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Pipes Wagga Wagga - October 15-19 2007

Technical Paper
Title:

Specification and Quality Assured Installation of HDPE Corrosion Protection Liners

Authors: Mr John Tuxworth National Manager, Pipeline Systems, Humes Mr Daniel Bosco Managing Director, Bluey Technologies Mr Alex Terry General Manager, Anchor Lining Systems Keywords: coatings, corrosion, corrosion protection liner, corrosion protection system, CPL, durability, epoxy, extrusion weld, grout, HDPE, infrastructure, installation, liner, manufacture, pipe, pipeline, polyethylene, polyurethane, precast concrete, protection, pull-out test, QA, quality assurance, sewerage infrastructure, spark test, specification, testing, urethane, vacuum test

Abstract
Corrosion Protection Liners (CPLs) may be utilised to provide maximum asset life, and hence maximum investment return, for the majority of sewerage structures which are potentially susceptible to attack by Sulphuric Acid. CPL materials such as High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) sheet can be economically incorporated into both precast and insitu reinforced concrete structures and also employed for remediation works to ensure an asset life in excess of 100 years. This paper nominates the potential benefits of using HDPE CPL in contrast to other corrosion protection solutions, and draws on local experience and international case studies to present a guideline specification for the use of HDPE sheet of interest to authorities, civil engineers, inspectors and contractors alike. The benefits of HDPE CPL include: high abrasion resistance; sheet thickness options; very high resistance to sewerage aggressives; colour options; and enhanced mechanical connection to substrate materials. The paper proposes quality assurance requisites for: extrusion welding; grouting installation; and on-site/off-site testing. Singapores recently commissioned Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS), incorporating 50kms of HDPE lined pipe and tunnel segments, ranging from 0.9m up to 6m in (internal) diameter, as well as other recent projects, provide a wealth of information relating to installation methods and projected asset life. Australian product development and laboratory testing results are also presented, in order to validate requirements for grouting-type installations utilising Australian materials and construction practice. The focus of the paper is to propose a guideline specification so as to reference and summate, local and international standards as applicable to HDPE lined reinforced concrete structures, with the intent of providing/informing a ready-to-use document in support of the Wastewater industry.

Table of Contents
Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 1 Corrosion in Sewerage Systems ..................................................................................................................... 1 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) ................................................................................................................. 1 Corrosion Protection Systems ......................................................................................................................... 2 Plasticised PVC Corrosion Protection Liners............................................................................................ 2 Coating Systems .......................................................................................................................................... 3 HDPE Corrosion protection Liners ............................................................................................................. 4 Corrosion Protection Systems Comparison ........................................................................................ 5 Case Studies of Recent HDPE CPL Projects in the Asia Pacific ................................................................ 6 The Singapore Deep Tunnel Sewer System (DTSS)................................................................................. 6 Pantai Trunk Sewer, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia ......................................................................................... 6 Derrimut Interceptor Sewer: Stage 1, Melbourne, Australia ................................................................ 7 Precast, Insitu, post-fix, and rehabilitation applications for HDPE liners.................................................. 7 Precast & Cast-insitu ................................................................................................................................... 7 Grout fixing of HDPE CPL ............................................................................................................................ 8 Jointing / welding of HDPE CPLs ..................................................................................................................10 Relevant Standards HDPE Corrosion Protection Liners .......................................................................11 Quality Assured Installation and Testing of HDPE CPL..............................................................................13 Installation Contractors ............................................................................................................................14 Incoming Material Inspection and Storage..........................................................................................14 Inspection and testing of installed HDPE CPLs .....................................................................................14 Test Methods ..............................................................................................................................................16 Specification of HDPE CPL ............................................................................................................................18 References.......................................................................................................................................................19 Author Biographies.........................................................................................................................................20 Figures...............................................................................................................................................................21 Appendix A Sample QA forms for HDPE CPL Installation ...................................................................... i Appendix B Draft Specification for the Installation of HDPE Corrosion Protection Liners ............... v

Introduction
Whole-of-life cost, and asset service-life, are key factors in assessing the overall benefit provided by Australian infrastructure. Reinforced concrete pipe is recognised as providing one hundred year design-life in most drainage and sewerage applications1 the longest service-period acknowledged by international standards authorities for a pipe material however increased durability is required for some aggressive environments. Acidic corrosion is the primary durability concern in sewerage systems (pipes, detention tanks, treatment facilities, etc.), and corrosion protection linings (CPLs) have been employed in Australia as a practical solution for some forty-six years2. Corrosion protection systems commonly used in Australia to date include PlastilineTM, a thermoplastic PVC sheeting, as well as thermoset coating products including epoxies and polyurethanes, which create thin impermeable barriers. Most recently mechanically anchored HDPE corrosion protection linings have been used on Australian projects. HDPE linings when manufactured, installed and tested to international best-practice, offer many benefits over and above other lining systems, to provide long-life economy for sewerage and industrial pipeline systems. This paper provides an introduction to HDPE linings, in comparison to other corrosion protection systems available in Australia, and through case studies as well as local product development and testing, endeavours to provide a draft specification for reference by sewerage infrastructure stakeholders.

Corrosion in Sewerage Systems


Corrosion in sewerage systems is well researched and documented. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) attack - which may be converted to sulphuric acid which corrodes the concrete, occurs only under particular conditions of age, temperature, flow, sulphide content, etc, of the sewage. Typically, aeration and matured effluent are the key prerequisites for relevant levels of Hydrogen Sulphide to occur, with Figure 1 (from Reference 10) detailing the attack mechanism occurs when hydrogen sulphide is generated, which is then absorbed by moisture in the concrete and converted by bacteria into sulphuric acid that degrades the concrete.

High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)


Polyethylene is a polymer consisting of long chains of ethylene and was first synthesized by a German chemist Hans von Pechmann by accident in 1898, while heating diazomethane. When his colleagues characterised the white, waxy substance he had created, they recognised that it contained long CH2 chains and termed it polymethylene. In the polymer industry the name is sometimes shortened to PE, similar to other polymers like polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS) 7. Polyethylene is classified into several categories based typically on density and branching. HDPE has little branching, giving it stronger intermolecular forces and tensile strength than lower density polyethylene, making it ideal for sewerage infrastructure applications. It is also harder and more opaque and can withstand higher temperatures for short periods. HDPE is also defined as having a density of greater or equal to 0.941 g/cm3. High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is reportedly the most common field fabricated geomembrane material. Popularity is primarily due to low material cost, chemical resistance characteristics and mechanical properties. A chemical resistance guide for

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high density polyethylene and polypropylene sheet linings is provided by Reference 18. Low material cost allows for thicker lining cross-section to be used compared to other geomembrane materials, thus providing increased resistance to puncture and abrasion. These characteristics make HDPE liners very versatile, and it is now used widely across many containment and protection applications including pond linings, potable water storage, and as a CPL for reinforced concrete sewerage infrastructure.

HDPE Quick Facts9


Chemical Resistance:
Excellent resistance (no attack) to dilute and concentrated Acids, Alcohols and Bases. Good resistance (minor attack) to Aldehydes, Esters, Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Ketones and Mineral and Vegetable Oils. Limited resistance (moderate attack and suitable for short term use only) to Halogenated Hydrocarbons and Oxidizing Agents.

Mechanical Properties:
Max Temp: 120C Min Temp: -100C Autoclavable: No Melting Point: 130C Tensile Strength: 27 MN/m2 Water Absorption: <0.01% Hardness: SD65 UV Resistance: limited Transparency: Translucent Flexibility: Rigid Specific Gravity: 0.95 g/cm3

Corrosion Protection Systems


Reinforced concrete remains the primary material for the construction of water supply, drainage and sewerage infrastructure, as it can be manipulated to form inexpensive, robust/rigid, homogeneous elements with lengthy service life. Where aggressive corrosion is expected, such as in treatment facilities and main sewer systems, CPLs have often been utilised to ensure maximum asset life and therefore optimum return on investment. However, with population growth, a burgeoning sewerage network, and inturn increasing costs attributed to the repair and renovation, even branch and reticulation components such as access shafts are being considered for protection.

Plasticised PVC Corrosion Protection Liners


Plasticised PVC corrosion protection liners, such as PlastilineTM, have been used internationally for around 50 years. The Los Angeles City Council are reportedly the first users of PVC linings in the USA. In Australia, the list of asset owners who have installed Plastiline include: South Australian Water Corporation, Barwon Water, Melbourne Water, Sydney Water, Water Corporation of Western Australia, Power and Water Authority Northern Territory Hunter Water Corporation, South East Water Victoria, Gold Coast Water Queensland. Plasticised PVC sheeting typically relies on ribs, or longitudinal keys (Figure 2) to create a mechanical bond to concrete or a cementitious grout. Applied to pipes, manholes and in-situ structures, plasticised PVC lining has proven resistance to aggressive agents, both in laboratory and under long-term service conditions2. Plastiline as utilised to date in Australia has incorporated carbon black as an effective UV protection. This has enabled enhanced construction quality assurance, and for the product to be used for multiple external/exposed structures. At the time of writing, Plasticised PVC is very likely the most widely used CPL in Australia. The product is an inexpensive solution that is also cost effective to join/weld on site. Whilst the lining continues to be widely specified by asset owners, the black colour is not favoured by some authorities due to difficulties in identifying potential defects during

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maintenance/management inspections. Plasticised PVC liners also rely on heat stabilisers, such as lead, for sustained thermal capabilities (up to 80oC service temperature). As such, concerns have been raised relating to the potential discharge of this metal ion. An investigation undertaken by the CSIROs Dr Phillip Coghlan indicates that the limited losses exhibited by plasticised PVC are minor compared to other sources of lead in the environment11. Based on the performance of in-service performance in Australia it is reasonable to predict that Plastiline systems in normal sewers subject to H2S attack will have a service life of at least 100 years2. The physical characteristics of plasticised PVC CPLs are often considered in relation to ASTM standards, with the properties detailed below being considered for quality assurance measures.

Properties of PlastilineTM (plasticised PVC CPL)10


Physical Property
Tensile strength (both longitudinal & transverse to key Elongation at break (both longitudinal & transverse to key) Hardness Water absorption Tear strength (both longitudinal & transverse to key)

Acceptance Value
17.25 MPa min. 225% min. 54-62 (Shore durometer at 23oC) 0.10% max. (at 24 hrs) 80 N/mm (8.5 mm/s grip speed)

Coating Systems
Epoxy, polyurethane and polyurea coatings are frequently used for corrosion protection and water-proofing, especially for manholes and treatment structures. Whilst protection liners are only available in finite, discrete, sheet sizes, an advantage of coating systems is that they provide for seamless installation across individual construction elements. When used insitu, all three technologies depend on thorough cleaning to create a surface to which the lining material can bond a key factor of performance. Thus quality assurance normally relies on ongoing inspection programs of infrastructure components. Epoxy coating systems were introduced in the 1960's, however coating failure was encountered, often within just a few years, wherever exposure to significant sulphuric acid attack occurred. The County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles summarised their testing of eighty-nine protective coating and liner systems15 including epoxy. Whilst considerable marketing has occurred for high solids, fast cure epoxy systems, opinions from authorities in the USA differ widely regarding suitability and performance. 100% solids are typically required for epoxy coatings, with most stand-alone systems requiring an application of four or more coats. A minimum of 1-mm dry film thickness is required to provide adequate corrosion resistance, and total application time spans several hours. The paper Evaluation of protective coatings for concrete, indicates that the successful application of epoxies is also sensitive with respect to the application technique, eg, brush/spray/roller.

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Two component urethane coatings provide excellent resistance in aggressive environments, however this technology is the most susceptible to poor bonding. Urethanes also have an extreme tendency to form thin spots, pinholes or blow holes on application, enabling acid to penetrate. Figure 5 shows failure of a urethane system after just two years15. Spray applied 100% solid polyurea coatings appear to out perform other coatings as a corrosion protection lining, and are most frequently specified in Australia.

HDPE Corrosion protection Liners


HDPE liners have been used successfully in many projects internationally for detention tanks, treatment structures, pile & pile cap protection, pipeline corrosion protection lining, and tunnel liners with the Singapore Deep Tunnel Sewerage System being a recent case example. Whilst relatively new to Australia, the list of HDPE CPL projects already undertaken in the country include: Sewerage overflow tanks Coffs Harbour, NSW; a sea water intake for QAL Gladstone, QLD; an overflow tank for Gold Coast Water QLD; rectangular maintenance holes for Brisbanes Inner Northern Busway QLD; Stage 1 of the Derrimut Interceptor Sewer for City West Water Melbourne, Vic; and soon to start construction is the Alkimos project, featuring around 5 km of lined pipe, 1950 mm diameter and above. A key difference between liners and coating systems, is the fact that liners are able to span across discontinuities, such as cracking, or movement, should these occur in the structural substrate. In the case of HDPE liners, such as AKS (Figure 3), individual anchors (as opposed to linear keys) enable maximum layout/orientation flexibility and minimum sheet wastage for both precast and insitu construction. Unlike traditional plasticised PVC liners, HDPE, is available in a variety of colours (Figure 3), from natural opaque and white, to black for maximum UV protection. There are several advantages of this feature, from providing an optimal, light-coloured work environment, to maximising the capabilities of remote inspection, and even providing the option for enabling easily identification of separate project sections/stages. Another difference between HDPE sheet and plasticised PVC is that HDPE can be thermo formed, minimising jointing requirements, and the need for complex jointing at right-angled corners (Figure 4). HDPE liners are also available in different thicknesses, in the range of 1.5 to 5mm thick, in plain sheet, or with keys enabling permanent fixing to the substrate material. Thickness is nominated in the specification based on abrasion and impact requirements. Pipelines and storage elements in Australia to date have been installed with 2 mm minimum sheet thickness, to provide a minimum 100 year service life, with 3mm providing additional protection to floor elements in treatment structures.

Properties of AKS (HDPE CPL)14


Physical Property
Tensile strength Elongation at break Hardness Water absorption

Acceptance Value
22 MPa min. 716% min. 58 (Shore D, median) 0.009%

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Tear strength (both longitudinal & transverse to key)

32 MPa min. N/mm (8.5 mm/s grip speed)

Corrosion Protection Systems Comparison


Each corrosion protection system has unique benefits and characteristics, however plasticised PVC and HDPE liners provide advantages over coating systems with respect to installation costs, maintenance and inspection requirements, and design life. Whilst the required extrusion welding of HDPE lining is more expensive than plasticised PVC, its has superior capabilities in terms of pull-out resistance, abrasion resistance, and suitability for use with potable water systems. Suppliers of HDPE CPL in Australia, such as Anchor Lining Systems, also provide access to a registered installers program, in addition to extrusion welding testing guidelines. The following table highlights indicative characteristics of corrosion protection systems. Characteristic
Perceived environmental impact of manufacture Recycling capability in Australia Available in different thicknesses Mechanical anchorage to substrate Pull-out resistance Connection type Bridging of across joints, discontinuities &/or cracks Readily available in light colours UV resistance Abrasion resistance Chemical resistance in sewerage environment Welding type Welding cost Ease of use for post-construction installation Suitability for use in potable water systems Manufacturers Registered? installer programme in Aust Remediation capabilities Service life Installation cost

HDPE (AKS)

Plasticised PVC (Plastiline) *** *


No Yes

Coating Systems ? *
Yes No N/A adhesion No Yes ?

**** *****
Yes Yes

*****
Anchors (1230/m2) Yes Yes 1 year (typical)

****
Linear keys (67mm CRS) Yes No 30 Years +

***** *****
Extrusion High

High ****
Heat welding Low

Low **
N/A N/A

***** *****
Yes

***
N/A No

***** *****
?

*****
100 yrs +

***
100 yrs +

*****
25 yrs max ?

Medium

Low

High

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Case Studies of Recent HDPE CPL Projects in the Asia Pacific


The Singapore Deep Tunnel Sewer System (DTSS)
Construction of Singapores DTSS, required to transfer effluent to a major new treatment facility near Changi airport, started in 2000. In excess of twenty-eight kilometres of tunnels and pipe were lined with 2.5mm thick AKS (HDPE CPL). Tunnels from 3.3 m to 6 m in diameter were constructed of precast concrete segments under difficult conditions, including external ground water pressure of up to 4 bar. Hydraulic calculations were referenced to establish a minimum circumferential lining requirement of 330o, allowing for pressure venting at an unsealed invert. Anticipated effluent velocity and percentage solids were also assessed to establish projected abrasion of the CPL over the required maintenance-free design life. The nominated CPL thickness of 2.5mm ensured a minimum liner thickness of 1.5mm after 100 years in service. The CPL was installed insitu with mechanical connection achieved via grout injection of the annulus between the liner and structural tunnel segments. (see Figure 6). Anchor Lining Systems, manufacturers of AKS, worked hand-in-hand with the main contractors to develop temporary formwork (Figure 7) and orbital welding machines (Figure 8), enabling economical, quality assured installation. In tunnel T06 a smooth CPL capping strip (or bandage) was employed to bridge liner joints, due to the tight curves of the pipeline alignment (requiring two extrusion welds per joint). Link sewers on this project were constructed of precast concrete pipe with the lining cast integrally. Simple overlap joints were employed for these pipelines, requiring a single extrusion weld per joint. Complex geometrical structural elements were also lined with AKS, highlighting the versatility afforded by the thermo forming and welding capabilities of HPDE CPLs (Figure 9). Extrusion welded joints in the CPL were spark tested utilising an embedded wire to create an AC circuit. Different light-colour liners (including pink & green) were used on the project so as to enable easy identification with respect to post construction inspection & maintenance.

Pantai Trunk Sewer, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


The Pantai Trunk Sewer project involved the construction 2.5 m and 2.8m ID sewer tunnels of 2.9km of and 2.5km respectively. AKS was used as the corrosion protection liner, however on this project, precast concrete pipe segments were adopted as the structural liner support system inside the tunnel segments, as opposed to installing the CPL insitu with formwork and grout injection (as per the tunnels on Singapores DTSS). Light-beige was chosen as the CPL colour for Pantai, so as to maximise lighting in the tunnel. The specification called for the tunnel to be lined 330o, and 1.5 mm AKS was nominated the chosen CPL. Jointing for this project was achieved with a simple, overlap of the CPL, requiring only a single extrusion weld. A cross section of the joint is displayed in Figure 10. A 5 mm diameter HDPE rod, manufactured from the same parent material as the CPL, was utilised to form a uniformly consistent weld. Automated orbital welding was also

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employed on the 2.8m diameter line. As per the Singapore DTSS, spark testing was the nominated quality assurance method for extrusion welds on the Pantai project.

Derrimut Interceptor Sewer: Stage 1, Melbourne, Australia


A light-grey AKS lining (2mm thick) was chosen for the 250m of City West Waters Derrimut Interceptor Sewer, Stage 1. The pipeline was constructed of DN975 spun precast, steel reinforced concrete pipe (SRCP). Whilst a nominal 359o lining was specified, several pipes were supplied with 365o lining as a trial (Figure 11). Spun precast manufacture provides the highest durability SRCP; however the fully lined pipes provided an increased quality of finish, and the in-service potential for consistent abrasion resistance to the entire internal circumference of the SRCP. Being the first HDPE lined precast pipeline manufactured in Australia, the pipe supplier, Humes, and asset owner, City West Water, worked together in establishing a comprehensive manufacturing quality plan. An installation specification was also produced to ensure best practice onsite welding and testing. This pipeline has already been installed, however due to the extent of infrastructure work in Victoria, welding of the CPL joints is yet to be completed. Manufacture provided for an overlap joint, requiring a single extrusion weld only, so as to promote economic installation. As an additional quality assurance measure, Humes in conjunction with registered AKS installer, Eptec, and Lybina, a Melbourne based engineering contractor, have development an orbital welding machine, which will be available for the Derrimut Interceptor project (Figure 12).

Precast, Insitu, post-fix, and rehabilitation applications for HDPE liners


As shown through the Singapore DTSS project, in addition to precast elements, HDPE liners can be installed insitu to walls and slabs, and complex geometrical shapes. This versatility in application is due primarily to three characteristics, which are essentially exclusive to HDPE CPL, being: mechanical fixation via isolated anchors, allowing multi-directional orientation to the direction of insitu concrete pour (plasticised PVC sheets typically have longitudinal keys or ribs) liner rigidity (under normal construction temperatures) the ability of HDPE to be thermo-formed, enabling minimal and simple jointing For all installation types the installer should prepare and submit a layout/ cutting schedule to the clients representative before ordering CPL sheets. This discipline will ensure that jointing is minimised, and that the layout of joints and thermo-formed corners are such that extrusion welds are easy to create and to test.

Precast & Cast-insitu


HDPE CPL can be cast integrally with vertical reinforced concrete elements and also to the underside of slabs. Preparation includes cleaning of formwork to ensure the liner is evenly supported, and is not scratched or punctured. Sheets can then be pre-fit to the forms (anchors exposed) prior to pouring the concrete. The lining must be well secured so that it is not displaced during pouring, and that concrete is not deposited between the formwork and the sheet. The use of nails to secure HDPE CPL to formwork should be avoided where ever possible, as the holes are extremely difficult to locate once the forms have been removed. If nails are necessary

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they should only be located in areas that are pre-planned for subsequent patching and welding. The discrete anchors of HDPE CPLs are extremely useful to employ in securing the lining to the formwork (Figures 16 & 17). Formwork tie-bolts or ferrules are also very useful for holding the liner securely in place. A peel and stick adhesive strip fitted to the perimeter, and diagonally across of each liner panel can also be of aid in securing a CPL to the formwork.

Grout fixing of HDPE CPL


In addition to casting integrally with reinforced concrete elements, the liner can be post-fixed via a secondary grouting process ideal for lining tunnel segments and large areas such as floor slabs (Figure 13), and for renovating corroded structures such as sewerage access holes.

Grouting-mix
Optimal characteristics of a grouting product/medium would indeed vary on the individual application and project specific requirements (such as annulus gap, length of pumping, etc). One of the benefits of discrete anchor profiles, as are common with HDPE CPL, is that the liner can also be post-fixed directly to, or hard up against, a preformed structural substrate. As would be commonly used for slab elements, the annulus width for this type of application can be as narrow as the length of the CPL anchor (12 mm for AKS) minimising the expense associated with high volume grouting. Tight product specification, preparation and installation controls are required for direct, post-fix CPL application, and optimal product characteristics for this situation are: Flowablility/fluidity: enabling application to the annulus, formed by placing the sheets anchor keys/knobs hard up against a structural substrate, and to encapsulate anchors without forming voids or air pockets. The ability to mix/produce a thixotropic paste: for situations where the grout is applied to horizontal and/or sloping surfaces, prior to the liner anchors being embedded into the grout. Rapid early-age strength: to allow short cycle times for casting and stripping of formwork. Shrinkage compensation: to prevent cracking, maximise bond integrity to the substrate, and to ensure encapsulation of the anchors. Zero bleed: ensuring consistent bond strength throughout the grout. Minimal substrate priming requirement. High yield capability: allowing economical logistics for remote locations and/or difficult site access. Maximum pumping capability Zero segregation of aggregates.

Bluey Technologies, an Australian company specialising in the manufacture and supply of engineered grout systems, and Anchor Lining Systems, manufacturers of HDPE CPL have worked for several years to develop a proprietary grouting product to meet these specific requirements. Anchor Lining Systems Secugrout has been developed with reference to laboratory work and site trials, a version of the product has been used recently on a number of critical infrastructure projects in Australia, including SWSOOS Upgrade by Metropolitan Restoration for Sydney Water in 2006, and the Eastlink Tunnel in Melbourne. Ideal for concrete repair, rehabilitation, and the direct-fix post construction installation of HDPE CPLs, Secugrout is produced as a dry grout-mix additive, which is mixed on site with only cement and water. This allows the grout to be easily and cost effectively

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transported to remote locations. The grout-mix may be blended with either GP or HE grade cements, to meet the work life and set time requirements of project specific work cycles. Segregation where more dense particles separate from the cement slurry under gravity needs to be minimised in both concrete and grout applications. In narrow annulus grout applications segregation can cause both voids (leading to incomplete anchor embedment), and inconsistent grout strength. Secugrout uses high-end engineered cement technology to provide two key physical characteristics: 1. Gaseous expansion whilst the product is in the plastic state, to provide internal resistance to drying shrinkage 2. Particle suspension to prevent bleed and segregation. The Secugrout product also provides fast strength development, as demonstrated via NATA registered laboratory trials by Testrite, utilising Blue Circle HE Cement. This is demonstrated in the graphs for both the 0.5 water cement ratio (w/c) ratio (Figure 14) and also the 0.3 w/c ratio (Figure 15). The data indicates that It can bee seen that the grout strength for a flowable composition with w/c = 0.5 (Figure 14) would allow stripping to be considered within seven hours of pouring, when relatively uniform, rapid strength-gain starts to take effect. Laboratory tests have also been completed to provide a guide of bond strength capacity of various combinations of substrate preparation and priming. Substrate strength, surface profile, concrete composition, humidity, temperature, and many other factors will affect the actual bond strength achieved on site, which should be qualified by simple site testing prior to commencement.

Bond Strength of Secugrout:


Surface Preparation**
Formwork finish Water-blast*** Water-blast*** Water-blast*** Scabble

Priming of Substrate
None None Acrylic Epoxy None

Bond Strength (MPa)


0.2 - 0.8 0.5 - 1.0 0.8 1.2 1.2 - 1.5 0.6 0.9

Bond Strength (% tensile*)


13-53% 33-66% 53-80% 80-100% 40-60%

Notes: *The tensile strength of the ALS Secugrout is 1.5MPa at 7 days. ** Host concrete strength was 50MPa. All tests were completed in controlled 25C, 100%RH, to simulate an underground environment. *** 8500psi high pressure blast

The table demonstrates that in certain applications it is possible to achieve a quality bond interface with Secugrout without the need for priming. Bond strength of approximately 1MPa can be achieved without priming if the substrate is of high quality and atmospheric conditions remain favourable.

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Mixing
All grout products supplied in powdered form must be well mixed to ensure complete activation of constituents. For applications such direct, post-fix of HDPE CPLs to an existing substrate, it is advisable that high shear mixers be used to mix volumes of no greater than 500 litres per batch to ensure thorough blending and full activation of all ingredients. Water should be added first, with dry ingredients added progressively to maximise wetting-out. High-shear mixing should be continued for a minimum of three minutes following addition of all ingredients.

Installation/Application
Prior to affixing discrete-anchored HDPE CPL via grout application, the surface of a concrete substrate should be thoroughly cleaned by water blasting (with a minimum pressure of 40,000 kPa). All loose and damaged concrete should be removed, and exposed steel abraded to remove oxidisation. The grout-mix can then be pumped (or placed and screeded) after (or during) placement of the HDPE CPL. Due to the fluidity of pumpable grout-mixes, as with super-consolidating concrete, formwork must be designed to carry full hydrostatic load of the grout mix. Also, HDPE CPLs have a specific gravity less then unity, and therefore require weighting down when applied to existing slab elements. For these applications the sheet should be placed into the grout by positioning one corner, and then lowering the panel diagonally to avoid entrapped air and hence voids. (See Figure 13). The gaps between sheets should not exceed 3mm. An optimal grout-mix product will perform to provide Initial set within several hours, and early removal of formwork due to rapid strength gain over a twenty-four hour period.

Quality Assurance for Grout-fixing


It is recommended that on-site trials be specified, and undertaken prior to the main grouting installation works ensuring adequacy of the bond-strength interface against the existing structural substrate, but also of the pull-out resistance provided by the CPL anchor embedment. Standard bond-strength testing criteria are well established and documented else where. Guidance for statistical sampling and pull-out resistance requirements can be derived from the Industry Standard for Reinforced Concrete Pipes with Thermoplastic linings: WSA 113200217.

Jointing / welding of HDPE CPLs


As with plasticised PVC, HDPE CPLs are manufactured in finite sheet widths, necessitating jointing in most infrastructure projects. Wedge and Butt welding are two techniques where the parent material of adjoining sheets are fused together under heat and pressure, and are suitable for use prior to the CPL being attached to the structure. Butt welding is performed under factory conditions providing the highest level of quality assurance, with Wedge welding able to be employed to prefabricate larger sheet panels on site. In contrast to plasticised PVC, and due to the material properties and increased thickness of HDPE CPL, fusion welding on site with a simple hand-held heat-gun will not provide a quality assured joint. Extrusion welding is the most versatile method of welding HDPE and is the required method to weld joins and repairs on site. A solid rod of HDPE created from the same raw HDPE as the liner (or with identical properties), is extruded as a molten bead of HDPE and shaped by a Teflon shoe to span across the joint or discontinuity (Figures 19 and 20). Different types of joints (overlap weld, extruded butt, internal and external corner welds) can be achieved by employing different profiles of Teflon shoe.

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Preparation includes removing the thin layer of oxidised HDPE from the sheet by grinding or scraping (no more than thirty minutes prior to welding). Both the welding rod and joint area must be preheated to accommodate site conditions through the use of a dual heat-controlled extrusion welding-gun (Figure 18).

Relevant Standards HDPE Corrosion Protection Liners


Being a relatively new solution to the corrosion protection of sewers, it would appear that as of the time of writing, there has yet to be an internationally recognised, dedicated standard for HDPE CPL. The documents referenced below are considered the most relevant, and inform the quality assurance and draft specification sections of this document.

GRI-GM13 Specification High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Smooth and Textured Geomembranes
The Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI) operates as an outreach campus of Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and is part of the Geosynthetic Institute a consortium of organisations incorporated in 1991 with interest in, and involved with, geosynthetics. Organisations include federal and state governmental agencies, asset owners, specifiers, testing laboratories, resin and additive suppliers, manufacturers, and installation contractors in the USA. The GM13 standard is most useful in assessing CPL quality, comparing different HDPE materials, and in ensuring welding rod composition is identical to the liner material. The document lists assessable properties, test methods, test values and test frequencies relevant to HDPE linings, both smooth and textured. The document nominates requirements for physical properties such as thickness and density; mechanical properties including tensile and tear strengths, puncture resistance and stress cracking; and also endurance properties relating to aging and UV resistance.

GRI-GM19 Specification for Seam Strength and Related Properties


GM19 specifically addresses the required joint or seam strength of thermally bonded polyolefin geomembranes; in particular, high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), and flexible polypropylene. The specification provides direct guidance to the destructive testing requirements for HDPE CPL joints as formed by wedge welding and extrusion welding, defaulting to ASTM D6392 Standard Test Method for Determining the Integrity of Non-reinforced Geomembrane Seams Produced Using Thermo-Fusion Methods for testing methods, etc. ASTM D6392 nominates peel testing, and shear testing of joints. Peel testing is physically similar to the Welding Strip Pull Test as documented in WSA 113, Appendix E6, and shear testing is physically similar to the tensile test documented in ASTM 412, and as required for welder accreditation in section 8.4 of Plastiline Manual (reference 10). GM19 proposes pass requirements for these tests in terms of a percentage of yield strength of the parent material. This is extremely practical as in the absence of a

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calibrated tensiometer, site tests can only be tested to the limit of the strength of the parent material. As HDPE is a notch sensitive material, pass values proposed by GM19 need to be adjusted for CPLs, as anchors will always be included in a weld test sample. The following values are proposed as pass results for testing to ASTM D6392: Sheer - 70% minimum of liner strength Peel 50% minimum of liner strength

ASTM D 5641 94 (Reapproved 2006) Geomembrane Seam Evaluation by Vacuum Chamber


Vacuum boxes are a positive non-destructive test method for extrusion welds (Figure 22). As they impart a physical (albeit small) load to the joint to ensure an adequate seal, vacuum box testing is preferred over spark testing where the situation allows. Vacuum boxes can be made up to test a variety of shapes including internal/external corners, flat and curved sections. A joint is considered to pass the test where the nominated vacuum pressure is maintained for the test period, and where bubbles do not appear in the vicinity of the wetted weld area. Whilst D 5461 nominates wetting down with water, however greater assurance can be gained from the test by using soapy water so that bubbles are easier to view.

ASTM D 6365 99 (Reapproved 2006) Standard Practice for the Nondestructive Testing of Geomembrane Seams using the Spark Test
Spark testing is the quickest test for use on extrusion welds, as used for HDPE CPLs, and also for fusion-welding of plasticised PVC strip. ASTM D6365 standard is written for DC equipment which requires a fine copper wire to be inserted into the joint prior to the extrudate (or weld strip) being fused with the CPL (Figure 21). The spark testing equipment produces a high voltage current over the weld, and a circuit forms where there is a fissure or holiday in the weld. AC equipment has been used for nearly half a century in Australia to test both sheet and weld integrity for plasticised PVC CPL. The substrate concrete acts as the negative terminal instead of the copper wire. A circuit is formed at the point of maximum conductivity, being a fissure, holiday, or even puncture in the CPL. The actual voltage to be used for both AC and DC tests is determined by a start-up calibration test, so as to accommodate for the particular site conditions. An advantage of the DC equipment however, is that it can be calibrated to test the full distance from the weld edge to the copper wire (in the order of 15 mm), where as the AC equipment is restricted to testing sheet thickness only. Both AC and DC spark testers are available with audible alarms.

Industry Standard for Reinforced Concrete Pipes with Thermoplastic linings: WSA 1132002
Whilst dedicated to reinforced concrete pipes, WSA 1132002 is recognised as Australias foremost reference to corrosion protection lining for all sewerage infrastructure. At the time of publication in 2002 however, there had yet to be an Australian HDPE CPL project of any real significance. As such, the focus of WSA 113

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2002 is clearly on plasticised PVC liners, which at this present time, are still the most commonly used CPLs in the country. As indicated by the preceding review of relevant international standards, there are several unique aspects of HDPE CPLs (when compared to plasticised PVC), where optimal specification criteria for present-day projects would deviate from WSA113 2002. The following table is proposed as a list of general criteria provided to inform the compilation of generic specifications for HDPE CPL in Australia. Specification Criterion
Measurement of Tensile Strength Sheet Thickness

Differentiating Characteristic
Dedicated ASTM standard HDPE is readily available in thicknesses up to 5mm HDPE CPLs are commonly produced with discrete, individual anchors or knobs HDPE CPLs are readily available in a range of light colours (in addition to black)

Applicability to WSA 1132002


WSA113 references ASTM D412 with respect to tensile strength of CPL linings. ASTM D 6693 is a standard particularly relevant to HDPE CPL. WSA113 specifies a minimum sheet weight, based on a thickness of 1.5 mm. With varying sheet thicknesses density would be an applicable measure Appendix C of WS113 is intended to specify a pull out resistance of 14N/mm length of continuous longitudinal key (at 67mm key centres across the sheet). This equates to 209 kN/m2 or 20tonnes/m2 for discrete individual anchors The HDPE CPL for enclosed installations (other than pipe) should be of a pale colour, or white, as nominated by the asset owner. Light green is the most suitable colour for lining pipes, enhancing manufacture quality assurance whilst enhancing visual inspection capability WSA113 refers to minimum width of fusion weldstrip widths. Performance specification is optimal for extrusion welding of HDPE with consideration to GRI-GM19. WSA113 refers to ASTM D412 for tensile testing of fusion weld strips. GRI-GM19 and ASTM D6392 are directly applicable to destructive testing of HDPE extrusion welds WSA113 provides prescriptive criteria relating to the AC testing of plasticised PVC joints. ASTM 5635 & 6365 are commonly referenced internationally for vacuum and DC spark testing.

Anchorage

Colour

Welding

Extrusion welding is recommended for HDPE sheet. The GRI provides enhanced guidance on testing of HDPE welds Vacuum box and DC testing are common place quality assurance techniques for HDPE CPL HDPE CPLs may still meet pull-out requirements where anchors are partially embedded

Destructive Testing of Joints NonDestructive testing

Lining Embedment

Appendix E1 of WSA 113-2002 nominates defect classifications relating to extent of un-embedded area of CPL (0.04 m2). Due to the stiffness and thickness of HDPE CPL, larger partial or unembedded areas can likely be accepted.

Quality Assured Installation and Testing of HDPE CPL


The material characteristics of HDPE combined with international best practice for installation and testing, can provide the highest level of corrosion resistance for sewerage infrastructure, including pipelines and tunnels, access and maintenance structures, and treatment works.

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Installation Contractors
CPL Installation contractors may be called upon to install a liner integrally with the insitu substrate, post-fix the product by utilising a grout-mix, weld extrusion joints, and to undertake non-destructive and destructive testing. Infrastructure durability, and subsequent return-on-investment therefore rely heavily on the capability to perform these varied tasks, and the quality control activities adopted by the contractor. It is strongly recommended that installers have welding technicians who are trained and certified in the operation (and maintenance) of the welding equipment to be used on a project. Technicians should also be trained to evaluate test data and produce report results as nominated by the quality assurance plan. Appointment of a dedicated Quality Assurance Representative (QAR) for each project, by the CPL installer (independent of their site management) can assist in: Preparation of a specific Quality Plan for each project Production of site specific documentation (eg. jointing layout, QA reports, etc) Evaluation/calibration of test equipment Briefing of site staff Supervision & recording of all testing Logging any requirements for remediation

Incoming Material Inspection and Storage


All CPL material must be inspected for damage prior to installation, whether received as an integral part of a precast element, or as a roll to install insitu. HDPE is a very robust CPL material and it is rare for significant damage to occur to the material during transit, however, damage if not detected could directly affect the durability of the infrastructure element. Where applicable the liner should be inspected each side to ensure anchors have not been damaged. A protective sheet should be laid first if CPL sheets are to be stored on the ground, and roll should be stored vertically. light coloured CPLs are becoming the norm for underground and enclosed environments to enhance light reflection and hence improve the working environment. A lighter coloured liner (particularly one which contrasts to the concrete substrate) also assists with maintenance inspection and the location of defects. UV stabilisation of light coloured liners can normally accommodate a nominal twelve months of exposure (black CPLs contain carbon black and are typically UV stable for some 30 years).

Inspection and testing of installed HDPE CPLs


Destructive and non-destructive test methods should both be employed to ensure the integrity of an installed HDPE lining solution is totally assured. It is advisable that records should be maintained on site for all inspection and testing activities. Recommended minimum recording requirements for HDPE CPL installations would include:

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Minimum QA Records
Installation Record Trial Welds

Specific Requirements
Date, panel/item identification, panel length & width, and layout diagram Date, time, technician, machine no., ambient temp, extrudate temp, pre-heat temp, sample ID, test type, and pass/fail Date, time, technician, machine no., seam/joint identification, test type, and pass/fail

Insitu Production Welds

Sample QA forms are included as Appendix A.

Destructive Tests
Destructive test methods are used to determine: 1. The pull-out resistance of HDPE anchors per a statistical sampling regime 2. The integrity of (frequent) test sampling of welds produced under actual site conditions WSA1132002 nominates three pull-out tests at the invert of nominated precast test pipes. The pull-out strength of an individual anchor at each location must contribute to provide a total resistance of 20 tonnes/m2 (based on an industry accepted 14 N/mm length of plasticised PVC key at 67 mm centres). Destructive tests on trial welds should be performed on site to confirm that welding equipment settings are correct. Tests are carried out by using field tensiometer on samples prepared immediately prior to any change in work conditions (and at a minimum of once per day), and under the same conditions as the in-situ welding work: Destructive testing of HDPE Welds
Site Trial Independent Lab

Recommended Frequency
Prior to each welding period on each front installation During trials for major works or when site trials yield negative results

Non-Destructive Tests
Non-destructive testing methods include, visual, and physical testing of the liner and all extrusion welds. The table below summarises types and recommended frequency, with further detail of the methods following. Non-Destructive testing of HDPE
Visual Inspection Impact Test Vacuum Test

Recommended Frequency
100% of work 100% of extrusion welds All T intersection welds and repairs. All extrusion welds where the method can be practically employed. All extrusion welds which cannot be Vacuum tested. Percentage of lining as specified. 100% of wedge welds

Spark Testing

Pressure Testing

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Test Methods
Visual Inspection
Visual inspection is the first form of non-destructive testing. The surface of the lining should be checked to ensure it has not been damaged by transport or construction activities. Weld seams should be visually inspected for: Excessive squeeze out; weld shape conformance; footprint/width; colour; evidence of air bubbles/change of surface texture; extensive heat deformation; folds; foreign matter; general appearance All suspect areas should be marked and repaired.

Impact Testing of Welds


All extrusion welds should be subjected to point stressing along the interface between the weld and the lining to ensure continuity of bond, using a blunt instrument such as a screwdriver. The welding technician should complete this test progressively after each weld is complete, as the first step in ensuring weld integrity. If the extrusion bead shows a tendency to peel the source of the problem needs to be investigated. Possible sources include: insufficient grinding; inadequate preheating or extrudate temperature; dirty or wet welding rod; dirt or oil at the joint. The area should be marked, and repaired only after the source of the problem has been identified and rectified.

Vacuum box Testing of Welds


Vacuum Box Test to ASTM D5641 is the optimal non-destructive method for testing weld joints, as they impart an actual physical load to the weld to ensure it is fully sealed. Vacuum boxes can be made up to test a variety of shapes including internal/external corners, flat and curved sections (see Figure 22). Where vacuum testing is impractical then spark testing is a generally accepted alternative.

Spark Testing of HDPE CPLs


Spark testing is the quickest test for use on extrusion welds. ASTM D6365 documents the test procedures and requirements for DC testing of welds. DC testing requires embedment of a copper wire behind the weld to act as the negative terminal for the test circuit. It is perceived as a superior method to AC testing (as commonly employed

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in Australia), as is able to confirm quality assurance of the actual weld width, as opposed to being limited by the sheet thickness. AC spark testing is also practical for use with weld testing, however it extremely useful for testing liner integrity, particularly for precast elements.

Pressure Testing of Wedge Welds


Wedge Welding is employed to create larger panels of HDPE sheet, so as to minimise the requirement for extrusion welds. Pressure testing is only applicable to wedge welding as a sealed channel is formed between two parallel welds. This testing procedure calls for both ends of the channel to be sealed by clamping and the channel pressurised by an air pump. The gauge is then monitored for any drop in pressure.

Destructive Testing of Extrusion Welds


As proposed in the brief literature review of GRIGM19, ASTM D6392 details peel testing, and shear requirements as applicable to HDPE CPL joints. Peel testing is physically similar to the Welding Strip Pull Test as documented in WSA 1132002, Appendix E6, and shear testing is physically similar to the tensile test documented in ASTM D412, and as required for welder accreditation in section 8.4 of Plastiline Manual (see reference 10). GRIGM19 proposes pass requirements for these tests in terms of a percentage of yield strength of the parent material, however. The following values are proposed as pass results for testing to ASTM D6392, as HDPE is a notch sensitive material and anchors will always be included in a weld test sample: Sheer - 70% minimum of liner strength Peel 50% minimum of liner strength

Sheer and peel tests are performed by using a tensiometer device. Weld samples must be allowed to cool to ambient temperature before testing. Figure 23 shows a tensiometer being used for a peel test.

Trial Welds
Trial welds are an important quality assurance activity as there are a number of variable ambient conditions which can affect the welding process. These include: wind, humidity, sunlight/shade, air temperature, lining temperature. The welding technician needs to adjust both extrudate and preheating temperature of the welding equipment to produce a quality weld under the prevailing conditions. Trial welds confirm that the setting selection is producing welds of passing quality. They also confirm that the equipment is working correctly prior to the commencement of production welds. Trial weld tests should be performed: before starting production each time the machine is stopped for longer than sixty minutes when moving work fronts. All trial welds should be conducted under the same conditions as will be encountered during actual welding. For example if the production work is in the shade, the trials must be undertaken in the shade. Once qualified by a passing trial weld, welding technicians should not change equipment parameters without performing another trial weld.

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Proposed trial weld procedure is as follows: Weld samples are created by joining two pieces of CPL, each piece at least 150mm in width, and approximately 1m in length. The weld seam should be visually inspected for squeeze out, footprint and general appearance. An impact test should be performed on the weld once the weld has cooled (by attempting to lift the weld edge with a blunt screw driver) Three 25-mm wide x 150-mm long specimens should be cut, one from the middle of the seam and one at 300mm from each end of the test seam. Specimens will then be tested in peel and shear using a field tensiometer.

Specification of HDPE CPL


As indicated in the text body of this document, the material characteristics of HDPE CPLs, combined with international best practice for installation and testing, can provide the highest level of corrosion resistance for sewerage infrastructure, including: pipelines and tunnels access and maintenance structures treatment works As the use of HDPE CPL in Australia is in its infancy, this document is intended to provide industry stakeholders with a compiled reference source of up-to-date information and tools, so as to maximise the return-on-investment where HDPE CPL is specified for future sewerage infrastructure projects. As such a draft specification document, based on the content of this paper, is provided as Appendix B. It is proposed that this resource, in conjunction with WSA1132002, could be referenced by authorities in producing a generic specification, or modified for use by asset owners, specifiers and/or contractors as a project-specific specification.

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References
1. AS/NZS 4058:2007 Precast concrete pipes (pressure and non-pressure), Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 2. Long Term Performance of PVC Linings in Sewers: Analysis of Performance of Humes PlastilineTM after nearly 40 years of service, Humes, March 2002 3. Terry, A, Tsujigami, S, Boon Keng, N, Project Case Study: Construction of the Pantai Trunk Sewer, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, No Dig Down Under 2006 [conference], Brisbane Australia, 2006 4. Tttrup, H, Rehabilitation of large diameter sewer pipes, No Dig Down Under 2006 [conference], Brisbane Australia, 2006 5. Youngblood, Jimmy, Project Case Study: Concrete protection for wastewater systems Embedment liners resist corrosion and erosion, CE News, November, 2004 6. Water Quality Protection Note: Liners for containing pollutants, using synthetic membranes, Department of Environment, Government of Western Australia, 26 June 2005 7. Polyethylene, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyethylene, 16 August 2007 8. Matthew W. Adams, Nicole Wagner, Forensic Study of an HDPE Liner after 10 Years of Exposure, [publication details unknown] 9. Plastic Properties of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), Dynalab Corporation http://www.dynalabcorp.com/technical_info_hd_polyethylene.asp, 27 Sept 2007 10. PlastilineTM [manual], Humes, 2003 11. Coghlan, Phillip, Dr: A Discussion of Some of the Scientific Issues Concerning the Use of PVC An update of the CSIRO report The environmental aspects of the use of PVC in building products, Second Edition, 1998, CSIRO, April 2001 12. Protective Coating Specification PCS 104 Part A Painting Sewerage Treatment Plants and Associated Equipment, Sydney Water Corporation, July 2003. 13. Durability & Protection of Concrete Pipe in Acid Groundwater, NPD9901, CSR Humes Information Series [date unknown] 14. Testing of Anchor knob Sheet (AKS)Linings, Test Report, PSB Corporation, 23 July 2002 15. John A. Redner, et al, Evaluation of protective coatings for concrete, County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, Whittier, California, August 2002 update 16. Project Information Singapore Deep Sewer Tunnel System, Anchor Lining Systems, [undated] 17. Industry Standard for Reinforced Concrete Pipes with Thermoplastic linings: WSA 1132002, Water Service Association of Australia, 2002 18. Chemical Resistance Guide for the Application of High Density Polyethylene and Polypropylene Sheet Linings, Anchor Lining Systems, [date unknown] 19. Manufacturers Guide to the Installation of AKS, Anchor Lining Systems, South Africa, 2007 20. http://www.geosynthetic-institute.org, October 2007

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Author Biographies
John Tuxworth graduated from the Queensland University of Technology, and has tertiary qualifications from the University of Westminster in London, and Latrobe University, Melbourne. John is a professional engineer per Australias national register (NPER), and is a member of the Institute of Structural Engineers. Following an international career in consulting, John has held technical and market development positions for the last 5 years. John is now working in Australia as the National Pipeline Systems Manager, for Humes. Alex Terry has a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) from The University of Sydney. Alex has worked on sewer and transportation tunneling projects in Australia, the United States, Singapore and Malaysia, including the Deep Tunnel Sewerage System (DTSS) in Singapore and the Pantai Trunk Sewer in Malaysia. Both trunk sewer projects included a HDPE secondary corrosion protection lining (CPL) to protect the structures from sewerage generated acid attack. During 2006 and 2007 Alex was General Manager of Anchor Lining Systems who manufacture AKS in Cape Town, South Africa for export around the world. AKS CPL was used on both the above projects as the primary CPL. Daniel Bosco has a Bachelor of Engineering (Civil) from The University of Technology Sydney. Daniel has also completed post graduate study in concrete technology and rehabilitation. Since completing his degree, Daniel has worked on a number of large infrastructure projects such as Airport Link Tunnel in Sydney, Taiwan High Speed Rail and Sydney Water Sewer Rehabilitation Programs. In 2005 Daniel started Bluey Technologies. Bluey specialises in the supply of engineered cementitous and resin based products for concrete protection and repair. The company has grown rapidly and has since become a supplier to some of Australias largest construction companies throughout Australia and New Zealand.

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Figures

Figure 1 Diagrammatic representation of sulphuric acid attack

Figure 2 continuous longitudinal key for mechanical bonding: Plastiline

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Figure 3 AKS HDPE CPL: available in multiple colours with 1230 anchors/m2

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Figure 4 thermo-forming capability of HDPE liners

Figure 5 Urethane coating failure after two years15

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Figure 6 Indicative Cross-Section of Singapores DTSS16

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Figure 7 Umbrella formwork used for installing AKS CPL in Singapores Deep Tunnel Sewer System

Figure 9 Complex geometrical elements lined with AKS in Singapores Deep Tunnel Sewer System

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Figure 103 jointing of precast elements and CPL for the Pantai Trunk Sewer: the overlap CPL joint requires a single extrusion weld only.

Figure 11 Humes DN975 Rubber Ring Joint Sewerage Pipe lined 365o with 2mm AKS (HDPE CPL)

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Figure 12 Orbital welding machine developed in Australia for the Derrimut Interceptor Sewer Project

Figure 13 Post-fix grouting installation of AKS (HDPE CPL) to slab elements

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TESTRITE Job No 29562, March 2007. Client: Bluey Construction Products. Cube Compressive Strength Gain for QAdd 100 Grout (using Blue Circle H.E. cement.
12

0.5 w:c)

10

Cube Compressive Strength (MPa)

Initial Set : 4hrs, 35min

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Time from addition of water (hrs)

Figure 14 Compressive strength gain results for Secugrout (using Blue Circle HE Cement: 0.5 w/c)

TESTRITE Job No 29562, March 2007. Client: Bluey Construction Products. Cube Compressive Strength Gain for QAdd 100 Grout (using Blue Circle H.E. cement.
40

0.3 w:c)

35

Cube Compressive Strength (MPa)

30

Initial Set : 2hrs, 13min

25

20

15

10

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Time from addition of water (hrs)

Figure 15 Compressive strength gain results for Secugrout (using Blue Circle HE Cement: 0.3 w/c)

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Figure 16 Fixing of HDPE to vertical forms via discrete anchors using inert tie wires.

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Figure 17 Securing & tensioning of HDPE CPL via the discrete anchors

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Figure 18 Dual heat-controlled extrusion welding-gun

Figure 19 Generic extrusion weld options for HDPE CPL already cast-in to a concrete substrate (simple fusion welding by hand-held heat gun is not adequate for HDPE).

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Figure 20 Extrusion welder in operation: displaying profiled Teflon shoe, molten extrudate, and prepared joint surface with oxidation layer removed.

Figure 21 DC spark tester

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Figure 22 Vacuum box testing

Figure 23 A peel test as performed with a tensiometer

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Appendix A Sample QA forms for HDPE CPL Installation

Page i

Page ii

DATE

TIME

MACHINE No.

TECHNICIAN

AMBIENT TEMP.

SAMPLE ID

EXTRUSION WELDS PRE-HEAT EXTRUDATE TEMP. oC TEMP. oC SET PYRO SET PYRO

WEDGE WELDS WEDGE TEMP. MEASURED oC SPEED m/min SET PYRO

PEEL TEST PASS/ FAIL

SHEAR TEST PASS/ FAIL

PRESSURE TEST PASS/ FAIL

COMMENTS

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DATE

TIME

MACHINE No.

TECHNICIAN

SEAM / JOINT IDENTIFICATION

WELD TYPE

VISUAL & IMPACT TEST PASS/ FAIL

VACUUM TEST PASS/ FAIL

SPARK TEST PASS/ FAIL

PRESSURE TEST PASS/ FAIL

COMMENTS

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Appendix B Draft Specification for the Installation of HDPE Corrosion Protection Liners 1.0 CPL Material Characteristics
The CPL shall be produced of a hexene grade of HDPE in accordance with GRI-GM13 standards.

1.1 HDPE Properties:

The HDPE liner and welding rod shall be manufactured from the same resins and shall be manufactured to meet the test methods listed below relative to each material property:

Table 12.1 HDPE CPL Properties


Properties
Density -Light coloured material -black material Carbon black content (for black material only) Carbon black dispersion (for black material only) Tensile properties -Yield stress -Break stress -yield elongation -break elongation Puncture resistance OIT - Std Anchors per m2 Resistance to pull-off per m2

Test Method
ASTM D 792

Unit
g/ml g/ml % category

Value
0.94 0.948 2 to 3 1 or 2

ASTM D 1603 ASTM D 5596 ASTM D 6693 Type IV

ASTM D 1004 ASTM D 3895

MPa MPa % % N/mm minutes # T/m2

>15 >20 >12 >500 >125 >100 >1100 >70

2.0 Site Works


2.1 Dewatering
The main contractor must ensure that the areas to be welded kept dry prior to and during HDPE welding operations.

2.2 Pre-weld Inspection

Following installation of lined precast elements, the welding contractor shall inspect the internal surface of each lining to check for defects or irregularities.

2.3 Pull-out Testing of HDPE Anchors

The embedment quality of the HDPE CPL anchors should be tested at frequency such that statistical confidence is provided in achieving a pull-out resistance of 20 tonnes/m2. For precast pipes WSA113 should be referenced for no. of samples and sampling frequency.

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2.4 Field Welds


All field welds shall be made using extrusion welding equipment. All lining surfaces shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove any dirt, dust, moisture or oily deposits. All field welds must be uniform in width and properties and trial welds shall prove compliance with the conditions set out in section 2.5 (Shear and peel test evaluation). The oxidised surface layer must be removed prior to welding by scraping or grinding the weld area. The upper sheet shall be chamfered to ensure full welded width.

2.5 Initial Trial Welds


Each welding technician shall prove their ability to consistently produce successful welds before commencing production welding operations. Each welding technician shall prepare three test strips as per the procedure for daily trial welds outlined herein using the equipment intended for the works. These shall be tested in accordance with section 2.7.

2.6 Daily Trial Welds


Trial welds must be performed before starting production welds. All trial welds should be conducted under the same conditions as will be encountered during actual welding. Once qualified by passing a trial weld, welding technicians should not change equipment parameters without performing an additional trial. The trial weld procedure is as follows: 1. The trial weld will be made by joining two (2) pieces of HDPE CPL, each piece at least 150mm in width, approximately 1m in length. 2. The seam should be visually inspected for squeeze out, footprint and general appearance. 3. An impact test should be performed on the weld following completion (by picking at edge with blunt object) 4. Three 25mm wide x 150mm long specimens should be cut, one from the middle of the seam and one each 300mm from each end of the test seam using a 25mm sample cutter. Any areas which look visually suspect should also be tested. The specimens will then be tested in peel and shear using a field tensiometer.

2.7 Peel and Shear Test evaluation


The following values are applicable to extrusion welds carried out on HDPE CPLs: Sheer - 70% minimum of liner strength Peel 50% minimum of liner strength

In the absence of a calibrated tensiometer, site tests can only be tested to the limit of the strength of the parent material on which the welds have been carried out. In this case the test is considered a pass if the material fails in the parent material, not within the weld bead or between the bead and the surface of the liner. Peel separation (or incursion) for extrusion welds can not exceed 25% of the joints bonded area.

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2.8 Non Destructive Tests


Non-destructive tests shall be used to monitor and confirm the integrity of all jointing works completed on the installation. Either Vacuum box or spark testing shall be carried out on all field joints/seams.

2.8.1 Vacuum Box Testing Procedure


1. The length of welded seam to be tested shall be covered with a soapy water solution. 2. The vacuum box shall be placed over the weld and pressed firmly onto the liner and the vacuum pump is started. 3. With the bleed-valve closed, a partial vacuum is drawn to approximately minus 35 kPa gauge pressure (below atmospheric), ensuring a leak-tight seal is created. 4. For a minimum of 10 seconds, the HDPE seam is to be examined through the viewing window for the presence of bubbles (large bubbles or fine froth) within the soapy solution. 5. If no bubbles appear during the observation period, the vacuum is to be released by opening the bleed valve and switching off the pump. 6. The vacuum box should then be moved over the next adjoining area with a minimum 50mm overlap, and the process repeated until the entire length of weld has been tested. 7. Any area where soap bubbles appear (or a complete drop in vacuum is observed) shall be marked, recorded, repaired and retested until the result is satisfactory. 8. The results of this test should be recorded in the Installation Inspection and Test Report.

2.8.2 Spark Testing Procedure


Prior to the extrusion welding process a fine copper wire shall be inserted into the joint at the termination point of the top sheet. Prior to actual tests being carried out, a trial calibration seam must be made to confirm the minimum voltage required to discharge (spark) across a fissure in the seam between the brush electrode and the copper wire. The test procedure is as follows: 1. The test area must be thoroughly cleaned and made dry. 2. For DC spark testing equipment connect the negative (ground) electrode of the DC testing equipment to the exposed end of the copper wire. This is not required when using AC spark testing equipment. 3. Determine test voltage using a seam/joint with a known leak path. 4. Connect the positive electrode to the wire brush or other type of search electrode. 5. Pass the search electrode over the surface of the weld at a rate of approximately 2-3 m/min, maintaining contact with the extruded bead and the AKS at the edge of the bead. 6. Monitor for audible and/or visible spark discharges that are indicative of a defect. 7. Mark defects for repair.

3.0 Records
Records must be kept of all manufacture, site inspection and testing activities. The following are minimum reporting format requirements: 1. Installation Record 2. Trial Weld Report

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3. Production Weld Report The installer will write the details of each non-destructive test on the actual liner. When a test fails, the details of the appropriate repair will also be recorded on the material and in the Inspection and test report. For vacuum testing this will include: 1. the initials of the tester, 2. the date, and 3. pass or fail result. For spark testing this will include: 1. the initials of the tester, 2. the date, 3. voltage setting, and 4. pass or fail result.

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