymerization, J. Mol. Catal, 1993,21,203-210. 2. Fraze, A. H., High temperature resistant polyiners. WIley, New York, 1994. 3. Stille, J. K., Supported chiral catalysts in asyrp.metric synthesis. J. Macromal. Sci. Chern, 1994, 121 (13-14), 1689-93. 4. Corey, L. S., P. Hodge, and D. C. Sherrington, Synthesis and characterization of polymers. In Polymer-supported reactions inorganic synthesis (A. Recca, Ed.), Wiley, New York, 1995,249-255. In-text The inflow forecasting model carries out two distinct operations, the first being the creation of a series of natural runoff simulations from which can be extracted the second (Baines and Davies, 1990).

Book; notice capitalization, no place of publication journal; sequence, punctuation Sequence of same author; underlining; research report number Abbreviated journal title, boldfaced issue number Electrical Engineering [No comma]

Works Cited Baines, P. G. Topographic Effects in Stratified Flows. Cambridge University Press, 1995, 209 pp. Baines, P. G. "A Unified Description of Two-layer Flow Over Topography," 1. Fluid Mech. 156 (1994), 127-167.

Baines, P. G. & Davies, P. A. "Laboratory Studies of Topographic Effects in Rotating and/or Stratified Fluids." Orographic Effects in Planetary Flows. Chap. 3. 233-299. GARP Publication No. 23, WMO/ICSU, 1990. Kitabayashi, K. "Wind Tunnel and Field Studies of Stagnant Flow Upstream of a Ridge." J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 65 (1989), 193-203. In-text These methods have been replaced by the Carnegie-Mellon University Vision Laboratory (Kanade 1993). References Chen, L. K. "A Fabrj-Perot Interferometer System for High-Speed Velocity Mea:mrement," Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 2969, pp. 1050-57, 1997. Craig, J. J. Introduction to Robotics: Mechanics and Controi, 2nd ed. Addison Wesley, San Francisco, 1995. Kanade, T. An Optical Proximity Sensor for Measuring Surface Position and Orientation for Robot Manipulation," Vision Laboratory, Carnegie Mellon University, Report No. CMC-RI-TR-93-15, 1993. Zimbleman, D.; J. Burt. "Acquisition, Tracking, and Pointing X," The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 2383, pp. 55-65, 1996.

Conference proceedings; single-spaced; no indentation Book; 2nd edition, sequence Research report; notice capitalization punctuation Semicolon between multiple & reversed authors; Vol. and pp. written


1. Cite any information (electronic, audio, or print) that you did not know before you began writing. 2. When in doubt, cite it. 3. Even when paraphrasing or summarizing, if the idea(s) belong to another author, use a citation. 4. Unless you did the counting yourself, cite others' statistics and numbers. 5. In general, use quotation marks when three or more major words of another author are used consecutively (do not count articles, prepositions, or conjunctions). 6. If you quote two or three sentences, use only one set of quotation marks (at the beginning of the first sentence and at the end of the last). 7. Direct quotations must be exact. . If you omit words in a direct quotation, use an ellipsis (three dots, separated by a space: . . .). . If you add words to a direct quotation, use brackets for those words [ ]. 8. If a direct quotation is more than 40 words (about three typed lines), separate that quotation from the rest of the text: . begin the quotation on a new line . indent the direct quotation . do not use quotation marks . end the direct quotation with a period . add the citation after the period, in parentheses 9. It is not necessary to use a citation if the information is a fact that is known by most of your readers. USING CITATIONS In U.S. academic prose, instructors prefer that student writers investigate the ideas of several authoritative sources rather than depend on just one or two sources. In other words, quantity is nearly as important as quality. Therefore, try to use more than one authoritative source in each paragraph; do not simply quote or cite the same author again and again. In general, try not to use too many direct quotations; often, instructors prefer students' own words that are supported with the ideas (but not necessarily the direct quotations) of authoritative sources. In addition, instructors prefer that you summarize and synthesize your authoritative sources rather than list quotation after quotation. The reasons: . If you cite the ideas of several authors, you indicate to your audience that you have read broadly as well as deeply about the topic. . If you paraphrase, synthesize, and/ or summarize the evidence from several authoritative sources, your ideas are substantially strengthened. When you first use a direct quotation, and often when you use a source, introduce the author and/ or the context of the quotation. Then follow the direct quotation by explaining exactly how the quotation fits into your specific argument and appeals to your specific audience. That is, in the same way you (a) introduce and (b) interpret non-text materials, you should introduce and. demonstrate the relevance of your sources. You may decide to use a direct quotation if the author's words are memorable or unique, or if the direct quotation will emphasize a very important point. If you decide to use a direct quotation, try to use a piece of the quotation in your own sentence. Use only the best pieces of the author's words; paraphrase (and cite) the rest in your own words for clarity and continuity.

Finally, remember that you do not have to make every decision about citation alone. You may consult a style manual, your instructor, the writing center on your campus, or a knowledgeable friend. With time and practice in the citation format and style of your major field, you will become more comfortable with the guidelines for citation.