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ASSIGNMENT NO: 1

PASSIVE COMPONENTS
1. Active components: They rely on a source of energy (usually from the DC circuit, which we have chosen to ignore) and usually can inject power into a circuit, though this is not part of the definition. Active components include amplifying components such as transistors, triode vacuum tubes (valves), and tunnel diodes. 2. Passive components: These can't introduce net energy into the circuit. They also can't rely on a source of power, except for what is available from the (AC) circuit they are connected to. As a consequence they can't amplify (increase the power of a signal), although they may increase a voltage or current (such as is done by a transformer or resonant circuit). Passive components include two-terminal components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, and transformers.

STUDY OF COMPONENTS PASSIVE COMPONENTS


RESISTOR:
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. Thus, the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. Resistor Symbols

1. Metal film resistor A common type of axial resistor today is referred to as a metal-film resistor. Metal electrode leadless face (MELF) resistors often use the same technology, but are a cylindrically shaped resistor designed for surface mounting. Note that other types of resistors (e.g., carbon composition) are also available in MELF packages.Metal film resistors are usually coated with nickel chromium (NiCr), but might be coated with any of the cermet materials listed above for thin film resistors. Unlike thin film resistors, the material may be applied using different techniques than sputtering (though that is one such technique)

Metal film resistor

2. Carbon film resistor

Partially exposed Tesla TR-212 1 k carbon film resistor

A carbon film is deposited on an insulating substrate, and a helix is cut in it to create a long, narrow resistive path. Varying shapes, coupled with the resistivity of amorphous carbon (ranging from 500 to 800 m), can provide a variety of resistances. Carbon film resistors feature a power rating range of 0.125 W to 5 W at 70 C. Resistances available range from 1 ohm to 10 megohm. The carbon film resistor has an operating temperature range of 55 C to 155 C. It has 200 to 600 volts maximum working voltage range. Special carbon film resistors are used in applications requiring high pulse stability.

Special Resistors: 1. 3 Ohm 10W Resistor Wire Wound 5% Tolerance


Exceptionally small, sturdy, and reliable Ceramic flame retardant package

Sealed with a special quartz mixed sand cement Excellent moisture resistance High temperature stability 5% tolerance Temperature Range: -55C ~ +155C

2. Potentiometer Plastic Shaft


Specifications: Resistance Range 4k7 to 2M2 Tolerance 10% Operating Temperature Range -55C to 125C Power Dissipation 0.25W @85C Working Voltage 200Vdc Panel Cut Out mm Shaft x 6.0mm Diameter 24mm

LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR ):


A Photoresistor or Light Dependent Resistor is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity. Photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency, photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity, thereby lowering resistance. A Photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor, e.g. silicon. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band, and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. Extrinsic devices have impurities, also called dopants, added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band; since the electrons do not have as far to jump, lower energy photons (i.e., longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities), there will be extra electrons available for conduction. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. Photoresistors are basically photocells.

Symbol for a LDR

CAPACITOR :

A capacitor (originally known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices.

1. Ceramic Capacitor :
A ceramic capacitor is a fixed capacitor with the ceramic material acting as the dielectric. It is constructed of two or more alternating layers of ceramic and a metal layer acting as the

electrodes. The composition of the ceramic material defines the electrical behavior and therefor the application of the capacitors which are divided into two stability classes:

Class 1 ceramic capacitors with high stability and low losses for resonant circuit application Class 2 ceramic capacitors with high volumetric efficiency for buffer, by-pass and coupling applications.

2. Polyester Capacitor :
Polyester capacitors use a polyester dielectric and they are ideally suited to decoupling or bypass applications. They are not suited to high precision as their tolerance is not too good ranging from

10%, to 20% depending on the type. They come in many different shapes and sizes but one of the most common types is the orange drop (in figure)-

3. Metalized Capacitor :
Suitable only for lower current applications. Has been largely superseded by metalized film capacitors. Comparatively smaller in size than paper-foil capacitors.
4.

Film Capacitor :

Film/foil capacitors consist of two metal foil electrodes made of aluminum foil separated by a piece of plastic film. The plastic film can be polyester, polypropylene or polycarbonate. There are other types of plastic films but these films are used in specialized applications. thicknesses range from 5 um to 9 um. A film/foil capacitor is made by alternating two pieces of aluminum foil with two layers of plastic film. These interleaved layers are wound around a spindle in a manner that prevents the metal layers from touching. Film/foil capacitors can be wound in two different ways inductive and non-inductive.

5. Tentalum Capacitor :
A tantalum capacitor is a type of electrolytic capacitor, a component of electronic circuits. It typically consists of a pellet of tantalum metal as anode, covered by an insulating oxide layer that forms the dielectric, surrounded by conductive material as a cathode. Tantalum capacitors are the main use of the element tantalum.

6. Metalized Polyester Capacitor :

This type capacitor can be used in blocking, by passing, filtering, timing, interference used for small size construction.

7. Mylar Capacitor:
A mylar capacitor uses mylar, which is a type of high temperature polyester film, as its dielectric. It is typically very stable and able to operate over a wide range of temperatures, usually up to 125 degrees Celsius. As such therefore this type is a common choice for instrumentation equipment, also high quality audio and communications equipment. There may be various shapes, sizes and styles of construction but possibly the longest lived and most recognisable style is the green or brown resin-dipped radial type, which coupled with a small physical size makes it readily suitable for circuit boards.

8. Ceramic Disc Capacitor :


A ceramic capacitor is a two-terminal non-polar device. The classical ceramic capacitor is the "disc capacitor". This device pre-dates the transistor and was used extensively in vacuum-tube equipment (e.g., radio receivers) from about 1930 through the 1950s, and in discrete transistor equipment from the 1950s through the 1980s. As of 2007, ceramic disc capacitors are in widespread use in electronic equipment, providing high capacity and small size at low price compared to other low value capacitor types.

9. Trimmer:
These capacitors have one or more rotating plates, which are rotated to change the capacitance, separated from fixed plate(s) by a dielectric medium, which may be air. They are similar in many ways to variable capacitors, but are much smaller and usually designed for rarely-changed screwdriver adjustment during calibration or configuration. Alternatively capacitance can be changed by changing the distance between plates: compression trimmers. Typically values range from 5 to 60 pF.

10. Glass:
These are used to form extremely stable, reliable capacitors.

11. Paper:
They are common in antique radio equipment, paper dielectric and aluminum foil layers rolled into a cylinder and sealed with wax. Low values up to a few F, working voltage up to several hundred volts, oil-impregnated bathtub types to 5 kV used for motor starting and high-voltage power supplies, and up to 25 kV for large oil-impregnated energy discharge types.

INDUCTOR :
An inductor (also choke, coil or reactor) is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in its magnetic field. For comparison, a capacitor stores energy in an electric field, and a resistor does not store energy but rather dissipates energy as heat.Any conductor has inductance. An inductor is typically made of a wire or other conductor wound into a coil, to increase the magnetic field.

1. Air core inductor:


The term air core coil describes an inductor that does not use a magnetic core made of a ferromagnetic material. The term refers to coils wound on plastic, ceramic, or other nonmagnetic forms, as well as those that have only air inside the windings. Air core coils have lower inductance than ferromagnetic core coils, but are often used at high frequencies because they are free from energy losses called core losses that occur in ferromagnetic cores, which increase with frequency. A side effect that can occur in air core coils in which the winding is not rigidly supported on a form is 'microphony': mechanical vibration of the windings can cause variations in the inductance.

Intermediate Frequency Transformer :


An IF transformer usually has two windings in it so it does contain variable inductors, but these may be tuned to a fixed frequency by placing capacitors across the inductors. If you have two parallel tuned circuits close enough to each other, then they will pass energy between them but only at a very limited range of frequencies. Other frequencies are mostly rejected. A common IF frequency is 455 KHz. IF transformers like that were mostly used for valve amplifiers because they had high impedance inputs and fairly high output impedances. IF transformers for FETs can have a low impedance input winding and a tuned secondary. This has the advantage that there is a voltage step-up and a lot of the voltage gain of the amplifier can come from this step-up.

IC BASE IC BASE provides flexibility to the board as IC can be removed easily and replaced by another IC.

FRC FLAT RIBBON CABLE is Used to connect multiple wires across devices. FRC HEADER It is a on-board component for connecting FRC

BERG STRIP -board connector.

RELAY Relay is a switching device. Works on Electromagnetic Principle . Disadvantage : Slow switching frequency due to mechanical components